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1.

INTRODUCTION

Generator is an important equipment of the Power Station to provide electric


power supply to the industrial and domestic consumers in the country. The growing
demand of power supply has also increased the size and capacity of the generators.
The maintenance of the uninterrupted power supply to the grid obviously draws
ones attention to the efficient operation and maintenance of the generator.

The efficient operation of generator means the knowledge and flexibility of the
various performance parameters of the generator and their limits during its operation
under stable operating conditions as well as under fault condition.

This manual covers the various performance parameters and their limits while
the generator is in service; it also covers effects of load variation & the change in
generator parameters without exceeding their limits for stable operation.

This manual will prove very useful for the Power Sector Personnel.

2.

COMPONENTS OF TURBO-GENERATOR

2.1 GENERAL
The 210 MW turbo-generator incorporates the modern features of direct
cooling with D.M. Water and Hydrogen gas and fast acting excitation system.
Further technical specifications of 210 MW turbo-generator type THW-210-2
are as follows:
MAIN PARAMETERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Maximum continuous KW rating


Maximum continuous KVA rating
Rated terminal voltage
Rated stator current
Rated power factor
Rated excitation current at MCR condition
Slip ring voltage at MCR condition
Rated speed
Rated frequency
Efficiency at MCR condition
Rated Hydrogen gas pressure (gauge)
Short circuit ratio
Negative sequence capability
Direction of rotation when viewed from slip ring

210, 000 KW
247, 000 KVA
15, 750 A
9050 A
0.85 lag
2, 600 A
310 V
3, 000 RPM
50 Hz
98.4%
3.5 kg/cm2
0.49
I2t 58
Anti clock wise

15.
16.

end.
Phase connection
No. of terminals brought out

Double Star (YY)


9 (6 neutral & 3
phase)

OVERALL DIMENTIONS AND WEIGHTS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Overall dia of stator


Length of stator
Length of rotor
Diameter of rotor barrel
Weight of the heaviest

single piece

3960 mm
6580 mm
9770 mm
1075 mm
for 175000 kg.

6.
7.

transportation (stator with gas coolers and


lifting trunnions)
Weight of rotor
42200 kg
Total weight of generator
270000 kg

TEMPERATURE RATINGS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Class of insulation of generator winding


Maximum temperature of stator core (measured
by embedded resistance thermometers)
Maximum temperature of stator winding
(measured
by
embedded
resistance
thermometers)
Maximum temperature of rotor winding
(measured by resistance method)

B
105 C
105 C
110 C

HYDROGEN IN STATOR CASING


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Permissible pressure normal


Pressure variation
Nominal temperature of cold gas
Minimum percentage purity of H 2 inside
machine
Oxygen content - maximum
Quantity of H2 gas required for initial filing
Quantity of H2 required when generator is
running
Maximum allowable moisture contents in
casing.

3.5 kg/cm2
0.2 kg/cm2
44 C
97%
1.2%
300 M3
336 M3
15
mg/m3
of
Hydrogen gas.

TECHNICAL PARTICULARS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Charging capacity (line)


No. of gas coolers
Critical speed of rotor (uncoupled)
Fly wheel moment of rotor
Ratio of S.C. torque to full load torque
Basic impulse insulation level (with respect to body)
Basic impulse insulation level (between turns)
Capacitance of stator winding (calculated value) in
hot condition.
9. Quantity of oil for both shaft seals
10. Oil pressure at inlet of bearings
3

75 MVAR
4
1370/3400 RPM
21.1 Ton M2
8
49,000 V
49,000 V
0.69 Micro-farad
160 Litre/Min.
0.3 to 0.5 kg/cm2

11. Rated pressure of shaft seal oil


12. Consumption of oil per generator bearing (excluding
shaft seal)
13. REACTANCES
i. Director axis sub transient reactance for
positive phase sequence (Xd)
ii. Direct axis transient reactance for positive phase
sequence (Xd)
iii. Direct axis synchronous reactance (Xd)
iv. Negative phase sequence Reactance (X2)
14. TIME CONSTANTS
i. Field time constant with open circuited stator
winding (Tdo)
ii. Time constant of period component of subtransient current for 3 ph, 2 ph & 1 ph short
circuits (Td)
iii. Time constant of a periodic component for 2 ph
and 3 ph.
15. SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS
i. Sub-transient current on 3 phase short circuit
(iK3)
ii. Sub transient current on 2 phase short circuit
(iK2)
iii. Sub-transient current on single phase short
circuit (iK1)
iv) Steady state current on 3 phase short circuit
(iK3)

4.1 to 4.5 kg/cm2


300 Litre/Min.
0.214 p. u.
0.305 p. u.
2.22 p. u.
0.26 p. u.
7 Seconds
0.121 Seconds
0.29 Seconds
10 p. u.
8 p. u.
10.5 p. u.
1.4 p. u.

2.2

STATOR

The stator body is totally enclosed gas tight fabricated structure. H 2 gas
coolers are housed longitudinally inside the stator body. Stator core is made up
of segmental varnish insulated punchings of C.R.G.O. silicon steel assembled
in an inter-leaved manner on core bars. The core consists of several packets
separated by steel spacers for radial cooling of core by H 2 gas and is held in
pressed condition by means of heavy non-magnetic steel press rings bolted to
the ends of core bars. The core bars are designed to provide elastic suspension
of core in stator body to isolate the magnetic vibrations of stator core from
foundation of generator.
Stator has a 3 phase double layer short-chorded type windings having two
parallel paths. Each coil side consists of glass insulated solid and hollow
conductors with demineralised water passing through hollow conductors. The
elementary conductors are roebel transposed in the slot portion of winding to
minimize eddy current losses. The over hang portion of the coils is securely
lashed with glass chord to bandage rings and special brackets of non-magnetic
steel which are pressed / fixed to core press rings.
Ring type distillate headers of copper supported on insulators are provided
separately for distillate inlet and outlet in stator on turbine side. The winding
ends are solidly soldered into the coil lugs. Individual bars are provided with
water inlet / outlet connections made of Telfon hoses. The water-cooled terminal
bushings are housed inside non-magnetic steel chamber in the lower part of the
stator on the slip ring side. The three phase terminals are brought out and six
neutral terminals also to facilitate external connections.
2.3

ROTOR

The cylinderical type rotor is forged in one piece (shaft and body) from
chromium, nickel, molybdenum vanadium steel. The rotor (field) winding is
made from hard drawn silver bearing copper and is held in position against

10

centrifugal forces by duralumin wedges in the slot portion and by non-magnetic


steel retaining rings in the overhang portion.
Gap pick up system is employed for direct hydrogen cooling of rotor windings.
There are several groups of ventilation ducts provided on the sides of rotor coils
for gas passage. The rotor insulation consist of glass cloth impregnated with
epoxy resin in the slots pre peg glass cloth for inter turn insulation and block of
glass laminate and glass epoxy moulded segments for supporting and
insulating the end windings. The end windings are held in position against
centrifugal forces by retaining rings, machined from high strength heat-treated
non-magnetic alloy steel forgings, which are shrunk on the rotor body and
provided with locking nuts. The centering rings are mounted at the end of the
retaining rings support and prevent movement of rotor windings in axial
direction due to thermal stresses.
Two propeller type fans are shaft mounted on either end of body of rotor for
circulating the gas inside the generator. The field winding is connected to
excitation system through brush gear and slip rings. Two semi-circular hard
copper bars insulated from each other and from rotor shaft and placed in the
central bore of rotor form current leads between slip rings and field windings.
2.4

H2 GAS COOLERS

Four number gas cooler are mounted longitudinally inside the generator stator
body. The gas cooler consists of longitudinally placed cooling tubes made out of
admiralty brass with coiled copper wire wound outside for increasing the cooling
surface area. The cooling water flows through tube while the hydrogen comes
into contact with external surface of cooling tubes. Vent pipes are provided on
the slip ring side to remove air from gas coolers while filling them with water.

11

3.

OPERATION OF GENERATOR

3.1 STARTING OF THE GENERATOR


A.

Before starting, the following activities are required to be checked and


ensured that
i. Instrument supply to all indicator and recorders is made on
ii. Clearance from C&I and electrical division that all instruments and
equipments are available.
iii. All the flags on relays are reset and annunciation circuit is healthy.
iv. Supply of oil to generator bearings and shaft seals available and make
sure that quality, temperature and flow are normal.
v. H2 is filled with desired purity and rated pressure of 3.5 kg/cm 2 in side
the generator.
vi. H2 gas coolers are charged with desired quality of water and
temperature and flow of this water is normal.
vii. Differential pressure and thrust oil regulators are set maintaining the
differential pressure 0.5 kg/cm2 & pressure 2 kg/cm2 respectively.

viii. Stator water-cooling system is charged with distillate of desired quality


& flow & type of this D.M. water is normal.
ix. Protection and metering circuit is healthy.
x. The generator circuit breaker is open.
xi. The field breaker is open.
xii. Mode of excitation on manual position or Auto position.
3.2

RUNNING UP
Only after ensuring the completeness and availability of all the above, the

set is required to be started and taken up gradually to full rated speed.


During the course of running up, bearing vibrations or rubbing if any inside
the generator or abnormal noise need to be carefully investigated. Also
temperatures of bearings, seal babbit and drain oil are required to be noted
down.
12

3.2.1 CHECKS AT RATED SPEED


When generator comes to rated speed, the following items are required to
be checked:
i.

Temperature of bearings, seal babbit and drain oil.

ii.

Performance of brush gear.

iii.

Phase sequence of generator with the help of residual


magnetism.

iv.
3.3

Bearings vibrations in all direction.

SYNCHRONIZATION
Before synchronization of generator to the desired bus the following
activities are required to be carried out:
i)

Closing of bus side isolator by switchyard control room

ii)

Close transformer side isolator from switchyard control room.

iii)

After closing of bus side isolator, and physically verifying the


same, Unit Control Board to be informed.

iv)

Synchronouscope on/off switch in off and synchronizing check


relay SKE by pass switch in on IN CIRCUIT position to be
ensured.

v)

Closing field breaker and giving closing impulse for 5 seconds


and releasing the switch when indicating lamp showing the
closing of field breaker glows.

vi)

The voltages in all three phases are required to be checked.

vii)

If voltage is not coming to the required value, then giving


impulse to field rheostat switch to match the voltage with that of
bus.

viii)

Checking the frequency of generator, if the frequency of


generator is not equal to that of bus, giving impulse to speed
changer to bring frequency approx. equal.

13

3.3.2 SYNCHRONIZATION ACTIVITY


i) Switching on synchronous cope is ensured, if frequency of incoming
machine is higher than the system frequency, synchronous cope will
move in clockwise direction and if frequency is lower, it will move in
anticlockwise direction. Speed of rotation depends upon difference in
frequencies. The impulse by load change switch to have very slow
clockwise rotation is given.
ii) When voltage and frequency match, the synchronous cope moves very
slowly in clockwise direction. This position shows that
a. Phase sequence of generated voltage and system voltage is same.
b. Effective values of both the voltages are same.
c. Frequency of both voltage is same.
iii. Giving closing impulse to generator circuit breaker at the instance when
synchronous cope pointer is in between 11 and 12 O clock position and
which indicates synchronism by glowing of lamp at generator desk.
iv. 10-20 MW load on machine is taken.
v. Synchronous cope switch to off position and return synchronizing switch
to off position are ensured.
3.4

RAISING LOAD

The following activities need to be carried out:


i) After synchronization putting anti monitoring protection switch to ON
position & taking load say at 20 MW.
ii) Observing generator voltage and power factor being maintained by AVR,
if selection of excitation system on auto. If generator voltage and power
factor are not maintained, then maintaining them by varying field rheostat
from generator control desk manually and after maintaining putting
excitation system on auto mode.

14

iii) Slowly raising the load on generator up to 80 MW as per the following


guidelines:
Load
a) Load after synchronizing.

M/c Starting
Cold State
10 15 MW

Soaking time
b) Load

20 Min.
20-80 MW

Soaking time
c) Load

from M/c starting


Hot State
15-20 MW
@

from

10 Min.
5 20-80 MW @ 15

MW/10 Min.

MW/10 Min

20 Min.

20 Min.

80 MW-150 MW @ 5 80-150 MW @ 5

Soaking time
d) Load

MW/10 Min.

MW/5 Min

30 Min.

20 Min.

150 MW-210 MW @ 5 150 MW-210 mw @

Total time from 0 to 210 MW

MW/10 Min.

5 MW/5 Min

390 Min.

220 Min.

(6 Hrs. 30 Min.)

(3 Hrs. 40 Min.)

Voltage and power factor are maintained by AVR.


iv)

Changing over 6.6 KV auxiliary bus from station supply to unit


auxiliary supply taking both the UATs into circuit.

v)

At this load, generator bearing and seals temperature, generator


winding / core temperature, generator T/F winding temp., H 2 gas
temperature, performance of AVR and cooling water flow to
auxiliaries are checked. If generator winding / core temp. is high,
distillate flow and cooling water flow to gas coolers is adjusted. If
generator T/F winding temp. is high, all the cooling fans and pumps
position in service condition is ensured.

15

vi)

Exciter winding temp. and slip ring sparking are required to be


checked. Exciter voltage and current within permissible limits are
ensured.

vii) The load as per the guidelines mentioned above is increased and
generator winding / core temp, Generator T/F winding temperature
and vibrations are checked. If Generator winding / core temp. can not
be controlled by increasing the cooling water flow to gas coolers, and
distillate to stator water coolers, the load is to be reduced.
viii) Generator T/F winding temperature is required to be kept under
permissible limits by running cooler fans and pumps.
3.5

ROUTINE OPERATION AND PERIODIC CHECKS


It is important that the generator and its auxiliaries be kept under

observation during operation. The annunciation system gives warning of


abnormal conditions, but regular observation of different parameters helps the
operator to detect any gradual deterioration in the operating conditions and
take appropriate corrective action even before any alarm comes. All those
parameters are required to be noted by operator in the log sheets specially
maintained. These are over and above the automatic recording done by
instruments. It is recommended that a full inspection of generator should be
made after it has been in operation approximately one year after
commissioning.
3.5.1 HOURLY CHECKS
i)

Temperature
Hourly checking of temperature of following are required to be done and
any abnormal rise in temperature be reported to the concerned
personnel without delay. Remedial measures need to be taken.
a.

Stator winding

b.

Stator core

c.

Rotor winding

d.

Cold and Hot H2 gas

e.

Distillate temperature at inlet and outlet of stator winding


16

f. Babbit temperature of bearings and seal liners


g.

Inlet and outlet temperature of cooling water to gas coolers.

h.

Inlet and outlet temperature of generator bearings and shaft seals oil.

i. Temperature of cooling water at inlet and outlet of stator water


coolers and seal oil coolers.
j. Generator T/F winding and oil temperature.
k.
ii)

Unit auxiliary transformer winding temperature.

Pressure
a.

H2 gas pressure and purity

b.

Differential pressure of seal oil and H2 gas and pressure of oil after
D.P.R.

c.

Seal oil and the thrust oil pressure at seals.

d.

Distillate pressure at inlet and outlet of stator winding.

e.

Cooling water pressure at inlet and outlet of H 2 gas coolers, stator


water cooler and seal oil cooler.

f. Distillate pressure before and after filter


g.
iii)

iv)

Oil pressure at inlet and outlet of seal filter.

Flows
a.

Cooling water to H2 gas coolers.

b.

Distillate to stator winding

c.

Cooling water to stator water coolers and seal oil coolers.

Vibrations
Vibrations at generator front and rear bearings and exciter end bearing

are required to be noted in axial, vertical and transverse direction.


v)

Specific resistivity of distillate


Specific resistivity of stator winding cooling distillate is required to be
checked.

17

3.5.2 DAILY CHECKS


i)

Cleanliness of surroundings of various equipments needs to be


ensured.

ii)

Daily gas consumption is required to be noted down. Any abnormal


increase in gas consumption indicates leakage for which necessary
measures may have to be taken.

iii)

The gas sample to find out whether H 2 gas is leaking into water
circuit is required to be checked. Sample to be taken from gas trap.

iv)

The condition of H2 gas driers is examined and reactivating done if


necessary.

v)

Brush gear need to be examined for:


a.

Unusual sparking between brushes and slip ring

b.

Chattering of the brushes

c.

Dust

or

oil

accumulation,

corrective

action

whenever

necessary are taken.


vi)

Water or oil traces in side stator body is required to be checked


and if found drained.

vii)

The conditions of lamps in the signaling system of H 2 gas


cooling seal oil and stator water system is required to be
checked.

viii)

Stator water system for presence of any gas is required to be


checked.

ix)

The leakage rate of H2 gas is required to be checked.

x)

The H2 gas content in oil tank needs to be checked.

xi)

The insulation of excitation system needs to be checked by


checking leakage current.

xii)

Test running of the standby A.C. seal oil pump and emergency
D.C. seal oil pump & checking the interlocks between the two is
required to be ensured.

18

3.5.3 WEEKLY CHECKS


i)

The condition of brush gear need to be examined, the pressure on


brushes is required to be checked.

ii)

Inter locking between working and stand by stator water pump for
automatic take over is required to be checked.

iii)

Operation and calibration of H 2 gas purity indicator need to be


checked.

iv)

Differential pressure across filters in seal oil and stator water


system to ascertain whether they are choked or not need to be
checked.

v)

Inter locking between working and stand by H 2 gas cooler, booster


pump is required to be checked.

vi)

Resistivity of distillate by laboratory testing needs to be checked.

vii) Purity of H2 gas by laboratory testing needs to be checked.


viii) H2 gas concentration in bearing chamber is required to be traced.
ix)

H2 gas concentration in bus duct enclosure needs to be checked.

x)

The gas sample taken from hydraulic seal for O 2 gas content is
required to be checked.

xi)

The bearing vibrations by portable and accurate vibration


measuring instruments are required to be checked.

3.5.4 MONTHLY CHECKS


i)

All accessible bolts for tightness are required to be checked.

ii)

All the protection and signaling circuits need to be checked.

iii)

All the alarm contacts are required to be checked.

iv)

The insulation resistance of generator bearing, shaft seals and


connecting oil pipes on slip ring end need to be checked.

v)

The polarity of slip rings needs to be changed once in three


months in order to have uniform wear of slip rings.

19

3.5.5 SHUT DOWN CHECKS


i)

I.R. of stator winding and rotor winding immediately after shut


down is required to be checked.

ii)

Calibration of H2 purity recorder is required to be done.

iii)

The slip rings and brush gear conditions for any abnormality
needs to be checked.

3.5.6. PERIODIC CHECKS


i)

Cleaning of the tubes of gas coolers, if needed.

ii)

Cleaning of the tubes of seal oil and stator water coolers, if


required.

iii)

Calibration of H2 gas purity indicators with purge gas or with gas


of known purity is required to be checked.

4.

OPERATIONAL LIMITS OF TURBO GENERATOR

4.1

CAPABILITY OF GENERATOR
This generator is capable of delivering 247 MVA continuously at 15.75 KV

terminal voltage, 9050-Ampere Stator current at 3.5 kg/cm 2, H2 gas pressure


with cold gas temperature not exceeding 44 C and distillate temperature at
inlet of stator winding 45 C.
Output of generator at various lagging and leading power factor are as per
the Generator Capability Curve cited in Figure A.
4.2

VARIATION OF TERMINAL VOLTAGE


Generator can develop rated power at rated power factor when terminal

voltage changes within 5% of rated value i.e. 14.98 KV to 16.54 KV. The
stator current should accordingly be changed within limits of 5% of rated
value i.e. 8600 ampere to 9500 ampere.

20

21

During operation of generator at 90% of the rated voltage for continuous


operation, stator current should not increase beyond 9050.

Terminal
Voltage in
17.32 17.17 17.01 16.85 16.7
KV
Output in
MVA
217
Stator
current in
7.24
KA

4.3

16.54 15.75 14.96 14.18

224.7 231

237

242

247

247

232.2 220

7.56

8.14

8.37

8.6

9.05

9.05

7.92

9.05

FREQUENCY VARIATION
Generator can be operated at rated output with a frequency variation of

5% over the rated value i.e. 47.5 H2 to 52.5 H2. However, the performance
of generator with frequency variation is limited by the turbine capability.
4.4

TEMPERATURE OF COOLANTS
If temperature of cooled H2 gas or inlet water to gas coolers increases

beyond the rated value, the unloading of generator has to be carried out as
per given curve M. The operation of generator with cold gas temperature
more than 55 C is not permitted. Operation of generator with cold gas
temperature below 20 C is not recommended.
Similarly if cold distillate temperature at inlet of stator winding increases
beyond the rated value, unloading of generator has to be carried out as per
given curve S. The operation of generator with cold distillate temperature
more than 48C is not permitted. Operation of generator with cold distillate
temperature below 35C is not permitted.

22

23

24

4.5

OVERLOADING
Under abnormal conditions the generator can be overloaded for short

duration. Permissible values of short time over loads in terms of stator and
rotor currents and corresponding duration at rated voltage, rated power factor
and rated parameters of H2 gas and distillate are given in table I and II
respectively.
Table-I
Stator
current in
KA
Time in
minutes

13.57

12.67

12.22

11.76

11.31

10.86

10.41

9.96

15

60

Table-II
Rotor current in KA
Time in seconds

4.6

5.2
20

3.9
60

3.12
240

2.75
3600

OPERATION UNDER UNBALANCED LOAD


The turbo generator is capable of operating continuously on an

unbalanced system loading provided that continuous negative phase


sequence current during this period shall not exceed 5% of the rated stator
current i.e. 452.5 amperes. It implies that maximum difference between line
currents is about 10% of rated value. At the same time current in maximum
loaded phase should not exceed the permissible value for given conditions of
operation of turbo generator under balanced loads. If unbalance exceeds the
above permissible limits, measures should be taken immediately to eliminate
or reduce the extent of unbalance within 3 to 5 minutes. In case it is not
possible to achieve this, then machine has to be run down and tripped.
If negative phase sequence currents reach a value of 7.5% of rated value,
trip-relay will operate and generator will be automatically tripped.

25

4.7

ASYNCHRONOUS OPERATION
Asynchronous operation of the generator on field failure is allowed

depending upon the permissible degree of the voltage dip and acceptability of
system from stability point of view. During the failure of field the field
suppression shall be cut off from the circuit and active load of generator shall
be decreased to 60% of the rated value within 30 seconds and to 40% in the
following 1.5 minutes. The generator can operate at 40% rated load
asynchronously for a total period of 15 minutes from the instant of excitation
failure. Within this period steps should be taken to establish the reasons of
field failure and bring back to normal or set has to be switched over to reserve
excitation if available or shut down.
4.8

MOTORING ACTION
Motoring of turbo-generator is permissible within the limitations of

turbine.
4.9

OPERATION AT REDUCED H2 GAS PRESSURE.


Continuous operation of the turbo-generator with H 2 gas pressure in

side the stator body lower than the rated value of 3.5 kg/cm 2 is not permitted.
However, during emergency the generator can be operated at reduced H 2
pressure with reduced load continuously and for a short duration as given in
table AG.
Table: AG
H2 pressure kg/cm2 (g)
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5

Output of the generator Duration of operation


MW
200
Continuously
170
Not exceeding 5 hours
140
Not exceeding 5 hours
115
Not exceeding 5 hours

Within this time action should be taken to restore the H 2 gas pressure
to the normal value.
Operation of generator in air medium is not permitted.
4.10

CAPACITY OF GENERATOR WITH ONE GAS COOLER OUT OF SERVICE.

26

The generator can deliver 175 MVA continuously when one gas cooler is out of
service. The operation of generator with more than one cooler out of service is not
permitted.
4.11

OPERATION ON LEADING POWER FACTOR


Operation of generator on leading power factor is restrained from the point of

view of stability and establishing axial core flux in core and packets leading to eddy
current in end packets and consequent heating. Figure-2 may be referred.
4.12

OPERATION ON LAGGING POWER FACTOR


When generator runs at more lagging power factor the total current supplied by

generator increases due to the fact that generator in addition to load current supplied
de-magnetizing component of current also. Consequently stator winding temperature
and rotor winding temperature of generator increases. Figure-1 may be referred.
4.12

ABNORMAL CONDITIONS DURING RUNNING

S. No.
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

Description of abnormal
conditions
Generator bearing seal
babbit temperature high
(t 75 C)
Generator bearing outlet
temperature high (t 60 C)
Pressure
of
liquid
in

Corrective Action to be taken.


Inlet oil temperature and oil flow rate
need to be checked.
Oil inlet temperature and oil flow rate
need to be checked.
Whether seal oil or gas cooler or stator
water leaking is required to be checked.

generator casing.
Distillate flow to stator - Machine is required to be loaded to
winding low (18m3 / hr)
175 MVA
Systems check up and taking measures
to increase flow is required.
Distillate specific resistivity Blowing down distillate and adding fresh
low (75 K Ohm cm)
distillate to bring up resistance is
required.
Distillate outlet temperature
Distillate flow and load on m/c
high (t 85 C)
need to be checked.
Load on m/c is required to be
checked.
Stator winding temperature
high (t 75 C)

27

Load reduction is required


Reduction in load and tripping

8.

Hot gas temperature high


(75 C)

9.

Stator core
high (95 C)

10.

Rotor winding temperature


high (110 C)

11.

Temperature of cold H2 gas


low (20 C)
Temperature of cold H2 gas
high (44 C)

12.

13.
14.

15.
16.
17.

temperature

of unit if temperature does not


come down, is required.
Water flow and temperature at inlet of
gas coolers are required to be
checked.
Water flow to gas cooler and
gas temperature is required to
be checked.
Unloading of generator to bring
down temperature is required.
Running down and tripping of
generator is required.
Cold gas temperature and H 2
pressure is required to be
checked.
Running down and tripping if
temperature does not come
down, is required.
Reducing flow through coolers is
required.
Unloading of generator is
required.
Inlet water temperature and
flow to gas coolers need to be
checked.
Running down and tripping of generator
is required
Making up of H2 is required
and tripping of generator if fall
continues, is required.
Venting of H2 is required.
Checking and making up is needed.

Temperature of cold H2 gas


too high (t > 85 C)
H2 pressure in generator
casing
a. Low (3.3 kg/cm2)
b. High (3.8 kg/cm2)
Water level in expansion
tank low
Water level in expansion Make up value adjustment is needed.
tank high
Distillate
pressure
low
Checking of pump operation
(2.4 kg/cm2 )
and valve position is required.
Checking of any blockage in
system is required.
Pacross filters is required to
be checked.

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

7.

GENERATOR STABILITY
For better understanding of generator stability, the following is required

to be understood at first hand. In a simplified form the electrical equivalent


circuit of a generator is represented as an ideal voltage source behind the
synchronous impedance. If resistance is neglected, synchronous impedance
reduces to direct axis synchronous reactance. The equivalent circuit is drawn
in Fig. 1A.

ACTIVE POWER
With present day system of unit connected generator and generator
transformer, the equivalent circuit will have generator transformer reactance
Xt (resistance neglected) added in series. This equivalent circuit shall be
represented as shown in Fig. 1 B.

41

Here
E

- is the ideal voltage proportional to the field current.

Vt

- is the terminal voltage of generator.

- is the EHV bus voltage.

- is the load current.

Xd

- Synchronous impedance of generator (resistance neglected).

Xt

- Synchronous reactance of generator transformer.

The phasor diagram of Fig. 1 B is drawn in Fig. 1 C.

Fig. 1 C
Power equation can be derived as follows keeping in mind the phasor
diagram shown in Fg.1 C.
Now referring OVE for active power
Sin
----------- =
I . Xd + I . Xt

Sin (90 + )
----------------------------E

(1)

Multiplying both sides of equation No. (1) by VI and putting X d + Xt = X


42

Sin
Sin (90 + )
----------- . VI = VI . ----------------------------IX
E
E.V. Sin
Or ---------------------- = VI Cos Since Sin (90 + ) = Cos
X
E.V. Sin
Or ---------------------- = VI Cos = P
X
is also known as power angle, rotor angle, and load angle etc. where
P is active Power generated by generator.
REACTIVE POWER
For calculation of reactive power figure 1 C can be modified as shown
in Fig. 1 D.

Fig. 1 D
Referring to CAD
CD
CD
Sin = --------------- = ------------AC
IX
43

Or CD = IX Sin ------------ (1) Here IX = I (Xt + Xd )


Now referring to AOD
OD = EC Cos ------------------ (2)
But OC = V
CD = OD OC
Or CD = Ecos - V ----------------- (3)
From eq. (1) and (3) we get
IX = Sin = ECos - V ------------- (4)
Now multiplying eq. (4) by V, we get
VIX Sin = EV Cos - V.V
OR

VIX Sin = EV Cos - V2

OR

E.V.
V2
VI Sin =( ----------- Cos ) - (-----------) = Q
X
X

Now, stability is defined as the capability of the generator to remain in


synchronism, following a change in its operating. Depending upon the nature
of disturbance introducing the instability, this can be categorized as
a)

Steady state stability

b)

Long- term oscillation stability (dynamic stability)

c)

Transient stability

a)

Steady state stability

Stable

Unstable Zone

Zone
Pm
POWER DELIVERED
0

90
ROTOR ANGLE

44

We know that active or real power


E. V
P = -------------- . Sin
X
When = 90 (E, V and X are constant), maximum power will be delivered by
generator and which will be
E. V.
Pm = ---------------- . Sin 90
X
E. V.
Pm = ---------------X
For a given machine, operating at a terminal voltage V, the synchronous
reactance Xd is a constant parameter, and if the internal voltage E, or rotor current,
is kept constant, power varies as sin . At rated conditions, is about 45-55.
From this position, a sudden increase in steam throughput, or (more likely) a
sudden demand for more power into the system, perhaps because of a fault on the
lines, results in an increase in and in generated power until a new equilibrium
position is reached (Fig. a ).
This is valid if is less than 90 before the sudden change. Once is greater
than 90, a demand for more power cannot be met by an increase in load angle, and
the generator rotors cannot attain a position of equilibrium (Fig.b). The rotor then
accelerates to just above-synchronous speed and operates in a non-synchronous
mode (pole slipping), with large power and voltage oscillations which are
unacceptable to either the transmission system or the boiler controls. The situation
may be retrievable if the voltage regulator can initiate a rapid increase in the field
current, increasing E in the equation, to prevent instability (Fig. c ).
Load angles approaching 90 are associated with operation at leading power
factor, which is not a normal requirement. However, studies of the transmission
system under all credible conditions of loading, line outages and faults are carried
out to ensure that the system will not fall into instability, and the required values of
synchronous reactance and excitation response are based on these studies, which

45

may recommend different values in different locations. In practice, because of


magnetic saturation, X is reduced as the load angle moves towards 90.

46

47

b)

Long-term oscillation Stability (Dynamic Stability)


The operation of generator beyond 90 rotor angle is not stable, if AVR

is not in action. However with fast acting AVRs, it is possible to operate at


rotor angles for above 90 (often up to 140). This operation is signified by
continuous oscillations.
c)

Transient Stability
When a generating unit is operating on load in the steady state there is

exact balance between the driving torque exerted on the generator shaft by
the turbine and the resisting torque arising from the load on the generator.
Now, the power equation
3EE2
P = ------------------ Sin Watts
ZS
can be rewritten in the more general form,
3EE2
P = ------------------ Sin Watts
ZT
Where ZT = ( ZS + ZL ), sum of the generator and the load impedances.
ZT is commonly referred to as the total transfer impedance of the generatorload system. Transient conditions will arise if there is a sudden change in any
of the quantities of this general power equation, i.e. there will be transient
disturbance if there is a sudden change in generating driving torque,
excitation or loading.
Let a steam turbo-generator operating in parallel with other generators
be subjected to a sudden load change. The change may be either load
reduction caused by increasing Z L or load increase if ZL is reduced. Since the
steam governor cannot respond instantly to the load change there will exist a
power differential between the generator input and output, and this power
differential will either accelerate or decelerate the rotor from its initial steadystate position towards the new power angle required by the changed loading.

48

By virtue of its inertia, however, the rotor will overshoot the stable position and
oscillation about this position will occur. So long as the rotor overshoot in the
forward swing is not great enough to cause synchronism to be broken,
stability will eventually be regained by the action of the steam turbine
governor in adjusting the driving power and by the damping forces acting on
the rotor.
Equal Area Stability Criterion
When the power angle diagram of a generator working on infinite busbars is known, the conditions under which transient instability would occur can
be checked by the method known as the equal area stability criterion.
For an initial value of ZT1 in the power equation,
3EE2
P = ------------------ Sin ,
ZT
the generator would operate at P1 o the power curve A shown in Figure
(

). If there is now a sudden change in the transfer impedance, say due to

tripping of one of the lines connecting the unit to the mains system, the
generator will begin to operate on a new power curve B whose maximum
value is set by the value of Z T2, the new transfer impedance. There can,
however, be no sudden change of generator flux or driving power and the
voltages E, E2 will remain constant with the initial load angle of 1 as shown.
Directly the load transfer impedance is changed the generator output
drops from P1 on curve A to P0 on curve B. The surplus power, P 1 P0 = P1 will
be the accelerating power acting on the rotor which will speed up and swing
forward from the initial load angle 1.

49

50

Let

= the angular displacement of the rotor in time t seconds,


a = the angular acceleration in electrical degrees per socond 2,
f = generator frequency,
w = angular velocity of rotor in rad / sec.
2N
= ----------------------- rad / sec,
60
WJ = rotor energy in megajoules
M = angular momentum of rotor,

2 WJ
= ----------------- .
w
Therefore P1 = angular momentum x acceleration,
d 2
= M --------dt2

(a)

number of poles
N
w = 360 x ---------------------------- x ----------- elect / sec.
2
60

Now,

= 3pN elect / sec


And

WJ
H = inertial constant = ------------MVA

2H (MVA)
Therefore M = ------------3pN

(b)

2H(MVA) d2
P1 = M -------------- x ----3pN
dt2

d2
Therefore dt
But

3pN x P1
= --------------- elect / sec2
2H(MVA)

pN = 120f

51

d2
Therefore dt2

3x120fx P1
= --------------- elect / sec2
2H(MVA)

(c)

The acceleration is d2 / dt2 and if the accelerating power P1 is


expressed in per unit values of MVA, equation (3) becomes,

180 x f x P1
= --------------- elect / sec2
H

(56)

And = at2

(56a)

During the time t of rotor acceleration the magnetic axis will be


displaced by an angle to a new load angle where the generator output
and input are again balanced. At this position of equilibrium the rotor speed
will be above synchronism and it will overshoot causing the generator to
produce more power than is being supplied by the turbine. Beyond the load
and angle 1 the extra power is drawn from the rotor itself. By its
displacement from 1 to 1 the rotor will have stored energy equal to the area
A in Fig. (

) and in giving up this energy the rotor will slow down until at the

limit of its swing it is again running at synchronous speed. The energy


abstracted from the rotor after it has swung through load angle 1 must be
equal to the energy it has stored in moving from 1 to 1, i.e. area B = area A.
In descriptive terms, area A may be called accelerating power and area B
called braking power. Under transient conditions, if the generator is to remain
stable the rotor braking power must be equal to the accelerating power and
this is the basis of the equal area stability criterion.
The maximum rotor displacement from which the generator could
regain stability would be 1 max = 180 - 1. This indicates on a curve A a power
level equal to the initial output of the generator and is based on the
assumption that during the rotor forward movement there has been no change

52

in the input power. In the conditions illustrated by the diagram, stability would
be assured because beyond E, the limit of the required braking power area,
there is a further area of braking available. This means that the generator
could withstand a load change greater than the one shown without the
machine becoming unstable. But for any change greater than the one shown
without the machine becoming unstable. But for any increase in the
accelerating power P1 with the initial load angle remaining unchanged, there
would be a reduction in 1

max.

It would, therefore, be necessary to check

every new condition to ensure that the area of accelerating power can be
balanced by an area of braking power. If 1

max

is exceeded the generator

output would become less than the input and the power differential would be
again positive. The rotor would, therefore, be subjected to further acceleration
and instability would result.
In an actual system more than one term in the power angle equation
will usually be varying and the approach to simple analysis would be to
consider one variable at a time, holding all the other terms constant. In the
above, the transfer impedance ZT was taken as the independent variable.
In this simplified introduction to the complex problem of transient
stability some important points may be noted.
a.

The angular acceleration of the rotor is


inversely proportional to the inertia constant of the coupled
rotating system of the generator and the lower the acceleration
during disturbance the more stable will be the generator
operation.

b.

The angle of rotor displacement during a


disturbance is proportional to the square of the time during
which the rotor is subjected to the disturbance or to the effects
of it. The shorter the time the less will be the rotor displacement.

c.

The total rotor swing is a direct function of


the power differential acting on it.

53

d.

In steady state operation the rotor load


angle should be at a value which allows ample margin for
normal disturbances without the risk of the rotor swinging out of
step.

These points show the importance of high inertia constants in


generators, quick acting protective gear, and the necessity to avoid large step
changes in generator power input and loading. Item (b) shows the main
disadvantage of too high transient and subtransient reactances in a generator.
These reactances are the measure of the time constants of the machine
during transient operation and under fault conditions. The shorter such time
constants are the less difficult it is to stabilize the generator during transient
load changes and to clear it under fault conditions.
An extreme case of sudden load change in a generator is a 3-phase
short-circuit close to the generator terminals. Under such fault conditions the
terminal voltage would suffer sever drop and generator output would fall
almost to zero. Hence, the full output from the prime-mover would be
available to accelerate the generator rotor. For an initially fully loaded
generator the rotor acceleration would be high and rotor energy would be
stored so rapidly that it would become difficult to maintain stability unless the
fault time was made extremely short. In the smaller turbo-generators the worst
result following slow fault clearance may be one or two pole-slips in which
time steam power to the turbine can be reduced. In the larger machines,
however, stability would be quickly lost with little chance of regaining
synchronism and the main protection of the machine against instability must
be the quick action of the circuit-breakers.

54

REFERENCES

1. CEGB MANUAL VOL-IV


2. NHPC MANUAL
3. NPTI MANUAL ON GENERATOR
4. NTPC Manual

55

STATOR
CURRENT

Unit P. F.

Lead P.F.
Lag P. F.
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.85 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

FIELD CURRENT

FIG.3 SHOWING THE EFFECT OF FIELD CURRENT ON STATOR


CURRENT WITH TG RUNS AT DIFFERENT P. Fs.

56