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which gives the city strategic access to multiple key water ways. among which 10 thousand-ton ones are distributed in the main stream and tributary of Yangtze River as well as the Pearl River water system. The largest five waterways. Guangdong. 178.10 passengers a year.600 ships are under normal operation.671 miles.^*^* Waterways in Shanghai *^*^ Although. Shanghai is currently the world’s 3rd largest coastal harbor port and is the largest Chinese port. China has a coastline of some 18. the city has recently expanded its waterway capacities beginning in 2012.862 quay berths. By the end of 2012. which narrows to less than 20 meters (66 ft) as far out as 45 miles (70 km) from Hengsha. transporting 1. as the main aquatic channels in China. There are 31. crisscross the whole country .400 kilometers. the navigable inland waterways in the country reached 77. along which there are 12 coastal provinces and directly governed municipalities extending from north to south. and three east-west. A majority of the new waterway expansions are being used by cruise ships that transport a multitude of items.two north-south.025. Hunan and Sichuan. Shanghai's development of the deep-water port of Yangshan in Zhejiang was made necessary by the increasing size of container ships but also the silting of the Yangtze. . Shanghai has been known for its large and booming airway and road transportation systems. especially in the four provinces of Jiangsu.

The city's advantageous geographical location endows it with favorable conditions for agricultural development. stockbreeding. Despite the comparative shortage of arable land. advanced technologies and agricultural professionals. . milk. Jiading. giving it easy access to water. vegetable and fruit for consumers in the city and suburbs. These urban agricultural zones attract a lot of foreign investment. However. as well as shipping lanes that can easily serve to export the crops when they are done. Fengxian Modern Agriculture Zone in the south Fengxian District and many others in the suburbs including the districts of Baoshan. These includes Sunqiao Modern Agriculture Development Zone in Pudong New Area. sunlight. Songjiang. Generally the region can produce enough grain. moderate temperature. meat. rainfall and fertile soil make the region famous for its high yield of agricultural production in China. there is downside to current waterway development in Shanghai. forestry and fisheries. the agriculture industry in the city has boomed. Recently the waterways have been found to harbor large amounts of pollutants not only devastating an exponentially growing agriculture industry. With access with a majority of large waterways. but crippling the cities fishery capabilities. eggs. Minhang. Jinshan as well as Chongming County are the main booming districts due to waterway development. so it always tries to develop planting. The city has many modern agricultural zones.^*^* Waterway Agriculture *^*^ The government of Shanghai knows that the importance of agriculture cannot be overemphasized. Some agricultural products are sold to neighboring areas or even exported to foreign countries.

Major constraints are decreasing availability of arable land. A total of 77. is facing both the constraints and opportunities of its location. which makes it difficult to attract finance for investment. and these plots have been reduced to a total of around 5. . accounting for only 0.5 percent of the district’s land area.000 ha. accounting for less than 13. China is entering a new phase of environmentally sustainable development. Shanghai. Shanghai will need to ensure that the opportunity to produce food in the city is possible in practice. which is Shanghai’s biggest type of agriculture. Minhang has a well-developed traditional manufacturing and hi-tech industry. Currently farmland accounts for only 32% of the land use in Minhang. Urban agriculture. which is critical to their multiple sectors of agriculture. competition for scarce land and a rising demand for food from the burgeoning middle class. Ever-increasing urban density.5 million per year.000 farmers in Minhang generate an agricultural output value of USD 70. Issues such as urban farming have boomed. and general small-scale of production. increasing labour cost and high competitiveness of other jobs. Minhang is one of Shanghai’s 18 urban districts and the city’s secondlargest economic entity. relatively lower productivity on farmland compared to other land uses. such as aerospace technology and biopharmaceuticals. Located in the centre of Shanghai Municipality. Most of the district’s farmlands are located in the southeast alongside the Huangpu River.4 percent of the district’s GDP. But the farmers’ net income per capita in Minhang is much higher than for farmers in the municipality as a whole.^*^* Types of Agriculture *^*^ After years of relentless growth.

China has built 133 gigawatts of renewable energy—mainly wind turbines—enough to power as many as 53 million homes. From having virtually no green energy infrastructure as recently as 2008. A sudden shift with the countries industries would not only cause large scale collapse but lead to full out unemployment and potentially an economic decline. CON: With the investment in one industry. Which could serve to bolster the cities industry growth. come the collapse of another. the cities commitment towards new renewable energy could have a profound effect on the city’s local air quality and carbon consumption. Economic benefits include the potential to lower the cost of wind power in the future. The International Energy Agency predicted that China would overtake Europe as the world’s top renewable energy growth market. In addition to promoting consumption of renewable energy among citizens. The project has inspired other Chinese cities to develop their own off. Shanghai is also encouraging construction of wind turbines within the city and investing R&D funds into wind power technology. or every household in Canada four times over. who are flocking to Shanghai in hopes of selling their technologies after seeing demand stagnate or collapse in their home markets. With an added benefit of reducing global carbon emissions that are currently plaguing the status quo. A large shift to renewables now would be a great determent to the city’s booming coal industry. .^*^* Renewables *^*^ As so much of Shanghai’s energy consumption comes from coal.and on-shore wind capacity or to make power purchase agreements that support those cities that are doing so. It’s a market expected to be worth more than $470 billion in 2015 PRO: That investment has caught the eye of clean-tech companies in Europe and North America.

but contributes a large amount to not only their economy. This is an aggressive number of plants to open every year. China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of coal. accounting for 69% of China’s total energy consumption. The highest rates of birth defects are in Shanxi province. Not only is coal the largest contributor of carbon dioxide but also has several known health effects. CON: China had 28. it does not come to surprise that the coal industry is not only a source of stable and reliable jobs for the people of Shanghai. In 2009. adding up to approximately 91 new coal-fired power plants a year. Lung cancer in China has also gained public attention as deaths due to lung cancer have risen 465% over the past 30 years. and high levels of investment.000 coal mines and was adding a new 500-megawatt coal fired power plant every four days. China’s largest coal-mining center producing 630 million tons of coal in 2007. It derives most of its electricity from coal (about 95 percent in 2010) and coal makes up just under half of all energy consumption in the city. . renewables were just 2 percent of the energy mix. it is essential that the Chinese government begin the shift to renewable energy and away from coal-fired electricity generation. the Chinese Ministry of Health reported that the rise in deaths of lung cancer was directly related to environmental consequences as well as lifestyle. but industrial growth in general. Shanghai is a major contributor to China’s energy and GHG inventory. In 2010. In April 2008. although their share is rapidly growing. PRO: With large non-renewable coal industries. Because of these and several other reasons. with a population growing at 3-4 percent per year. totaling almost one million cases a year.^*^* Non-Renewable *^*^ As one of China’s leading industrial cities. China Daily reported that every 30 seconds babies are born with defects.