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Tunta y

chuo negro
Tunta and black chuo

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Pormenor de tendal de tunta (Puno, Per). [detail of a spread of tunta (puno, peru)]

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TUNTA Y CHUO NEGRO


tunta and black chuo

... La conservacin de los alimentos


era uno de los temas cruciales para
las sociedades del pasado. Los
europeos no conocan ms que unos
pocos procedimientos como el soleado
y el salado, que servan para las
carnes. Esos mismos mtodos eran
conocidos en Amrica. Pero, en los
Andes, las sociedades precolombinas,
adicionalmente, descubrieron el
chuo, un procedimiento para
conservar la papa.

[The storage of foodstuff was one of the crucial


issues for earlier societies. Europeans only knew a few
techniques such as drying and salting processes, which
served for meat. These same techniques were known in
America. However, in the Andes, pre-Columbian societies
additionally discovered chuo, a way to preserve potato]

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Campesinas puneas, a primeras horas de la maana, durante proceso de pisar papas expuestas a las heladas,
para elaboracin del chuo negro en Ilave (Puno, Per). [peasant women from puno at dawn, during the process of stepping
potatoes exposed to the frost to make black chuo in ilave (puno, peru)]

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Pies de mujer ilavea en el proceso de elaboracin del chuo (Puno, Per). [feet of a woman from ilave in
the elaborating process of chuo (puno, peru)]

... La papa en las punas, es sometida a variaciones


de temperatura gracias a los cambios enormes
entre el da y la noche. Luego, es pisada de manera
muy suave, por nios y personas de poco peso
que realizan su trabajo con arte y precisin. El
resultado final es la eliminacin de todo el lquido
que contiene la papa y, de este modo, convertida
en un producto seco, puede durar muchos meses
y hasta aos. As, la entrada de la papa a la
historia universal fue a travs de la conservacin,
revelando los avances de las sociedades andinas
prehispnicas en esta materia.

Antonio Zapata

[Up in the mountains, potato was subjected to temperature variations due to


the great degrees fluctuations between day and night. Later, the potatoes were
stepped on very gently by children or light-weighted persons who performed
this task with art and precision. The final result was the elimination of all the
moisture from the potatoes and, afterwards, turned into a dried product, fit
to last for many months, even years. Thus, the entrance of the potato to the
universal history is through its conservation, revealing the advances of the preHispanic Andean societies in this subject]

Mujeres pisando papas expuestas a las heladas para la elaboracin del chuo negro en Cariquina Grande al borde del
lago Titicaca (Camacho, Bolivia). [women stepping on potatoes exposed to frost to manufacture black chuo in cariquina grande at the shores
of lake titicaca (camacho, bolivia)]

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Campesinos descargando papa congelada en el ro Ilave para la elaboracin de tunta (Puno, Per). [peasants unloading frozen potatoes near
the ilave river to manufacture tunta (puno, peru)]

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Pozas en el ro Ilave para elaboracin de tunta (Puno, Per). [wells near ilave river to manufacture tunta (puno, peru)]

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Campesinas colocando tunta para su secado (Puno, Per).


[peasant women placing tunta for drying (puno, peru)]

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Campesinos de Ilave balanceando la tunta para su pelado final (Puno, Per). [peasants from ilave balancing the tunta for its final keeling (puno, peru)]

Tendal de tunta listo para su seleccin (Puno, Per). [spread of tunta ready for selection (puno, peru)]

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Envasado de la tunta en Ilave, para su posterior comercializacin (Puno, Per). [packing of tunta in ilave for its commercialization (puno, peru)]

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El viaje a la ciudad /
Mercados
the trip to the city /
the markets

Sacos de papa para la industria, listos para su traslado (Ayacucho, Per).

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[sacks of potatoes for industrial purposes, ready for their transportation (ayacucho, peru)]

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EL VIAJE A LA CIUDAD / MERCADOS


the trip to the city / the markets

[Pocas veces pensamos en todo el esfuerzo


requerido para que la papa llegue a nuestra
mesa. El traslado de los sacos de papa,
desde el mismo campo de cultivo a los
camiones, es la primera de las etapas. Le
sigue la descarga en los grandes mercados
urbanos, donde se requiere de otro eslabn
para que esta mercadera circule]

[We seldom think of all the effort required to bring potatoes to


our table. The transportation of the bags of potatoes, from the
growing fields to the trucks, is the first stage. Following is the
unloading into the great urban markets, where another link of the
chain is needed for this produce to circulate]

Costales de papa en el Valle de Palca, a punto de ser cargados al camin que los transportar al mercado urbano
(Cochabamba, Bolivia). [sacks of potatoes from the palca valley on the point of being loaded in the truck that will transport them to the

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urban market (cochabamba, bolivia)]

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Estibando sacos de papa para elaboracin de tunta en Ilave (Puno, Per). [loading sacks of potatoes for the manufacturing of tunta in ilave (puno, peru)]

Feria de papa en mercado (Cochabamba, Bolivia). [potato fair at the market (cochabamba, bolivia)]

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Vendedora de papa y oca en mercado (Cochabamba, Bolivia). [saleswoman of potato and oca at the market (cochabamba, bolivia)]

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Comercializacin de tunta en mercado (Puno, Per). [commercialization of tunta at the market (puno, peru)]

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Mujeres comercializando papa en mercado (Cochabamba, Bolivia). [women commercializing potatoes in the market (cochabamba, bolivia)]

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Puesto de comerciante de papas en el Mercado Mayorista N 1 en La Victoria (Lima, Per). [potato merchants stand at the
wholesalers market n 1 in la victoria (lima, peru)]

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Presentacin comercial de sacos de papa yungay, canchn y perricholi (Lima, Per). [commercial presentation of potatoes sacks of yungay,

canchan and perricholi varieties of potatoes (lima, peru)]

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Cargas de papa en el Mercado de Ia a las tres de la madrugada (Quito, Ecuador). [loads of potatoes at ia market at three oclock in the morning (quito, ecuador)]

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Mujeres negociando el precio de la papa en el Mercado Mayorista de Huancayo (Junn, Per).


[women bargaining price for the potato in the wholesalers market of huancayo (junin, peru)]

Vendedora de papa en costales de lana de llama (Cochabamba, Bolivia). [potato saleswoman with sacks of llamas wools (cochabamba, bolivia)]

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Vendedor de puesto del Mercado Mayorista N 1 en La Victoria (Lima, Per). [salesmans stand at the wholesalers market n 1 in la victoria (lima, peru)]

Vendedora de papa en mercado (Riobamba, Ecuador). [potato saleswoman in the market (riobamba, ecuador)]

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Vendedor de papa en puesto del mercado Minka (Callao, Per).


[potato salesman in a stand at the minka market (callao, peru)]

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Los estibadores
the stevedores

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Estibador de papa en mercado (Cochabamba, Bolivia). [stevedore of potatoes at the market (cochabamba, bolivia)]

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LOS ESTIBADORES
the stevedores

[Una vez en los centros de


comercializacin, la figura del
estibador o cargador aparece
como el eslabn ms olvidado y,
paradjicamente, ms notorio
dentro del ciclo de la papa.
La secuencia fotogrfica de
Gonterre sobre estos incansables
hombres no pretende ser
una apologa a sus dursimas
condiciones de trabajo; lo que se
pretende es dirigir la atencin
hacia este agobiante oficio, al
mismo tiempo que se espera que
alguna vez estas imgenes sean
el documento de circunstancias
que dejaron de ocurrir].
[Once in the commercialization centers, the image of the
stevedore or porter comes as the most forgotten link and,
paradoxically, the most notorious within the potatos cycle.
Gonterres photographic sequence of these untiring men
do not pretend to be an apology of their extremely hard
working conditions; what it tries is to draw attention to this
exhausting work, at the same time that it is hoped these
images will be the documentation of circumstances that
have already ceased to exist]

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Estibador con saco de papa huayro en el Mercado Mayorista N 1 en La Victoria (Lima, Per).
[stevedore with a sack of huayco potato in the wholesalers market n 1 in la victoria (lima, peru)]

Estibador en el mercado de Andahuaylas (Apurmac, Per). [stevedore in the market of andahuaylas (apurimac, peru)]

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Investigacin
Conservacionismo
investigation / conservation

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Ingeniera del INIAP, evaluando foliolos de papa en Saquisik (Cotopaxi, Ecuador). [engineer of the iniap evaluating folliage of potatoes in saquisik (cotopaxi, ecuador)]

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INVESTIGACIN
investigation

[Desde que qued demostrado que la papa es


una aliada insuperable para la lucha contra
el hambre, se profundiz en su conocimiento.
La investigacin cientfica ha permitido
aprovechar sus potencialidades y contribuye
con el agricultor en las diversas etapas del
cultivo].

[Since it has been established that the potato is


an insuperable allay against hunger, knowledge of
it has been deepened. Scientific investigation has
allowed taking advantage of its potential and it
contributes with the farmer during the different
stages of the crop]

Tesista de la Universidad de Quito, mostrando ramos de flores de papas nativas (Quito, Ecuador)

Evaluando pigmento en pulpa de papa en PROINPA (Cochabamba, Bolivia). [evaluating the pigmento in the pulp of a potato at PROINPA (cochabamba, bolivia)]

[tesist student from the university of quito showing bunches of native potatoes flowers]

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Investigador del laboratorio IBTEN muestra plntulas in vitro de la variedad Imilla Negra (Bolivia). [Engineer from IBTEN laboratory shows in vitro
seedlings of the Imilla Negra variety (Bolivia)]

Biloga del CIP en el banco de germoplasma in vitro (Lima, Per). [cip biologist in the in vitro germoplasm bank (lima, peru)]

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CONSERVACIONISMO
conservation

[Desde que las papas nativas se han revalorado, el


rol del conservacionista se ha hecho imprescindible.
En algunos lugares de la regin andina, como en
Ecuador, existen comunidades organizadas que
educan a sus miembros sobre el potencial de este
recurso].

[Since native potatoes have been taken into consideration,


the role of the conservationist has been deemed essential. En
some places of the Andean region, such as Ecuador, there are
organized communities that educate their members on the
potential of this resource]

Alumnas en la escuela de Pujili capacitndose en el cultivo de papas nativas (Cotopaxi, Ecuador). [students at school in pujili learning about native potatoes farming (cotopaxi, ecuador)]

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Campesina mostrando un artculo periodstico sobre su cosecha con ms de 200 variedades de papas nativas (Camacho, Bolivia). [peasant woman showing a newspaper article about a harvest with more than 200 varieties of native potatoes (camacho, bolivia)]

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Nias atisbando aula en la que se capacita sobre diversidad de papas nativas

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(Cotopaxi, Ecuador). [girls peeking a classroom where training about native potatoes
diversity takes place (cotopaxi, ecuador) ]

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Muestreo de matas de papa para observar su productividad (Ecuador). [sampling of potatoes plants to observe their productivity (ecuador)]

Nia mostrando papas nativas en la escuela Csar Sandoval de Pujili (Cotopaxi, Ecuador). [girl showing native potatoes at cesar sandoval school in pujili (cotopaxi, ecuador)]

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Cocina y gastronoma
cooking and gastronomy

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Isabel lvarez, chef y directora del restaurante limeo El Seoro de Sulco, mostrando papa amarilla lista para
la preparacin de la causa (Lima, Per). [isabel lvarez, chef and director of limenean restaurant el seorio de sulco, showing
mashed yellow potato to prepare causa (lima, peru)]

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COCINA Y GASTRONOMA

[As well as a staple with many nutritious qualities, the


potato is a versatile fruit for cooking food and meals. Many
dishes prepared with potato, which are part of the rich
popular Peruvian fare, have been taken to the national and
international high cuisine]

cooking and gastronomy

[As como un alimento con muchas


propiedades nutritivas, la papa
tambin es un fruto verstil en la
elaboracin de comidas y potajes.
Muchos de los platos preparados
con papa, que son parte de la rica
cocina popular del Per, han sido
llevados a la alta cocina nacional e
internacional].

Plato de papa blanca sancochada y carne de cuy frita en Ecuador. [dish of boiled white potato and fried meat of

guinea pig in ecuador]

Sopa de papa y tunta en Ilave (Puno, Per). [soup made of potato and tunta in ilave (puno, peru)]

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Huatia de papa con queso y salsa en campo de Bolivia. [huatia of potato with cheese and sauce in a field of bolivia]

Joven chef del restaurante Parque Molle, en Cieneguilla (Lima, Per). [young chef from the restaurant parque molle, in cieneguilla (lima, peru)]

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Ivette Aliaga, creadora de la choco tunta. [Lima, Per]. [ivette aliaga, creator of the choco tunta (lima, peru)]

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Potajes a base de papas nativas elaborados en la escuela de gastronoma Gastrotur Per (Lima,
Per). [dishes prepared base on native potatoes at the gastronomical school gastrotur peru (lima, peru)]

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Retratos
faces

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Campesinos de Ballagan, Ecuador. [peasants from ballagan, ecuador]

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RETRATOS
faces

Agricultora de Yatzaputzan (Guaranda, Ecuador). [woman farmer from yatzaputzan (guaranda, ecuador)]

Altomisayoq de Moray (Cusco, Per). [altomisayoq from moray (cusco, peru)]

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Comuneras de Quisini en las inmediaciones de Moray (Cusco, Per). [community women of quisini in the vicinities of moray (cusco, peru)]

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Campesino de Maras (Cusco, Per). [peasant of maras (cusco, peru)]

Vendedora de papa en mercado de Riobamba (Ecuador). [potato saleswoman in the

Campesino del Parque de la Papa (Cusco, Per). [peasant at the potato park (cusco, peru)]

Anciana campesina del Valle del Mantaro (Huancayo, Per). [old peasant woman

market of riobamba (ecuador)]

from the mantaro valley (huancayo, peru)]

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Nio campesino en el Parque de la Papa (Cusco, Per). [peasant boy in the potato park (cusco, peru)]

Joven agricultora de Ecuador. [young woman farmer from ecuador)]

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Nia de Marcobamba al lado de un almacn (Guaranda, Ecuador). [girl from marcobamba besides a storehouse (guaranda, ecuador)]

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Corte de la papa llamada labios de seorita en manos de campesino de Andahuaylas (Apurmac, Per). [slice of a potato called labios de seorita (maidens lips) in the hands of a peasant from andahuaylas (apurimac, peru)]

La fotografa de arriba se convirti en la


imagen emblemtica de Papa, Madre cada
vez que la serie se exhibi. Aprovechamos la
visita que hiciramos para entrevisitar a Jos
Palomino en Andahuaylas para conocer al
agricultor cuyas manos son ya clebres. Su
nombre: Roberto Maucaylle Hurtado, lder
campesino y conservacionista de 35 aos,
natural de Kishuar, Andahuaylas.

Manos de agricultores de Ecuador, Per y Bolivia. [hands of farmers from ecuador, peru and bolivia]

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[The photography above became the emblematic image of Papa, Madre each time the series was exhibited. We took
advantage of visit we paid to interview Jos Palomino in Andahuaylas to meet the farmer whose hands were already
famous. His name: Roberto Maucaylle Hurtado, 35 years old peasant leader and conservacionist, from Kishuar,
Andahuaylas]

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Cortes de diversas variedades de papa. [slices of different varieties of potatoes]

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Una pequesima muestra de los innumerables tipos de flores de las papas


nativas. [a very small sample of the innumerables types of native potatoes flowers]

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JEAN-LOUIS GONTERRE,
biografa

Agradecimientos
Expresamos nuestro agradecimiento a las siguientes personas e instituciones:

jean-louis gonterre, biography

A Giancarlo de Picciotto (Suiza), Cesarina Quintana (Per), Galo Snchez (Ecuador), Graldine
Zeuner y Marcelo Collao (Bolivia), de la Agencia Suiza para el Desarrollo y la Cooperacin
(COSUDE), por su valioso apoyo para llevar a cabo el Proyecto del Ao Internacional de la Papa
2008 en los mbitos nacionales y regional andino.

Fotgrafo nacido en Aix-en Provence, Francia.

A Felipe Balderrama y Patricia Meneces de la Fundacin PROINPA que estuvieron a cargo de las
actividades implementadas en Bolivia.
A Hugo Martnez encargado de las exposiciones en Ecuador.

Ha presentado sus series fotogrficas Los sin tierra


de Brasil, Los Tuaregs, Timia: un oasis en el Sahara,
Pueblos de la arena, La papa y Miradas de mujeres,
en galeras y museos de Francia, Alemania, Mxico,
Bolivia, Ecuador, Brasil, entre otros pases.

A Oscar Delgado de CAPAC Per, por su inagotable colaboracin para el trabajo de campo y
poner a disposicin su amplio conocimiento de las papas nativas en las zonas andinas.
A Vernica Valcarcel, Alice Thomann, Cristina Fonseca, Carmen Calle y Jorge Andrade de la
Iniciativa Papa Andina - Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), por su importante colaboracin
en varias etapas del trabajo realizado por Jean-Louis y al desarrollo de diversos conceptos que
se implementaron.

Su obra ha sido adquirida por el Museo Nacional de


la Fotografa de Chalon-sur-Saone, el Museo de las
Civilizaciones de St. Just-St. Rambert y el Museo de
Allard, as como en colecciones en Mxico, Estados
Unidos, Inglaterra y Brasil.

A Antonio Palomino y Roberto Maucaylle en Andahuaylas.


Al equipo del Ao Internacional de la Papa del Ministerio de Agricultura (Per) que permiti
ampliar la cobertura de las exhibiciones tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.
A todas las galeras y salas de exhibicin que gentilmente cedieron sus instalaciones para el
montaje de las diversas exposiciones realizadas durante el 2008.

En 1994 comienza su romance con la papa, a la que


ha dedicado un gran nmero de muestras itinerantes
e instalaciones al aire libre, y que contina hasta la
actualidad.

[Acknowledgements
We would like to express our acknowledgements to the following persons and institutions:
To Giancarlo de Picciotto (Switzerland), Cesarina Quintana (Per), Galo Snchez (Ecuador),
Graldine Zeuner and Marcelo Collao (Bolivia), from the Swiss Agency of Development and
Cooperation (SDC), for their invaluable support to carry out the International Year of the
Potato 2008 Project, both in national quarters and in the Andean region.
To Felipe Balderrama and Patricia Meneces, from the Fundacin PROINPA, who were in
charge of the activities performed in Bolivia.
[Photographer born in Aix-en Provence, France.
He has presented his photographic series The no land people from Brazil, The
Tuaregs, Timia: an oasis in the Sahara, Sand people, The potato and Womens
gaze, in galleries and museums in France, Germany, Mexico, Bolivia, Ecuador,
Brazil among other countries.
His work has been acquired by the National Museum of Photography of Chalonsur-Saone, the Museum of Civilizations of St. Just-St. Rambert and the Allard
Museum, as well as by collections in Mexico, the United States, England and
Brazil.
In 1994 his romance with the potato starts, to which he has dedicated a great
number of itinerant shows and outdoor installations, and it continues up to
present]

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To Hugo Martnez who was in charge of the exhibitions in Ecuador.


To Oscar Delgado, from CAPAC Per, for his untiring assistance in the field work and for
providing his vast knowledge on native potatoes in the Andean zones.
To Vernica Valcarcel, Alice Thomann, Cristina Fonseca, Carmen Calle and Jorge Andrade
from Papa Andina Initiative - International Potato Center (CIP), for their valuable assistance
in various steps of the work done by Jean-Louis and for the development of different
implemented concepts.
To Antonio Palomino and Roberto Maucaylle from Andahuaylas.
To the team of the International Year of the Potato from the Ministry of Agriculture (Per)
that allowed to expand the exposure of the exhibitions both nationally and internationally.
To all the galleries and exhibitions rooms that kindly gave their venues to mount the
different displays shown during the year 2008]

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Variedad Quecorani en Andahuaylas (Apurmac, Per). [quecorani variety in andahualyas (apurimac, peru)]