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Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East

Bulletin, Vol. XI11 Nos.


& 2 (1993).

Islamic Fundamentalism Reconsidered:

A Critical Outline of Problems, Ideas and
Approaches, Part 1‘’Sadik J.Al-Azm
Now I would like to turn to a discussion of some
representative examples. Richard Mitchell, the
foremost American expert on, and historian of the
Muslim Brothers Organization in Egypt, suggests
that there is no real equivalent for a term like
“Fundamentalism” in Arabic, implying the illegitimacy of applying it to Islam.’ Another specialist,
struggling with the same terminological problem,
deems it “unwise to bring preconceived categories
to bear on these phenomena, [i.e., the Islamist
movements] especially when we are examining a
non-Western religious tradition such as Islam.”2
John 0. Voll, in an otherwise excellent study, notes
the reservations of some contemporary Muslim
thinkers and non-Muslim (i.e., Western) scholars
concerning the use of the concept “Fundamentalism” in any study of Islam, but then proceeds to retain the term anyhow, on the purely practical
grounds of convenience, widespread use and the absence of a better alternative.3 Yousef N. Choueiri
prefaces his first-rate book Islamic Fundamentalism
with an observation that subverts the operative
concept in his own title (Fundamentalism), as no
more than a “vague term, currently in vogue as a
catch-phrase used to describe the militant ideology
of contemporary Islamic movements.” He, like John
0. Voll, retains it only “for lack of a better word”
(after noting its Protestant origins).+
In the same dismissive spirit Lawrence Kaplan
explains that although the term “Fundamentalism”
“is imprecise and an over-simplification,” still it
“somehow managed to take h0ld.”5 Similarly, the

“In Heaven there are no Protestants, there are only

(ArchbishopMarcel Lefebvre)
“Arabicis the language of the people of Paradise.”
(Arab-Muslim saying)

1. TerminologicalDebates
A quick look at the scholarly literature produced
in the West about contemporary Islamic Fundamentalism-particularly
in the Arab World-will
show a considerable amount of anxious concern
over the use of such terms as “Fundamentalism,”
“Revivalism,” “Islamism,” “Integrisrne,” and their
equivalents and derivatives to refer to this religiopolitical phenomenon. The issue in question is the
legitimacy of transferring concepts generated by
Western Christian experiences-especially Protestant experiences-to the presumably very different
context of Islam, the Arab World and the Muslim
universes of discourse and practice in general. In
my own experience, this same question used to
come up invariably in the discussions, exchanges,
debates, lectures, classes, and so on, that I have
been intermittently involved in since the early
1980s both in Europe and the United States. My
active interlocutors were the usual crowd of colleagues, intellectuals, students-graduate
journalists, and various Middle Eastern scholars, experts and

Part I1 of this article will appear in Vol. XIV No. 1 of South Asia Bulletin, Comparative Studies OfSouth Asia, Africa and the Middle Eat.


Published by Duke University Press

Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East

director of the massive Fundamentalism Project
(sponsored by the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences), Martin Marty, opts for a “naive nominalism,” when addressing the terminological issue, and
then concludes with much emphasis and plenty of
In his influential book on Muslim extremism in
Egypt, Gilles Kepel reaches the following conclusion concerning the study of the Islamist

Persian or Arabic, have coined a new wordbonyadgaruyan-by translating literally the English
term fundamental-ist.” Like Kaplan, he observes
that somehow the term not only “stuck,” but became very popular with the Khomeinists as “a selfadvertising label claiming that they are the only
ones true to the ‘fundamentals’ of Islam, in sharp
contrast to others who have been led astray by foreign concepts and historical misinterpretations of
the Koran, the Prophet’s Hadiths [traditions], the
Shari‘u [Islamic Laws], and the teachings of the
Twelve Shi‘a Imams.” Abrahamian finds this situation “curious” but makes no attempts at explaining,
(a) why Khomeini’s followers should find a Christian term transplanted from an enemy culture and
language so expressive of what they actually believe
and practice? And (b) why such a term did “stick
and become so popular with them? For an answer
to these questions, we have only accident and randomness; i.e., somehow the term “stuck,” or
managed to take hold or “gain currency.”lO But this
all-too-easy transmutation of an outside observer’s
category like “Fundamentalism,” to an interiorized
self-descriptive category of the insiders and actors
themselves, is too serious a business to leave to
mere chance!
Another interesting radical view simply admonishes us to drop altogether terms like
“Fundamentalism” and its sisters when dealing with
Islam, (a) on the general principle that we should
never “apply words to describe people that they
would not accept and apply to themselves,” and (b)
on account of the fact that “Fundamentalism is not,
never has been, nor ever will be a term used by
most Muslims to describe either their own religious
outlook or the religious outlook of other Muslims
with whom they disagree.”ll Barbara Freyer
Stowasser summarizes this general position in the
following words: “It is noteworthy that no indigenous word for ‘fundamentalism’ exists in Arabic,
and that Muslims do not define themselves as fundamentalists or define others as such . . . ” I 2
While the intention behind this concern and
anxiety over terminology is undoubtedly the laudable desire to achieve greater critical self-awareness, the actual debates and discussions remain
quite disappointing. In fact, I find them not only
non-cumulative, but also inconclusive at best, and
sterile at worst. My reservations, here, call for a
number of critical observations:
a) The various verbal distinctions, terminological
suggestions and semantic recommendations proposed by the scholars engaged in this debate simply
neutralize and cancel each other out leaving us

It is not mere caprice to recall these elementary
epistemological precautions, for few contemporary
phenomena hale been so superficially observed and
hastily judged as this movement. This is evident
even in the terms used to designate it: integrisme
musulman in France or “Muslim fundamentalism”
in the English-speaking world. These two expressions transpose to the Muslim world intellectual
tools forged to interpret particular moments in the
history of Catholicism and Protestantism respectively There is no justification for such a
transposition 7

In a discussion I had with Gilles Kepel at
Princeton University in the winter of 1989, he
insisted (like Richard Mitchell), that (a) there is no
real equivalent to the English term “Fundamentalism” in Arabic and that (b) the Arabic concept now
in very wide use-Usulz-is
no more than a recent
translation into Arabic of the English original. In
fact after agonizing over the terminological puzzle
in the concluding chapter of his book, Kepel comes
close to implying that somehow the Islamist
phenomenon simply defies the categories of social
In the same vein and for the same reasons explained by Kepel, thinkers and experts as divergent
and different as Bernard Lewis and Seyyed Hossein
Nasr conclude that the use of the term
“Fundamentalism” in the Muslim context is “most
unfortunate and misleading” (Nasr),B and that although the term is “now common usage” and “must
be accepted” as such, “it remains unfortunate and
can be misleading” (Lewis).g
When addressing the same terminological question, an expert on modern Iran, Ervand
L4brahamian,leaves us in a situation of unresolved
tension, if not conflict. On the one hand he argues
against transferring the term “Fundamentalism” to
the contemporary Muslim Middle East on account
of its origins in early 20th century American Protestantism, but then proceeds to point out how
“Khomeini’s own followers, finding no such term in

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they more often than not take with a grain of salt (and pepper too).Comparative Studies of South Asia. Africa and the Middle East pretty much where we started. such as: (a) are concepts like “Fundamentalism. after complaining about the inherent deficiencies and shortcomings of terms like “Fundamentalism” and “Revivalism.” What I find striking here is the absence of any attempt at investigating relevant questions like. still reliant on the discredited term “Fundamentalism” and its sisters and/or equivalents. for instance.” and their equivalents and derivatives adequate to their object? Do they express and describe fairly accurately salient features and important traits of the clusters of movements. as it seems from Abrahamian’s observations) discoursing about the Islamist phenomenon in Arabic seem to continually shed.” all the authors concerned proceed to use them anyway. or that Islam is never fundamentalist and consequently has no use for the concept in the first place. that Islam is either always fundamentalist and hence has no awareness of itself as such. for example. characterize. c) As noted above. is it not the business of serious social scientists (whatever their religious convictions and/or political affiliations) to develop the intellectual tools and explanatory categories necessary for the task at hand? Or. reform options. and a debunking sense of the skeptical vis-A-vis the pretensions of high authority. covering themselves in the process by appealing to the standard cliche “we do so for lack of a better term.4s long as these discussions go out of their way to avoid raising substantive questions about the Islamist phenomenon itself. A Defense Now I would like to argue broadly for the epistemological legitimacy. II. the terminological remedies and improvements recommended by those engaged in the debate cannot rise above the levels of mere verbalism. 95 Published by Duke University Press . This is why their basic political daily-life attitude is characterized by a substantial dose of healthy cynicism v i s . without too much fuss.‘J b) . in effect. understand and explain it? (e) Again. What do we do about the fact that contemporary Arabs (and Iranians also.h i s the arrogant claims of power. and then proceed to investigate the Islamist phenomenon itself? Furthermore.” considering that he never applies such words and descriptions either to himself or to his regime? I often wonder in amazement if the beautiful souls making such recommendations ever give any thought to the political and epistemological implications of the kind of advice they are dispensing to themselves and to others? For I need not emphasize that in a place like the Middle East. what would (or should) a better term look like? From where is it supposed to come? And why do they continue to find the concept “Fundamentalism” so convenient. believing only what people say about themselves (particularly what the dominant class-coalitions and ruling elites say about themselves) is the shortest route to political catastrophe and the end of all rational speech about social change. what is the presumed absence of such a term from Arabic supposed to tell us about Islam? It could imply. viz. are basically sane. And since the majority of Arabs. ideas and practices that we are trying to examine. unique and out of this world that no rational bonaf2de social science could hope to study.” “Integralism. and hope in the future.. I would like to hint at a different research agenda based on an alternative set of questions. can we not simply introduce a convenient concept. were I to take seriously the subjectivist advice of those who ask us never to “apply words to describe people that they would not accept and apply to themselves. borrow and generate all kinds of convenient and inconvenient terms and concepts without much regard either to origins. previous experiences or backgrounds pertaining to those concepts? (d) Is it true that the Islamist phenomenon (especially in its armed insurrectionary form studied by Gilles Kepel) defies the present categories of social science? If so. scientific integrity and critical applicability of such supposedly modern Western and Christian-derived concepts as “Fundamentalism” and “Revivalism” in the study of the contemporary Islamist phenomenon. informative and.” would I ever be able to say that such and such a Middle Eastern ruler is “a brutal military dictator. understand and explain? (b) How defensible and historically correct is the presumption of a Muslim universe of discourse and practice so different and alien that it renders such originally Christian concepts as “Fundamentalism” and “Revivalism” totally inapplicable to Islam? (c) If it is true that there is no real equivalent for the term “Fundamentalism” in Arabic. well-nigh indispensable? In contrast to the extreme conventionalism and nominalism dominating this debate.”“Revivalism. what their regimes and bosses say either about the ruled or about the rulers themselves. functional. personal linguistic preferences and the mistaking of name-changes and wordsubstitutions for conceptual advances. I shall start with the now widely used Arabic term Usuli. is the underlying message supposed to say that the Islamist phenomenon is so singular.

foundations). Thus a major work of the great classical Muslim theologian Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash’ari (the foremost fundamentalist thinker of his age) is entitled The Elucidation of the Fundamentals of the Religion or al-Ibanah ‘an Usul aZ-Dz$anah. commentaries. A manifesto of the same Islamist organization entitled The Charter of Islamic “ 96 Published by Duke University Press . stretching from Egypt’s presentday Islamists all the way back to the great classical jurist Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and his school. manifestoes. concepts and categories into our vital sociopolitical and religio-ideological discourses without much regard to whether these originate in the Islamic turath (heritage).” More specifically and importantly. hesitations or reservations.Islamzyyah). summaries and introductions produced by the most prominent Egyptian compiler and editor of the texts of the armed insurrectionary Islamists. and learning (both Sunni and Shi‘i). employ very liberally these concepts. provides us with another good example. but what it actually says and does not say about its referent. Obviously. described his group’s line of thought as “a fundamentalist salafi (traditionalist) call (da ‘wasalafiyyah usulzyyah) for a return to the understanding and doctrine of the good predecessors. but none over concepts like “Fundamentalism” and “Revivalism” and their applicability to the phenomenon. in a very matter-of-fact way and without further apologies. For example.16 Hanafi’s argument is obviously a blatant ex-post-facto rationalization without any historical basis or merit. “Islamic Revivalism” (al-Ihya’ al-Islamz) and so on. criticisms. The by-now large and varied body of writing in Arabic on the Islamists (against them.15 Furthermore. between the fundamentals and/or basics of the Islamic religion. (a) that as Arabs alive and kicking today. on the one hand.Comparative Studies of South Asia. we are constantly introducing (and deleting) terms. colonial influences or contemporary experience.” I would reply that what is really important in this context is neither the origin of the term nor how it entered current Arabic usage. sources. European languages. basics) and Usus (bases. on the other. one of Egypt’s most prominent and prolific intellectuals and thinkers. one member of the team of four that actually assassinated President Sadat in 1981 (a cell of the famous Islamic Jihad organization). a term like Usuli (Fundamentalist) has classical Islamic precedent in its favor. the reference here is to the Koran and the Prophet’s sunna. On another plane. and/or incidentals. 14 The work of Hasan Hanafi. jurisprudence. rebuttals and counterrebuttals. Shortly after the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981. secularist detractors and sympathetic defenders and apologists. as well as for them and by them) has witnessed many a sharp debate and polemic over all kinds of substantive issues of politics. The Islamist publishers of his book prefaced it with their own approval plus an endorsement of its contents. doctrine and interpretation. Africa and the Middle East as in ‘‘ Crsulz Islam” (Fundamentalist Islam). In fact this body of literature is particularly distinguished for its generous use of these very concepts in its expositions. and its branches. the most important faculty of Cairo’s al-Azhar University-Islam’s most prominent center of religious learning and training for countless centuries-is the Faculty of “ Usul al-Din” (“The Fundamentals of The Religion”). I would also remind my interlocutors here. and (b) that while knowing something about the origins of any of these terms is undoubtedly instructive. 113). I am not aware of any deep aversion or even objections to the employment of the term Usuli and its derivatives and equivalents either by the Islamists themselves or by their mainstream critics. and the C’sulz Islamic Movements. tracts and documents of the Islamists (regardless of their color and hue) are simply. or tradition.Usulzjyah al. I mean the primary distinction of all classical Muslim theology. fixation on “first meanings” can result only in the worst kind of Orientalist linguisticism. the two most decisive interchangeable concepts that invariably keep appearing and reappearing in the books. their equivalents and derivatives. To the dismissive argument that this term is no more than a recent innovation created to provide an Arabic equivalent for the original English concept of “Fundamentalism. T o this day. Hanafi proceeded to employ all the presumably objectionable concepts of “Islamic Fundamen t alism” (a I. all the books. Hanafi explains in his book that “Islamic Fundamentalism” means the search for “Usus’ or foundations and then goes on to argue for the continued presence of a self-reinvigorating fundamentalist current in Islamic history. in an age where corruption prevails” (DI. politics and practices of Egypt’s Islamists. while mere fascination with “primary origins” can only lead to a sterile and primitivistic mystification of what living Arabs and Muslims are actually doing here and saying now. apologies. Thus. as the two primary pillars and foundations of the Islamic religion. in his spirited exposition and sympathetic defense of the teachings. In addition. but it disposes of the misconception that the Islamists reject being called “Fundamentalists” or UsuZis. Usul (fundamentals.

They are reviving them as active beliefs and efficacious practices in the lives of people. 199-243). entitled The Revival of the Religious Sciences. let alone deny But unfortunately some. because-as the text makes clear-the intention behind it is not only to go back to one of the neglected fundamen97 Published by Duke University Press . let us say. The Document of Muslim Revival. clarify and recall the legitimate religious foundations (usus) and fundamentals (usul) which should never escape the attention of any Islamic movement that is concerned about regulating all its affairs according to the True Shari‘a and is committed to that end. uses. (b) of mobilizing the masses for the coming struggles and fights against internal and external enemies. and the “call for renewal and revival by a return to the fundamentals of the umma” (DII. 167). all hope of victory would be lost” (DI. but of reviving them as well. which if abandoned. 2 2 7 ) . Let me add. the question of what exactly it is that these movements and groups have isolated and recuperated.. Africa and the Middle East Actzon. viz. and minds the neglected fundamentals of Islam. revives the hibernating Muslim masses by injecting into their lives. no temporal or eternal salvation is possible either individually or collectively. circulated by one of the Jihad groupuscules in Egypt. For example. More specifically.” the “Islamic Movement of Revival and Renewal.Comparative Studies of South Asia. In other words. is the appeal to the actual practices not only of the Islamists themselves. but fixed axioms that no Muslim can ignore. however. organizations and factions: “Fundamentalist”? Nonetheless.” The Charter continues: “These foundations are neither invented nor an innovation. empirical research. of them have escaped the attention of those working in favor of this religion . partial verification. or what they claim about having actually succeeded in isolating and recapturing the basics and fundamentals of Islam. defenders and apologists as well. Significantly enough the basic theoreticopolitical document of President Sadat’s assassins is entitled The Absent Commandment. has to remain fully open for the time being. and (c) of providing a lasting and authentic solution to all the ills and problems plaguing present-day Muslim societies. An organized Islamist group of Egyptians in Kuwait call themselves “Fundamentalists” (Usulzyyun). the major work of Islam’s foremost classical theologian al-Ghazali (often regarded in the West as the Augustine of Islam). The Charter explains that its purpose is “to show.And as their absence has endured for a long time .. if not most. this is simply their program of regenerating and revitalizing the individual and the umma (the Muslim nation or community) at one and the same time. and an attempt to regulate the Islamic movement by its religious fundamentals. or. hibernation. in good scholarly conscience. Furthermore. and correct. They all strongly believe that without such a revival. 53). this defense of the concept should not be construed as an uncritical endorsement of all its sundry applications.. complains bitterly about the absence of Islam’s “fundamentals” (usuc) and “foundations” (usus) from the contemporary life of supposedly Muslim societies (DI. such movements.” but also claim.. In light of the above considerations it seems to me quite reasonable to conclude that calling these Islamic movements “Fundamentalist” (and in the strong sense of the term) is adequate. This last issue remains an open question.” in one of his many introductions. they claim. speaks of the “Muslim Revivalist Phenomenon. believe and act as if they have done nothing except recapture and revive these very fundamentals. In addition. hearts. subject to further investigation..” the “Resurrectionist Phenomenon” (Zahiru Inbi ‘athzyyah). still better. The same process. that The Document of Islamic Revival speaks clearly of the circumstances when “the return to Fundamentals and the call of the Truth and the Koran would become easy and quick (DII. 167). but of their Arab critics. also. as ”the recuperation of Islam’s fundamentals (usul) without any partiality to the theories and interpretations that we find in its history” (DII.we thought it our obligation to present. calling these movements “Fundamentalist” does not mean that we accept at face value and indiscriminately either what they say about themselves. under the rubric of the fundamentals and basics of Islam. tout court This is why everywhere in the Arab world today. (a) of organizing people for radical socio-political action.. accurate. while Rifat Sayyed Ahmad describes “The Islamic Revival. and conceptual clarification. More important. implications.. everyone of their fractions and factions holds strongly that only these fundamentals are really capable. the concept of Islamic “Revivalism” (al-Ihya’ al-Islamz) has classical precedent on its side. In fact let me turn the question around by asking the semantic skeptics and conceptual nominalists what more does one need to call. every active Islamist group today is convinced that it is in the process not only of going back to the basics and fundamentals of Islam. to show them . the Islamists not only call insistently for an immediate return to Islamic “basics” and “fundamentals. Similarly. after a long period of.

” Nonetheless. from Godlessness bahzlzyyah) to is lam. according to the same author. in all instances. perhaps. as happens with sufis [mystics]. “Yakaxah” is par excellence the secular Arab nationalist’s variant of the concept of “awakening. or reformer. the two terms “ba‘ath” and “revival” carry the same literal meaning and derive their subliminal positive emotional charge from traditional Muslim teachings about the Day of Judgment (Yawm alBa‘ath) and Allah’s power to resurrect or revive. and their neglect of the primary religious duty ofjihad. the Protestant origin of the concept of a religious awakening as in the “Great American Awakening” radiating from New England in the 1730s and 1740s. an unknown voice. Consequently. Then a sudden conversion sets in. and they are noted in Hanafi‘s book in the form of an awaited temporal and eternal salvation of the umma and the individual at the hands “of a savior. a prior period of either nationalist or Islamic sleep and hibernation. Mahdi. religiously and intellectually in Europe and the United States. quite closely in touch with and deeply influenced by the goings on... with the ruling Ba‘ath Party in Syria and Iraq (founded by a Christian to boot). and imply. the Islamists opt for “Ihya”‘ (revival) because ba ‘ath” has become hopelessly compromised by too close an association. a cry of destiny. 226). viz. 193 9). and the later repetition of the same phenomenon in the early decades of the 19th century. they naturally prefer to speak of an Islamic “renewal.” in spite of the fact that yakaxah and sahwa mean exactly the same thing.‘Alamiyyah al-Islamiyyah aZ-Thanzyyah). “bones that had turned to mere dust. The Arab Awakening (alYakaxah al-Ara bzyyah) (Philadelphia. They generally shun terms like “nahda”/“renaissance."]^ The Messianic and chiliastic orientations normally accompanying such revivalist experiences are not lacking either. The Second Islamic Worldism (al. both in Germany and the United States. on that day. how young men in touch with the Islamist organizations and/or influenced by the fundamentalist currents in society. 1905). young people experience “a kind of sudden change which takes them from one state to another without gradation or persuasion: from corruption to purity. continues Hanafi. of some significance to mention in this connection that the classic theoreticians of the modern Arab Yakaxah/Awakening were mostly of Christian backgrounds and origins. which has traditionally characterized modern Protestant religious revivalism. and in all minds. as the case may be. a shaikh’s call.” “rebirth. transporting them “from one state to another.” and as predicting “a brilliant future economically and agriculturally for those who participate in it” (DI.Comparative Studies of South Asia. Of some relevance here is. the first couplet denotes the period of Islamic theological reform. also. when the call comes through an accidental occurrence. Africa and the Middle East tals of Islam.”Po One Islamist document emphasizes how the born-again experience “brings about a total and decisive break with a person’s past. politically.” as in Najib Azouri’s Le Reveil de la Nation Arabe (Paris. “ ” 98 Published by Duke University Press . Since the Islamists reject unequivocally and condemn unambiguously this phase in Arab life. intense latitudinarian scriptural reinterpretation and socioeconomic modernization stretching from the last decades of the 19th century to the 1940s. 128). Similarly. the phenomenon of sudden religious conversion and the accompanying sense of being born-again.” “recovery” and “revival” in lieu of an Islamic renaissance or nahda. from unbelief (kufr) to faith. is not foreign to the Islamists either. 127- Again. “as-sahwa al-Islamiyyah. and George Antonius’ classic work. explains one hadith (tradition) of the Prophet as heralding “the return of Islam in the present age following this Islamic Sahwa (awakening).” “ba‘ath”/“resurrection” and “yakaxah”/ “awakening In contemporary Arab politicoideological discourse. come to live in “fear and trembling” on account of their sins.‘Alamzyyah) in place of the socialist “Internationalism” (al-Umamzyyah) as in the sophisticated Islamist theoretical work which appeared in Beirut in 1979. but also to revive it in texc. their immersion in the life and activities of an apostate (iahilz) social order. viz. the Arab Islamists deliberately popularized their own variant of the concept of awakening. or a vision of the heart. It is. socially. “Protest” (Ihtvq) in place of the liberal “Opposition” 147). Thus The Absent Commandment referred to above. Let me add here that the Arab World’s Islamists choose their categories and concepts of “Fundamentals” and “Revival” carefully to distinguish themselves from the secular nationalists and leftists.21 Also included among these shifts are “Overturning” (Inkilab) and its derivatives in place of “Revolution” and “Revolutionary”. Hasan Hanafi describes in his book on The Islamzc Movements in Egypt. consciousness and practice after a long period of absence and forgetfulness (DI. the duty ofjzhad.” thus making “Islam the measure of all things for him” (DII.”lg Thus. Other terminologico-conceptual shifts and substitutions effected by the Islamists comprise the following: “Worldism” (al. under the title.

in place of the Marxist “Practice” and “Praxis”(Mumarusah). defenders. it brings out nicely and accurately the difference between having fundamentals (which Muslims certainly do).. secularists. persecuted and excluded jama ‘ah (group or community) preparing for the later construction of forms of power and statehood that Muslims could properly call their own. “Action” and “Execution” (in the sense of carrying out orders). 195). both applicable and adequate to the Islamist phenomenon is neither accidental nor arbitrary. For them all these currently familiar forms of political organization and association are foreign to Islam. After all the forces that have been shaping and reshaping Arab life for the last 150 years or so are. and so on. cultural and/or private Muslims. In fact a still stronger case can be made for the term. and “Revival. In other words. The above transitions and substitutions remain in a state of extreme fluidity and occur on highly contested territory. like socialists. 180. viz. functional.Comparative Studies of South Asia. communities.” and born-again Muslim from the run of the mill Muslim who takes h i d h e r religion for granted. secular and leftist decades. in every instance. divisive of the unity of the Umma and a manifestation of the progressive secularization and pernicious de-Islamization of Muslim societies in modern times. Of course the term “Islamist” has in its favor also the classical precedent of “Maqalat al-Islami’in” (The Theses ofthe Islamists) of al-Ash‘ari. categories. praising greatly his strict orthodoxy.\gain. and explanation. nationalists. in good scholarly conscience. texts and doctrines the Islamists depend and draw most. in light of the above considerations. the classical fundamentalist opponent of the great latitudinarians of his age. fronts. viewing Islam as a matter of ‘aqa’id and ‘ibadat. and being Fundamentalist. to identify certain other politically active categories of people.”“Rebirth.. should remain open for further investigation. forces. Some Historical Comparisons The fact that we find concepts originally derived from Catholic and Protestant experiences with the modern world and in it. stateless. they do so to distinguish themselves. that had dominated Arab political thought and cultural and intellectual life during the earlier more nationalist. the question of exactly what it is these groups and organizations are reviving. and correct. In fact what more does one really need to call such movements. “ Ill. styles.‘Alam<yyahjin place of “Colonialism” and “Imperialism”. Africa and the Middle East (Mri ‘ m d a h j as in the “loyal opposition”. organizations and movements from the vast majority of ordinary Muslims. I am not aware of any serious objections to the use of this term either on the part of the fundamentalists themselves or on the part of their critics. the Mu‘tazilite school of theology. The concept is very useful for distinguishing the activist. sociological. the medieval theologian on whose teachings. The Muslims then like now-so the argument goes-were no more than a powerless. clarification. nationalism. “Jahihyyah’ in place of “Backwardness.” One note of caution is necessary here. and apologists in the Arab World. refers extensively to al-Ash‘ari’s works. and piety. liberals and so on. plus a certain basic ethical code. and vice versa. considering that prominent Islamist leaders like Hasan al-Turabi of the Sudan (now the strongman and master of that country’s ruling militaryfundamentalist Junta) and important propagandists like Rida Idriss*2 use the term liberally for two purposes. “Revivalist”? In this case. allowing for plenty of terminological exceptions. One last observation concerning the related concept of Islamists (al-ZsZum+yun) and its employment. but certainly not as Islamists. But above all the term jama ‘at is calculated to invoke the model and experiences of the early Muslim minority in the middle of a hostile and jahili Meccan society. It also continues to be true that in spite of all these changes the current discourse of the Islamists remains greatly indebted-often spontaneously and unconsciously-to the typical concepts. as nominal.” “Underdevelopment” and “Dependency” (DI.” “Return”)in place of “Progress. colonialism. coalitions. cultural conventions. organizations. “World Crusaderism” (al-Salzbzjyah a/. I find it quite reasonable to conclude that calling these contemporary Islamist movements “Revivalist” (in the strong sense of the word) is eminently adequate.” and its derivatives and equivalents (“Recovery. Let me add in passing that the Arab insurrectionary Islamists also mean to convey a double message when they insist on being called jama‘at (groups. liberalism. inherited traditions. 99 Published by Duke University Press . such as: capitalism. This point is of some special relevance here considering that Ibn Taymiyyah. their followers. 45. accurate. 86.(a set of beliefs and specific acts of worship). and second. collectives) instead of the more common parties. . secularism. etc. etc. of European origin and provenance. First of all. DII.” “Development” and “Growth. traditionalism. also. shifts of ideological emphases and the introduction of ‘new wines into older conceptual bottles. Lrmma” in place of the “Popular Masses”. militant “true believer. analyses.

all at one and the same time. also. let us say. while Hellenism underlay in varying degrees: the scholastic reason of Eastern 100 Published by Duke University Press . the idea of progress. Africa and the Middle East populism. institutions and apparatuses. mediations and admixtures as the standing enmity of the two realms seems to instantaneously suggest. for they are “reformations” in their own right (or aspire to be that). How successful such a counterreformation can be in practice is. a question of a different order. this outward hostility. In fact a more accurate regrouping of these categories would give us the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition on one side (with powerful affinities of every conceivable type. structures. among its constituents). developmentalism. but for rectifying a perceived rotten present (produced by the havoc wreaked by the reformation and its forces) and securing a precarious future.Comparative Studies of South Asia. historically. a literary-intellectual renaissance. geographical Syria has more Roman ruins and reminders than Rome itself. Islam is an offshoot and development of that JudeoChristian tradition (it even conceives of itself as such). exclusion and otherness should not be allowed either to eclipse or distort a certain more basic and abiding truth. the emphasis should fall on the “reformation” aspect of the process and equation. it should come as no surprise if the overall Islamic counter-reaction should. a liberal experiment. as well as of a fundamentalist reaction to boot? In fact did not a counter-reformation of sorts raise its head in Egypt-the locus classicus of the Islamic reformation-when the Muslim Brotherhood. In other words. why should anyone be surprised at the rise of politico-religious social movements. the mother of all fundamentalisms in the Arab World. for here also the past is really invoked not for its own sake. in these instances. counterreformations are hardly ever either mere reactions or pure and simple restorations. “the liberal age of modern Arab thought.” and so forth. when we speak of counterreformations. modern nation-state building with all the attendant. communism. which bear strong family resemblances to the original fundamentalisms and revivalisms generated in modern and contemporary Europe and the West in general. After all. to remind ourselves in this connection. all on account of the long history of conquests and counter-conquests that have characterized traditional relationships between the two realms. secularization and capitalization than the country had ever witnessed before. and the Graeco-Roman heritage on the other. However. I think. This whole issue has been obfuscated by the inherited hostile gazes of Christendom and Islamdom vis-A-vis each other. an antienlightenment and an anti-aggiornarnento. define itself substantively as an antireformation. is there anything strange or mysterious about the occurrence of. like Islamic Fundamentalism and Revivalism. modernism. that Egypt’s bourgeoisie and nationalist capital came of age at the time of the 1919 Revolution against British rule. an anti-renaissance. of course. each regarding the other as the Menacing Other per se. Middle Eastern Islamdom has never been as innocent of Graeco-Roman influences. Marxism. Now if the religion of a social order such as the Arab World can go through such a wide ranging and profound reformation. and so on and so forth. a rationalist-scientific enlightenment of sorts. Muslim modernism. The Islamic counter-reformation is no exception to this rule. I shall try to explain my meaning via the simplest and most convincing argument I can think of. Any wonder now. a renaissance. and not just on its “counter” side. and as the anti-self par excellence. theologically and in every other way possible. Nonetheless. and is certainly far closer to the latter’s two components than they can ever be to the unadulterated Graeco-Roman heritage. applied technology (both civil and military). a counterreformation. since the formative process of Islamic Modernism embodied in a single moment the elements of a theologico-legal reformation. to digress for a minute here. why the counter reaction made itself felt at the end of that same decade? Furthermore. evolutionism. embarking immediately on an even more accelerated course of rapid modernization. but on their own terms and within their own turf. a reformation. was formed in 1928? It would be useful. Now. socialism. both positive and negative. we should never lose sight of the fact that in the dialectics of history. an awakening. And since we know by now that these forces respect neither political nor ethnic nor cultural nor religious borders and boundaries. and a politico-ideological agg’ornamento. Similarly. The contemporary West prides itself on the Judeo-Christian tradition on the one hand and the Graeco-Roman heritage on the other. by the action of these same primary historical forces (without attempting to establish a hierarchy of primacy and relative importance among them for the moment)? Western scholars and Arab thinkers and intellectuals have called the movement of Islamic reform of the late 19th and early 90th centuries. Islam descended on Byzantium no less than on a culturally Hellenized Christian Middle East. scientific knowledge.

the tactical adjustment of limited means to forbidding ends and the restraining influence of temporary accommodation to hated existing realities. analyses. As these documents and writings were never meant either for publication or unrestricted general circulation. viz. contains not only detailed refutations. Epiphanius was vehemently reacting against Origen’s legacy and the penetration of the Church by Graeco-Roman culture. views and criticisms are now available to the reader in two books. More particularly. that what in the first instance took the form of tragedy. authenticity. but that when such originally modern European forces as capitalism. the scholastic reason of Islam. openness. tactlessness and want of both honest and dishonest dissimulation that books. This comes out clearest in the Islamists’ harsh and sharp polemics against the outside world. against the 80 pagan-inspired heresies he identified as plaguing the Church in the first three centuries of its life.26(and if Lefebvre and his movement are not Fundamentalist. observers and commentators. teachings. as well as against each other. but only for the internal organizational use of the Islamists theniselves (recruiting and training members. T o borrow from Karl Marx. grounds and primary fields of action of these same forces. Furthermore. they work themselves out in societies and cultures that are not really as radically alien. and Adam. whose titles speak for themselves: They Have Uncrowned Him: From Liberaltsm to Apostasy The Conciliar Tragedy. referred to earlier.4ristotle and Plotinus on the one hand. theology. and after. methods. attack the Middle Eastern Muslim realm. This is why one should not be surprised when the unfolding of these forces in their Arabo-Islamic context tends to produce results and reactions that bear strong family resemblances to the results and reactions generated in the original European and Western settings. Africa and the Middle East pamphlets. on the war waged by an early Church father known as Epiphanius of Constantia (Cyprus). plans. from the original breed. 101 Published by Duke University Press . Abraham and Moses. the records of the trials. critiques. and clergy of the Second Vatican Council (1962).” Arianism being the most promi- Christianity. . in such a situation the possibility is always there.23 issued by Pope Pius IX in 1864 (after many years in preparation and drafting). not having been moderated as yet by considerations of outward political circumspection. knowing they were doomed men who had nothing to fear or lose. the contents of these documents remain raw.. (a) the most important Christian fundamentalist document of its time. The Syllabus of Modern Errors. In other words. but more importantly because they represent the Islamists’ ideas. nationalism. They all shared Plato. My point is not that somehow the Middle East is also European or Western. the Syllabus is modeled. socialism. critiques and negative evaluations of the theses. the leader of the most prominent dissident fundamentalist Roman Catholic movement in Europe and the United States since the 1970s (now excommunicated). Lefebvre’s doctrines. For example. and (b) the fundamentalist movement of Dominion Theology in the United States of America. considering that the defendants spoke their minds and convictions fearlessly and with total frankness. interviews. other and different. but also a general polemic against all of them as well.. sermons and recorded cassettes (meant for the eyes and ears of the outside world and general public) necessarily lack. may appear the next time around as farce. I would like to support and illustrate my general argument by taking up two particularly interesting instances. ideological unity and self-clarification. on the other.24 I shall also draw on the teachings and preachings of Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. leading to the proliferation of all sorts of “grievous errors and vicious heresies. or anything of the sort. and the scholastic reason of Western Christianity (this is also the period of the great Talmudic codification of Judaism). For purposes of comparison I shall depend primarily on the documents and writings of Egypt’s insurrectionary Islamists as compiled and published by Rif at Sayyed Ahmad.Comparative Studies of South Asia. unabashed and without the least trace of affectation. interrogations and responses of President Sadat’s assassins possess similar qualities. etc. they possess revealing qualities of radicalism. the encircling socio-cultural environment. polemics and overall mind-set in their most pristine and unmediated form. vigorously combating the Papacy. The Absent Commandment. etc. interestingly enough. then no one is). and believing unshakably in what they were doing and in the absolute rightness and final triumph of their cause. As an index or catalogue of the 80 heresies condemned by the head of the Roman Catholic Church. partly because their contents remain under-used by Western specialists.).25 and Archbishop Lefebvre and the Vatican: 1987-1988. judgments. Heresies and Innovations At a more concrete and comparative level. Errors. secularism and so on. IV. Church. of all the other Islamist groups and organizations active in Egypt at the time.

” In fact the arsenal of weapons brandished by The Church Fundamentalist against all the said errors. socialism. Pietism refers generally to those who regard religion as a strictly private matter. the various Consistorial Allocutions. heresies and depraved fictions of innovators. The Modernist crisis reached its climax in 1907. Encyclicals and Apostolic Letters on which it is based and to which it constantly refers. confessions and so on are (a) equal before the state. pietism. civil society (as a religiously neutral arena). leading again to the proliferation of another set of 80 “most grievous errors. then. as a declaration of war by the Catholic Church on modern society and civilization leading to an intensified general Kulturkampf against the Papacy. In fact liberal Europe regarded it. new critical scholarly methods of dealing with holy scriptures and the history of Christianity. the cult of religious tolerance. it did so in substance. the separation of Church and state. rationalism. etc.” such as materialism. The condemned Modernism is part of what is usually known as “The Modernist Crisis in the Catholic Church. and (b) stand on the same footing as to their validity and truth-claims. A few of these condemned heresies require brief explanations. the promulgation of the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception and Papal Supremacy and Infallibility. liberalism. freedom of conscience.” As is well known. Latitudinarianism refers to the reform movement in the English Church which argued that the texts of Holy Scriptures allow for a latitude of interpretation and proof based on reason as opposed to the pure authority of tradition. The Syllabus. Leo XI11 and Pius X. It was left to Pope Leo XI11 to make the implicit explicit by bringing the Church debates over this tendency to a conclusion by declaring Americanism.” Indifferentism refers to the view that all religions.” spanning the papacies of Pius IX. and all the rest. arising out of the Church’s head-on collision with Europe’s powerful secular and secularizing states (particularly Italy and Germany).” by supporting “liberals and evolutionists” and by “talking forever of liberty. included (in addition to the Syllabus). The point to keep in mind in this connection is the implication that the Syllabus was similarly a product of Pius’ vehement reaction and valiant struggle against the renewed pernicious penetration of the Church by the pagan culture of European modernity. secular education. It is basically a 19th century phenomenon (on the assumption that the 19th century ended in Europe in 1914). modernism. innovations and heresies of modern times. and more particularly to those who regard its essence as no more than an inward.Comparative Studies of South Asia. naturalism. respect for the individual’s initiative. on the one hand. plus the doctrinal constitution Paster Aeternus (Eternal Shepherd) promulgated by the First Vatican Council in 1870. vicious heresies and depraved innovations” threatening the life of contemporary “Christendom. particularly in Bismarck’s Germany. along with the introductory Encyclical letter. civil marriage. as official Roman Catholic dogma (First Vatican Council 1870). and secular modern culture and its institutions on the other. and who pointed to the American Catholic Church as a model for reorganizing the Church’s relations in Europe with such novel developments as secular states. rapid scientific progress. democratic governments.” Thus the Americanists were accused. when Pius X declared it not just a heresy but “the synthesis of all heresies” and denounced the Modernists as “true children and inheritors of the older heretics” and the perpetrators of a “deliberate conspiracy to destroy the Church. the publication of the Syllabus aroused the most violent debates and polemics in Europe. communism. latitudinarianism. the scandalous conflict between Catholic teachings and modern science (particularly Darwinism and higher Biblical criticism) and the as-yet unmediated contradiction between religion in general. The debate within the Church over “Americanism” refers to those Bishops and priests in Europe and the United States who showed excessive zeal for constitutionally protected civil and religious liberties. and the later explicit condemnation of the two super-heresies of Americanism and Modernism. democracy. as mentioned earlier. sects. Although the Syllabus did not explicitly condemn Americanism or mention it by name. of undermining the faith and subverting the authority of the Church by “this combination of Catholicism and democracy. natural virtues and sympathy for our age. personal and individual affair of the heart which may or may not have any consequences for the outside world (’justification by faith alone versus by works also). denounce and condemn generally and particularly the most grievous errors. Americanism. are all meant to “reprobate. pantheism. secularism. by the Catholic fundamentalist reaction. science (under the rubric of scientism). a heresy which constitutes “a complete synthesis of contemporary errors. Although we can assume with certainty that the Arab World’s Muslim Fundamentalists-from their 102 Published by Duke University Press . the principles of civil and religious liberty. except for their own adherents. Africa and the Middle East nent among them. indifferentism. in 1899.

with the glorious deeds of the “good predecessors and ancestors”. nationalism. Saleh Sirriyah denounces nationalism and patriotism as forms of this regression to the pre-Islamic age of paganism and jahilzyyah (DI. scholarship and learning by the pagan and Christianized Greek and Hellenistic culture of the old world that the Arab Muslims had only recently conquered. still their pronouncements. theoretician and Muslim activist Mawdudi. 44). doctrine. as in the condemned proposition that: “reason is the master rule by which man can and ought to arrive at the knowledge of all truths of every kind. entitled The Philosophy q f Confrontation (probably a pun and take off on President Nasser’s famous pamphlet The Philosophy of the Revolution. and who constituted these societies under the inspiration of God. Seventeen of these errors were denounced by al-Ghazali as heretical bida ‘. Godlessness and unbelief This is their doctrine of the Jahilzyyah of the 20th Century.28 More recently a judge intervened in the public debate on this issue by publishing in Cairo another volume on the subject entitled.3’ In his Epistle of the Faith.. Introduction to the Jurisprudence of the Contemporary Jahilzyyah. Godlessness. apostasy. the Muslim Epiphaniuses denounced with similar power the penetration of Islamic theology. in a famous work appropriately entitled The Destruction of the Philosophers.” (b) its paganism in the two most dominant forms. and with “the illustrious founders whom we venerate upon our altars. documents. Thus the great theologian of orthodoxy. heresies and bida‘ (innovations) of modernity that we find in the Syllabus itself. The Jahilzyyah of the Twentieth Century. Obviously the Islamists understand very well (certainly better than many a Western expert and specialist. al-Ghazali.” 103 Published by Duke University Press . books. Supreme Being . idolatry and false belief. civilization and society for paganism. equality. Let me emphasize here that the first section of the Syllabus is devoted to the denunciation of exactly the same pernicious errors. dangerous. al-Ahram. (a) the atheism of 19th century Europe as in the condemned proposition that “There exists no Divine Power. in imitation of atheistic and pagan Europe. the 20th century is simply declared an age of paganism.. just as our good predecessors fought ancient paganism and ancient idolatry” (DII. Because classical Islam has had its Origens and his like. that what is happening to their countries and societies. progressivism.” In addition. manifestoes and practices give us. viz. Africa and the Middle East master theoretician and ideologist Sayyed Qutb to the assassins of President Sadat and including the mainstream Muslim Brotherhood-have never heard of the Syllabus of Errors or given a second thought to Pius IX and/or any other pope. especially in the latter’s fat volume. the introductory Encyclical to the Syllabus does not short-change our Islamists concerning the emphasis on the continuity of current fundamentalist efforts to stamp out the modern versions of the above-mentioned ancient evils and damned heresies.50 In other words. “Naturalism and Pantheism. the tyrants hid behind the idols of Al-Lat. are the modern idols behind which [today’s] tyrants hide the darkness of their souls and the ugliness of their deeds. a no less ringing condemnation and emphatic rejection of exactly the same errors. while the remaining three were consigned to the sphere of out-and-out apostasy or infidelity ( k i ~ j ? ) .. then. 2 7 The present-day radical Islamists are even more violent and vociferous than The Syllabus of Errors in condemning their century’s culture.” and (c) its idolatry in the form of the fetishization of human reason’s supremacy (“Absolute Rationalism” in the terminology of Section I of the Syllabus). democracy. unknowingly continued the same old Epiphanian struggle by producing his own “syllabus” of the twenty major errors committed by the Graecophile philosophers of Islam and their like (for example al-Kindi. Manat. al-Farabi and Avicenna). Similarly. 1955) explains the aims of the militants adhering to its philosophy in the following unambiguous words: “ W e want to declare war on modern paganism and modern idolatry which have spread in our countries and in most of the countries of the Islamists (al-Islamzyyin). 29 to which Fahmi Huweidi replied in three articles that appeared in Egypt’s foremost newspaper. on this score. and Baal [the pre-Islamic gods of Arabia]. interestingly enough. it seems). sinister and threatening to Allah’s true religion than the earlier jahilzyyah that Islam first confronted and triumphed over.and Providence distinct from the Universe. and later elaborated and popularized in the Arab World by Sayyed Qutb and his brother Muhammad Qutb. an Islamist manifesto of 1987. 296).Comparative Studies of South Asia. Hubal. more pervasive. The Tunisian Islamists make the direct connection between the modern and ancient jahilzyyahs explicit in the following declaration: If in the ages of backwardness. is an extension of what had already come to pass in European societies and the capitalist and communist West in general. first formulated by the Indian theologian. humanism. then freedom.

Minister of Religious Endowments for kufr (apostasy or infidelity) and his eventual abduction and “execution. that nudism-we can speak without exaggeration of nudism-which triumphs in the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Thus. then. In fact he denounced the Vatican I1 Papacy because it represents the exact opposite of what the Syllabus stands for. If anything the attacks of the Islamists seem more meanspirited and vicious than their Catholic counterparts because while this “modern civilization” was unquestionably indigenous to Europe and Christendom.Comparative Studies of South Asia. liberalism.. His favorite and most quoted Popes are naturally Pius IX.” says Saint Paul. speeches and adversarial practices. a pantheon of all religions is instituted! Just as the pagan emperors of Rome had made that pantheon of all the religions. traced back in their turn to the paganism of antiquity (U. the apostasy of the great number manifests the heroic fidelity of the small number . 3-11).. Without doubt. Lefebvre’s fundamentalism discredits all these modern developments by tying them to ancient paganism in three steps: (a) By propagating the doctrine of the jahilzyyah of our century in such words as: “To be sure.e. No Islamist could disagree. become its Minister.This century of apostasy. putting us all before the utterly exclusive choice of serving either the one or the other but not both (DII. In fact. which are. In fact all the Islamists attack al-Azhar and denounce its leadership and elite for having succumbed over the years to the very forces and influences that Pope Pius IX was trying to keep at bay. xvii).. without doubt in a different way from the centuries of faith. like the Syllabus.$* Thus Lefebvre denounces the Conciliar Church in erms that are as historically suggestive as those used by the Tunisian Islamists quoted above: And behold! Instead of magnifying the royalty of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 4). it seemed totally alien and external to Islam in the eyes of these protectors of Islamdom. who was favoring heresy . “and the spirit militates against the flesh (U. but they have. was one of the few bishops to refuse with vigor to take any part in the politics of Pope Liberius.” Now translate the above to Islamic idiom by simply substituting for the “Roman Pontiff. above all a carnal aspect of exaltation of the flesh that is really opposed to the teaching of the Gospel: “For the flesh covets against the spirit.”the “Rector of al-Azhar” or simply “al-Azhar.. even in the churches. those works have their value. Pius X). and civilization as lately introduced.”3+ (c) By tracing the origins of thejahiliyyah of European modernity and culture as a whole to “Protestant and Renaissance Naturalism” (via the French Revolution). and a Kulturkampf against. 120). At present Monsignor Lefebvre is the principal defender of the continuing validity and relevance of the Syllabus of Errors. belongs to Jesus Christ. (b) By invoking the past model of the Alexandrian Arian heresy of the fourth century (pagan to the core) given its roots in the Origenistic tradition and the Hellenistic philosophical teachings of the time. see Koran 9: 107. take the last item in the Syllabus which condemns the proposition that: “The Roman Pontiff can. and ought. alas. “The Priestly Society of St. acted as the director responsible for “the mosques of mischief and infidelity” [i. they determined to introduce then everywhere. having been taken over by the very forces of evil that his preferred Popes were struggling to protect the Church and Christianity against. though he/she may want to supply h i d h e r own sacred quotations against nudity and the exaltation of the flesh. and agree with progress. 119).” and you will get exactly what Shukri Mustafa and his followers and comrades have been condemning for some time and inveighing against in their writings.” (U... looked at from the point of view o f a r t . So like the Islamists. adopting unreservedly every one of its condemnations. in times of similar general blindness in heresy (Arianism). to live in a time of apostasy has in itself nothing of an exalting nature! Let us ponder nevertheless that all the times and all the centuries belong to our Lord Jesus Christ .” by citing the fact that the victim had “worked for the Ministry of Religious Endowments. the leader of one of the most radical of the Islamist organizations in Egypt. this innovation called modernity and modernization.” denounced “modern civilization” as “the high idol now worshipped on earth instead of Allah” (DII. On the one hand. known as “The Excommunication and Emigration Group. today it is the Roman authorities of the Church who are doing it!33 At the same time his followers intentionally compare him to Bishop Athanasius “who. For another example. 1081 and vowed to rule 104 Published by Duke University Press . Shukri Mustafa declared both institutional war on. Even the Sistine Chapel does not escape Lefebvre’s censure: Under a pretext of art. Shukri Mustafa justified to the court his group’s condemnation of the venerable Azhari Shaikh al-Zahabi.. Africa and the Middle East Shukri Mustafa. most of Egypt’s mosques. to reconcile himself to. Leo XI11 and Pius X (the fraternity he leads carries the name.

modern scientific reason: ( 1 ) “ I say. mathematicians. (c) on “the dethroning of God and putting man in His place” (U. Again take item XI11 of the Syllabus which condemns the proposition that: “The methods and principles by which the old scholastic Doctors cultivate theology. italics in the original).35 In fact we have here instances of a simple translatability test which shows that core Christian Fundamentalist theses and representative propositions and positions.e. simply testifies to his own shamelessness and insolence. deification of man]” (DII.” (U. x-xii). 120). pioneers of space exploration and makers of modern civilization?!”(ibid. as the Vatican Council made clear. 103). Africa and the Middle East in accordance with things other than what God had commanded.. Consider for the moment. prided itself on nothing but its science. (b) on “the independence of man. for they [the Western scientists] are the ones who have forsaken the other world in favor of this one” (DII.. can be readily and accurately Islamized to express equally core Islamist Fundamentalist theses and representative propositions and positions. and (9 his appeal to the Christian martyrs “who understood that man is not first. d propos of his condemnation of the heresy of Americanism in 1899: First. Lefebvre’s attacks: (a) on “the independence of reason and science in regard to faith” (U. This is why the list of modern idols we saw condemned in the Syllabus and denounced by the Tunisian Islamists quoted above will continue to repeat itself like a refrain-with minor variations and some expansions and contractions-in the fundamentalist teachings. 21. Allah’s Prophet taught the Muslims Islam and nothing but Islam. without so much as needing more than a few minor terminological modifications and formal substitutions. (3) “For thirteen years in Mecca.. 122)..hence. (d) on “the idol of the ‘cult of man’. all arithmetical knowledge which does not serve that worship is definitive idolatry and definitive deification [i. as well as of Monsignor Lefebvre’s movement and its adherents and spokesmen. in our countries. What more does one need to call the Islamist movement a genuinely Fundamentalist phenomenon? 105 Published by Duke University Press . but a divine deposit that is to be faithfully guarded and infallibly declared.” “Fuqaha”‘ or “Imams” and you will have exactly what Shukri Mustafa and his like are both censuring. I leave to the reader the task of carrying out the translation into Shukri Mustafa’s appropriate Islamic idiom of the following pronouncement of Pope Leo XIII. and was able to exalt itself above God through nothing but the fruits of a science.and set up a new absolute: Liberty!” in His place (U. in our families. are no longer suitable to the demands of the age and the progress of science.” Translate the above to Islamic idiom by substituting for “Doctors. the Catholic faith is not a philosophical theory that human beings can elaborate. rebelling against and affirming in its stead. with regard to God” (U. at one and the same time.e. he who thinks that the burdens of building modern civilization are not in conflict with the commandments of worshipping God. and he who thinks it is possible for the Western scientists and builders of civilization to be also obedient servants of God at one and the same time.” Then Shukri Mustafa stressed that all this was not out of any ignorance on the victim’s part of his “obligation to rule according to what God had commanded” (DI. i. xii)..). The following is a somewhat free translation of typically extreme positions adopted by Shukri Mustafa concerning not only ‘the above issues. 24). but God is first and must be given pride of place in our life. ( 5 ) “Concerning the question of science (knowledge). where are those impostors who claim that Islam cannot be established unless it becomes a pupil of the European sciences?” (DII. its supremacy and arrogance. 96). in G o d s service-to be also physicists. it remains for me to say that the whole of humanity that went astray and that God destroyed. efforts to adapt the church‘s teachings to the modern world are misguided because. preachings and thunderings of the other Islamists. established in the sanctuary and sitting as if it were God” (U. particularly in its most prevalent form at present. neither astronomy. 124). xvii). ( 6 ) “We do not reject learning the number of the years and the arithmetic connected to G o d s worship and within its confines . but also the whole problem of the idolatry of human reason. nor mathematics. 29). (4) “The knowledge willed by God for us so we do not exceed our bounds-i.e. when he took his ministerial oath. become slaves to earthly things!” and “reject God’s Supremacy .. ( 2 ) “Was it really possible for the Prophet Muhammad and his companions-the hermits of the night and knights of the day.. 96). cut off from the worship of God alone and no one else” (DII. nor philosophy.Comparative Studies of South Asia. (e) on liberals who “wanting to be free from God. so we remain obedient slaves of His-and the knowledge commanded by the Prophet on every Muslim-for the purpose of worshipping Allah-is the knowledge of the other world and no more” (DII. nor physics...

‘a victory. first. personal freedom. (a) “as a call for the separation of state and religion.” and to call for progress. society and culture.(DI. it speaks of the “terrible conspiracy of our adversaries against the Catholic Church (Islam).. but nations. 32). democracy. nationalism and shu ‘ubism” (a pejorative code word for communism) (DI.”S6 Abboud al-Zomor. shouting “long live socialism. abolished by Nasser in Egypt and by Mustafa Kemal before him in Turkey). education. and condemns the abolition of “Ecclesiastical Courts” ( S h u n‘a Courts. existentialism. Shaikh Mutwalli Sha‘rawi.may and must appertain to civil power and belong to it the idea that “there is no necessity that human laws should receive their sanction from God.. their writings. nationalism.. information and the media. castigates Arab leaders for having committed all the following unforgivable sins: [The rulers] have turned their backs on Allah‘s Book and raised..... By pushing this totalizing integralist religious logic and position to its ultimate consequences. upward development and the liberation of Palestine..” Egypt’s celebrated tele-evangelist. my son.” “the exclusion of religion from the life of civil society.then they proceeded to raise the banner of socialism. religious tolerance. In the same vein.” where “man becomes free to worship or not to worship his God. as in the cases of Freud.” the notion that “the entire direction of public schools .democracy. teachings. patriotism.” (b) “as a doctrine. Durkheim.. the na106 Published by Duke University Press . and leaving the field free to communism.” and as men “animated and excited by the spirit of Satan” thus “arriving at an excess of impiety.. government.. our local and much weaker versions of modern materialism.. pietism.. and when my son asked me.Comparative Studies of South Asia.’I 45). 173).” and those who “want to insulate Islam from the affairs of society and to isolate it inside the mosque-after the fashion of what the Western states did to the Church-thus prohibiting Islam from interfering in social and economic matters as well as the rest of life’s affairs. Similarly.” but only “acts of worship.” They further denounce as “apostate.” (c) “in legislation. secular education. Let me note in passing that while the Syllabus condemned “these most fatal errors of Socialism and Communism.” and (d) as a “call to socialism. while they are themselves the slaves of corruption. Let me note in this connection that article LV of The Syllabus of Errors condemns the proposition that “the Church ought to be separated from the State and the State from the Church.desire further to banish it from families and private lives. The Islamists similarly condemn present-day Arab governments because they “do not mean by Islam a total way of life. capitalism. socialism. the banner of democracy calling for secularism. freedom and unity.. heresies. declared the apostasy of anyone who believes in such things as: “materialism. viz.notcontent with abolishing Religion in public society.. 41. socialism. ‘how can you thank Allah for the defeat of the fatherland?’ I replied. Marx and others” (DI.” Exactly like our radical Islamists. and depraved innovations of the age.” in addition to the entirety of its consequences such as: the disestablishment of Catholicism’s hegemony over not just “individual men. modernism. 42-43).” Like them also. leader of the attempted Islamist armed seizure of the Technical Military Academy in Heliopolis near Cairo in 1974. documents and manifestoes leave no doubt that they are out to destroy and eliminate from the life of contemporary Arab state. and the de facto prevailing respect for the principles of religious liberty. liberalism. 115116). liberalism. peoples. and sovereigns. and the intermingling of the sexes. a member of the Jihad cell that masterminded and carried out President Sadat’s assassination. secularism. communism.. he who holds that Islam is no more than a matter of acts of worship. would have tempted us away from our religion in favor of communism’. and then proceeded to define secularism as “collective apostasy” (DI. I prayed twice to Allah thanking him for what had passed. related the following incident before the millions watching his show: “When I learned of the Arab defeat in 1967 (the Six Day War). The Charter of Islamic Action declared a holy war (literally and not just figuratively) against secularism. regime and rule.I’ . the use of cosmetics [by womenl. and the Jewish declarations on society’s other problems.” the conception saying that “the Republic is the origin and source of all rights and those ”. . Africa and the Middle East Although the Muslim partisans of the jahilzjyah doctrine have not produced as yet a single unified list detailing the errors. the Syllabus denounced its manifold enemies for “promising liberty. the Islamists seek to completely undo one of the Arab countries’ most important modern socio-political achievements (Egypt in particular). indifferentism. Saleh Sirriyah. d la al-Ghazali’s index and/or Pius’ Syllabus. socialism. civil society (as a religiously neutral arena). pragmatism . patriotism. nationalism.. 40. parliamentarianism.. the judiciary. idea. latitudinarianism. imitating in that the states of the Christians. and internationalism” (DI.

one is well entitled to prevent the false forms of worship from being publicly displayed. while the document titled The Position of the Islamic Movement vis-2-vis Political Parties in Egypt. to limit their propaganda!” (U. His conclusion states that “in a Catholic country. it is no longer expedient that the Catholic Religion shall be held as the only Religion of the State. Of course. Or.because it grants the same rights to truth and to error. the Syllabus had made the same point by censuring the “pest of indifferentism and its representatives.” legitimated by the Second Vatican Council. “The Catholic religion is good for the Catholics. 78.. the violators of the Catholic religion. by enacted penalties. “apostate is he who raises the slogan ‘religion belongs to God. 45). italics in the original). ‘4gain the Islamists do totally embrace a literal Muslim version of the condemnation of the following proposition in item XV of the Syllabus of Errors: “Everyone is free to adopt and profess that religion which he.does not the state have the duty. while the fatherland belongs to all of us” (i.Comparative Studies of South Asia. and by denouncing those who hold “that the best condition of human society is that wherein no duty is recognized by the Government of correcting. when the Church of Vatican I1 teaches them that other religions “are not devoid of significance and of value in the mystery of salvation”? How do you expect them to consider the other religions differently. depravity and innovation” (DII.” T h e very identical fundamentalist logic of Monsignor Lefebvre declares freedom of religion. when the State grants to all of them the same liberty? (U.e. 172).” and which lets “he who wishes to believe in any doctrine to do so. Westernized with secular patriotism” (DII.such as calling for atheism. the proposition that “in the present-day. official and unambiguous reestablishment of Islam as the one and only recognized religion in Muslim countries. in concert with Luther. while the fatherland belongs to all of us). The Document of Zslamic Revival addresses the subject by speaking pejoratively. this kind of MuslimChristian “ecumenism” is even more thoroughly denounced by Monsignor Lefebvre than by our own Islamists.... right and wrong. and dismissively of “those patriots. Africa and the Middle East tional unity accomplished between Muslims and Christians-forged in the heat of the struggle against colonial rule and for independence-under the great patriotic slogan. He sarcastically speaks of Vatican 11. while the fatherland belongs to all’ because both religion and the fatherland belong to the Lord of the creation and because those who raise that slogan not only refuse to submit themselves to religion’s rule but want religion to submit to theirs” (DI. inviting “Our Lord to come and organize and enliven society. Interestingly enough.because it ‘concedes to all religions equality under the law’ and ‘puts the holy and immaculate Spouse of Christ on the level of the heretical sects and even of Jewish perfidy”’ (U. except when the maintenance of the public peace requires it.and which gives the right to he who accepts communism to call for it . holds to be true. particularly in his attack on what he calls “The Reign of Religious Indifferentism. 40). 188). to the exclusion of all other modes of Worship. 188).. Similarly. to safeguard the religious unity of citizens in the true religion and to protect the Catholic souls against scandal and the propagation of religious error and. How do you expect them to think otherwise.. “religion belongs to God. (a) the notion that a person is (or should be) “free to worship or not to worship his God” (DI..” It is well known that our Islamists are uncompromisingly calling for the formal. (a) “Absurd. but the Moslem one is good for Moslems!” Such is the motto of the citizens of the indifferentist City. sarcastically. 2 10-2 1I). Interestingly enough. And still more forcefully: . the Syllabus had similarly condemned in item LXXVII. and more specifically for having raised the banner of ChristianMuslim Egyptian national unity under such slogans as: “religion belongs to God while the fatherland belongs to all” and “the embrace (or hug) of the Crescent and Cross” (DI. and Buddha!” And then he adds: “To each his religion!” it is said.” Our Islamists are certainly more than a match for this Papal Fundamentalism when they reject categorically and on grounds of apostasy (punishable by death). attacks the Wafd party-Egypt’s classical bourgeois party leading the nation against colonial rule-for its secularism. and (b) the wicked indifferentism which fails to distinguish sharply and clearly between “faith and apostasy...f o r these reasons on&.. and therefore the right.” (DII. 214). Thus The Epistle of Faith of Saleh Sirriyah states.” and (b) “Blasphemous. to limit the practice of Published by Duke University Press . and for the prohibition and suppression of all “ideas that disagree with Allah’s religion and law .” who show no regard for the “distinction between true and false religion”. to each h i d h e r religion. and he who wishes to renege his Islam to do so also.. guided by the light of reason.. 152).. Mohammed. to the true religion and to the heretical sects. without any punishment or reproach .

while proclaiming the liberty of worship. and miserably to infect and deprave by every pernicious error and vice the tender and pliant minds of youth. and condemns those “most false teachers” who “endeavor to eliminate the salutary teaching and influence of the Catholic Church from the instruction and education of youth. error has no rights” and Catholicism alone is true (U. and (d) that sacrifice for its sake.). while appealing to the same discredited principle of the liberty of conscience where their flocks happen to be in the minority. heresy and indifference to God’s true religion. etc. error. Ultimately.” as “an abominable development”. The introductory Encyclical of the Syllabus of Errors damns the view “that from civil law descend and depend all the rights of parents over their children. in which the youth of Christian States are 108 Published by Duke University Press ..” Thus Saleh Sirriyah writes in his Epistle of the Faith (castigating the present-day governments of Muslim countries). considered in itself. Islamic ones. while declaring the provisions of the same law.make of the liberty of worship an argument ad horninem against those who. published. The purpose of education would be to graduate generations. and rely upon the loquacity of human wisdom. and that if it is always free to human arguments to discuss. through the press. or in Lefebvre’s words. All information would be. and make no bones about their readiness to rigorously implement all that. they do not reflect. Africa and the Middle East the false cults. projected and/or shown to make sure that nothing is disseminated that is contrary either to “true religion” or to “good morals. men will never be wanting who will dare to resist the truth. Augustine. then.This is to prevail over all the state apparatuses and all the affairs of life. which should be proclaimed by law. but also promoting falsehood. that real liberty of conscience means not only condoning. But whilst these men make these rash assertions. is maintainable for Catholics as a principle. and that citizens have the right to all kinds of liberty.that liberty of conscience and of worship is the peculiar (or inalienable) right of every man. when we know from the command of Our Lord Jesus Christ. how faith and Christian wisdom ought to avoid this most mischievous vanity.. including the scientific ones. 190. (b) The cynical practice of demanding that their faith be instituted as the sole established religion of the states and countries where Catholics and/or Muslims are in the majority. did argue frankly that wherever Muslims are in the majority the state should be thoroughly Islamized and wherever they are in the minority it should remain secular and resolutely separated from and independent of the religion of the majority. to be restrained by no law. internally and externally .. This argument ad horninem is fair. (a) that believe in Islam. whether ecclesiastical or civil. the right of instructing and educating them”. 204-205. Monsignor Lefebvre concurs quoting approvingly the following “principled” argument offered by Father Garrigou-Lagrange: W e can . even to prohibit them if need be? (U. “The Islamic state is one whose objective is to carry the mission of Islam. decreeing “freedom of belief. For example. that they preach the liberty of perdition (St. (b) that know it well. using it to defend effectively the right of its own liberty. because it is in itself absurd and impious: indeed. all curricula would be turned in that direction. then. Here. (c) that accept it as their arbitrator. both sides share profoundly: (a) The fundamentalist conviction. they condemn the proposition that “the entire direction of public schools.” Items XLV-XLVII of the Syllabus are neither ambiguous nor lenient in their censure of secular public education. or by any other means. “only truth has rights. 41). Epistle 105.Comparative Studies of South Asia. In fact Fahmi Huweidi. India and China. italics in the original). as in Russia. No man would hold responsibility in the affairs of information and education unless he is a missionary for Islam” (DI. 190). to spread it and apply it in toto. null and void. at the service of the Islamic mission. and above all. and the Church does not disdain it. Pius’ Syllabus did not mince any words in condemning “the insanity (deliramenturn)”of those who hold: . or consider. 166). The Islamists affirm exactly the same monopolistic claims and exclusivist demands on behalf of their religion. and nothing contrary to Islam would be broadcast or published. italics in the original). So. if and when they seize power. conscience and doctrine. Small wonder. persecute the Church (secular and socializing States) or impede its worship directly or indirectly (communist States. that this Papal Fundamentalism described the “Fundamental Law” of the Austro-Hungarian Empire ( 1867). by word of mouth. the moderate Islamist thinker we came across earlier. It follows naturally that both this old Papal Fundamentalism and its newer Islamist counterpart keenly seek to reestablish control over public education and exercise strict censorship over what is taught. by which they may be enabled to manifest openly and publicly their ideas.. But it does not follow that the freedom of cults. truth and error cannot have the same rights (U. giving members of any religion in the realm the right to set up their schools (even in the totally Catholic provinces). al...

freedom of the press. like religious liberty. A more sophisticated Islamist critic and theoretician goes so far as to attack the substitution in today’s Arab and Islamic countries of the modern European model of school and university instruction and organization (classroom. faqih. Monsignor Lefebvre is no exception.may and must appertain to the civil power.Comparative Studies of South Asia. substituting it for the knowledge sent by Allah. gets diverted from its true purpose and dispenses with its Godit is a temptation” (DII. and interference. school and university organization and so on and so forth. and. or in any 109 Published by Duke University Press . and belong to it so far that no other authority u hatsoever shall be recognized as having any right to interfere in the discipline of the schools. constitutional and institutional implications and applications. Protestantism-than it is among the Islamists. the above expressed crude anti-Semitism and Judeophobia is even more entrenched in the wellknown varieties of Christian FundamentalismRoman Catholicism. for allowing the “corruption and heresy” of secular education to infiltrate the traditional fort and guardian of Muslim learning. or jurist. all public institutes intended for fnstruction in letters and philosophy. strongly endorses his favorite Popes when they affirm that “the Catholic State does not have the right to permit such liberties. until it turned into their idol in place of Allah . It is well known that fundamentalist Catholics of the variety we are considering here refuse to worship (attend mass) with other Catholics not of their own persuasion. according to him. formulated and specialized in .” which he and his followers are required to withdraw from. our Islamists devote a considerable amount of space in their documents. In similar fashion. constructed their worldly life. at Shukri Mustafa’s trial. scholar. in conformity with the will of rulers and the prevalent opinions of the age Lefebvre. government. for his part. He explained that on account of the totally unIslamic character of Egypt’s educational system. pedagogical theory. along with its democratic. Shukri Mustafa denounces the modern school system in Egypt as “the educational institutions of the jahilzyyah. on the paradigm of the circle of pupils surrounding a recognized ‘alim. the arrangement of the studies. programs and propaganda. 93). a system based. while the introductory Encyclical of the Syllabus of Errors assails those who “dare cry out together ‘that the will of the people. .. doctrine and orthodoxy. the Jews-have founded. some of his followers voluntarily withdrew from schools and universities (including al-Azhar) while he advised others to do the same. advanced faqihs and recognized shaykhs. 82).. 92-97). the court judges (DI. and for conducting the education of the young. the Egyptian army]” (DI. but primarily on account of the predominantly modern and secular orientation of its curricula. not on account of its palpable failures and miserable shortcomings. Even al-Azhar and its successive elites of ‘ulama’ and clerical leaders have been vehemently attacked and severely criticized. the taking of degrees.This is the earthly knowledge with which the apostates busy themselves in lieu of worshipping God. In fact their castigation of al-Azhar is in many ways similar to Monsignor Marcel Lefebvre’s censure of the post Vatican I1 Papacy for having betrayed the faith. and freedom of education” (U. In his Document of the Caliphate. giving his lessons in a mosque. methods of teaching. the defendant took up at length this whole educational question (and al-Azhar’s situation and role) while under cross-examination. Needless to say. This is the knowledge on which they have built their civilizations. to the denunciation of the entire public educational system in the Arab countries. should be freed from all ecclesiastical authority.s7 V. Africa and the Middle East educated. pretty much the way they withdrew from “the temples of the jahilzyyah [i. Shukri Mustafa explains that “the Jews succeeded in diverting people from learning Allah’s Book and Wisdom to learning other sciences which they-i. as well as in his extensive replies to.e.. Popular Sovereignty Another important feature shared by contemporary Islamism and the Papal Fundamentalism under consideration is the deep-seated enmity and open hostility against the whole idea and practice of popular sovereignty. manifested by what they call public opinion. are the primary means by which humanity exceeds its bounds.These sciences that we study and the laws that we learn. by the Islamists. generally. training students and preparing scholars. 123-124). and taken joy in. and should be fully subjected to the civil and political power.e.e. laboratory.. or the choice and approval of the teachers. 70-73. competitive examinations. Greek Orthodoxy.. Thus.. mosques other than their own] and its army [i. degrees). subject matter taught.” It also condemns the proposition that: The best theory of civil society requires that popular schools open to the children of all classes. for the traditional religious system of teaching. For example. and altercations with.. He recommends a return to the old practice of the certification of students by such individual senior scholars.

even in a democracy!” (U. for as a person cannot be a Muslim and a Jew at one and the same time.. The reader will find below a close summary and a somewhat free translation of the main relevant points in one of the above-mentioned documents (DII. he cannot be a Muslim and a Democrat at one and the same time” (DI. 58).” are such only in the sense that they do for it what it cannot do itself. the people have the power to legislate and to permit and forbid what they will . or.. but did make provisions for the powers of the ruler over the umma. considering that God did not provide for any power whatsoever of the umma over the ruler. whose ministers they are. “vicars of the multitude. like combining Judaism and Islam. and its most important principles are five in number: (1) sovereignty belongs to the people alone-affirmed in article two of the Egyptian constitution.’. He then concludes: “therefore. furthermore. Our Countries Are Ruled by Positive Laws and Not by the Law of Islam (DII. 62. 5 5 . the Jihad group devoted the greatest amount of hostile attention to the question of popular sovereignty and its implications and applications. even if they were to achieve total unanimity over the matter. and. that is. 110 Published by Duke University Press . if he rules it in accordance with Allah’s Book and the Prophet’s Sunna” (DI. owed nothing to God.. 52.” This diagnosis is then followed by a detailed point by point refutation from the point of view of Islam. 150-163). and (b). Saleh Sirriyah argues bluntly the following point: “Democracy. by vociferously insisting on the total incompatibility of Islam with the notion of popular sovereignty in any shape or form. because Muslims never grant that sovereignty belongs to anyone except to Allah. italics in the original). In his Epistle of the Faith. because such a provision “upsets the balance established by Him between the umma [Muslim nation] and its Imam. 63 and one else-be it creature. 249-254). is a way of life which contradicts Islam’s way. Lefebvre argues the same point in the following words: . The majority does not ‘make’ the truth.” Monsignor Lefebvre also holds that in a society where government is based on the principle of popular sovereignty: T h e sovereignty of God is ignored. “Democracy. 55.” the Islamists.. 90). In a similar fashion to Shukri Mustafa and Saleh Sirriyah. but emanating from the people’s will. as they allege” (DI. for example. that is. 273-282). A God Beside Allah: A Declaration of War Against the People’s Assembly [The Egyptian Parliament] (DII. as defined by Lincoln. for instance. The people in power are therefore responsible for their acts first of all before God. 46-49.. (4) the plurality of political parties-article five. (1) The fact that “Democracy makes the people sovereign by giving them absolute power. even if they are called. The titles.the “general will” is null if it goes against G o d s rights. indeed. all authority comes from God. 92). (3) the guaranteeing of liberties and their protectionarticles 41. and only after that before the people. exactly as if God did not exist. then.. “from whom all paternity in heaven and on earth draws its name” (Eph. constitutes the supreme law. or as if one could imagine any power whatsoever of which the cause. as if men.. But power comes to them from God. (2) the people are the source of the powers of the state-article five of same constitution.Comparative Studies of South Asia. Combining Islam and Democracy is. 187-197). The Jihad Islamists argue that.. for their part. by the people. or were not at all interested in the society of mankind. topics and subjects of some of their documents speak for themselves: The Position of the Islamzc Movement vis-d-vis the Work of Political Parties in E g p t (DI. Putting the Egyptian Political System on Trial (DII. nation or people-has any such power to legislate”.. the force. and more specifically those of its provisions which afirm that “sovereignty belongs to the people” and that “the people are the ultimate source of the powers of the state” and so on. and ( 5 ) equality in the political and social sense of the term-article four. either in particular or in society. govern. under penalty of a perversion of democracy (U. push the logic of this kind of attack to its logical conclusions. italics in the original)..while in Islam the people have no such competence over what is halal [permitted by Allah] and what is haram [prohibited by Allah]. He alone creates and commands . that article six of the Egyptian constitution. as by Saint Thomas. S:15).elected governments. 57. For him the most salient “example of man’s premeditated disobedience of God on earththe whole earth-and in society-all societies-are constitutions taken not from God’s law. 40). it has to keep itself in the truth. 188-189). is the rule of the people. the authority did not reside quite entirely in God himself (U. independent of all divine and human right . He explained to the court. for in Democracy. for whose common good they govern . is something that no Muslim can ever approve of. to the effect that “the people are the source of the powers of the state. During his trial.” contradicts the fundamentals of Islam: (a) because in Islam “all things belong to Allah. Shukri Mustafa discussed in detail Egypt’s constitution. Africa and the Middle East other way.

Comparative Studies of South Asia. 15 1). depravity and innovation . power is not subject to the conflicts of different ideologies. Let us look at what the Popes have thought of this: Pope Pius VI. In a chapter of his book bearing the title: “Necessary Inequalities. and judiciary powers. is a condition of jahilzyyah [idolatry and Godlessness]. contrary to what is the case in democratic societies [remember the old maxim: une foi. and it is prohibited. T h e existence of a human legislative power.” (5) “Democracy calls for equality among all citizens-citizenship being the basis of their parityregardless of their religion and piety. belief from unbelief. as it belongs to God pure and simple. condemning especially article I1 of this same declaration.and of the obedient to God to the disobedient . who have but one doctrine. they got it: it was Dignitatis humanae (U. to call for its ideas and to recruit supporters . une loi. ix). T h e plurality of parties arises only out of the plurality of ideologies in society. Africa and the Middle East Therefore...of the learned to the ignorant . And so. is Liberty” (and he was not speaking metaphorically about the Devil) (U.. the rule of the infidel [over Muslims] is unlawful. first of all. for the right to legislate has never been given to any creature. and it acknowledges no religion-whatever it may be .. and what He required (wajib). (4) “Democracy establishes the principle of the plurality of [political] parties-a principle radically opposed to Islam.” And as Islam approves of no such false conception of liberties. the party of the devil is no figure of speech for Monsignor Lefebvre either. one method and are. equality and fraternity were invented by the Jews in the service of their long-term conspiracy to dominate the world to the detriment of everyone else (DII. also.What he prohibited is forbidden to us and we have been commanded to abstain from it and to interdict it in our societies.. preachings and writings are wholly directed at the disparagement.. And the Freemasons answered that what they wanted was “religious liberty!”-that is to its endeavor to reach the seat of power. declare religious liberty. for the simple reason that it can never reside save in the hands of Muslims.” Lefebvre rejects the principle of liberty-equality (as he calls it) in favor of the following position: I insist on the fancifulness of this equality. Democracy unleashes them unconditionally and to all citizens. Islam rejects this. free of ideological conflicts. the only one accepted by the State. whereby each one of them has a need to express itself. there are only two parties in a Muslim society: the party of God. This is how the fundamentalist Archbishop portrays and censures what he regards as the Second Vatican Council’s servility to the enemy camp: “Freemasons. proclaims the first article of the declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen of 1791. He summarized his own final position on this matter in the following judgment. Look randomly at any two or three pages of his books and an attack on liberty will hit you in the face.So. one religion. the sole path of salvation.” (3) “As for liberties. capable of legislating that which God had not permitted in accordance with its own views and inclinations and via a parliament or some other means. The Church must no longer be called the only true religion. eat as they desire and learn what they wish. “the fruit that the Devil presents to the modern world to deceive it. italics in the original See also p. goes from that to ( 9 ) “Democracy makes the people the source of the powers of the state. as part three of his book They Have Uncrowned Him carries (in all seriousness) the following suggestive title: “The Liberal Conspiracy of Satan Against the Church and the Papacy. no. good from bad. the legislative. rejection and undoing of exactly the same freedoms that the above Islamists inveigh against. or at least equal in rights: ‘Men are born and remain free and equal in rights’. and what He commanded we are obliged to carry out. and we have been commanded to establish it.” As for Monsignor Lefebvre.Furthermore. according to which men are born equal. 214.. and the party of the devil. hence. true from false. a code-word for the Jews also.e. Monsignor Lefebvre attributes the same to the equally long-term and pervasive conspiracy of the Freemasons. what He permitted we are free to do or not to do. un roil. all the religions put on the same footing. the famous slogans of liberty. executive. there is such a thing as what Allah permitted (halal). The interview was announced by all the newspapers of New York. where it took place. Let us finish up with these inadmissible privileges. Muslims are not at liberty to dress the way they like. But in a Muslim state... as it rejects the equality of the Muslim to the infidel . Well.what do you want? What do you ask of us?” Such is the question that Cardinal Bea went to ask the B’nai B’rith before the beginning of the Council. “Muslims are free to call neither for an idea that is opposed to Allah’s religion and law. while the people of the book [Christians and Jews] have to pay the tribute tax to the Muslim state. without any distinction of right from wrong. the thrust of all his teachings. 6 7 ) . 111 Published by Duke University Press ..” For Shukri Mustafa. i. nor for atheism..” Again. what He prohibited (haram).

too. Africa and the Middle East the principle itself of liberty-equality he condemns it by calling it “idle fancies” and “words devoid of meaning .We are. The First Vatican Council did after all declare the following: But the Church of Christ is not a community of equals in which all the f a i t f i l have the same rights. discipline. and I am proud of it. alien errors. used the Islamization of the state and implementation of Shari‘a Law to exact an absolute obligation of obedience from his subjects... 2 0 5 ) That is why for Lefebvre’s fundamentalism and its followers.. the Islamists propose not only the restoration of the hierarchical structures of dependence and subordination embodied in the Caliphate.. but also in those that pertain to the discipline and government of the Church throughout the world. doctrine. remain consistent with themselves and with their principles. and Collegiality introduced by the Second Vatican Council .38 Vl.Not only in my opinion but also in the opinion of legal experts and scholars. to submit. but also the practice of the bay‘ah. the enemy remains “the application of the false principles of religious Liberty.. addressing the present-day Islamic states. ~ ~ 190). that the present Government is a military G ~ v e r n m e n t .. un amzre ou un calf6 or as formulated by Mawdudi himself “one God. in both instances. i.let no one think that we are petitioning these states to permit the establishment of a Muslim party. General Zia ul-Haq. in favor of accommodating all the modern pagan heresies. It is a society of unequals..devout Muslims. In other words. He typically argued: The Jzhad Islamists.. as schools of thought and interpretation. One basic point that emerges from a study of the Quranic verses and the Prophet’s sayings .is that as long as the Amir or the head of State.. Modernists and Latitudinarians It follows naturally from the above comparative analysis that both the Islamists of today and the Papal Fundamentalists of Pius’ time regard the Modernists and Latitudinarians of their respective religions as the “enemy within”. which has been acting upon the tenets of Islam .. so that the Church of Christ may be one flock under one supreme pastor through the preservation of unity both of communion and of profession of the same faith with the Roman Pontiffs9 Pius IX teaches thus that the State governs in a better way when it recognizes that it has the function of repressing the public practice of the erroneous cults. realities. Let me add that in their firm opposition to the modern egalitarian principle. teachings. if the inherent inequality of the Christians and Jews with the Muslims in the Islamic realm imposes on the former the obligation of paying the tribute tax. one Book). is a constitutional Government. the First Vatican Council reaffirmed that “this 112 Published by Duke University Press . as trends of social reform and religious reconstruction.’’W On the other side of the divide the late master of Pakistan’s military regime and chief martial law administrator. Ecumnism. but particularly because there is in the Church the power from God whereby to some it is given to sanctify. une foi. irrespective of the personal dislike that someone may harbour for the Amir or any of his actions . the Islamists do not stray far from the comparable teachings of the Papal Fundamentalism that we have been examining. the two of us are as uncombinable as water and fire. are bound by their duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience.. and contemporary idols cited and condemned above. not only in matters which pertain to faith and morals.. when they declare. one Prophet. I concede. my Government.Comparative Studies of South Asia. power ofjurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff is “truly episcopal” and “immediate”. une loi. and then proceeded to insist that all: Furthermore.. Hence Lefebvre’s endless In place of egalitarianism and its politicojuridical implications and applications. We have announced more than once that we and democracy are the opposite terms of a contradiction. the obligation of every Muslim to swear allegiance to a prince (amtr) and to obey his commands thereafter (again.both individually and collectively.. not only because among the faithful some are clerics and some are laymen. teach and govern and to others not.abides by the injunctions of Allah and his Prophet his obedience becomes mandatory for his subjects or the people. Monsignor Lefebvre has a more radical solution for the problem of nonChristians in the Catholic realm: . the siren calls for the departure from and corruption of the Fundamentals of the Catholic and/or Muslim faith. and not simply to safeguard the public peace. for the sole reason that they are erroneous. 4 5 ) . as we radically differ with the democratic idea. on the exclusive grounds that they go against the Christian and Catholic order of the City. light and darkness” (DII. symbols. on their side. “. or. and not only because the public peace or morality would be affected by them (U.e. whether taken as individual scholars and theologians. and practices. Modernism and Latitudinarianism come to signify.. Reacting to similar modern egalitarian demands and pressures.” (U.

A no less “absent commandment” transpires through Monsignor Lefebvre’s attack on the ecumenism and collegiality of the Second Vatican Council and the resulting Conciliar Church.” “neglect.” they also reaffirm. fraternity. are the fictions of poets. the result of philosophical investigations.”Thus the Syllabus of Errors speaks of how “the doctrine and authority of divine Revelation” and “the true and germane notion of justice and human right” have been “obscured and lost”. Similarly. of course... In their war against the “enemy within. “our Lord sent his Apostles not to dialogue but to preach (U. by explaining it away as signifying no more than defensive battle against foreign invaders and for protecting the Islamic realm only. cunning distortions. 119). form and structure. uttered and narrated in the Sacred Scriptures. Africa and the Middle East railing against the Modernists for wanting the Church to assimilate such ideals as “liberty. 181).. which goes out of its way to castigate the Muslim Latitudinarians and Modernists (of the latter part of the last century and the first half of this one). Item VII of the Syllabus condemns the proposition that: The prophecies and miracles. equality.” and “the sword of the spirit. Obviously God could not have revealed himself to humanity through myth.Comparative Studies of South Asia.”+Sand “we must be an army. and his denunciation of such people as “traitors. poetry. and unprincipled manipulations of the sacred.” (DI.” Usud’ and authentic practices of Islam and/or Catholicism fall into an unholy state of “absence. figurative interpretations and allegorical understandings of the “ t r u t h of the sacred scriptures are summarily damned and rejected.. philosophical discourse and all the other familiar modes of human speech. fiction.” “neglect.” issued by the First Vatican Council repeatedly emphasized the decisiveness of such matters as: “Ofthe Institution of the Apostolic Primacy in blessed Peter. of the original commandment to carry on the jihad against the infidels.acy of blessed Peter in the Roman P o n t 8 ” “On the Power and Nature of the Primacy of the Roman Pont@” and “Concerning the Infallible Teaching of the Roman Pontg$‘”42 Not surprisingly. our contemporary Islamists condemn endlessly the “absence.” “On the Perpetuig of the Prim. consolidate and strengthen what may be called the doctrine of “Mohammedan Succession.”Q* My sense is that the old Fundamentals of the counter-reformation Church have found ardent advocates and devoted resuscitators in Monsignor Lefebvre and his followers. 114. for emasculating the Islamic imperative of holy war.” “the deposit of faith. and the mysteries of the Christian faith. above all.” the Usul. the imagery of jihad dominates the Archbishop’s discourse. “the revealed truth. the use of such terminology (in describing the tasks ahead) as “holy war. the Islamists go out of their way to vigorously reassert-contra the games of the Latitudinarians-the certainty of the simple meaning of the Koranic verses and of the absolute unilaterality of their message. viz..e. The epitome of this line of thought is reached in the basic document of the Jihad group.In the books of the two “ ‘I Testaments there are contained mythical inventions. both internal and external. consolidate. without pursuing the infidels to and attacking them in their own house . the absolute imperative of restoring the Islamic Caliphate 113 Published by Duke University Press . democracy and pluralism”. The author of The Absent Commandment wants. against all permeability. He had to do it in the form of accurate propositions about historical events and supernatural states of affairs. including: a defense of the Inquisition and the Crusades.. 122).” and “forgetfulness. As a result of the internal enemy’s expansive interpretations. Thus the “first Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ. turncoats and dangerous enemies of the Church” (U. “we are forming an army intent on remaining Catholic no matter what the price. and. an armada which . and reinforce the doctrine of Petrine succession embodied in the Papacy and its supremacy and infallibility...” “the true soldiers of Christ. and Jesus Christ is himself a mythical fiction. Modernist attempts at mythopoetic readings.follows Our Lord Jesus Christ who fights this &wade that Our Lord wishes to wage today. The Absent Commandment. or to Catholicism’s traditional fighting spirit. Like good modern fundamentalists elsewhere. while the documents of the First Vatican Council go out of their way to reaffirm. and through which we must convert the world . 127-147). to negate the “absence” by revivingjzhad in the fullness of its original splendor and primarily as offensive war now against all that is unIslamic (DI.” “loss.” and “loss” from the life of contemporary Muslim states and societies of the authority of Divine Revelation.” in addition to pronouncements like.” i. Abboud al-Zomor-member of the cell that assassinated President Sadat-makes the same point by explaining that “it is not true that jihad has been legislated [by God] for the defense of Islam. of the Fundamentals of Islam. all in fundamentalist opposition to the skeptical Modernists and the accommodationist Latitudinarians. the imperative of returning to the Church Militant’s mission and demands. As in the case of our Islamists. redefinition and innovative interpretation.

etc. 225). in lieu of recognizing the Pope’s full sovereignty over the Vatican and his spiritual authority over all Roman Catholics! Furthermore. Singled out for special attack by the Islamists is. as the example of what a more representative-if not ideal-Muslim life could (and should) be. His book. particularly during their heroic defense of the capital San‘a. communalist. “the common good of civil society” is “ordered to the heavenly city of the blessed” and “the Catholic City is the fruit of the union between the Church and the Catholic state. At the same time. into a major literary-religious scandal in both the Arab and Muslim worlds leading to the author’s expulsion from alAzhar. Similarly. social norms and practical behavior. ideal conception of the corresponding Christian state as put forward by Monsignor Lefebvre. as more representative of Christian ideals. Let me note also that The Document of Muslim Revival denies outrightly that the Modernists and Latitudinarians of the NahddRenaissance period are “true Muslim Revivalists. in 1924. where the spiritual and temporal power of the Caliph (especially the first four Caliphs) held sway. True revival (or renewal) is the purification of Islam from every part of jahilzyyah. Let me note in passing‘that the “Republic or Death’ was also the rallying and fighting cry of the Nasserist Yemeni Free Officers who overthrew the Imam in the early 1960s. the Islamist thinker Ali Kurani dismisses this adulterated form of Islam by labeling it disdain114 Published by Duke University Press . neither party seems to regard that past as an ideal for inspiration-a nostalgic desideratum of sorts-but as a practical model for present-day societies and states to copy and implement.” It characterizes them pejoratively as “pseudo-revivalists. The Charter of Islamic Action insists that the aim of the Islamists’ struggle is to “establish The Religion in its entirety everywhere” and “to institute the Caliphate after the example of the Prophecy” (DI. 168). (a) how the Arab Islamists will actually behave vis-bvis this proclaimed ideal. Africa and the Middle East (and caliphate means succession). 5 3 .’’ “because a revivalist movement cannot come about either by seeking means to make peace withjahilzyyah or by manufacturing a new mixture of Islam and jahzliyyah. naturally. For the Western reader to appreciate the utter radicalism. if and when they seize power. “the French monarchy of the Old Regime” where “a whole order and hierarchy of multiple intermediate bodies” existed “between the monarch and the multitude of subjects” (U. 18. just as the Catholic Fundamentalists look to a past European society. Mustafa Kemal. 19 1). and second. ‘Ali ‘Abd al-Raziq. similarly the Islamists invoke a vague past Islamic order. Now it remains to be seen.Comparative Studies of South Asia.. just like the Bourbon kings they seem to favor. and (b) how the constraints of resistant modern realities and the responsibilities of power will condition their future actions on this score. and where the poor remain contented and spiritually compensated for by obeying Islam’s imperatives. Of course. another Islamist turns the famous fighting cry “The Republic or Death into “the Caliphate or Martyrdom” (DI. hierarchical. under the rubric of the TawhidisP state. The fundamentalist Archbishop also explains that in such a state. corporatist. Prophetic. turned. against the invading royalist troops and restorationist forces. France was at one time lafille ainee‘ de VEglise.” (DII.” The more or less typical historical realization of this ideal has been. where Papal temporal and spiritual authority was supreme. hierarchical and complementarian ideal conception of the Islamic state (Caliphate) as elaborated today by Muslim Fundamentalist ideologists. corporatist. the prominent Azhari cleric who defended the abolition of the Caliphate and argued for the separation of Mosque and state on grounds internal to the traditional Koranic... economy and culture (where Islam moves the rich to give the poor their fair share. 210). 1925). the no less organicist. It is of interest to note in this connection the resemblance between: first. at the time. popular elections and the nation state). and legal Islamic discourses and narratives. he/she should try to imagine what would have happened had the Italian nationalists in 1870 proceeded to simply abolish the Papacy after the annexation of Rome to the Italian kingdom.” social classes “naturally complement” each other. we are told. but some of these fundamentalists act as if they forgot nothing and learned nothing. the organicist. stunning impact and sheer enormity of Mustafa Kemal’s abolition of the Caliphate and ‘Abd al-Raziq’s defense of that drastic act. supported by the neighboring Saudi Arabian monarchy. More specifically i%andpure political opportunism and tactical hypocrisy aside). abolished by the founder of modern Turkey. and modify their utopian conceptions about the implementability of that ideal (in Iran they gave up on the ideal in favor of the republic. living its life and taking to heart its otherworldly message). society. Islam and the Sources of Political Rule (Cairo. society is harmonized “as an organism of coordinated and hierarchically arranged social groups.

its ‘ulama’ (Islam’s clerics and scholars) and rectors. under mortal threat from the encircling Satanic conspiracy of the modern condition. posing as inspired reformers who. attempted to bring about an adulterous union between the Church and the principles of the Revolution!(U. the Lvhole kvorld and achievement of contemporary modernist and liberal Catholicism.. Then he proceeded to praise the vigilance of his predecessors in the following words: Our predecessors had very quickly recognized this principal enemy a t the moment when. For example. coming out of the darkness of an occult conspiracy. Thus.” and by citing the predictions of “Our Lady at La Salette” to the effect that “Rome will lose the F a i t h and “there will be an ‘eclipse’at Rome. to overthrow the Church. Shukri Mustafa damns the entire teaching curriculum of alAzhar and denounces Sheikh Shaltut. the devil raised up on the inside of the Church men filled with the spirit of pride and of novelty.” leading the Conciliar Church “intodisobedience to tradition” turns out to have been executed “in the name of obedience itseJf?*B In any case Lefebvre himself had been preaching for sometime about explanations like: “This is not a human battle. and so. He bolsters his case by quoting a supposed “prophetic vision” of Pope Leo XI11 (reported by the Virgin herself). 10). a militant defensive reaction which sees the whole of the Christian and/or Muslim religion. for exactly the same reasons. “this deviation of secularist Islam. in depth. just as the secret book of the dissidents. dreaming of reconciling the Church with Liberalism. for turning Muslim right into 115 Published by Duke University Press . And Monsignor Lefebvre follows suit by referring the conspiracy back to the French Revolution: From the day after the Revolution. teachings and historical hold on people’s hearts and minds. W e are in a close combat with Satan” and we face “in front of us an army directed by Satan. one of its most prominent and enlightened rectors under Nasser’s regime. turns out to have been written by Big Brother’s Thought Police in the first place.”49 The writings and pronouncements of the Islamists. the whole of Europe’s and/or Islam’s societies. Lefebvrian fundamentalism attacks the Conciliar Papacy for having succumbed totally (via the enemy within) to the secular anti-Christian and antiCatholic powers that be. “revealing that one day ‘the See of Peter would become the seat of iniquity’. with equal disdain..Comparative Studies of South Asia. regarding the Seat of Peter as vacant and Rome as occupied by the Antichrist. Africa and the Middle East fully.” of “the terrible conspiracy of our adversaries against the Catholic Church and this Apostolic See. Thus in his diatribes against the errors of “our most unhappy age” and the heresies of our “utterly deplorable times.” of “the numerous calamities of the Church and of Civil Society” and of the impious enemies “animated and excited by the spirit of Satan. obediently carrying out the evil will of the secularist anti-Muslim powers that be.” Pius IX spoke in his Syllabus of the “struggle between Christ and Belial. in Nineteen Eighty Four. Consequently the Archbishop has come to adopt a sedevacantist position. xvi-xvii).” Other declarations of the First Vatican Council spoke of how the “gates of hell with daily increase of hatred are gathering their strength on every side to upheave the foundation laid by God’s own hand.”*” Marcel Lefebvre assumes the same fundamentalist attitude and stance when he dismisses. similarly “the Masterstroke of Satan. are replete with exactly the same images of contemporary gloom and doom and of dire warnings to the Islamic world against the mortal dangers posed to Islam and everything Islamic. Shukri Mustafa left us a lengthy disquisition on the great international conspiracy against Islam (underway for some time now).). by the evil conspiracy of the wicked forces constituting that overpowering Satanic creation known as the jahilzjyah of the Twentieth Century. their thinkers and ideologists. The dark conspiracy acquires Orwellian dimensions of convolution and absurdity with the followers of Lefebvre’s type of fundamentalism. The two forms of Fundamentalism under consideration regard the Modernist “enemy within” as a bridgehead for and/or a Trojan horse (perhaps a Trojan camel for the Islamists) at the service of the massive forces of modernity bent on destroying their respective religions and the attendant institutions. 144151). it sprang forth to the attack in the full light of day (ibid. The “enemy within” has completely taken over the venerable institution.”*’ Pope Leo XI11 identified the main force behind this terrible conspiracy in no uncertain terms: In our time the instigators of evil seem to have formed a coalition in an immense effort. Naturally the result is. under the impulse and with the help of a Society spread out in a great number of places and skillfklly organized: the Society of the Freemasons (U.”50 The Fundamentalism of our Islamists attacks alAzhar. obediently carrying out their evil will. if that might be. masterminded by the Devil and carried out primarily by the “World Jewish Government” (Lefebvre’s Freemasons) without exempting the permanently crusading Christians either (DII.

the inescapable conclusion tells us that the Islamism of today is no less of an “Islam-ofcrisis” than was the Papal Fundamentalism reviewed above (along with its Lefebvrian extension) a “Catholicism-of-crisis. although opposed to revealed doctrine. by properly cultivated reason let him be anathema Whatever devout Muslim scientists may believe as individuals. therefore all its fruits are rotten. against “Scientism. You teach them science which is devoid of reason and slave of the senses.. You teach them economics. holds against modern (but not medieval) science the fact that “so many present-day students lose their religious moorings upon studying modern mathematics and chemistry. 246). And you still expect them to have an Islamic point of view. for our Islamists. Modernists are convinced that progress in scientific knowledge will eventually confer upon them the powers of Divinity. Science and technology are totally dependent upon the set of ideals and values cherished by its members. Obviously. ’70-71). All in all. a sense is to be given to doctrines propounded by the Church different from that which the Church has understood and understands: let him be anathema. in spirit and in substance.” Consequently he affirms: 1 If any one shall say that in divine revelation there are no mysteries. The Rector’s Chair is not only vacant. Africa and the Middle East wrong and Muslim wrong into right. all in the service of the un-Godly secularist powers of the time (DI.’’all in counter-reaction and begrudging adaptation to the disruptive threats and mortal challenges posed by the incredible dynamism.Comparative Studies of South Asia. 6 2 . Where God is in charge some things can not be allowed to be true (Salman Rushdie in Shame) Although the scientific-critical study of Christianity is condemned in the Syllabus and dismissed by Monsignor Lefebvre as “the false critical science” and the “false immanentist philosophy of the age” (U. teeming forces and irresistible pressures and lures of the modern condition. the American-based Iranian Islamist thinker. Mawdudi. You teach young minds phlosophy.. except for their greater crudity.” support the reigning infidelity and justifywith their fatwas and rulings-the wrongdoing of apostate rulers (DII. knowledge. then the tree is rotten. Seyyed Hossein Nasr. and can not be condemned by the Church: let him be anathema. The master theoretician of contemporary Islamic Fundamentalism.”“Naturalism” and “the abyss of Pantheism. are to held as true. no less than for Lefebvre. The Jzhad militants are equally adamant in their sarcastic attacks on “those who wear the robes of the ‘ulama’ filling the land those “who distort the with sound and fury word.. but naked materialism and arrogance. we should all know something by now about the entrenched suspicion and hostility with which religious fundamentalists of all colors and hues have held modern scientific investigation.” “Rationalism. which seeks to explain the universe without Allah. extremism and virulence. Religion and Science All modernist ideologies are characterized by man worship.54 Similarly. The whole branch of knowledge and its applications is contaminated by the same evil. Man worship most often appears under the guise of science.Ile). w a the pronouncements of the First Vatican Council: Modern science is guided by no moral value. and world pictures. declaring the following beliefs anathema. expressed similar fears of and suspicions about modern science when he wrote: Reflection on the nature of modern education and customs immediately reveals their contradiction with the nature of Islamic education and customs. truly and properly so called. If the roots of the tree are rotten. If any one shall assert it to be possible that sometimes.51 . explained the idolatrous nature of modern science in no uncertain terms: VII.5* Our Islamists are no exception to this rule.I’ 3. For example. the Papal Fundamentalism discussed above inveighed endlessly. there is an “eclipse” over al-Azhar these days and a loss of faith inside it. differ from the teachings of Islam.53 The spokesperson on cultural and scientific affairs of Mawdudi’s Fundamentalist political party.” “false science. but has become a seat of iniquity as well. according to the progress of science.” “Materialism and Atheism”. 116 Published by Duke University Press . law and sociology which. but that all the doctrines of faith can be understood and demonstrated from natural principles.” and then proclaims that no amount of protestation on the part of the Muslim Modernists “will prevent this kind of science from corroding the foundations of the citadel of Islamic faith. they cannot prevent their activity as modern scientists from emptying the Islamic intellectual universe of its content unless this science is shorn away from its secular and humanistic matrix where it has been placed since the Renai~sance. in its own time.5~ 2 If any one shall say that human sciences are to be so freely treated that their assertions. the Jama ‘at-e-Islami.

with the exception of a single word that I altered. the Islamists resort to a variety of strategies and tactics that are well-known and welltried in the West-the locus classicus of the explosive confrontation between religious orthodoxy and modern science. at least. is false. 288). and then arguing (a) that Europe borrowed the scientific method from Islam in the first place (via Spain). (b) Its abandonment of authority-especially religiously sanctioned authority-as a criterion of truth and acceptability. By way of example consider the following minor experiment: T h e Koran is absolutely infallible.” Mr. Marx and Freud as the Diabolical enemy incarnate (the Jewishness of the latter two helps) and as the symbols of all that is wrong not only with modern science but with the modern world in general. contingent. Freud. the Muslim Fundamentalists. Farouk Muhammad Ibrahim. the assassins of President Sadat.5fi tions arise they can easily be mediated and resolved to the satisfaction of both sides by an improved understanding of the profounder meaning of Islam’s scriptures and essential teachings. Let me digress for a minute here to point out that this negative attitude towards modern science becomes even more striking (and interesting) when we remind ourselves of the lengths to which earlier Muslim latitudinarians and modernists went to reconcile Islam with science. cumulative. we read the following accusation: “The reader of the Nasserist discourse cannot but smell clearly the odors of Darwinism. history. regard Darwin. corrigible. and (c) that when such seeming contradic- These could have been the stereotypically fundamentalist words of Ayatollah Khomeini. like their Christian counterparts. Karl Marx. substituting “Koran” for “Bible. (b) that nothing in modern scientific knowledge and discoveries really contradicts true Islam. Men and women are disobeying the clear instructions God gave in His Word. Brohi expressed little sympathy for the “dubious contribution of contemporary thought that is reflected in sciences like Physics and Chemistry. to the deliberate denigration and exclusion of science. the leaders of the Islamist band that occupied the holy shrine in Mecca in 1979. The disintegration of our social order can be easily explained. The most sophisticated strategy can be summarized in two main points: 1 . (d) Its explanations of the world in terms that inevitably challenge and contest the comprehensive-and ostensibly final-accounts of same given by the long established and elaborate religious belief-systems. (e) Its powerful impact on the interpretation of the religiously sacred. Under the Islamization policies of present-day Sudan. The general complaints about scientific knowledge remain the same: (a) Its inherent autonomy in the face of the totalizing and overarching claims of traditional. for example. Africa and the Middle East Needless to say.”58 In confronting the power and destabilizing impact of science.”. Scientific knowledge is underrated and disparaged by turning its very distinguishing characteristics against it.. the creed of self-interest. In other words. Zia ul-Haq: In his speech Mr. Saleh Sirriyah. Shukri Mustafa. under the Islamization policies of the late President of the country. and its description as mere ‘spiritual values”’ (DII. the marginalization of religion. etc. approximative. as well as in areas such as geography. science. Brohi.” The textbooks used in universities today were the particular objects of his ire because they: “bear on the face of their pages indelible imprint of the findings that have been recorded by some. the eminent biologist. (c) Its constantly skeptical bent of mind and materialist orientation. gives the following account of a major “scientific” keynote address delivered by the Rector of the Islamic University of Pakistan. the fact that scientific knowledge is always incomplete. Brohi found Einstein’s theory of relativity to be objectionable and incompatible with Islam: “In my considered opinion.K. was persecuted and imprisoned in 1990. of the outstanding irreligious thinkers like Darwin. to the understanding of the language of the Bible and/or Koran in light of our scientific knowledge of natural phenomena rather than the other way round. 117 Published by Duke University Press .Comparative Studies of South Asia. but in fact they are the words of the famous and highly influential American fundamentalist leader Jerry Falwell.57 And in a document of the Jihad group devoted to an attack on Nasser and Nasserism. Their main strategy was to naturalize science Islamically by first singing its praises and privileging the kind of knowledge it yields. leading. without error in all matters pertaining to faith and practice. Needless to say the current radical Islamists follow the exact opposite strategy of privileging Islam alone (or a certain conception of it). because he taught his students something about Darwinian evolutionary theory. the Einsteinian view of the behavior of moving particles-or the ultimate constituents of matter-regarded from the Islamic perspective. A. conservative and fundamentalist religiosity. viz. The distinguished Pakistani nuclear physicist Pervez Hoodbhoy (Quaid-e-Azam University in Islamabad and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

while the known truths are not knowledge. the spirit of “unrestricted research which in any case.. to the production of interesting speculations. Or. and (b) practical mathematical calculations. a foundation characterized by eternity . in his famous denial: “hypotheses non-$ngo. its theoretical value diminishes. so the scientific world view is shaky and inconsistent and cannot serve as a foundation for faith. the radical Islamists come out as enthusiastic partisans of primitive operationalism and crude technicism. 7 ) .” In other words. an unshakable foundation. italics in the original). practical techniques and effective operations for the manipulation of material objects and the satisfaction of human needs. the consequent “curiositj‘ and “pride” (in science and reason) leading to mortal error. in the older pejorative sense repudiated by Isaac Newton. qua scientist.. formulae and tricks for the improved manipulation of objects. Then the Ayatollah concludes that : One of the remarkable things about science in today’s world is that. then. Faith demands a firmer. T h e condemnation of the following characteristics of scientific knowledge is given by Monsignor Lefebvre: (a) “Theindependence of reason and science in regard to faith”. their autonomy and “self-sufficiency” in general and their rejection of “anyforeign domination” from outside. the motion of the earth. from the standpoint of presenting reality as it is or of attracting faith to the nature of the reality of being. Of course. not a practical one . the face of the world changes from day to day because science is based on hypothesis and experiment.. very rarely leads “to religious and philosophical t r u t h . In the following the reader will find two concrete illustrations of this kind of contemporary fundamentalist response to the threat of modern scientific knowledge: 1. Africa and the Middle East falsifiab!e. According to that cunning piece of advice Galileo had. the “turning aside of all revelation . to the extent that its practical and technical value increases. 21. italics in the original). but no more. and the fact that “a free researcher” is really indistinguishable from the proverbial enemy of religion. Today’s industry and technology display the practical and technical value of science.The importance of the scientific world view lies in its practical. in particular (U. is always of the Truth. All in all. (c) T h e idea of “evolutionism” in all realms: “. intellectual 118 Published by Duke University Press . Science is stripped of all significant theoreticoepistemological value and cognitive content by reducing it to not much more than sets of successful guesses... 17-18. their motions and relations. as scientist. condemned are: “the morbid love of novelty under the pretext of progress”.. sun spots. the “lamentable spectacle” of “how far the wandering of human reason g o once the spirit of novelty is given way to” (U..The practical and technical value of science lies in science’s empowering man in his work and being fruitful. What can serve as the support for an ideology is a theoretical value. not in its theoretical value. in the words of this brand of fundamentalism. (a) useful “hypotheses”that allow us to handle physical phenomena more effectively and efficiently. useful hypotheses and practical calculations. first. From the viewpoint of science. to stop affirming that his scientific inquiries were producing knowledge about the nature of the world (true propositions about floating order that access may be opened up to the discoveries or rather frenzies of unaided reason” (U. lead to Marx).59 2 . I can safely say that in practice they clumsily and unknowingly heed the substance of the advice Cardinal Bellarmino once gave to Galileo in order to avoid head-on-collision with the fundamentals of the then reigning Roman Catholic orthodoxy and its guardians. whether or not it represents reality. T h e more sophisticated theoreticians among them tend to add a dash of fashionable conventionalism and pragmatic instrumentalism. “the philosophy of open investigation” which “results in Hegel” (who may. in favor of only claiming that his science proposes no more than. the moons of Jupiter and the mutability of celestial matter). not on rational and self-evident first principles.biological (Lamarck and Darwin).. Galileo was advised to leave the truth about the affairs of this world also-and not just the other one-to established religion by confining himself. that is. 176).e. for them. “hypotheses” are to be taken. 2 . The devaluation of the theoretico-cognitive significance of science and modern scientific knowledge in general is given by Ayatollah Mutahhari in the following words: Another shortcoming of the scientific world view as a basis for an ideology is that science is unstable and unenduring from a theoretical standpoint. here. Hypothesis and experiment have a provisional value. useful calculations. Knowledge. (b) T h e spirit of innovation (bida‘ for the Islamists) and its attendant attitude of intellectual curiosity so characteristic of and essential to the modern scientific enterprise of search and research. renders it “not real knowledge” in their eyes. the “free thinker” (U.Comparative Studies of South Asia. i. revisable and so on.. technical value. As far as science is concerned. vacua.

in the context of present-day Muslim societies. 94). “learning to write in excess of that limit is prohibited [haramJ” (DI. 16) Condemned also is the accompanying notion “of a Church that evolves” and all those who “want an evolving faith. scientific knowledge is no more than guess. 95). and spiritual values of the Qur’an and Sunnah 6o Naturally. Galileo. moral (emancipation from the ‘taboos’). novelty and. significant traces of that intellectually and socially liberative and liberating charge that once characterized the modern scientific enterprise in the days of Rabelais. He explained to the court during his trial that “the teaching of writing in the Muslim community is prohibited except when it relates to a practical and real need. viz. relayed the same message in the following terms: [In Islamic society] originality. even in the religious sciences. Shukri Mustafa prohibits literacy in the Muslim community save in cases where practical necessity and urgent need require it.. is so acutely conscious of the threat posed by modern science to the Islamic World picture and its edifying narratives. Basing himself on the additional fact that the Prophet himself was illiterate.. resurfaces as pure phobia and obsession with Shukri Mustafa. applications. wonder. Although the other Islamists do not subscribe to Shukri Mustafa’s extremist radical condemnation of all learning and knowledge. to worship Him alone and no one else” (DI. the members of the Jihad group are taught “the necessary minimum of the legitimate ‘realistic sciences’ that are useful to the Islamic Movement so the member can correctly understand the reality he lives. sparing not even mere literacy and simple arithmetic. theological. the goals he is seeking (rationalism and its myth of the indefinite progress of human reason). empowerment. Furthermore. Thus Abboud al-Zomor divides knowledge into the two categories of “the religious sciences” and what he calls the “realistic sciences” (the natural and social sciences). His pamphlet explains that in addition to instruction in the sciences of the first category. above all.because “the knowledge which Allah permitted human beings to acquire is strictly limited to what binds them to the one and only obligation He 119 Published by Duke University Press . fascination. and is the beginning “of man’s deification on e a r t h (DI.” considering that for “the faith.). For him. transcendental. knowledge. Thus for Shukri Mustafa also. writing and foreign languages. conclusions. strict fidelity to Islam’s Fundamentals and to the ideal of the zmztatzo of Muhammad impose an overriding preference for that sort of illiteracy. only in case of pressing need . 9s). he holds that because all “learning should be tied to worship the acquisition of the practical side of knowledge may take place. along with the attendant sense of excitement. plain inability to read. that scientific inquiry.The same applies to the other sciences. modernists and latitudinarians-and show signs of anguished struggle to redress the balance in favor of restoring religion’s once paramount theoretico-epistemological position and domination For example. and generalizations still carry. here. discovery.9S). All attempts by latitudinarians at figurative interpretations and/or expansive readings of the question of “illiteracy” (ummzyyah)in Islam. simply leads to idolatry and apostasy. Africa and the Middle East imposed on them. innovation and change were never upheld as intrinsic values T h e ideal of Islamic culture was not mechanical. such as astronomy. surmise and hypothesis (zann). considering that Allah wanted the ‘best umma ever brought forth to mankind’. our Islamists are no less aware than their Catholic counterparts that the truths about the affairs of this world had slipped out of Islam’s sphere of competence-with the help of earlier Muslim reformists. The spokesperson on culture and science for Mawdudi’s Islamist party referred to above.. Descartes and the Encyclopedists. Shukri’ to be an illiterate nation which can neither write nor calculate” (DI. divinely revealed moral. Similarly. viz. that he mounts a comprehensive and formidable assault on all forms of non-religious knowledge. this radical Islamist is certain that the acquisition of any form of knowledge which exceeds the bounds of meeting the immediate practical needs of the Muslim community and serving its urgent interests. falls outside the bounds of servitude to Allah. “an atom’s worth of learning intended for something other than the above objective.. What was fear and suspicion of science with Mawdudi. write and calculate. evolution is death” (ibid. so suspicious of the destabilizing impact of the spread of scientific information.Comparative Studies of South Asia. curiosity. In brief.political-religious (emancipation of societies with regard to Jesus Christ)” (U. for a better appreciation of this fear. I would like to remind the Western reader. But. immutable.” For emphasis he added. explanations and world views on the Islamic beliefsystem and its attendant practices. they also want no more of them than is absolutely necessary and useful to Muslims. evolutionary progress but the permanent. both as a Koranic concept and as an important attribute of the Prophet himself (ummi). are expressly rejected by him in favor of the narrowest and most literal of meanings.

T h e Islamic way is this: when atoms of hydrogen approach atoms of oxygen. “Muslim Fundamentalist Movements: Reflections Towards A New Approach. J 120 Published by Duke University Press . also warn their flock against the dangers of over-expanding their reading lists beyond orthodox Catholic works. 3rd edition). I shall refer to these volumes in the text as (DI) and (DII). The Neglected Duty: the Creed of Sadat’s Assassins and Islamic Resurgence in the Middle East (New York: Macmillan. See Rida Idriss’ editorial on pp. 1987). “Secularization or Essentialism? Fertile Ambiguities in Contemporary Middle Eastern Civilization. Fundamentalism in Comparative Perspective (Amherst. 1991). pp.and the Syllabus of Errors Condemned (Baltimore: Kelly Piet and Company. 1987) p. August 1990. 9-12. pp. 5.G. 1 19). 1991). Gilles Kepel. Volume One is entitled. 4 Islamic Fundamentalism (London: Pinter Publishers. 16-17. in writing a science book for Class 3 children one should not ask “ W h a t will happen if an animal does not take any food?” Instead.. p.” ibid.” in Kaplan.” in Richard T. p. For example. administrative. Fundamentalisms Observed (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1984). 11-15. 159-234. 1990). The Islamic Impulse. 1 5 The Islamic Movements in Egypt (in Arabic) (Cairo: al-Huda Islamic Publishing House.” For our Islamists. p.62 (Part I1 of “Islamic Fundamentalism Reconsidered . Marty and R. all this in accordance with a curriculum prepared by specialists in various fields” (DI.). 223-224. economic. Johannes J. 5-1 1.A. “The Priorities of the Islamist Current for Three Coming Decades. 12 13 289-29 1 .Similarly it is unIslamic t o teach that mixing hydrogen with oxygen automatically produces water. published by Riad alRayyes Books. but it is the best we have for the moment. 1986). 17 English translation. followed by the page references. 1979. December 8. 109-1 10.. is devoted to a summary and review of the papers presented at an Islamist symposium devoted to “The Problems of the Islamic Future. The “realistic sciences” specifically mentioned by Abboud al-Zomor are. 4-7 May.” will a m e a r in South Asia Bulletin.). military. tracts. the nature of the path he is embarked on and the dificulties facing him. 1988). CA: University of California Press. DC: Center for Contemporary Arab Studies. “the political. Given at Rome. 3 . pp.). 5 . 6 7 18. see C. Islam The Religious and Political L f e ofa World Community (New York: Praeger. “Fundamentalism in the Sunni Arab World: Egypt and the Sudan. Lawrence. 1864. MA: The University of Massachusetts Press. 136. 91 The author is an Islamist intellectual from Abu Dhabi called Muhammad Abul-Kassim Haj Ahmad. 1968). pp. London. p. 117 n. and Turabi’s intervention. The second issue. 1). the following question should be asked: “ W h a t will happen if Allah does not give the animal food?”. 14 I am referring here to the works of Rifa‘at Sayyed Ahmad and particularly to his compilation in two volumes of the most important documents. pp. 20 Ibid. (al-Masira Publishers). 18 Hanafi.) Relipoils Resurgence: Contemporaty Cases in Islam. NY: Syracuse University Press. XIV No.. The Islamic Impulse (Washington. the way out is to reintroduce God into science.” pp.p. 8 “Present Tendencies.. 79. pp. 347. Rifat Sayyed Ahmad. see.and Judaism (Syracuse. * Ninian Smart. The Lefebvrians.” Le Cuisinier et Le Philosophe: Hommage a Maxime Rodinson (Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose.. 9 . 18s. Scott Appleby (eds. Georgetown University.A. Jansen. 1990.. published by AMANE editions (in Arabic).. Accurate reading on a wide range of subjects makes the scholar. 3 Lawrence Kaplan (ed. while the second volume bears the similar title of The Armed Prophet: The Revolutionaries. 223. booklets. Kertesz (selected and edited) Documents in the Political History ofthe European Continent (Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 279-280. Antoun and Mary Elaine Hegland (eds. p. records of court-trials. in G. Future Trends. 1870.” in Barbara Freyer Stowasser (ed. 1982). Van Nieuwenhuijze. Al-Islambouli: a New View ofthe Jihad Organization. but careful selection makes the saint. This is not by any means a critical edition and is burdened by lengthy. pp. 11 Bruce B. manifestoes. Bernard Lewis.. Ltd.Comparative Studies of South Asia. 23 I have used the original American edition of the Syllabuc The Encyclical of Pope Pius IX. rambling and repetitive (though at times informative) commentaries and introductions. 1984). Beirut. 135. 24 For a record of the court-trial of the leader of President Sadat’s assassins. Muslim Extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and the Pharaoh (Berkeley. In what follows.” Martin E. as for Marcel Lefebvre. p. The Political Language ofIslam (Chicago: Chicago University Press. then b y the will of God water is produced. Khaled al-Islambouli. 1991. impressing on all concerned the truth enunciated by John of Salisbury in the 12th century to the effect that “the safe and cautious thing is to read only Catholic books. (Cairo: No phenomenon or fact should be mentioned without referring t o the benevolence of Allah. pp.O. By way of entertaining the reader I will reproduce below the bizarre manner in which the Mawdudi Fundamentalists propose to achieve that end in Pakistan’s schools as well as in correct Islamic scientific discourse and explanations: “Fundamentals of Fundamentalism. 10 “Khomeini: A Fundamentalist.). Africa and the Middle East to achieve. 19 Ibid. 1986). Notes 1 “The Islamic Movement: Its Current Condition and Future Prospects.” in Marjorie Kelly (ed. interrogations and so on. of Egypt’s insurrectionary Islamists. p. 1 14). More accessible is “The Syllabus of the Principal Errors of our Times” (but less the introductory Encyclical). “Three Forms of Religious Convergence.. Christianity. on their part. For a typical “typology of basic positions” on Islamic Fundamentalism. Vol.” The Islamic Impulse. 22 Editor of the Paris-based Islamist journal Al-Insan (Humankind). informational and educational sciences” (DI.” held in London. organizational. 16 Ibid. The A m d Prophet: The Rejectionists. 239-241.

49 5o 121 Published by Duke University Press .J. p. p. Islam and Science: Religious Orthodoq and the Battlefor RationalitS. 1989. 54 ibid. p. 2nd printing. 1986)... 34 ibid. See also the same author’s U’hy They Killed Sadat? The Story of the Jihad Organization: A Stud11 and Documents i n the Political Thought of Khaled alIslamboidi and Abboud al-Zornor (Cairo: Tounal Publishers and Distributors. 97 The three errors are: holding. well-argued. p.Comparative Studies of South Asia. p. uncluttered by the usual rhetoric. 30 August 5 . and teachings of Egypt’s insurrectionary Islamists.. repetitiveness. 1989 (The Angelus Press has recently relocated to Kansas City. and (c) that the world is eternal. 1988). 41. 1985) (in Arabic). S. 60 Islam and Science. 250-25 1 . 5 3 . No publisher mentioned. 55 Lester R. p. 15.. 2 19-220. 12 and 19. 59 Ayatollah Murtaza Mutahhari. (Staten Island. 57 ibid. 79. Listen America (Doubleday..J. Hizbollah’s [Par9 o f God] Method of Islamic Action. (London: Zed Books. Islam and Human Rights (Boulder. 46 Hizbollah’s Method of Islamic Action. Texas. 1985) (in Arabic). pp. p. Muqqadimah) Fiqh al-Jahiliyyah al-Mu‘mirah. deriving from Islam’s term for the oneness of God. 4. CO: Westview Press. (b) that on the Day of Reckoning souls and not bodies are . To my knowledge this is the best overall introduction to and summary of the main theses. Fundamentah . 52-59. The Politics of Heresy (Berkeley. All three heresies are obviously of Graeco-pagan philosophical provenance. p.. NY: Alba House. quoted Ann Elizabeth Mayer. pp. I shall refer to this book in the text by the letter (V) followed by the page references. Dickinson. . 1964. S. Lefebvre and the Vatican. 3 3 ibid. 39 “First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ.. 1991). 3: 1 10. quoted by Nancy Ammerman. 187-197.51 For a fascinating account and imaginative interpretation of the modern condition see Marshall Berrnan. but is incapable o f experiencing one). 99 Judge Abdul-Jawad Yasin. and didactic polemicising that tend to strongly characterize both the writings of the Islamists themselves as well as the books produced about them in Arabic. Kurtz.. p. p. 9 8 Wahba Publishers. pp. (a) that God’s omniscience encompasses only the universals and not the particulars (i..64. 22.f Islamic Thought: God. Africa and the Middle East ibid. NJ: Rutgers University Press. vii (my italics). Huweidi. Campbell. p. 1983.e. and Heinrich Roos. 4 5 Lefebvre and the Vatican. The Islamic Movements in Tunisia (Tunis: Bayram Publishers. 1991). (Cairo. Cairo. p.47. (California: Mizan Press. 1980). $ 8 “The First Draft of the Constitution on the Church of Christ. Man and the Universe. 234. 183 5 8 Pervez Hoodbhoy. 69. 6 1 Koran. pp. petty bickering.e. 1988.” ibid. 139-140. edited by Karl Rahner. positions. 48 Lefebvre and the Vatican. Madbouli Publishers. 37 Ali Kurani. originally prepared by Joseph Neuner.. p..judged... representing the more moderate and mainstream Muslim Brothers brand of current Islamist thought. 49 Geddes MacGregor. CA: University of California Press. 1988) (in Arabicj. The Vatican Revolution (Boston: Beacon Press. 3% Lefebvre and the Vatican. p. 1. translated from the Persian by R. p.’’ in The Teaching of the Catholic Church A s Contained in Her Dommnts. 5 3 . is naturally very critical of the jahilznah doctrine and its perilously hasty insurrectionary consequences. translated from German by Geoffrey Stevens. 36 Al-Watan al-ArabiWeekly Magazine. precise. ideas. 55 ibid. 1987). 1986) (in Arabic). 96 Compiled and edited by Father Fratyois Laisney. 219 (italics in the original). NY. 1985). He knows what a toothache is conceptually. hyperbole. clear. punished and rewarded (i. 41 Address by President General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq. 47. All That is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience OfModernity (New York: Penguin Books. pp. 47 The Teaching of the Catholic Church. p. 95 The Angelus Press Inc. Bible Believers: Fundamentalists in the Modern World (New Brunswick. 48-49. 294. 69-70. It is brief. Missouri). p. 63. 1986. p. Islamabad. pp. there is no resurrection).J. S. The Angelus Press Inc. p. 1 1 1 .0 Lefebvre and the Vatican. August 12... 52 The Vatican Revolution. pp.. (Beirut. 56 ibid. 1986). 224-925. hence its positive emotive charge in Arabic. 31 Abdel-Latif El-Hermasi. and above all. p. 1966). 45 Unificatory. 22 1 . p. 5 8 Jerry Falwell. Dickinson. pp. 62 Islam and Science. 1957). 71. 35. March 17. p. Texas. 17-18. 44 ibid. pp. 7. arguments. 5 4 (italics in the original).