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The Product Life Cycle

A product's life cycle (PLC) can be divided into several stages characterized by the revenue
generated by the product. If a curve is drawn showing product revenue over time, it may take one
of many different shapes, an example of which is shown below:
Product Life Cycle Curve

The life cycle concept may apply to a brand or to a category of product. Its duration may be as
short as a few months for a fad item or a century or more for product categories such as the
gasoline-powered automobile.
Product development is the incubation stage of the product life cycle. There are no sales and the
firm prepares to introduce the product. As the product progresses through its life cycle, changes
in the marketing mix usually are required in order to adjust to the evolving challenges and
Introduction Stage
When the product is introduced, sales will be low until customers become aware of the product
and its benefits. Some firms may announce their product before it is introduced, but such
announcements also alert competitors and remove the element of surprise. Advertising costs
typically are high during this stage in order to rapidly increase customer awareness of the
product and to target the early adopters. During the introductory stage the firm is likely to incur
additional costs associated with the initial distribution of the product. These higher costs coupled
with a low sales volume usually make the introduction stage a period of negative profits.

During the introduction stage, the primary goal is to establish a market and build primary
demand for the product class. The following are some of the marketing mix implications of the
introduction stage:

Product - one or few products, relatively undifferentiated

Price - Generally high, assuming a skim pricing strategy for a high profit margin as the
early adopters buy the product and the firm seeks to recoup development costs quickly. In
some cases a penetration pricing strategy is used and introductory prices are set low to
gain market share rapidly.

Distribution - Distribution is selective and scattered as the firm commences

implementation of the distribution plan.

Promotion - Promotion is aimed at building brand awareness. Samples or trial incentives

may be directed toward early adopters. The introductory promotion also is intended to
convince potential resellers to carry the product.

Growth Stage
The growth stage is a period of rapid revenue growth. Sales increase as more customers become
aware of the product and its benefits and additional market segments are targeted. Once the
product has been proven a success and customers begin asking for it, sales will increase further
as more retailers become interested in carrying it. The marketing team may expand the
distribution at this point. When competitors enter the market, often during the later part of the
growth stage, there may be price competition and/or increased promotional costs in order to
convince consumers that the firm's product is better than that of the competition.
During the growth stage, the goal is to gain consumer preference and increase sales. The
marketing mix may be modified as follows:

Product - New product features and packaging options; improvement of product quality.

Price - Maintained at a high level if demand is high, or reduced to capture additional


Distribution - Distribution becomes more intensive. Trade discounts are minimal if

resellers show a strong interest in the product.

Promotion - Increased advertising to build brand preference.

Maturity Stage
The maturity stage is the most profitable. While sales continue to increase into this stage, they do
so at a slower pace. Because brand awareness is strong, advertising expenditures will be reduced.

Competition may result in decreased market share and/or prices. The competing products may be
very similar at this point, increasing the difficulty of differentiating the product. The firm places
effort into encouraging competitors' customers to switch, increasing usage per customer, and
converting non-users into customers. Sales promotions may be offered to encourage retailers to
give the product more shelf space over competing products.
During the maturity stage, the primary goal is to maintain market share and extend the product
life cycle. Marketing mix decisions may include:

Product - Modifications are made and features are added in order to differentiate the
product from competing products that may have been introduced.

Price - Possible price reductions in response to competition while avoiding a price war.

Distribution - New distribution channels and incentives to resellers in order to avoid

losing shelf space.

Promotion - Emphasis on differentiation and building of brand loyalty. Incentives to get

competitors' customers to switch.

Decline Stage
Eventually sales begin to decline as the market becomes saturated, the product becomes
technologically obsolete, or customer tastes change. If the product has developed brand loyalty,
the profitability may be maintained longer. Unit costs may increase with the declining production
volumes and eventually no more profit can be made.
During the decline phase, the firm generally has three options:

Maintain the product in hopes that competitors will exit. Reduce costs and find new uses
for the product.

Harvest it, reducing marketing support and coasting along until no more profit can be

Discontinue the product when no more profit can be made or there is a successor product.

The marketing mix may be modified as follows:

Product - The number of products in the product line may be reduced. Rejuvenate
surviving products to make them look new again.

Price - Prices may be lowered to liquidate inventory of discontinued products. Prices may
be maintained for continued products serving a niche market.

Distribution - Distribution becomes more selective. Channels that no longer are profitable
are phased out.

Promotion - Expenditures are lower and aimed at reinforcing the brand image for
continued products.

Limitations of the Product Life Cycle Concept

The term "life cycle" implies a well-defined life cycle as observed in living organisms, but
products do not have such a predictable life and the specific life cycle curves followed by
different products vary substantially. Consequently, the life cycle concept is not well-suited for
the forecasting of product sales. Furthermore, critics have argued that the product life cycle may
become self-fulfilling. For example, if sales peak and then decline, managers may conclude that
the product is in the decline phase and therefore cut the advertising budget, thus precipitating a
further decline.
Nonetheless, the product life cycle concept helps marketing managers to plan alternate marketing
strategies to address the challenges that their products are likely to face. It also is useful for
monitoring sales results over time and comparing them to those of products having a similar life

Product Life Cycle Stages

As consumers, we buy millions of products

every year. And just like us, these products have a life cycle. Older, long-established products
eventually become less popular, while in contrast, the demand for new, more modern goods
usually increases quite rapidly after they are launched.
Because most companies understand the different product life cycle stages, and that the products
they sell all have a limited lifespan, the majority of them will invest heavily in new product
development in order to make sure that their businesses continue to grow.

Product Life Cycle Stages Explained

The product life cycle has 4 very clearly defined stages, each with its own characteristics that
mean different things for business that are trying to manage the life cycle of their particular
Introduction Stage This stage of the cycle could be the most expensive for a company
launching a new product. The size of the market for the product is small, which means sales are
low, although they will be increasing. On the other hand, the cost of things like research and
development, consumer testing, and the marketing needed to launch the product can be very
high, especially if its a competitive sector.
Growth Stage The growth stage is typically characterized by a strong growth in sales and
profits, and because the company can start to benefit from economies of scale in production, the
profit margins, as well as the overall amount of profit, will increase. This makes it possible for
businesses to invest more money in the promotional activity to maximize the potential of this
growth stage.
Maturity Stage During the maturity stage, the product is established and the aim for the
manufacturer is now to maintain the market share they have built up. This is probably the most
competitive time for most products and businesses need to invest wisely in any marketing they
undertake. They also need to consider any product modifications or improvements to the
production process which might give them a competitive advantage.
Decline Stage Eventually, the market for a product will start to shrink, and this is whats
known as the decline stage. This shrinkage could be due to the market becoming saturated (i.e.
all the customers who will buy the product have already purchased it), or because the consumers
are switching to a different type of product. While this decline may be inevitable, it may still be
possible for companies to make some profit by switching to less-expensive production methods
and cheaper markets.

Product Life Cycle Examples

Its possible to provide examples of various products to illustrate the different stages of the
product life cycle more clearly. Here is the example of watching recorded television and the
various stages of each method:
1. Introduction 3D TVs
2. Growth Blueray discs/DVR
3. Maturity DVD
4. Decline Video cassette
The idea of the product life cycle has been around for some time, and it is an important principle
manufacturers need to understand in order to make a profit and stay in business.

However, the key to successful manufacturing is not just understanding this life cycle, but also
proactively managing products throughout their lifetime, applying the appropriate resources and
sales and marketing strategies, depending on what stage products are at in the cycle.

The product life cycle is an important concept in marketing. It describes the stages a product
goes through from when it was first thought of until it finally is removed from the market. Not
all products reach this final stage. Some continue to grow and others rise and fall.

The main stages of the product life cycle are:

Introduction researching, developing and then launching the product

Growth when sales are increasing at their fastest rate

Maturity sales are near their highest, but the rate of growth is slowing down, e.g. new
competitors in market or saturation

Decline final stage of the cycle, when sales begin to fall

This can be illustrated by looking at the sales during the time period of the product. A branded
good can enjoy continuous growth, such as Microsoft, because the product is being constantly
improved and advertised, and maintains a strong brand loyalty.
Extension strategies extend the life of the product before it goes into decline. Again businesses
use marketing techniques to improve sales. Examples of the techniques are:

Advertising try to gain a new audience or remind the current audience

Price reduction more attractive to customers

Adding value add new features to the current product, e.g. video messaging on mobile

Explore new markets try selling abroad

New packaging brightening up old packaging, or subtle changes such as putting crisps
in foil packets or Seventies music compilations

duct Life Cycle The product life cycle is defined as the period that starts with the initial product
design (research and development) and ends with the withdrawal of the product from the
marketplace. It is characterized by specific stages, including research, development, introduction,
maturity, decline, and finally obsolescence as the product is removed from the market
(discontinued). Each stage is often linked with changes in the flows of raw materials, parts and
distribution to markets as production (input costs) is adjusted to face increasing competition.
Conventionally, four main stages compose a product's life cycle:

Introduction. This stage mainly concerns the development of a new product, from the
time is was initially conceptualized to the point it is introduced on the market. The great
majority of ideas do not reach the promotion stage. The corporation having an innovative
idea first will often have a period of monopoly until competitors start to copy and/or
improve the product (unless a patent is involved as it is the case in industries such as
pharmaceuticals). Generally, associated freight flows take place within developed
countries and/or close to markets where to product is likely to be adopted.

Growth. If the new product is successful (many are not), sales will start to grow and new
competitors will enter the market (by replicating the product or developing new features
on their own), slowly eroding the market share of the innovative firm. The product starts
to be exported to other markets and substantial efforts are made to improve its
distribution since competition mainly takes place more on the innovative capabilities of
the product than on its price. This phase tends to be associated by high levels of profits
and a fast diffusion of the product.

Maturity. At this stage, the product has been standardized, is widely available on the
market and its distribution is well established. Competition increasingly takes place over
cost and a growing share of the production is moved to low cost locations, particularly for
labor intensive parts. Associated freight flows are consequently modified to include a
greater transnational dimension.

Decline. As the product is becoming obsolete, production essentially takes place in low
costs locations. Production and distribution economies are actively sought as profit
margins decline. Eventually, the product will be retired, an event that marks the end of its
life cycle.

Conventionally, as a product went through its life cycle the least profitable functions were
relocated to lower costs locations, notably in developing countries. This dichotomy is being
challenged since it is becoming more common, even for high technology products, that the
manufacturing of a new product immediately takes place in a low labor cost location.
Multinational corporations have global production networks that enable them to efficiently
allocate design, production and distribution according to global factors of production. This also
relies on outsourcing and subcontracting.

Do Products Die? or, Product Development and

Management through Life Cycle Analysis
October 1, 2010 Leave a comment
By Ken Morton
Products, like human beings, have their own life cycle. They are introduced (born), grow,
mature, decline and often die. Each phase in the cycle poses significant management
challenges, involves many professional disciplines, and requires broad skills, tools and
processes. Within this context, there are four key principles:
1. Products have a limited, predictable life
2. Sales/Revenues pass through distinct stages, each with different challenges,
opportunities, and problems
3. Profits rise then fall throughout the different stages
4. Success requires different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing, and human
resource strategies and planning horizons in each stage

Successful managers must challenge themselves constantly to know if they are making the right
decisions: Do I have the right product, at the right time, exploiting the right resources, to
generate the right profit?
A life cycle strategy helps you plan, understand and structure your product development and
management activities to ensure that you are.
(source: Managing Products and Brands, Rohan, SDSU)

Business success combines allocating scare resources and balancing needs. Knowing where you
are in the product life cycle allows you to manage your risks to achieve the optimum marketing
mix Product, Price, Promotion, Place, and guides your actions to ensure success- at every
What Management Should Do
Begin by evaluating your entire product line showing life cycle stage, and analysis of price,
promotion, place (distribution), as well as competition and consumers. The individual maps
consolidated to create a full product/market strategy.
(source: Managing Products and Brands, Rohan, SDSU)

At this point you must ruthlessly analyze where you are in the life cycle vis--vis the competition
and take action to ensure that scarce management, operational, technical and financial resources
are being properly managed and developed both now and in the future. In this way you will
match your Investment, Development, Planning and Profit horizons synchronized within the
field of competitive actions.