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JOE W

EIDE
R

Metabolic
circuit

DITIO

BRIT

ISH E

JANUARY
2015

Shred Fat FaSt

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Start the
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Ways to
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GroWth
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JANUARY 2015 UK 4.20

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january 2015
VOLUME 76 | NO.1

58 ARNOLDS
BODY OF WORK

We look at how Arnold


Schwarzeneggers training and body
have changed through the years.

72 the metABOLic
WORKOut

Strip off excess bodyfat, and crank


up your conditioning with metabolic
circuit training.

82 chicKeN
thRee WAYS

Recipes that add some life to the


blandest muscle-building food.

94 highLAND
WARRiOR SpiRit

The worlds top competitors


gather in Dunfermline to do
battle at the 2014 Highland Games.

104 tO cROSSFit OR NOt


tO cROSSFit?
Sports Scientist Ross Edgley on
CrossFit vs conventional old-school
training plus the ultimate hybrid
workout.

112 mYth BuSteRS:


gROWth hORmONe

Mark Gilbert investigates whether


GH really does build muscle and
burn fat.

120 mODeL AmBitiONS

Amy Leigh-Quine has gone from


stick-thin model to fitness champion
in less than 12 months.

Powerlifting champion Chris Jenkins


reveals the programme that put him
at the top.

136 geRmS iN the gYm

Simple strategies to keep you in the


gym and out of the doctors surgery.

144 pRemieR StReNgth


Dutch international and Aston Villa
captain Ron Vlaar shows why he
is one of the strongest men in the
world of football.

154 StRAight up:


tRicepS

Build thick, braided horseshoes with


this man-making routine that is both
heavy and high volume.

z e l l e r / f i t n e s s p u b l i c at i o n s , i n c . / c o u r t e s y o f w e i d e r h e a lt h & f i t n e s s

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THIS PRODUCT IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE, OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.

1995 - 2014 Beast Sports Nutrition. All Rights Reserved

AVAILABLE AT

january 2015
Sections
16 EDGE

Ron Perlman on the importance of


fitness; supermodel Samantha Hoopes;
and Britains best bodies gather in
Nottingham.

28 TRAIN

Superfit student Connor McJury; master


the American kettlebell swing; and how
to do a safer front squat.

48 EAT

What makes a good muscle-building


lunch; the health benefits of nuts;
and home-made protein-packed
chocolate bars.

160 SUPPS

The latest in supplement and


product news.

171 EXPERT

Olympic gold medallist Anthony Joshuas


heavy-hitting training; can chewing gum
improve performance; maintaining your
motivation beyond January; and how to
perfect the goblet squat.

regulars
12

Welcome

14

Arnolds Letter

190 Last Set


192 Hot Bod

104

On the cOver:
A R N O l d S C H WA R z e N e g g e R By
z e l l e R / f i T N e S S P u B l i C AT i O N S , i N C .

128
94

MUSCLE & FitnESS

www.muscle-fitness.co.uk

HYDRATION &
ELECTROLYTES
ENDURANCE*

.com/Cellucor

HYDRATION*

.com/Cellucor

RECOVERY*

@Cellucor

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

UK ediTiON

PUBLiShed iN The UK By
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Weider PUBLiCATiONS, LLC
A SUBSidiAry Of AmeriCAN mediA, iNC.
Chairman, President &
Chief Executive Officer David Pecker
Founder & Chairman Emeritus
Joe Weider (1920-2013)
Executive Vice President,
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Consumer Marketing David W. Leckey
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AdViSOry BOArd
riCh frONiNg

The reigning and four-time CrossFit Games champ

greg gLASSmAN

We assume no responsibility for returning unsolicited material, including but not limited to photographs, artwork, manuscripts and letters.
Membership on the Editorial Advisory Board does not imply endorsement of any product or service advertised in this magazine. Views expressed
in advertisements and editorials are not necessarily those of Muscle & Fitness or the Editorial Advisory Board. Reader discretion is advised. Please
consult your doctor before beginning any exercise or diet programme, or when making changes in an existing programme if you have any doubts
about your health status.
Every care is taken to assure the accuracy of the information in M&F, but no responsibility can be accepted for the consequences of actions
based on the advice contained herein. Weider Publishing Ltd makes every effort to ensure that the advertising contained in M&F is derived
from respectable sources. It does not, however, assume responsibility for the advertisements, nor any claims and representations made
therein, nor the quality or delivery of the products/services themselves.
Editorial articles relating to food supplementation and sports nutrition reproduced in this issue of Muscle & Fitness, are for information
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Muscle & Fitness is distributed on an international basis. To the extent permitted by law, Weider Publications LLC and its affiliates: Weider
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Some supplements may not work effectively outside specific dosage ranges and may potentially cause harm if taken in excess. Not all
supplements, combinations of supplements, or dose ranges of supplements may be suitable, safe or effective for everybody.

Co-founder of CrossFit, the worlds fastest-growing


fitness movement

Jim mANiON

Chairman of the IFBB pro league and president of the


US National Physique Committee

NiCK miTCheLL

One of Britains leading personal trainers who owns


the worldwide Ultimate Performance gym business
upfitness.com

miKe OheArN

Former TV gladiator who has won titles in bodybuilding, powerlifting and judo

dAVid SANdLer

One of the worlds leading strength and conditioning


coaches

Tim ZiegeNfUSS

Sports nutrition and exercise scientist who is chief


executive of the Center for Applied Health Sciences

Copyright (2015) Weider Publications, LLC. Published under license from Weider Publications, LLC. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission.
Muscle & Fitness is a trademark of Weider Publications, Llc. and may not be used or reproduced without the permission of Weider Publications, LLC.

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welcome

contact us

on editorial@weideruk.com

GET SET FOR


SUCCESS

Well weve got plenty for you


to get your teeth into to make
the next 12 months the fittest
of your life.
Appropriately the cover model for
our number one edition of the year
is Mr Numero Uno himself, Arnold
Schwarzenegger.
Arnold is the man for all seasons:
once a teenage bodybuilding
sensation, he now has one of the
best physiques youll ever see on
a 67-year-old. Here we show you
the workouts that have kept him
on top over five decades.
In addition to this body part
masterclass, weve got a tough
metabolic workout to help melt the
festive fat, tips on how to add 10%
to your squat in eight weeks and a
comparison of the benefits of
CrossFit-style workouts and more
conventional periodised training.
We also have an exclusive
behind-the-scenes training
feature on Premier League football
team Aston Villa, in which their
Dutch skipper Ron Vlaar shows
why hes known as Concrete Ron.
Anyone who thinks footballers
arent strong should try and knock
this guy off the ball.
More women are likely to be
gym members in 2015 than ever
before. Besides our regular
column by Michelle Brannan, we
profile two other women who are
shining examples of the mantra
strong is the new skinnyactor
Gemma Atkinson and model-turned-

12

MUSCLE & FitnESS

fitness star Amy Leigh-Quine.


January is the time to get your
diet back on track. We show various
ways to spice up that staple of the
serious trainerchicken.
And nutrition expert Mark Gilbert
begins a new Mythbuster series
in which he debunks common
misconceptions among gym goers.

He starts this month by looking at


growth hormone.
Its time to get serious!

John Plummer
Editorial Director

z e l l e r / f i t n e s s p u b l i c at i o n s , i n c . / c o u r t e s y o f w e i d e r h e a lt h & f i t n e s s

Christmas and New Year are great but all that


overindulgence has no doubt left you busting
to get going in 2015

neW!

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RECOVERY
Post-workout recovery complex

LACEE KOVACS

2013 Crossfit Games Europe Champion


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arnolds letter

sPOT ON
TraiNiNG

Squatting with the


bar in front helps
keep your torso
upright and puts
most of the tension
on your quads, not
your glutes/hams.

Banish weaknesses from your physique


with this troubleshooting guide

Weakness: small BIceps


solution: seated Barbell curls
How To: Its difficult to go extremely
heavy on barbell curls because youre at
such a mechanical disadvantage at the
bottom of the movement (from arms
extended to elbows bent 90 degrees),
making the weight too light to elicit maximal
gains in the top half of the motion. Yet doing
barbell curls seated means you work over
only the top half, allowing you to go much
heavier because youre strongest in that
range. Sit on a flat or short-back bench and
hold a straight bar at your thighs. But dont
completely shun full-range-of motion reps;
start the rest of your exercises with your
arms fully extended.
Weakness: small calves
solution: Trisets
How To: When you have an underdeveloped areaespecially one as
stubborn as calvesyou need to attack
it with high frequency, high volume, and
utmost intensity. If your calves lack
size, train them 34 days per week.
Or try doing 34 trisets of standing
calf raises, seated calf raises, and
donkey calf raises, 1520 reps per set.

14

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Weakness:
Underdeveloped QUads
solution: Front squats
How To: Every good lifter knows that
squats are the best exercises to add size
to the lower body. When doing standard
squats, though, its impossible to isolate
the quads from the glutes. Theres one
simple (yet physically demanding)
way to involve more of the quads
while de-emphasising the glutes and
hamstrings: the front squat. Squatting
with the bar in front helps keep your
torso upright and puts most of the
tension on your quads, not your glutes
and hams.

flaw
fixers

Use these
sets-and-reps
schemes as you
perform these
exercises within that
particular body-part
workout of your
normal training split

Weakness:
narroW sHoUlders
solution: Heavy lateral raises
How To: To add girth to the middle
deltoids, give them a little shock with
heavy dumbbell laterals. Think about
it: no one goes heavy on lateral
raises; its all about going lighter. So
if you typically do laterals with, say,
25-pounders for 10 reps, move up to
35s or 40s for sets of 68, even if it
means cheating a bit with body English
on the final few reps.

Weakness

eXercIse

Small Biceps

Seated Barbell Curl

seTs

reps

810

Underdeveloped
Quads

Front Squat

45

812

Small Calves

Triset:
Standing Calf Raise
Seated Calf Raise
Donkey Calf Raise

34
34
34

1520
1520
1520

Narrow Shoulders

Dumbbell Lateral Raise

45

68

Zeller, Fitness Publications, inc., courtesy oF Weider HealtH and Fitness

In my many years of training with and observing countless bodybuilders, it became clear that even the best
athletes have weaknesses in their physiques. Some had small arms, others were lacking in the lower body, and I used to have
rather underdeveloped calves. But the great thing about bodybuilding is that you have the power to focus on a weakness and make
it a strength. Here are a few common physique weaknesses, along with effective ways to fix them.

EDGE
NEWS, INTERVIEWS ANd INSPIRATION

BAD
MAN
RON PERLMAN
has played an
outlaw biker,
Hellboy, and other
beasts. His new
book, Easy Street
(The Hard Way),
sheds light on
his journey and
the importance of
fitness in his life.
By Matt Tuthill

16

MUSCLE & FitnESS

edge OLD-SCHOOL

ASS KICKER

M&F: The book starts with you


losing your dad in college. Did
that make you grow up fast?
RON PERLMAN: Yeah. College is
your fuck around time: youre in a
completely protected environment and
you can pretty much do anything you
want so long as you dont get arrested.
Being in the midst of that and then
having something as sobering as kind
of becoming the head of the family was
a real bucket of ice water over your
head. Whether youre ready or not,
youre gonna have to start figuring
shit out.

YEARS

RY

MUS

75 TRIM, STRONG,
IVERSA

SEXY YOU!

From this bizarre cover to the He-Man


photos, we brought the weird in 1984.
FOR EvERy AcTiON there

is an equal and opposite reaction.


This is one of the immutable laws
of physics, but as you dig around
in the M&F archives, you learn
that it applies to our history as
well. For every classic cover with
Arnold dressed in character as
Conan the Barbarian or Dutch
from Predator, theres a laughout-loud absurdity like this issue
that came out in November 84.
The cover image is Wolf Larson
sitting with his back to the camera
and Lee Benton holding a tiny pair
of chrome dumbbells and more or
less popping a squat on his shoulder. The campiness didnt end
there: a feature story on bodybuilder Larry Opiela is themed
around He-Man, not because
Opiela had been tapped to star in
the motion picture (Dolph Lundgren would land that role three

years later), but because Opiela


had travelled around Canada and
the U.S. to make live appearances
as He-Man for Mattel a deal that
had already expired by the time
the story was written.
Elsewhere in the issue theres
a story on Cory Eversons leg
training, with Everson prancing
across the opening pages in a
peacoat, white gloves, and a bow
tie. But the issue redeems itself
with some hardcore training
stories, including a bench-pressing
feature written by Fred Hatfield,
a breakdown of Russian block
periodisation, Charles Glass chest
routine, and Matt Mendenhalls
arm workout.
In fact, there was so much bad
assery spread throughout this issue
it proved books arent alone: not
every magazine can be judged by
its cover, either.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

17

universal/everett collection

Ron Perlman
has made a
career of
playing
monsters
with a heart.

75 YeARS OF M&F

ESS

So when did you start to get


serious about training?
My very first movie, which was Quest
for Fire. We were playing guys who
would have furs draped over our
shoulders but were naked underneath.
I joined Golds Gym in New York,
I transformed myself. Now when Im
not in the gym I feel horrible. I feel
guilty, like I robbed myself of a chance
to get stronger.

CLE & FITN

NN

As a kid you were teased for


being overweight and for your
face. What did that do to you?
I got to understand what people in pain
are going through. It opened up this
compassionate side of myselfanyone
I saw in pain, I related to and identified
with. And the strange thing about
my early success as an actor was
I was usually playing beasts; I was
playing gnarled characters in heavy
prosthetics who were monstrous
in a way but had these beautiful souls
and pure hearts. I was getting a huge
response from people who were
relating to the human spirit overcoming
physical limitations.

BIZARRO M&F
This issue was
equal parts
hardcore and
totally offthe-wall.

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muscle & Fitness

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edge iron

maiden

modeL
BeHaVioUr
Shes not just the hottest young supermodel in
the world. Samantha hoopeS is completely
unfilteredand unapologetic. By Nicole Adamo

to do something else.
I always told myself
I wanted to be a
GUESS model,
and every night
before I went to
bed I would
put it out
there. I was
definitely a
party girl in
collegeI seriously
wasted my parents
money at Penn State. It just
got to a point where I wasnt
going to graduate any time
soon, so I decided to drop
out and pursue my modelling career. The whole
experience has been crazy.
Every day is a new
challenge. Im just
how did you handle the winging it...and
transition from college it seems to be
working.
to modelling?
Sh: I have never been good
at school, and not because In what
ways are
Im not smart or anything.
you like a
I just really do not care to
man?
waste my time in a class
Sh: I am a tomboy
where Ill learn something
all the way. Im very
and then forget it in a year.
aggressive and opinionI just dont like to waste
ated. I know what I want
time like that.
I always knew I was going and will never take no for

m&F: Whats it like to


be considered a sex
symbol?
Sh: Its so funny
because even
now when I see
pictures, I
have to take a
step back and
ask myself if
thats really me. I
always have been a
sexual person, so I guess
it goes hand in hand.
I always say whats on my
mind. Ive always been the
girl who doesnt care if you
call me a slut or whatever.
If I did something, I own it.
Other girls will deny until
they die. Not me.

age

23

an answer. Im the complete


opposite of my exterior.
What do you
look for in a
guy?
Sh: I love a
guy with
confidence
but who isnt
cocky about it.
I like someone
who lets me figure
out whats really going
on with him; I like that
challenge. My favourite
sport is ice hockey
because Im into those
real manly men and
the aggressiveness.

ResIdence

Los
AngeLes,
CA

What do
guys like
most about
you?
Sh: Guys
definitely
love my
boobs
because theyre
always so in your
face. They dig that
theyre natural too. I have
my parents to thank for
that.

HeIgHT

5'9"

20

MUSCLE & FitnESS

In what way are you


most different from
other girls?
Sh: I dont really
look at myself
and think, Oh,
Im so hot or
anything like
that. A lot of
girls have big
egos and thats
something I try
not to have. Its
always more attractive to
be humble.
What else dont people
know about you?
Sh: Im obsessed with
quotes. My favourite is
a gentleman never asks
and a lady never tells.
[For that matter] I dont
want to know where your
penis has been. Im so
raunchy, but this is me and
if people cant handle it,
oh well.

geT MORe

Follow Samantha
on Instagram: @saman
thahoopes_and Twitter:
@samanthahoopes

JOHN RUSSO

edge the

arnold

To Learn more about the 2015 Arnold Sports

Festival, which runs March 68, 2015, in Columbus, Ohio,


and to purchase tickets, go to arnoldsportsfestival.com.

arM WreStlInG
The Arnold Sports Festival is home to
dozens of different sports, but it turns out
theres a gun show, toowhere you can
watch the worlds best arm wrestlers battle
for supremacy. By Ian Cohen

22

MUSCLE & FItNESS

earlier event to attend. Some of


the qualifying events for the 2015
Arnold Classic include the USAA
National ProAm Arm wrestling
Championship, Europa Games,
and the Canadian National Arm
Wrestling Championships.
The LocATion The twoday
event will take place inside the
Greater Columbus Convention Centre
on the Arnold Fitness Expo stage.
how iT workS Competitors
stand facing each other across
a table, one hand grasping an up
right peg for leverage and the other
hand grasping the opponents hand.
To win, the arm wrestler must
force his opponents hand down
to an elevated touch pad on the table,
or force his opponents hand,
wrist, or fingers below the pad.

It may not have received the


same acclaim as Rocky or
Rambo, but Over the Top, starring
Sylvester Stallone, was rife
with 80s machismo. While the
reviews were mixed, one critic
put it best: Not enough ass
kicking, but the world does need
at least one film about
professional arm wrestling.

c o ur t e sy o f a r n o l d sp o r t s fe s t i va l; e v er e t t/c o l l ec t i o n

The SporT Arm wrestling


is the ultimate sport for demon
strating arm power and strength.
A combination of technique and brute
force are the main contributing
factors to winning a match. Wrist
flexibility, handgrip size, arm length,
muscle mass, and reaction time are
other important factors critical for
success.
The ASSociATion Based in
Billings, Montana, the United States
Armwrestling Association (USAA)
was established in 1985 and
has hosted the Arnold Classic Arm
wrestling Challenge since 2004.
The evenT The Arnold Classic
Arm wrestling Challenge is an
international event, which includes
many world and national champions.
All participants have to qualify at an

over
the top

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edge star

power

HoLLY
HoLLYwooD
eNDING
A star of The Mentalist
and Sons of Anarchy,
Rockmond dunbaR
went from a hefty
247 pounds to a lean
190all for his family.
By Matt Tuthill

fat rock
dunbar was in
danger of being
typecast as the
fat cop before
dropping nearly
60 pounds.

m&F: What motivated


you to make this huge change?
Rd: One morning I woke up to my
daughter crying. I went to change
her diaperI laid her down on the
changing table and she looked at
me and something happened. You
know they say, When a child is born,
the father is, too. That was my
moment. She looked at me, and it
was like she was looking into my soul.
She could see all of those things
I wasnt taking care of. My health.
My body. I said, I need to change.

MeNTAL
ASPeCTS
I didnt want to
take my shirt off for
two years.
I hope my change
can inspire
other people.

24

MUSCLE & FitnESS

name a few positive changes


from the weight loss.
About a month and a half ago,
I woke up and went to the bathroom.
I come back in, shirts off, and my
wifes like, Whoa! Come here. Thats
all I need, bro! That felt so amazing.
Im still living off the high of that.

N O EL DAG A N TA ; P R A S H A N T G U P TA / F X ( B EF O R E S H O T )

How did you lose the weight?


I stopped eating so fucking much.
[Laughs] I spent years eating the
worst shit possible. I realised
I needed to get away from
processed foodsbreads, wheat,
sugar. I used to have so many Red
Bulls to the point that I had to go to
the hospital to check my heart. My
blood pressure was through the roof.

edge inspiration

running ahead To those with disabilities, Leeper

has one thing to say: Never be scared. If a disability holds you


back from what youre trying, try it a different way.

His doctors said theyd never


seen anything like it, and had to refer
his parents to another physician.
Leeper started wearing prosthetics
when he was 9 months old, but grew
up nonchalant about his disability. At
age 4, he began playing basketball
with his father and brother. Ive
been an athlete my whole life,
he says. I love that feeling. I love
winning, and I love the teamwork.
Leeper found his true calling in
track and field around the age of 18.
In 2008, the US-based Challenged
Athletes Foundation awarded him a
grant to obtain the Ossur Cheetahs,
the prosthetics that Oscar Pistorius
used to race in. Leeper went on to
win gold at the 2012 U.S. Paralympic
National Championships in the 100-,
200-, and 400-metre sprints, and
took silver in the 400 at the 2012
Paralympic Games.
[When a race] starts off, Im just
really happy to be there, Leeper
says. I mean, when you break it
down, the doctors said Id never
walk a day in my life. So when you
look at the bigger picture, its huge
for me just to be able to make it
there.
He has his eyes on a prize loftier
than just winning raceshe wants
the big stage. I want to be the first
American double-leg amputee to
qualify for the Olympics, he says.
My times are getting faster each
and every year, and Im competing
against able-bodied athletes.
Leeper trains with them as well, in
San Diego, six days a week for three
or four sessions a day. Meanwhile,
hes also completed a degree in
applied physicsa not-incidental
subject, as hed like to work in the
field of prosthetics, paving the way
for future generations of disabled
athletes. He wants to inspire them
with his success, and remains
dedicated to his ultimate goal:
competing in the 2020 Summer
Olympic Games in Tokyo.
My whole life, Ive had to work out
just to be average, he says. Ive had
to give all Ive got just to keep up with
the group. People may say, Man,
To be born without one leg is one in a million, says Leeper, a 24-year-old thats tough, but at the end of the day,
track runner. Both is unheard of. its made me a stronger person.

oLYMpiCs
BoUnD
Paralympian BLaKE LEEPEr has
the mindset to succeeddespite
his disability. By Ben Radding

MUSCLE & FItNESS

25

COURTESY O F STEVEN C. BAR BER

doctors said
id nEvEr waLK
a day in my LifE,
so its HugE
just to maKE
it to a racE.

edge news

BRITAIns
BesT BODIes
Two new IFBB pros are crowned as the UKs
best physiques descend on Nottingham
By John Plummer

Ryan John-Baptiste and


Ruth Dales earned IFBB pro
cards after emerging victorious at
the biggest ever British Championships staged by the United
Kingdom Bodybuilding and
Fitness Federation.
A record 500-plus competitors
took part in the contest, which
returned to Nottingham after a
three-year absence.
Mens physique and bikini
fitness were the two most popular
classes and it was announced
at the start of the day that the
overall champions of both
categories would be awarded
IFBB pro cards.
John-Baptiste beat Etin
Nosa to win the over-180 cm
height division then beat
Etins brother Abies Nosa
and Ben Noy when the three
height class winners went
head-to-head for the pro
card.
The prison officer
becomes Britains
second mens physique
pro after Ryan Terry.
Just as mens
physique is attracting
huge numbers of
males into bodybuilding because
it rewards less
extreme development, bikini fitness
is doing the same
for females.

26

MUSCLE & FitnESS

So competition was fierce


in the three height categories,
which were won by Anita
Bekus, Ruth Dales and Karina
Skowronska.
Those three battled it out at

the end of the day and Yorkshire


woman Dales got the verdict.
She is the fifth Brit, after Michelle
Brannan, Heather Schofield, Nina
Ross and Melissa Haywood, to be
awarded a pro card.

train
build muscle, burn fat, perform better

SUPErFit
StUDEnt

va sil i y b a z iuk

The future looks


bright for State
University of
New York student
connor mcJury.
The exercise science
and kinesiology
double major is a
ripped personal
trainer who aspires
to make a serious
impact on the fitness
industry.
By Mark Barroso

28

MUSCLE & FitnESS

train

STUDENT LIFE

Connors
stats
Age 22

HeigHt 5'7"
WeigHt 170 lbs
ReSiDence

fairport, ny
tWitteR

@connr22

WORKOUT

rest as needed after squat.


rest 1 min. after 4a-D.

McJurys
top 3 tips
for College
fitness

Id love to get my squat up to


400 pounds soon, says McJury. Im
trying to learn as much as possible
to get bigger, stronger, and leaner.
Looking ahead, the ambitious
Class of 2015 graduate has set
his sights on a career in fitness.
After he graduates, McJurys
immediate goal is to complete an
internship at a professional or
collegiate strength and conditioning
programme.
My dream internship and job would
be strength and conditioning coach
for the Carolina Panthers.

BEaT
TEmpTaTION
Dining halls give
equal space to clean
options and junk food. Stay
away from the pizza line.

ExErcisE

1. barbell squat

sEts rEps
4

2b. Db incline Press

10

3a. barbell
Glute bridge

2a. barbell High Pull


SUPERSET WITH

SUPERSET WITH

3b. barbell Row

4a. kb swing
4b. Hanging leg Raise
4C. Jump lunge
4D. Plank

3
3
3
3

15
10
*15
30 sec.

*each side

pRIORITISE
Other guys will
want to hang out
and play video games all
the time. Make sure you
get to the gym first.

paRTNER Up
Whether its hiring
a trainer or finding
a training partner, seek
support no matter what
your experience level.

MUScLe & FitneSS

29

va sil i y b a z iuk

A high school lacrosse, football,


and karate athlete, Connor McJury
was already a gym rat upon entering
college at SUNY Brockport in New
York, and determined not to let his
new busy schedule change that.
Once I have my class schedule,
I figure out when Im going to be
working out and eating, says
McJury. That keeps me on track.
McJury lifts weights five days
a week using a combination of
Jim Wendlers 5/3/1 programme and
Layne Nortons PHAT protocols.
My main priority is strength and

train

over 40

WorKoUT
Increase weight on
all exercises as the reps
decrease. On the final set
of 8, do a drop set for
an additional 15 reps.
Workout by Sweets trainer,
Andrew Mastice

eXerCISe
Behindthe-Neck
Press

AAron Sweet is sticking with


traditional bodybuilding practices and
thriving as a result. By Joe Wuebben

juSt A few years ago Aaron


Sweet was still battling his ectomorph
genetics. Now, at 46, he has the
physique of a fitness model thanks to
an old-school bodybuilding diet and

30

MUSCLE & FItnESS

training regime. Every week it seems


a new diet comes out, says Sweet.
Are they really that great? He has
eschewed newer trends for a bodybuilding diet of six small meals

rePS

4* 15, 12, 10, 8

Overhead
Triceps
Extension

15, 12, 10, 8

Alternating
Dumbbell
Front Raise

15, 12, 10, 8

Dumbbell
Lateral Raise

15, 12, 10, 8

Rear-delt
Raise

15, 12, 10, 8

Dumbbell Shrug

Failure **

*Does not include one light warm-up set


of 20.
**Start with the heaviest dumbbells you
can manage for 8-12 reps. Go to failure,
drop the weight five pounds, and go to
failure again. Continue until youve
reached roughly 50% of the starting
weight. For example, start with
110-pound dumbbells and work
your way down to the 55s.

a day, keeping protein high and carbs


in check. It worked back then, and it
still works now, he says.
More important than any one
approach, however, is the discipline
to stick with it. Everybody responds
differently to dieting, says Sweet.
After all these years of trial and
error, I found that a very traditional
bodybuilding diet worked for me.
But you have to stick to it. And that
can be hard, because its very boring.
When friends want to go out for
drinks after work, I dont drink. You
have to make a choice.

JASON JASkOT

CLASSIC
CoNCePTS

Set

train

crossfit corner

BottoMs UP
Put your next metabolic
circuit into overdrive
by going overhead with
the American kettlebell
swing. By Nate Forster

Anyone who hAs ever handled


a kettlebell under the supervision of a good
coach knows that these primitive-looking
weights can be invaluable training tools for
building explosiveness, burning fat, and
improving posterior chain strength and stability.
But theres more than one way to swing
a bell. In CrossFit, we like to rock the
American version, which differs from
the popular Russian version in that the bell
travels much closer to your body on its way to
a fully extended, overhead finish. The drive
comes from the hips, but because the arms
stay closer to the body, it can be more
demanding on your shoulders than the
Russian swing. Constant practice is the only
way to negate that uptick in difficulty. Master
it and you can count on hobbling away with
smoked glutes, shoulders, and forearms.

Do
it riGHt
Master form, then try

iAN sPANier

these brutal WODs.

tHe MoVe
Make sure to keep your
core tight. Hinge at the
hips, bending with your
knees while keeping your
back flat. Squeeze your
butt when your hips
extend and lock your
arms out overhead while
pushing your head
forwards. Keep the
kettlebell close to your
body. It should be halfway
between an upright row
and the full extension of a
Russian swing, with all the
power coming from your
hips.

32

MUSCLE & FitnESS

tHe WorKoUts
Building the American
swing into MetCons is the
best way to reap the
benefits. Try one of these:
4 rounds for time

Run 200 metres


15 American KB swings
15 toes-to-bar
Or
5 rounds for time

25 double unders
15 American KB swings
5 power cleans (135 lbs)

safety first
Keep the
kettlebell
cocked slightly
forward as
pictured; this
makes it easier
to keep the
weight in front
of you and
under control.

train

PHYSIqUE

JUST
HIS
TYPE

BIll CoMstoCk

Jason Poston
has taken aim at the
top ranks of the IFBB
mens physique division by
creating the perfect formula
for building muscle and
burning fatall while fighting
genetics that saddled him
with type-1 diabetes.
By Mark Barroso

Jason Postons chiselled physique


is more than the sum of his sets and
reps, its the result of a micromanaged
lifestyle designed to keep his type-1
diabetes in check.
I have to prick myself to monitor my blood
sugar before and after my seven to eight
meals a day, says Poston. If my blood
sugar gets low, I eat sugars or whey isolate
protein and Im normal 15 minutes later.
To regulate blood sugar, Poston does
morning fasted cardio 35 times a week
for 2030 minutes. As for weight training,
Poston says that he increases loads in
preparation for a contest in order to build
denser, harder muscle.
I started lifting heavy 10 weeks out from
the Olympia and Ill do so until the week
of the show, says Poston. I reach failure
at about 810 reps in the last two sets of
every exercise.
Poston acknowledges his unique role in
motivating people to be happy. Winning the
Olympia would be the ultimate honour, he says.
If a diabetic gym rat can compete at this
level, then you can overcome all obstacles.

34

MUSCLE & FitnESS

PUMP UP
YOUR PECS

Poston uses lighter weight for


the first three moves, then
increases weight for the last three.
ExErcisE

sEts

rEps

rEst

9-15

90 sec.

6-10

2 min.

Incline
Machine Press*** 4

11-13

60 sec.

Dumbbell Incline
Chest Press*
Bench Press**

Reverse-grip
Bench Press

Postons
stats
and daily
meal Plan
Age 32
HeIgHt 5'11"
WeIgHt 198 lbs
ResIDenCe

Dallas, texas
tWItteR

@Jasonposton
sPonsoR Gear

Machine Dip

10

2 min.

Pec-deck Flye

15

30 sec.

SUPERSET WITH

*Reach failure at Rep 9 of Sets 4 and 5, then do


partial reps until burnout.
**Use rest-pause on the last set.
***Set 5 is a drop set. Decrease weight by
one third and go to failure.

Off-SEaSOn MEaL

Protein: 50-60 g
Fat: 10-15 g
Carbs: 150 g
COMPETITIOn MEaL

Protein: 50-60 g
Fat: 20-30 g
Carbs: 50 g

TraIn

iNSTANT mUSclE

A SAFER
FRONT SQUAT

We know you hate front squatting. The bar feels like its going to
choke you, and your wrists are too tight to hold it up. But if you
have a safety squat bar, youve got a tool to help you front squat
more comfortably and effectively. By Sean Hyson

THE SAFETY
SQUAT BAR
QUICK
TIP
Front squats
target the quads
better than the
classic back squat,
and they offer
less strain to the
lower back.

whaT IT Is
The safety squat bar has a pad in
the centre and two handles at right
angles to the bar. Its made to sit
at the base of your neck with the
handles pointing forwardsbut
if you flip it around so the handles
point back, you have a front squat
apparatus thats gentler on your
shoulders and easier to grip.

36

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Ian spanIer

how To Use IT
Hold it for a front squat as you would
a regular bar, bracing it with your
hands crossed over. There should be
a half-inch or so of space between
your neck and the pad, allowing you
to breathe better. When you squat,
youll find its easier to keep your
body upright.

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with Salvia for a one-of-a-kind experience.
Sage leaf extract (Salvia officinalis): A premium
compound that has been studied for years for its
unique properties.
Caffeine: Scientifically researched ingredient
shown to increase alertness and attention, and
enhance focus.
Green coffee: Contains 200mg of green coffee,
standardised to 45% chlorogenic acids.
Green tea: Green tea is a good source of
polyphenols, such as EGCG, and antioxidants.
Theobroma cacao: A cocoa seed extract that
works with caffeine and other ingredients in SX-7
for a truly unique experience.
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alpha lipoic acid is a popular nutrient that has been
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Key ingredient tested in


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Facebook logo is owned by Facebook Inc. Read the entire label and follow directions. 2014

body weight

Incorporating
explosive exercises
and conditioning
sessions into your
training will make
you more athletic
and make you look
better. This dynamic
routine delivers, with
jump training as the
cornerstone.
By Joe Wuebben

how to
do it
Jump
explosively
to the top
of the box,
landing with
soft knees in
an athletic
position.
Step down
from the
box in a controlled manner
to avoid knee
or ankle injury.
Dont jump
down.

What it is
A non-stop routine designed
by Los Angelesbased fitness
coach Andy McDermott. It
covers power via box jumps,
upper-chest development
with incline push-ups, core
work by way of V-ups, and totalbody conditioning thanks to
the mountain climbers. When
you incorporate box jumps into
a circuit, youre training like
an athlete, says McDermott.

38

MUSCLE & FItnESS

get
oN
uP

body-weight
workout
tO O ls n e e d e d

Plyometric box or other


stable surface to jump onto

WhY it WOrKs
Because the exercises are
strategically sequenced to
promote constant movement.
Push-ups and V-ups will give your
legs a break after box jumps so
you wont need to stop and rest.
i love this workout because
its fast and effective,
says McDermott. Keep this
circuit going continuously
for 10 minutes and youll be
feeling it in no time.

Perform these exercises as a


circuit, going from one to the
next. Repeat the circuit as many
times as possible in 10 minutes.
Rest as needed between rounds.

ExErcisE
Box Jump

rEps
5

Incline Push-up (feet on box)

10

V-up

20

Mountain Climber

learn mOre

30 sec.

Visit Andy McDermott at


facebook.com/AndyMcDermott
Fitness.

g r e g f I n e l ly

train

HArdcore

roB orLanDo is the owner of Hybrid


Athletics in Stamford, CT. hybridathletics.net

WALK THIS WAY


Dont just pick stuff up and
put it down. Channel your
inner strongman and move
it from A to B, far and fast,
with the farmers carry.
By Rob Orlando
The farmers carry
traces its strongman roots back to
Christchurch, New Zealand, where it
was called the Fergus Walk. Over the
years, the event has changed slightly
from lighter weight, thick-handled
apparatuses to much heavier loads
with thinner handles. The goal has
always been the same: move the
weight as far or as quickly as possible.
In either case, its a vertically loaded
carry that can build muscular size and
bone density.

get some!
Hefty dumbbells
will work, but you
can get a set of
farmers handles in
most strength
sports shops.

40

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

do IT

three steps to a
perfect carry, plus
a brutal workout.

to start, grab the


centre of the loaded
farmers handles
with a flat back, heels
down, chin neutral, and
arms fully extended.

DeaDLift the
weight and keep
your arms
extended. Drop your
shoulders and avoid
shrugging while you walk.

move as quickly as

possible from Point


A to Point B. Try to
walk smoothly but move
with purpose.

tHe WorKoUt Every


minute on the minute (EMOM)
for 15 minutes: 50-foot
farmers carry, no drops
allowed during the carry. Load
each handle with 50% of your
body weight.

MICHAEL QUIET

train

www.USPlabsDirect.com

train

strength

POWer
hOUr
For M&F contributor
and coach Josh
Bryant, all gains
start with strength.
By Mark Barroso

thE yoUnGEst PErson to benchpress 600 pounds raw (at age 22, in 2003),
Josh Bryant trains according to powerbuilding, a philosophy that combines
power-lifting methods to build maximum
strength and bodybuilding techniques to
emphasise muscle size. The nucleus of
powerbuilding is a heavy core lift at the
start of the workout followed by lighter
accessory work, says Bryant. Its a holistic
approach to develop fast- and slow-twitch
muscle fibres.
Bryants approach also emphasises losing
fat to reach maximal pound-for-pound
strength. Once a week Ill do 20- to 30minute intervals of three to four strongman
events, Bryant says. To ensure year-round
improvement, Bryant squats and deadlifts
heavy every week, focusing on technique
and speed. Get a taste of his methods with
this intense back workout at bottom right.

WOrKOUt
Bryant does this
strength routine
once a week.

Live
strOng

Create a
lifestyle around
strength. Sleep
at least seven
hours, avoid
alcohol, and
get your diet
in order.

42

have a
PLan

Have a set
routine so
youre not
wandering
about in the gym.
A bad plan
can be better
than no plan.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

train YOUr
Brain

Visualise yourself succeeding.


Lie down, relax,
and play a movie
in your head in
which you
accomplish your
gym goals.

PrOdUce
POWer

Every time you


do heavy core
lifts, go as
explosively
as possible
for the entire
range
of motion.

ExErcisE sEts rEps


Deadlift*
1
2

rEst
AN**

Speed
Deadlift***

2 min.

Dumbbell
Shrug

1015

2 min.

50 total

1 min.

Chin-up****
Dumbbell
Row

1015 90 sec.

*90% of 1RM
**As needed
***80% of 1RM
**** When you can do 50 reps
in nine sets or fewer, add 10 pounds.

DUSTIN SNIPES

JOSH BryantS
tOP 4 StrengtH tiPS

TRY OUR HOTTEST


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IFBB Pro
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TRAINING SYSTEMS

VOLUME
TRAINING

How cranking up your workout volume


can turn up your gains
By Greg Merritt
44

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Volume Control
In the beginning, which is to say
the first half of the 20th century,
bodybuilders trained their entire
physiques in every workout. By
necessity, they couldnt do many
sets per body part per workout
until split routines divided their
workload. When routines were
broken up, volume climbed.
It peaked in the late 70s and
early 80s with many performing
in excess of 40 sets in each
body-part routine.
Nobody sprints through an
ultramarathon. Likewise, there
is a limit to how long most people
can maintain even moderate
intensity when theyre grinding
through around 1,000 reps per
quad workout. Boredom and
complacency can set in. Your
bodys energy and hormonal
levels will lag. Clearly, ultramarathon workouts are
incredible feats, but they can
produce incredible results.
Thats not to say you need to
do 40 sets per workout; there
are more realistic and effective
styles of volume training. Here,
weve included a volume quad
routine with a more manageable
23 working sets.
There are a lot of exercises
here. In the past, bodybuilders
who focused on volume would
do just four exercises for 10 sets
of 20-30 reps each. Here youll
be doing 23 total sets but twice
as many exercises allowing you
to hit complex muscle groups
from a variety of angles.
Youll manage that by doing
only two or three sets of most
exercises and reducing rest
periods. Keeping your breaks
between sets to around one
minute will allow you to get
through your whole workout
before your intensity drops.
Working in the low-moderate
rep range also helps maintain

BILL LITTLE

TRAIN

TRAIN

TRAINING SYSTEMS
a high-intensity throughout each
set. But one other key element
here is a late-workout blowout.
Youll end this session with drop
setsa technique thatll boost the
intensity just as it starts to lag.
All in all, this workout will turn up
the volume and variety to marathon levels while still enabling you
to sprint through with ultimate
effort from first rep to last.

VoluME QuAd
WoRkouT
sEts

rEps

10-15

Squat

6-10

Leg Press

7-9

Hack Squat

8-10

Stationary Barbell Lunge

8-10

Stationary Dumbbell Lunge

8-10

Smith Machine Front Squat

8-10

Leg Extension

6-8 plus 5-6*

ExErcisE
Leg Extension

*These are drop sets. The initial 6-8 reps are followed immediately with 5-6 reps
with half the initial weight.

Volume Training
Tip sheeT
Supersets and giant sets
can help increase rep volume
without inflating workout time.
Doing only two or three sets
of an exercise allows you to
work complex body parts, like
back and quads, from a variety
of angles.
Work quickly. You dont want
your intensity to wane over a
long session. Rest only 6090
seconds between sets.
Utilise techniques like drop sets
late in your workout to maintain
your intensity until your last reps.
Avoid high-rep sets. Combined
with a high-set workloadyour
intensity is prone to lag when
doing sets of more than 15 reps.
Stick to maximum weights for
moderate reps.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

45

BILL LITTLE

Volume Training Basics


Do 1826 sets for large body
parts like back and quads.
Do 1520 sets for smaller body
parts like triceps and calves.
Work out six days a week,
and train all body partsother
than abs and calvesonly once
a week. This allows you to keep
your intensity up throughout
the entire routine.
Keep all workouts to
90 minutes or less.
Maintain your intensity by
increasing your overall workout
volume graduallydont add
more than two sets per week.

MYPRE

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We reserve the right to withdraw this promotion without further notice. Products should be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and training programme.

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Musclemania Europe 2013 Champion

WWW.MYPROTEIN.COM

EAT
FUEL yoUr body

MIDDAY
MEAL
PLAN
Who says breakfast
is most important?
Not your metabolism,
thats for sure.
By Chris Giblin

SAM KAPLAN

MIX IT UP
Combine lean
protein with carbs
and vegetables
to create the
perfect musclebuilding lunch.

FIND oUT HoW To MAKE LUNCH CoUNT

48

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Q:
EAT

diet remedy

A:

Tons of
people
out there
still love saying that
breakfast is the most
important meal of the
day. But like most old
sayings that have lasted
into the 21st century,
that idea has repeatedly
been put to the test
and has churned out
muddled results over
countless studies. It
turns out all meals are
important.
Several European
cultures focus on lunch
as the meal of utmost
importance (especially
Spain, where they eat
so much they have to
nap afterwards).
For an active guy, youll
either need the midday
meal to ease recovery
or for fuelling up,
depending on whether
you work out in the a.m.
or p.m. Regardless of
your schedule, the key is
to keep it simple if you
want to build muscleits
always a numbers game
of calories and nutrients.
Protein is, of course,
a necessary element,
but you need even more
carbs to keep your
energy up. Look for a
carb-to-protein ratio
of about 3 or 4 to 1,
according to dietitian
and trainer Ruth

Frechman. Avoid empty


calories. Go for whole
wheat (bread or tortilla)
and whole grains such
as brown rice, quinoa
or oats. Be sure to
stock up on fruit and
vegetables, whether
you want them on the
side or integrated into
the main dish. Frechman
suggests filling half
the plate with fruit and
veggies. Two-thirds
of the overall meal,
she recommends,
should be made up of
plant-based foods.
As for that other third,
opt for lean proteins
like chicken, eggs,
fish, and possibly beef.
Greek yogurt and
skimmed milk are also
solid protein sources,
along with foods such
as black beans and
chickpeasboth of
which are also rich
in fibre and iron and
low in fat.
Look to pack away
somewhere around
20 to 40 grams of
protein at lunch, or
whatever number will
get you close to that
3 or 4 to 1 ratio. The
benefits will depend
on staying away from
needless fat used in
fried foods, and fattier
meats like pastrami
and bacon.

HALF
FULL
Make sure at
least half your
meal contains
fruit and/or
vegetables as
a fuel source.
Throw some
blueberries on
a salad or mix
them into a
smoothie.

T R AV IS R AT HB O NE

What makes
a good musclebuilding lunch?

EAT

chef robert irvine

ChEf IRVINE

Visit chefirvine.com for


recipes, fitness tips and more.

birD iS the WorD


Chicken is a bodybuilding staple
for a reason, but eating it doesnt
have to be a chore. A few simple steps
can transform it into a gourmet meal.
Believe it or not, you can fuel your
gains and impress dinner guests
at the same time.
lEmoN ChICkEN
fRANAIsE
SERVES 6

6 boneless, skinless chicken breasts


125 g plain flour
Salt and pepper
6 eggs
1 tsp chives, chopped fine
2 tbsp grated parmesan cheese
2 tbsp grapeseed oil
120 ml white wine
Juice of 1 lemon
2 tbsp butter
1 tbsp capers (optional)
1 tbsp parsley, chopped

ANDREW PURCELL

1. Cover chicken breasts with cling film


and pound until -inch thick.
2. Mix the flour, salt, and pepper in
a bowl.
3. In a mixing bowl, beat the eggs with
parmesan cheese and chives.
4. Heat the oil in a frying pan over
medium heat.
5. Dredge chicken breasts in seasoned
flour, then dip in the egg mixture.
Place chicken in the pan and saut
2 to 3 minutes on each side until
golden brown. Set aside.
6. Add the wine and lemon juice to the
pan and simmer 5 minutes. Roll the
butter in flour and add to the pan.
Turn heat down and stir until sauce
thickens.
7. Add the capers and parsley. Return
the chicken to the pan and spoon the
sauce over it. Serve.

ThE mACRos (PER sERVING)


Calories: 455, Protein: 42 g,
Fat: 22 g ,Carbs: 18 g

50

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

QUICK
TIP

The lemon juice


in this recipe helps
break down the
meat so you can
make use of all
its protein.

EAT

food of the month

SnACK
StRonG
Nuts are so packed with
health benefits youd be crazy
not to indulge. Here, expert
DaviD Braverman,
third-generation owner of
Nuts.com, gives us the hard
shell. By Ian Cohen

NUTTY FACT
Contrary to
popular belief, a
peanut is not a nut.
Its actually a
legume that grows
underground.

52

MUSCLE & FItnESS

Why do you think people


dont eat enough nuts?
A common misconception
about nuts is that theyre
unhealthy due to their
high fat content. Although
its true they can be high
in fat, most of it comes
from unsaturated fats and
essential fatty acids the
body needs.
Whats healthier?
Raw or roasted?
Whether you choose to
eat raw or roasted nuts
is a matter of preference,
though oil-roasted nuts
will be slightly higher in
fat and calories.

the BIG fIVe


Choose these nuts
to improve health and
performance.

AlmondS are the


leading source of
heart-healthy
monounsaturated
fat among the most
commonly eaten nuts.

WAlnutS are one


of the most nutrientdense food sources
of alpha-linolenic acid, an
essential omega-3 fatty
acid.

PIStAChIoS
contain fewer
calories per
serving than any other
nut. A 25 g serving is
about 49 pistachios.

CASheWS About
75% of the unsaturated fat in cashews
comes from oleic acid, the
same heart-healthy fat
found in olive oil.

PeCAnS
Research suggests
that the plant
sterols in pecans may help
lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels and unclog
arteries.

DevoN JarvIs

M&F: Why should


lifters include nuts in
their regular diet?
DB: Nuts are an excellent
source of protein. The
soluble fibre in nuts slows
the passage of food through
the intestines, helping the
body absorb essential
macronutrients. Minerals
such as potassium prevent
cramps following workouts,
and iron ensures an adequate
supply of oxygen to produce
energy.

EAT

15-minute feast

Oats

Fuel up with these 5 tasty ways to


enjoy this heart-healthy whole grain.
By Franci Cohen

1 MUESLI
add them to

Mix 100 g oats, 150 ml skimmed


milk and 165 g low-fat plain yogurt;
let stand 15 minutes. Mix 150 ml
orange juice, 85 g honey, 35 g
almonds, 375 g fresh fruit, and
125 g grated apples. Stir mixture
into oats.

2 BItES

roll them into

Mix 85 g oats, 125 g nut butter


and ground flax, 115 g honey,
55 g coconut flakes, and 25 g
cacao nibs. Form balls. Chill.

3 pancakE
put them in a

Whisk 40 g rolled oats, 3 egg whites,


half an apple, grated, and tsp
cinnamon. Spoon mixture onto pan.
Flip when pancakes bubble.

4 BrEadIng
use them in

Blend raw or toasted oats and


mix with panko flakes or ground
almonds/walnuts to create a
nutritious breading for steak,
chicken or fish.

5 BUrgEr

getty images

make them into a

Cook 185 g black beans and 185 g


white beans. Mash and mix with
120 g oats, 150 g roasted pepper,
175 ml water, and dashes of black
pepper, chilli powder, and cumin.
Form patties. Bake at 180/Gas mark
4 for 20 minutes.

54

MUSCLE & FitnESS

EAT

15-minute feast

sWeet musCLe
This recipe for sweet potato pancakes is high in protein and
clean carbsand its so satisfying. By nikki Donnelly

SwEET PoTATo
PAnCAkES
ServeS 1 (2 pancakeS)

1 medium-size sweet potato


40 g rolled oats
1 large egg
4 egg whites
1 tsp vanilla extract
1 tsp cinnamon
60 g fat-free plain yogurt
75 g sliced strawberries
75 g blueberries
1. Microwave sweet potato
until soft. Let cool, then
remove skin with a knife.
2. Place the oats in a blender
and pulse until powdery;
empty into a bowl and set
aside. Add the sweet potato
to the blender and pulse until
smooth. Mix with the oat
powder, then stir in
egg, egg whites, vanilla,
cinnamon, and yogurt.
3. Place a pan over medium
heat. Spoon cup of
batter into the pan and cook
12 minutes. Flip the pancake
and cook another 30
seconds. Follow the same
procedure for the remaining
pancake, then top both
with berries.

THE MACRoS
(PER SERVInG)

Calories: 491, protein: 32 g


Fat: 9 g, Carbs: 74 g

MUSCLE & FItnESS

55

sam kaplan

FIT FACT
If youre not concerned
about fat, cook
the pancakes in a small
amount of coconut
oil rather than cooking
spray. Fat helps the
body absorb the betacarotene from the
sweet potato.

EAT

PROTEIN POW!

CHOCOLATE
PROTEIN
BARS

Bars or flapjacks, call them what you will,


these chocolatey treats pack a protein punch
By Anna Sward
Adding A lAyer of dArk
chocolAte on top of
your protein bArs or
flapjacksnot only lends them
an extra element of flavour and
texture, it also makes them easier
to carry. You can take them with
you to the gym, school, work

or out on a day trip and theyll


retain their shape; they wont
get squished. Chocolate-layered
protein bars also let you enjoy
your dark chocolate in a way that
packs not just a decent shot of
chocolatey goodness but also a
hefty punch of protein.

ANNA
SWARD

is a recipe writer and creator


of proteinpow.com

OAT AND DARK


CHOCOLATE
PROTEIN BARS
MAKES 8 TO 10 BARS

YOULL NEED
75 g peanut (or cashew nut)
butter
60 g rolled oats
70 g vanilla pea protein powder
(or vanilla casein powder)
45 g agave syrup
135 g water or almond milk
40 g dark chocolate
PREPARATION
1. In a bowl, mix the peanut

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

butter, protein powder, oats,


agave syrup and water until
you get a dough; add more
liquid if necessary.
Press this dough down onto a
small nonstick brownie pan,
preferably a silicone one so the
bars wont stick.
Bake at 160C/Gas Mark 3 for
about 35-40 minutes or until
the block has cooked through.
Once cooked, place the dark
chocolate on top of the block
so it melts against it (in this
way, you dont have to melt the
chocolate separatelythe heat
of the block does it for you).
Place the block in the fridge
overnight.
Cut into 8-10 bars (depending
on how thick you want them).

THE MACROS
per bar (out of 10):

Calories

134
CarBs

ProTeiN

9G
FaT

10 G 6 G
ANNA SWARD

(of which 2 g is fibre)

56

MUSCLE & FitNESS

ARNOLD
SchwARzeNeggeR
in peak condition at the
1974 Mr Olympia contest in
New York City.

58

MUSCLE & FitNESS

The most famous


physique in the history
of the world has
had many shapes and
sizes. See how Arnold
has transformed
his body as hes moved
from bodybuilder to
movie star to
Governatorand back.
By Sean Hyson

MUSCLE & FitnESS

c a r u s o / c o u r t e s y o f w e i d e r H e a lt H & f i t n e s s

ARnolds
BodY
oF WoRk

59

1966

Trying to choose Arnold


Schwarzeneggers best look

is like trying to pick his best movie


one-liner. His physique has
undergone so many changes over
the years, each one awesome in its
own way, that it becomes the
proverbial apples vs. oranges
debate. But many bodybuilding
pundits agree that Arnolds peak
shapeonstage, anywaycame at
the 1974 Mr Olympia, a year prior
to the contest filmed for the movie
Pumping Iron (which casual fans

60

MUSCLE & FitnESS

usually assume was Arnolds most


impressive showing). On the 40th
anniversary of that competition,
we look back at how Arnolds
physique has followed his amazing
career, changing for contests,
movies, and the demands of a life
as public as any ever lived.

74, And So Much More

On Oct. 12, 1974, Arnold swaggered


onto the stage at New York Citys

Felt Forum to meet Lou Ferrigno.


Though the man who would be
Hulk was four years younger
and 20 pounds heavier, Arnolds
smirk grew wider as he hit his first
few poses. At 240-plus pounds,
yet with a waistline that still
measured just 34 inches, Arnold
had brought his best-ever body to
the Olympia daisand he knew it.
Hed decided months earlier that
hed retire from bodybuilding

a l b e r t b u s e k ; z e l l e r / f i t n e s s p u b l i c at i o n s i n c. / c o u r t e sy o f w e i d e r
h e a lt h & f i t n e s s ( 4 ) ; c o u r t e s y o f w e i d e r h e a lt h & f i t n e s s

1968

1969

1971
1980

1980
after that night, and wanted to
emphasise his reign over the sport
by leaving no doubt that he was the
greatest bodybuilder ever.
His blend of mass, symmetry,
and definition was absolutely
perfect. His arms were thick, his
already legendary biceps fully
peaked. Even Ferrigno, at 6'5",
couldnt outmuscle him.
At the same time, Arnold
hadnt sacrificed any of the
definition hed shown the year
before. When he hit his chest
poses, lines were etched across
his pecs as if being chiselled in
right before your eyes. His abs
and thighs, though never his

strong suit, were sharp and fully


formed.
He had no weak points. He was
the best bodybuilder in the world.

A StRONg FOuNDAtiON

Arnold began training at age 15.


While his focus was always on
bodybuilding, he wanted his
muscles to be not only aesthetic but
also bursting with power. Heavy
training in the form of Olympic
weightlifting and powerlifting were
part of his routines almost from the
beginning. Understanding that the
traps and spinal erectors developed
best with heavy clean and deadlift
movements, Arnold worked up to

tHE ARNOLD
SCRAPBOOK
The time arc of
Schwarzeneggers
physique serves as
a good blueprint
for the rest of us.
Spend your early
years developing
mass and strength
with heavy, basic
training, and
then refine your
look with more
isolation exercises
and intensity
boosters such
as supersets
and trisets.

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

61

1967

62

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

Arnolds Alps
The Austrian
Oak often took
posing photos
with mountains in
the background
to communicate
his gargantuan
development.
Heavy lifts,
including T-bar
rows (shown at
left), made up
much of his
training.

1965

albert busek (2)

sets of only five, three, and, from


time to time, one single rep.
By forcing myself to go to the
limit, he wrote in his 1985 book
The New Encyclopedia of Modern
Bodybuilding, I counterbalanced
the lighter-weight, higher-rep
training that made up the majority
of my workouts.
After less than a year of training,
Arnold made his first contest
appearance ever, in a weightlifting
competition held in a beer hall
by the Athletic Union in Graz,
his hometown. He cleaned and
pressed 150 pounds. The crowd
gave a big cheer, he wrote in his
2012 autobiography Total Recall.
The applause had an effect like
Id never imagined. Buoyed by the
audience, Arnold pressed 185 on
his next attempt35 pounds
more than I ever had before...
I discovered that I performed
much, much better in front of
others.
Later, Arnold had other victories
in strength competitions, including the International Powerlifting
Championships and the 1967
annual Munich stone-lifting
contest, in which he hoisted
a 560-pound stonewith no
warm-up. By the end of the 1960s,
Arnold weighed 250 pounds, had
a 520-pound bench press, and
carried a physique that was
rough and lacking definition,
but undeniably Herculean.
Of course, Arnolds flirtation with
powerlifting led to his friendship
with future Mr Olympia Franco
Columbu, whom Arnold in turn
encouraged to take up bodybuilding. As Arnold wrote in his
Encyclopedia, Franco and I started
out as weightlifters, which gave
us a muscle density that bodybuilders who have not done power
training lack.

ARnolds 1974
MR olyMpiA
Chest & BACk
WoRkout

ExErcisE
Bench Press

sEts
5

rEps
1012

Wide-grip Pull-up

1012

Dumbbell Flye

1012

Seated Cable Row 5

1012

SUPERSET WITH

SUPERSET WITH

Dip

5 To failure

SUPERSET WITH

Bentover Row

12

Cable Crossover

12

12

SUPERSET WITH

Dumbbell Row

64

MUSCLE & FitnESS

1968
Movie MusCles And
the Body politiC

As Arnolds film career took off


in the late 1970s, his training
shifted to suit whatever role he
had to embody. As he said in
2012, When I did Stay Hungry,
[director] Bob Rafelson made me
lose 30 pounds. So two-thirds of
my training was cardio and
one-third was weight training.
In contrast, when Arnold made
Conan The Barbarian, they
wanted me to look like a powerful
guy who had got his body through
fighting and hard work.

pRessed foR tiMe


Arnolds Mr Olympia
training was fast-paced
and often consisted of
supersets, such as
presses and pull-ups
for chest and back.

I had to be big and strong but not


as defined, so I did heavier weight
training.
In general, throughout Arnolds
prime film-making years, he
used lighter training loads and
incorporated more circuit work,
sometimes doing a set each of up
to six exercises in a row without

z e l l e R / F i T n e S S P u B l i C aT i o n S i n C . / C o u R T e S y o F W e i D e R h e a lT h & F i T n e S S

Arnold cut the range of motion on his


bench presses one-quarter of the
way from lockout in order to keep
tension on his pecs. On wide-grip
pull-ups, however, he lowered his
body until he felt a deep stretch
in his lats, which activates them
better. Arnold used this routine on
Mondays and Thursdays.

Daniel Hammaecher, Reflex Nutrition Athlete

ONE SOLUTION,

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PROTEIN

72 g
CARBS

31.3g

MUSCLE &
STRENGTH STACK

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TESTO FUSION
STACK

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to the formulation. It contains 55 g of Quattro time
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The primary carbohydrate content of One Stop Xtreme
is provided by a unique complex of organic oats and
barley with naturally occurring vitamins, minerals
and dietary fibre. Added to this is the designer low GI
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100 % of the NRV of vitamins.
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ReflexNutritionLtd

1965
Arnold strong
Schwarzenegger
competed in weightlifting contests to prove
that bodybuilders
muscles arent just for
show.

Arnolds
Weightlifting
Workout

The crowd gave a


big cheer. The applause
had an effect like Id
never imagined.

66

MUSCLE & FitnESS

ExErcisE
sEts
Clean and Press
5

rEps
5

Push Press

6, 4, 2

Upright Row

10, 6, 4

Lateral Raise

10

Barbell Curl

10

Overhead
Triceps Extension

10

rest. The intense pace kept his


heart rate up, allowing him to
burn more calories and stay lean
while keeping every muscle group
pumped. It also allowed him to
accomplish workouts in well
under an hour, which made his
travel and shooting schedules
more manageable.
Arnold was renowned for having
a massive trailer delivered to the
sets of his movies, so that he could
train between shooting scenes. He
even allowed his co-stars to work
out in it, including ex-wrestler

C O UR T Esy Of s Ch wa R zEnEg g ER a RChi v E

This routine, which Arnold followed


in the mid-60s, combines conventional bodybuilding training with
Olympic weightlifting exercises that
build brute strength. He rested as
long as neededsometimes up to
five minutesbetween sets of heavy
exercises.

1983
Arnold Goes
hollyWood
Different roles required
different conditioning.
As Conan, Arnold needed to
craft a harder, more rugged
look. As Dutch in Predator,
his arms were emphasised
by cut-off military jackets.

Arnolds
Workout
todAy
The exercises are done as a circuit;
the number of circuits depends on
how much time he has. He rests two
minutes after the calf raise, and
after the circuits finishes with the
Swiss Ball crunch.
ExErcisE
High-intensity
intervals

1986

sEts

rEps

Bench Press

15

lat Pulldown

15

lateral raise

15

lawnmower row

15

Barbell curl

15

Single-leg
calf raise

15

Swiss Ball crunch 1

20

(and fellow future governor)


Jesse Ventura, who used it while
making Predator in the Mexican
jungle.
In 1997, Arnold underwent open
heart surgery to repair a defective
valve, and doctors cautioned him to
reduce the intensity of his training
going forward. In 2003, he needed
shoulder surgery after an accident
on the set of Terminator 3 the
shoulder was operated on again
in 2012.

68

MUSCLE & FitnESS

everett collection (2)

*Use an exercise bike or elliptical


machine. Work hard for 30 seconds,
then go easy for 30 seconds. Repeat
for 10 minutes.

2013

This is a direct debit offer


open to UK residents only.
Payments will increase to
16.99 every 6 issues
unless advised to stop.

As governor of California from


20032011, Arnold relied more on
cardio, for heart health and to
burn off fat. Though age and
injuries have tempered his weight
training in recent years, as his
latest movies and paparazzi
photos show, hes still in incredible
shapeand shockingly muscular
for a man of 67 years. He still
performs many of his own stunts,
and commits to performing some
physical activity daily.
My dream now is to live forever, he told us. But I doubt it.
Then he let out a big laugh.

ISSUES OF

M&F
FOR ONLY 5*

This offer is not available


to Digital Edition
subscribers.

CALL or CLICK

to subscribe

Call: 01858 435346 QUOTE CODE MU43


Open weekdays 8am-9.30pm, Saturday 8am-4pm

Click: www.subscription.co.uk/m&f/mu43

dustin snipes

Still pumping
Today, Arnolds
training consists
of more machines
and cardio.

72

MUSCLE & FitnESS

the

metabolic

workout
Strip off excess bodyfat
and take your conditioning
to the next level with
metabolic circuit training

BY rob fitZgerald
p h o t o g r a p h Y B Y d y l a n c o u lt e r
The excess fat on your body is a lot
like a nut attached to a rusted-up
bolt. You want to twist it off. You
need to twist it off. Chances are,
youve tried everything you can
think of to unscrew it, but nothing
ever seems to work. Its stuck
and so are you.
When this happens, any machine
or vehicle repair shop worth its

salt has just the last-resort


solution on hand to get things
moving: a blowtorch. When you
blowtorch a rusted nut-and-bolt
arrangement, the intense heat
breaks the bond created by the
rust, and it melts things down
to a point where the nut can easily
be removed.
Thats how it works with fat loss,

too. When all else failswhen your


diet and cardio solutions arent
solving a blessed thingits time
to break out your own blowtorch
and get the lard off once and
for all. Were about to show you
how to turn that corner with
a healthy dose of intensity by
adding metabolic circuit training
to your regime.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

73

EpOc Epic

you may have heard about excess


post-exercise oxygen consumption
in the past. ePOc is the fuel tank that
powers your fat-stripping blowtorch,
because when the type of training
were advocating here induces an
oxygen debt, it can increase your
metabolic rate for up to 16 hours
after you train. This means that when
youre done working outwhile
youre at college, at work, or sleepingyour body is still looking to
consume fuel sources for the oxygen
it needs to restore itself to a resting
state of equilibrium. The good news
for you is that it does this primarily
through raiding fat stores.
The ePOc effect does what
steady-state cardio cant do, says
strength coach ryan Whitton. you
still need some steady-state in your
programme to enhance recovery and
strengthen your heart, but when it
comes to stripping fat off your body,
nothing works like circuit training to
manipulate the speed at which your
metabolism burns.
research has shown that the
ePOc effect increases along with
the intensity level of the type of
exercise youre performing. So, while
you may burn more calories during
a low-impact 45-minute treadmill
session, youll affect your metabolic
rate in a far more profound way if
you throw in two or three shortyet-intense ten minute metabolic
circuits per week.

gET ShREddEd

Whether youre willing to admit it or


not, metabolic-style training is fun
despite its high degree of difficulty.
The workouts move quickly, the
exercises are constantly changing,
and it forces you to use your entire
body as a unitthe way its intended
to moveinstead of performing the
same repetitive moves for set
periods of time, la steady-state
cardio.
you can also train this way anywhere. Whether youre travelling,
pressed for time, or youd rather wait
until youre home from the gym to
receive your metabolic ass-kicking,
most of the exercises in this set of
workouts involve just your body
weightwith the rest utilising

74

Muscle & fitness

"if you want to


be lean and
you want the
kinaesthetic
awareness to
control your
own body, this
is how it's done."

TUcK
JUmp
Stand with your feet
shoulder-width apart,
with your knees bent
and your hands and
elbows in an athletic
position. Jump as high
as you can, tuck your
knees into your chest,
then land as softly as
possible. Gather
yourself and repeat
for reps.

dumbbells, the weight of which


can remain constant. in other words,
you wont need a ton of time, space,
or gearjust the desire to shred
those last bits of body fat and a plan
to complete the job.
if i showed you someone who
trained with these circuits for an
extended period of time, says
Whitton, an experienced amateur
fighter who favours MMa-style
training for his clients, youd see
how they look and perform and
youd want those types of results
for yourself. if you want to be lean
and you want the kinaesthetic
awareness to control your own
body, this is how its done.

hOW iT WORKS

Perform circuits consecutively


with no breaks between exercises;
then rest for 60 to 90 seconds
between roundscrank out as
many rounds as you can.
This doesnt mean you should be
hitting these circuits every day,
however. For most people, two or

WORKOUTS
Two or three times per week, choose
one of the following workouts and
perform as many rounds as you can.
ExERciSE

REpS

Medicine Ball
Overhead Squat
Tuck Jump
Scissor Lunge
Skip and Scoop

10
10
10
20 yardS There

Burpee with Tuck Jump


Push-up
Mountain climber
Figure-4 Sit-up

10
10
10
10 each Side

dB Burpee clean
and Press
dB Thruster
dB Snatch
dB Woodchopper

10
10
10
10 each Side

and Back

three hard metabolic circuits per


week will suffice, because you cant
recover from this level of intensity
in just 24 hours. additionally, the
hampered recovery levels caused by

overtraining with metabolic circuits


will negatively affect your strength
and mass-building workouts,
because you wont be recovered
enough to make significant
progress if youre consistently
running yourself into the ground
with anaerobic torture. Your body
cant hold up to it, and your
returns will begin to diminish
in short order.
The best way to get this done is
to leave at least 48 to 72 hours

between workouts, says Whitton.


Too many guys think that if theyre
not in a constant state of exhaustion,
that theyre not going to burn enough
fat, but this isnt the case. These
workouts are about quality as much
as quantity. Id rather see my clients
work themselves to exhaustion twice
per week and take the rest of the
days off than train like this every day,
because all the positive changes to
your body happen during recovery
periods.

"when you eventually


get off the floor and
leave the gym, you know
you put in a hard day's
work, and that's worth
all the effort."

Now, this wont be an easy six


weeks. Youll essentially be working
yourself to the bone twice per
weekgetting more rounds in each
time outin order to accelerate your
results, so this isnt a less is more
training scenario. Thats a good thing
according to Whitton. Along with
basking in the glow of the EPOC
effect, he says, when you eventually
get off the floor and leave the gym,
you know you put in a hard days work,
and thats worth all the effort.

dumBBell
Burpee
clean
and press
Holding a pair of
dumbbells, perform
a burpee except
without the tuck jump.
Once youve returned
to the start position,
explosively clean the
dumbbells to shoulder
level, then press them
over your head. Lower
the weights to your
sides and repeat.

dumBBell
snatch
Stand with your feet
shoulder-width apart
and your knees
slightly bent, holding
a dumbbell in front
of your thighs in each
hand. Extend your
ankles, knees, and
hips to explosively
raise both dumbbells
overhead. You should
feel like youre trying
to throw them
through the ceiling.

musCle & fitness

75

Skip and ScOOp


From a standing
position, move forwards
by driving your right knee
into your chest to begin
the skip. Land on the ball
of your left foot, then
immediately descend
into a lunge with your
right foot forward. From
this position, explode
into another skip, this
time leading with your
left knee. Repeat for 20
yards down and back.

Medicine
Ball
Overhead
Squat

Hold a medicine ball with both


hands extended directly over
your head. Push your hips
backwards and descend into a
below-parallel squat, keeping
your core tight and the medicine
ball high. Explosively return to
the start position and repeat.

76

MUSCLE & FitnESS

For retail enquiries please contact us on: 0127 987 4631

/scitecuk

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JUMBO MEANS BIGGER


JUMBO MEANS stRonGER

mountain climber
Stay in a push-up position and forcefully
kick your left knee to your chest, landing
the ball of your left foot on the ground.
Then, bring your right knee to your chest
and return your left foot to the start
position. Repeat as though youre
running on the spot.

figure-4 sit-up
Lie on the floor on your back, with your knees bent. Cross one
leg over the other so the outside of your elevated leg, just
above your ankle, is resting on your other leg just above the
knee. Place your hand opposite your elevated leg behind your
head, then bend at the waist and try to touch your elbow to
your elevated knee. Repeat for reps on both sides.

78

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

scissor
luNGe

From a standing position,


jump into a forward lunge,
with your left leg forward,
your right leg back, and your
arms bent in a sprinters
position. From the bottom of
the movement, jump up, and
in one motion, land with your
right leg forward and your
left leg back.

DumBBell thruster

From a standing position, hold two dumbbells at shoulder


level as though youre about to press them overhead.
Push your hips back and descend into a squat. From the
bottom position, use your upward momentum to drive the
dumbbells explosively over your head. Lower them to the
start position and repeat.

Burpee with tuck Jump


From a standing position, squat down,
place your hands on the floor and kick your
feet back together so youre in a push-up
position. Rapidly bring your feet back to the
squat position, then explode upwards into a
tuck jump, bringing your knees into your
chest. Repeat.

80

MUSCLE & FitnESS

3
CHICKEN

WAYS

Chicken breasts dont have to be boring.


Learn three quick ways to prepare them
then mix and match the methods with these
flavour-packed recipes.
BY Matthew KadeY
PhOtOGRaPhS BY tRaVIS RathBONe

82

MUSCLE & FitnESS

When it comes to Whats for dinner? chicken breast is a common answer among fitness buffs. The king of
protein is found in every supermarket, doesnt require a culinary
degree to cook, and is low in fat. A 75 gram serving of skinless,
boneless chicken breast offers 27 grams of muscle-building
protein and only three grams of fat.
Theres just one problem with this fitness food staple: it can be
unbearably boring. Your best defence against chicken-breast
burnout is twofold: (1) cook it differently, and (2) flavour it
better. The following guidelines and recipes will prevent you
from ever having to choke down a dry bite of chicken again
and leave you a satisfied breast man.

the Big three

Youd be hard-pressed to find a food that gets overcooked more


often than the ubiquitous chicken breast. Try one of these easy, alternative
cooking methods for juicy meat every time:

POacHIng
WHY IT WORKS Poaching

is a
cooking technique whereby
meat is prepared in hot liquid
to keep it moist. The poaching
liquid is most often water or
stock, but you can add
seasonings such as herbs,
lemon slices, or spices.
DO IT RIgHT Place the meat in
a pot and cover with chicken
stock or watermake sure its
enough to cover the chicken
by about one inch. Bring liquid
to a slight simmer with just a
few bubbles breaking the
surface. Reduce heat
to medium-low and partially
cover the pot. Cook for
15 minutes or until chicken is
cooked through. Adjust heat
as needed and skim off foam.

84

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

STEaMIng
WHY IT WORKS Steamed

meats
retain exceptional moisture
since theyre not exposed to
the intense dry heat of a frying
pan or oven. And without the
need for cooking oils, steaming
saves calories.
DO IT RIgHT A bamboo
steamer can include two or
more layers, allowing you to
steam multiple parts of a
meal simultaneously, thereby
streamlining meal prep and
clean-up. To use, fill a pot
with several inches of water
and bring to a boil. Place a
bamboo tray on top of the pot,
secure the lid, and reduce
heat to a simmer. To steam
chicken, season the meat
and place the breasts on a
steamer tray. Steam for
20 minutes or until the juices
run clear.

BRInIng
WHY IT WORKS Brining

infuses
tenderness by pulling saltwater into the chicken flesh,
adding flavour and helping to
keep the meat juicy when
cooked in a frying pan or grilled.
DO IT RIgHT To brine four
chicken breasts, place 1 to
1.2 litres of water along with
3 tbsp salt and 2 tbsp sugar
in a saucepan. Heat over a
medium flame until sugar and
salt have dissolved. Remove
from heat and let cool.
Add chicken breasts to
a large bowl and pour brine
over top. Refrigerate for at
least 1 hour but no more than
6 hours. When ready to cook,
remove the chicken from
the brine and pat dry with
a paper towel. Let stand
for about 30 minutes before
pan-searing.

BORED WITH
GREENS?

The chocolate
dressing adds unique
flavour but may
solidify upon sitting;
rectify this by simply
whisking in a
small amount of
hot water.

CHOCOLATE CHICKEN SALAD


4 (175 g) chicken breasts
250 g salad greens, such as
baby spinach or rocket
1 cucumber, sliced
1 avocado, diced
1 large yellow pepper,
thinly sliced
300 g sliced strawberries
115 g soft goats cheese,
crumbled
40 g dark chocolate, finely
chopped

3 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil


1 tbsp balsamic vinegar
2 tsp honey
2 tsp Dijon mustard
tsp salt
tsp chilli powder
1. Prepare chicken using one
of the Big Three methods.
2. Divide greens, cucumber,
avocado, pepper, strawberries, and goats cheese

Calories

S ERVES 4

among serving plates.


3. Place chocolate in a
microwave-safe bowl and
heat on high in 25-second
intervals until melted,
stirring in between. Stir
in olive oil, vinegar, honey,
mustard, salt, and chilli
powder.
4. Top salad with slices
of chicken, and drizzle
chocolate dressing on top.

636
55 G
23 G
37 G
ProTeiN

CarBs

FaT

MUSCLE & FitnESS

85

GUiLtLeSS
GRAVY

You cant eat


traditional gravy often
if you expect to stay
lean. This mushroom
version, however,
keeps it clean while
still providing flavour.

chicken with
MUShROOM GRAVY
S ERVES 4
4 (175 g) chicken breasts
1 tbsp grapeseed oil or
canola oil
2 shallots, chopped
275 g white or cremini
mushrooms, sliced
(about 280 g)
2 garlic cloves, minced
120 ml dry white wine
3 tbsp cornflour
750 ml low-sodium
chicken stock
1 tbsp fresh thyme or
1 tsp dried thyme
1. Prepare chicken
using one of the Big
Three methods.
2. Heat oil in a saucepan
over medium heat. Add

Calories

ProTeiN

shallots, mushrooms,
and garlic. Cook until
the mushrooms are soft.
Add the wine, raise the
heat to medium-high, and
simmer uncovered until
the liquid has reduced by
half (about 3 minutes).
Whisk cornflour, 1 tbsp at
a time, into 250 ml of the
stock until smooth. Add
the stock and thyme
to the pan. Return to a
boil and simmer until
thickened (68 minutes).
Season with salt and
black pepper to taste.
3. Serve immediately on
top of thinly sliced
chicken.

CarBs

FaT

306 46 G 5 G 9 G
86

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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CHICKEN WITH
TOMATO-OLIVE RELISH
S ERVES 4

4 (175 g) chicken
breasts
3 plum (Roma) tomatoes,
seeded and diced
small red onion,
diced
60 g kalamata olives,
thinly sliced
20 g chopped flat-leaf
parsley
1 garlic clove, minced
2 tbsp extra-virgin
olive oil

Calories

ProTeiN

1 tbsp balsamic
vinegar
tsp black pepper
1. Prepare chicken

using one of the


Big Three methods.
2. In a large bowl,
toss together all
remaining
ingredients.
Serve chicken
topped with relish.

CarBs

FaT

384 56 G 6 G 15 G

FORGET
SALSA

Give your breast


meat a real jolt of
flavour by adorning
it with this sweetbriny relish.

88

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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SWEET & HOT

Chicken gets a sweet


and smoky kick from
the mango and
chipotle. Sneaking in
some Greek yogurt
provides an extra
shot of protein.

CHICKEN
MANGO
BOWLS
S ERVES 3
4 (175 g) skinless, boneless
chicken breast
1 mango, diced
185 g tinned red beans,
drained and rinsed
1 red pepper, diced
80 g diced red onion
1 tbsp coriander, chopped
Juice of 1 lime
Salt
245 g plain Greek yogurt
1 garlic clove, minced
1 tsp lime zest
1 chipotle chilli pepper
in adobo sauce, minced
1. Prepare chicken using one
of the Big Three methods.
Chop cooked chicken into
1-inch pieces.
2. In a large bowl, toss
together chicken, mango,
beans, pepper, onion,
coriander, juice of lime,
and tsp salt.
3. In a bowl, whisk together
yogurt, garlic, zest, chilli
pepper, remaining lime
juice, and salt to taste.
4. Divide chicken-mango
mixture among serving
bowls and top with
yogurt sauce.

Calories

ProTeiN

CarBs

FaT

424 66 G

34 G 3 G
90

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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CHICKEN
WITH
POACHED
PLUMS
S ERVES 4
4 (175 g) skinless, boneless
chicken breasts
4 plums, stoned and thinly
sliced
120 ml port wine or other
sweet red wine
1 tbsp honey
1 tbsp balsamic vinegar
2 tsp minced fresh ginger
1 tsp fresh thyme
1 tsp orange zest
3 whole cloves
tsp sea salt
1. Prepare chicken using one
of the Big Three methods.
2. Add plums, wine, honey,
balsamic vinegar, ginger,
thyme, zest, cloves, and
salt to a medium-size
saucepan. Bring to a boil,
reduce heat to medium-low,
and simmer uncovered,
stirring occasionally,
until plums soften (about
12 minutes).
3. Slice chicken thinly
and serve topped with
plum sauce.

Calories

ProTeiN

CarBs

FaT

363 49 G
16 G 11 G
UNCORK
FOR FLAVOUR

Who says cooking with


wine is just for red meat
or high-flying foodies?
Here, the sweetness of
the wine-poached
plums breathes new life
into yawny chicken
breast.

92

MUSCLE & FitnESS

94

MUSCLE & FitnESS

HIGHLAND
WARRIOR
SPIRIT
The Highland Games are a centuriesold test of warrior strength. M&F went
along to the World Championships in
Scotland to see the power of modern
athletes in action
By Ben Kenyon
PHoToGraPHy By Billy Cullen
Think the Highland Games are just a
quaint Scottish pastime with kilts and
cabers? Think again. The sport is as
serious as it gets.
Its roots run deep in history when
the games honed Scotlands warriors for battle in times of bloodshed.

And that warrior spirit lives on in


the modern day sport where only
the strongest, most powerful and
skilled prevail.
The World Highland Games
Championships draws Olympians,
strongmen and medal-winning

throwers from around the


globe to contest the crown.
This year, the worlds top
competitors gathered in
Dunfermline to battle it out
and see who would be the
champion of champions.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

95

Centuries-old tradition

THE CHAMPIONSHIPS

With Highland Games taking place across


the globe, it was inevitable there would be
a contest to find the best of the best.
The World Highland Games Cham
pionships is that contest.
It started in 1980 and has had some
illustrious winners, including legendary
Worlds Strongest Man champion Geoff
Capes.

Competitors are drawn from field


athletics disciplines like the shot put
and hammer throw, as well as strength
sports, but there are also Highland
Games specialists.
This years lineup saw champions
from Iceland, Canada, the USA and the
Netherlands compete against Olympic
shotputters, former strongmen and
even a onetime Team GB bobsledder.

THE EVENTS

For the warriors of old, the games were


a test of strength, power and skill to find
the best soldiers for battle.
That tradition has carried through
into the modern games. The World
Highland Games Championship has
throwing as its heart.
The Highland Games is a forebear of
the Olympic Games, said Dr Douglas
Edmunds, one of the events organisers
and the cofounder of Worlds Strongest
Man.
Some of these events were actually
in the early Olympics, like the hammer
throw and weight throw.
If you are a shotputter this is the
roots of your event. You have never
really lived until you have done the
games.
The main events are the stone put,
Scottish hammer, weight throw, weight
over the bar and the caber toss.
These events are tough, said
Dr Edmunds. You get great athletes
coming here for the first time and
they make fools of themselves. You
need the technique. It is a multi
discipline sport so you have to be an
allrounder.
To become a champion you need
physical prowess. But you also need
guts and bottle.

They are strong guys and also athletes. It is a


multi-discipline sport so you have to be an all-rounder.
2014 World Champion
Matt Vincent with
the athletes

96

MUSCLE & FitnESS

SCOTTISH HAMMER

The Scottish hammer throw is split into


the light and heavy hammerat 16 lbs
and 22 lbs respectively. It is similar to
the hammer throw seen in the modern
Olympics (also 16 lbs) except the metal
ball is attached to the end of a four-foot
wooden shaft. Highland Games athletes
whirl the Scottish hammer around their
heads and launch it as far as possible.
2013 world games champion Dan
McKim threw a games record of 124 ft
4 ins to clinch first place in the heavy
hammer throw while former champion
and fellow American Matt Vincent
finished second with a 115 ft 10 ins
throw. Polish strongman Sebastian
Wenta finished third.
McKim followed his first monstrous
throw with another in the light hammer,
clocking a distance of 143 ft 3 ins.
Canadian Matt Doherty threw just three
feet short of his rival to knock Vincent
into third place.

Sebastian Wenta
throwing the hammer

To become a
champion you
need physical
prowess.
But you also
need guts
and bottle.
MUSCLE & FitnESS

97

MATT
DOHERTY

Burger Lambrechts in
action on the stone put

STONE PUT

This is similar to the modern day shotput, but Highland Games athletes use a
stone that is heavier, larger and more
awkward. The stone size is different
every time and difficult to cradle in the
neck when throwing. The heavy stone
weighs between 20 and 26 lbs, whereas
the light stone weighs 16 lbs.
A monster throw by the South African
Burger Lambrechts won the light stone

put. The Olympic shot-putter smashed


the games record with a 61 ft 6 ins
throw. English shot-putter Scott Rider
hit 58 ft 9 ins to finish second.
The impressive Lambrechts then
clinched first place with the heavy stone,
launching it a distance of 47 ft 10 ins. The
41-year-olds throw was 3 ft further than
Nova Scotia native Dohertys who took
second place, ahead of former Worlds
Strongest Man runner-up Sebastian Wenta.

If you are a shot-putter this is the


roots of your event. This is where
it all started. You have never really
lived until you have done the games.

Sporting background
My background is track and field. I still throw the
wire hammer and was the Canadian champion in
2010. I have been training more and more for the
Highland Games. It has become my full-time
pursuit.
ideal Skill Set for the Sport
You are looking for an athlete but with a strength
sport background. You get a lot of competitors
coming from powerlifting and strongman and
they dont really have the athleticism to actually
throw.
Strength training
During winter in Canada there is a lot of snow
so I will do more weightlifting and train indoors.
I do basic athletic movementssquat,
Olympic weightlifting, a lot of core training,
bench press, push pressthings that lend
themselves to these kinds of movements. You
need full body movements that allow you to
generate power.
The power clean is my foundation movement.
Jump squats and snatch- grip high-pulls also work
for me.
conditioning
At this time of year the vast majority of my
training is throwing the stone, the weight, or
the hammer.
Weekly training
In season I will be throwing all week, then
competing weekends.
I will do core work for support and plyometrics
to keep my body fresh. Beyond that you dont
really have a lot of time to train. All the work is
done beforehand.
diet
I eat clean. I dont really count calories. I eat
real food. I eat a ton of vegetables and lean
meats and supplement it with protein powder,
glutamine and creatine.
age: 29
birthplace: Quebec, Canada
lives: Nova Scotia, Canada
height: 6 ft / 183 cms
Weight: 231 lbs / 105 kg
career highlights: I have a few Canadian
records in the Highland Games and won the
Canadian Championships twice. This is my third
trip to the World Championships.
contact Via Facebook (mattdoherts)

MATT
VINCENT

Sporting background
I did track and field in collegeshot, discus and
hammer. Later I did some strongman and
powerlifting then eventually the Highland Games.
ideal Skill Set for the Sport
This really caters to a balance of strength, speed
and technique.
Youre trying to apply a max force to
something that is not too heavy. Compared to
gym lifts, 56 lbs is not too heavy at all. You want
to apply 600 lbs worth of squat into 56 lbs.

English shot-putter Scott Rider


won the 28lb weight throw

WEIGHT THROW

A metal weight with a chain handle


is used in competition. Male athletes
take on the light weight at 28 lbs and
the heavier variety at 56 lbs.
Competitors hold the weight
one-handed and must throw it as
far as possible, using a spinning
technique to generate the power
to throw it.

Former British bobsledder Riders


throw of 91 ft 8 ins in the 28 lbs
weight for distance beat Vincents effort
of 88 ft 9 insand set a new games
record. Wenta again finished third.
Former powerlifter Vincent was not
to be denied in the 56 lbs weight for
distance the following day. The
Louisiana native beat his rival McKim
by 6 ins, with Rider finishing third.

Strength training
I train three days a week. I bench, squat and
deadlift, overhead press, clean and snatch. I do
some accessories that I throw in a couple of days
a week too.
My best squat is 685 lbs, deadlift is 665 lbs,
bench is 425 lbs, 412 lbs on overhead press, my
clean is 400 lbs and my snatch is 327 lbs.
Weekly training
It ramps up week to week and the percentages
change and increase every week. I chase rep
maxes or personal records.
Once the season comes around I back off quite
a bit in the gym. I still lift three days a week but it
is more for speed.
conditioning
I do a lot of sled pushes or box jumps or more
CrossFit-style workouts about three days a
week, something I can bang out in about 10-15
minutes that will get the heart rate really high.
I have always done HIIT training.

This is a
real athletic
championship.
Some of these
guys have been
top athletes.

diet
Ive been doing the ketosis diet. I lost about
25 lbs at the beginning of the season following
a high-protein high-fat no carbs diet.
age: 31
height: 6 ft / 183 cms
Weight: 270 lbs / 122.5 kg
born: Sulphur, Louisana
lives: Baton Rouge, Louisiana
training advice: Just being strong will not cut
it. You have got to be able to throw.
career highlight: Winning a World Championship
in Scotland in a year that Im not my best
Sponsors: USP Labs, Mark Bell, Slingshot,
Jesse Burdick, Violent Gentlemen, Hero Culture
contact: Instagram MatsoExplosion, Twitter
MatsoAwesome

MUSCLE & FitnESS

99

BURGER
LAMBRECHTS

Raising the bar

WEIGHT OVER THE BAR

The weight over the bar requires pure


strength and power.
The weight is a lump of metal with a
chain handle and weighs 56 lbs. You pull
it up from the ground with one hand and
in the same movement launch it over a
high bar overhead. With each round the
bar is cranked up higher.
In the battle for the world championship, McKim and Vincent went head-tohead and finished level after they both
threw the weight 16 ft over the high bar
in one attempt. Lambrechts, Rider and
Doherty tied for third, hitting the 16 ft
height in their three attempts.

Sporting background
I am a shot-putter. My first senior national title in
South Africa was in 1993. I went to the Olympics
in 2000 and 2004 and won gold at the
Commonwealth Games in 1998. I have also won
the African championships a few times, too.
In 2013 Douglas Edmunds put together the
Highlander Challenge, which was a mix of
strongman and Highland Games, where I won
the World Stone Put Championship.
Im the only Highlander in South Africa. I do
the caber alone. My only throwing training
partner is my son who is 16 and is the junior
South African national champion at discus
and shot-put.
ideal Skill Set for the Sport
There is a golden midway that you must balance
between power and technique. All the top guys
are strong but you still need skill.
Strength training
Its normal weight trainingsquat, bench and
deadlift, then clean and snatch. I do three days
weight training at maximum effort every week,
then another two just pumping the blood.
My deadlift is 355 kg, my bench is 210 kg
strict and my squat I wont do heavy, just a
260 kg deep squat. Recently I did a 400 lb
power clean.
conditioning
I work a full normal day in the office so I train at
night. At the weekend I do long sessions, almost
like this competition. I will do five events so that
prepares me.
diet
I eat lots of protein and dont eat many carbs.
I just eat lots of vegetables. I have a body fat
percentage of around 14-15%.
age: 41
born: Phalaborwa, South Africa
lives: Pretoria, South Africa
height: 6 ft 6 ins / 198 cms
Weight: 320 lbs / 145 kg
career highlights: I won the
Commonwealth Games in 1998 and the African
Games five times.
training advice: Lots of people dont throw
enough and get stuck in the gym too much.
Sponsor: Chaos Hardcore Barbell.

100

MUSCLE & FitnESS

The games come from a warrior tradition as well as farming


and rural traditions. They were the original tests of strength.
CABER TOSS

The caber is a long tapered log, which


can be up to 20 ft long and weigh up to
75 kg. It is notoriously difficult to

control. Athletes hoist the caber up


vertically, cupped in the hands and run
with it. The caber is then tossed over
180 degrees so the heavy top end lands

RESULTS
1.

Matt Vincent (USA)

2. Daniel McKim (USA)


3. Scott Rider (ENG)

Sebastian Wenta
launches the caber

4. Sebastian Wenta (POL)


5. Matt Doherty (CAN)
6. Burger Lambrechts (RSA)
7.

Lorne Colthart (SCO)

8. Sinclair Patience (SCO)


9. Heisi Geirmundsson (ICE)
10. Jimmy van de Walle (BEL)
first and the bottom end flips over.
The caber should land in a straight
line. Competitors are judged on how
accurate the throw is in landing in the
12 oclock position.
The caber qualifying saw eventfavourite Scott Rider storm through in
first place after he turned the caber and
landed it closest to a straight 12 in the
clock face judging method.
McKim and Vincent went through in
second and third respectively with near
identical throws of 10.40 and 10.30.
Scottish athlete Lorne Coulthart
came fourth and was joined by Wenta
in the caber challenge final.
Rider followed his qualifying win
with first place in the final with a 12.30
throw. 6 ft 7 ins behemoth Wenta took
second and Vincent got third.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

101

#PhDADVANCEDMASS

TO CROSSFIT

OR NOT TO

CROSS
Sports scientist Ross Edgley weighs
up the benefits of CrossFit against
conventional old-school training and
devises a programme that combines
the best of both worlds
By

104

MUSCLE & FitnESS

RoSS EdglEy

PhotograPhy By ChRiStophER BailEy

FIT?

MUSCLE & FitnESS

105

FOr many PeOPle the


verdict is still Out On
crOssFit. Some strength
and conditioning coaches
argue it is too general for
elite athletes to improve
and that the weight, volume
and durations of workouts
are not sustainable for an
average gym-goer.
On the other hand, elite
soldiers and police officers
in America are incorporating CrossFit into their
training.
CrossFit argues that its
mission is to forge a level
of physical fitness and
mental toughness that
will allow the officer to
triumph against any
challenge they face.
So where should you
look for inspirationthe
conventional training
methods adopted by
modern athletes, or the
workout styles of the
likes of the US Navy Seals
who claim CrossFit is
more relevant to life
than the niche training
methods required for
specialist sport?

Lets weigh up
the practical and
scientific evidence to
see what lessons we
can take from each to
make the ultimate,
hybrid workout.

Overtraining and
PeriOdisatiOn

The basic goal of CrossFit is the same as


that of any top Olympic athlete. In fact
the Olympic motto is faster, higher,
strongera mantra that also rings true
in the sport of fitness.
Ultimately, its a basic principle of
strength and conditioning that to get
faster, stronger and bigger you need to
load your body above its habitual level.
CrossFit is one tool for achieving this
and centres on short intense bursts of
106

MUSCLE & FitNESS

Muscle-up

Look at any CrossFit


Games athLetes and you
Can see one by-produCt
oF the traininG is a Low
body-Fat perCentaGe.
exercise known as WODs (workout of
the day). Typically these combine heavy
Olympic lifts with punishing cardiobased circuits. WODs are renowned for
their brutality and although they can be
scaled down, their intense nature has
been tainted by reported cases of
rhabdomyolysis.
This is the breakdown of muscle
tissue that leads to the release of muscle
fibre contents into the blood. These
substances are harmful to the kidneys
and often cause kidney damage. How-

ever, this only occurs in extreme cases


and equally there are horror stories of
athletes in all sports pushing themselves
to the limit. That is the nature of training.
But it does raise questions about many
CrossFit athletes lack of periodisation to
prevent overtrainingsomething at
the heart of old-school training.
Conventional strength and conditioning coaches advocate separating
cardio and strength training whilst at the
same time cycling heavy, compound lifts.
Many even insist on a deload week.

This is a concept slightly alien to some


CrossFit gyms, which practise the motto,
deplete, endure, repeat too literally,
with less emphasis on rest and recovery.
Now anyone who trains will know
theres a fine line between stimulation
and annihilation which is why both
CrossFitters and non-CrossFitters need
to be aware of what happens in the body
during periods of intense training.

Squat clean

Staying HealtHy

Everyone wants to become bigger,


stronger and ultimately better. But the
human body has its breaking point and
if put under too much stress, will
experience something called exercise-

Walking lunge

induced immunosuppression. This is


where the immune system practically
shuts downunable to cope with the
weight, volume and intensity youve
subjected the body to.
A study by Queensland Universitys
Department of Human Movement
Studies measured key immune system
parameters in athletes subjected to
intense training for a sustained period
of time, as occurs in CrossFit.
They discovered high-intensity heavy
training drastically altered certain
immune factors within the body, which
in turn influenced an athletes resistance
to infection and disease. They experienced an exercise-induced immune
crash (L.T. Mackinnon, 1997).

In some cases this even produced


flu-like symptoms (Heath 1991) that
detrimentally affected training performance. More specifically, this form of
immunosuppression can manifest itself
as an upper respiratory tract infection
(URTI) that affects breathing. Obviously
not great news for anyone training.
Researchers at the university set out to
study upper respiratory tract infection in
highly trained elite athletes, recreationally competitive athletes, and an
untrained sedentary control group.
After analysing throat swabs from
people displaying two or more symptoms, scientists reported a total of
37 URTI episodes in 28 subjectsnine in
the sedentary control group, seven in the
MUSCLE & FitnESS

107

Handstand push-ups

recreationally competitive athletes


group, and 21 in the elite athletes group.
These findings strongly suggest URTI is
more prevalent in elite athletes, who may
be more prone to immunosuppression.
Researchers also found plasma
cytokine concentrations were also badly
affected by high-intensity training.
Cytokines are the messengers of
your immune system. If they become
negatively affected so does your immune
systems ability to carry information
between cells to combat disease
making you more susceptible to
illness (R. Gokhale et al, 2007).
So the intensity of CrossFit may make
you more prone to overtraining and
immunosuppression, yet some people
can undergo a far greater volume of
training and not get ill; indeed they
actually require a huge volume of
training to progress.

Fat Loss

Look at any CrossFit Games athletes


and you can see one by-product of the
training is a low body fat percentage.
Research at the Physical Activity
Sciences Laboratory at Laval University,
Canada, compared exercise intensities
and their effect on lipid (fat balance) and
body-fat levels. It found higher-intensity
training produced metabolic adaptations
that greatly favoured the process of fat
oxidisation compared to steady,
moderate cardio.
Granted there are catabolic considerations (e.g. muscle breakdown) to take
108

MUSCLE & FitnESS

into account. This is why its common to


see pro bodybuilders walking slowly on
the treadmill to tap into the fat-burning
zone and spare muscle.
But research shows if your goal is
solely fat loss, the metabolic adaptations
induced by CrossFit might be better.
This is because, according to research
conducted at the Exercise Physiology
Laboratory at Purdue University, this
form of high-intensity training increases
post-exercise energy expenditure by
increasing the metabolism through
something called post-exercise oxygen
consumption (EPOC).
This is best described as an afterburning effect for calories (and fat)
since the oxygen requirements of
exercise were not met during training
because of the high intensity.
Hours after the gym session there are

still millions of physiological reactions


occurring in the body that require
calories (hence the increased
metabolism).
This calorie burning doesnt happen
after steady-state cardio as the bodys
oxygen demands are met during the
training.
Obviously thats not to say every
bodybuilder should now ditch the
steady-paced cardio in favour of CrossFit.
But it does mean CrossFit will get you
beach-ready in the shortest time possible.

HormonaL response

In strength and conditioning circles it is


accepted that large, heavy movements
increase testosterone levels. In fact,
scientists from the Human Performance
Laboratory at Ball State University,
Indiana, found that strength training

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Ring dips

shows if
youR goal is
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loss, the
metabolic
adaptations
induced by
cRossfit
might be
betteR.

out the rulebook as CrossFit founder


Greg Glassman did and reinventing the
wheel is sometimes a good thing.

Summary

can induce testosterone release,


regardless of age.
This could be great news for Cross
Fitters who train in a community where
biceps curls are practically unheard
of and heavy Olympic lifts, deadlifts
and squats are the norm.
But heavy movements can be a
doubleedged sword, especially when
performed with so much volume and
coupled with cardio. This is because
of the impact they can have on the bodys
cortisol levels.
Cortisol is the bodys stress hormone.
When elevated it can result in a reduc
tion in testosterone, a suppressed
immune system and muscle breakdown.
Objectively measuring the negative
effects of too much training, scientists at
the Athletic Club of Bilbao examined key
hormonal markers such testosterone,
cortisol and growth hormone during
intense training similar to CrossFit.
They discovered it created a hormonal
environment within the body that wasnt
110

MUsClE & FitnEss

conducive to building muscle or fending


off disease. Instead they found cortisol
levels rose to such an extent that
testosterone levels and cytokine
production declined. In other words,
athletes could be left weak and prone
to illness.
But, there is another hormonal
response to consider.
Growth hormone plays a huge role in
building muscle and its CrossFitstyle
training that best causes its release
within the body through a mechanism
known as exerciseinduced growth
hormone release (EIGR). It does this
by stimulating neural input, catechola
mines, lactic acid and nitric oxide as
well as in response to the changing
overall acidbase balance within
the body.
So the body responds to training in
complex ways and its not as simple as
counting reps, sets and percentages of
your onerep max to elicit the perfect
hormonal response. Instead, throwing

CrossFit, like all training protocols,


has its benefits and pitfalls.
As a sports scientist Ive tried to
discuss both sides but Im aware there
are other factors to consider, such as
biomechanics and functionality of
movement.
Remembermany experts who
strictly adhere to studies worry that
CrossFit can make you prone to
overtraining, but as any athlete knows,
sometimes you have to rip up the
rulebook on training and push your
body beyond what the textbooks say.
For this reason, and based on the
above research, Ive designed the
following periodised CrossFit training
protocol that aims to combine the best of
both worlds for anyone looking to build
a lean, strong, functional physique.
Ross EdglEy

is a former international athlete who has a


degree in sports science from Loughborough
University. He writes widely about fitness and
is employed in the sports nutrition industry.

For references to this article go to


www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/scientific-references

Like this story and want to see more great


advice from Ross? See our December issue for
his band training tips. dig.muscle-fitness.eu/
and backissues.muscle-fitness.co.uk

PERIODISED CROSSFIT TRAINING PROTOCOL


Thursday:
rest day

If youve put 100% effort into the previous


three days training youll absolutely need
a rest day here. For your muscles, central
nervous system, immune system and even
neurotransmitters to recover. Then during
the second part of the week theres less
of an emphasis on CrossFit-inspired
training (endurance and volume) and
more of an emphasis on a periodised
strength, speed and power programme
that not only allows for better recovery but
also supplements your Crossfit workouts.

Box over burpee

Friday
chest and triceps

Bench Press: 5 sets x 5 reps

-Emphasis on strEngth
training adaptations-

Plyometric Push-up: 5 sets x 5 reps

-Emphasis on spEEd and


powEr oF movEmEnt-

Dip: 3 sets x 12 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Close-Grip Bench Press:


3 sets x 10 reps
supEr-sEt with

Triceps Pushdown: 3 sets x 10 reps


-FinishEr-

Tuesday
Legs and Lower Body

Front Squat: 5 sets x 5 reps

-Emphasis on strEngth
training adaptations-

Calf Raise: 5 sets x 20 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Leg-Specific WOD: 10 minutes in


total for as many rounds as possible
1. 10 Box Jumps
2. 100 m sprint
3. 10 sit-ups
4. 10 Walking Lunges

Monday
chest and triceps

Flat Bench Press: 5 sets x 10 reps

-Emphasis on strEngth/hypErtrophy
training adaptations-

Dumbbell Flye: 3 sets x 18 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Chest and Triceps-Specific WOD:


21 reps 15 reps 9 reps,
completed as fast as you can
1. Press-up
2. Box-over Burpee
3. Ring Dip

-Emphasis on mEtabolic conditioning


and spiking thE mEtabolism-

Tabata Triceps Extension:


30 second intervals followed by
30 seconds rest for 4 minutes
-FinishEr-

-Emphasis on mEtabolic conditioning


and spiking thE mEtabolism-

Wednesday
Back, shouLders and Biceps

Strict Pull-ups: 3 sets x 12 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Back and Biceps-Specific WOD:


An official, and brutal, WOD called
King Kong x three rounds
1. 1 x Deadlift (206 kg official weight)
2. 2 x Muscle-up
3. 3 x Squat Clean
(113 kg official weight)
4. 4 x Handstand Push-up
Preacher Curl: 5 sets x 12 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Side Delt Raise: 3 sets x 20 reps


-FinishEr-

saTurday
Legs and Lower Body

Leg Press: 3 sets x 8 reps

-Emphasis on strEngth
training adaptations-

Box Jump: 5 sets x 5 reps


(weighted is optional)

-Emphasis on spEEd and


powEr oF movEmEnt-

Hamstring Curl: 3 sets x 12 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Leg Extension: 3 sets x 12 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Calf Raise: 5 sets x 20 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

sunday
Back, shouLders and Biceps

Deadlift: 5 sets x 5 reps

-Emphasis on strEngth
training adaptations-

Ring or Bar Muscle-up: 5 sets x 8 reps


-Emphasis on spEEd and tEchniquE-

Bent Over Row: 3 sets x 10 reps

-Emphasis on strEngth
training adaptations-

Concentration Curl: 5 sets x 20 reps

-Emphasis on muscular
hypErtrophy and growth-

Front Delt Raise: 2 sets x 20 reps


Side Delt Raise: 2 sets of 20 reps
Rear Delt Raise: 2 sets of 20 reps
-FinishEr-

MUSCLE & FitnESS

111

112

MUSCLE & FitnESS

GROWTH

HORMONE

IAN SPANIER

In the first of a new series tackling common


fitness misconceptions, Mark Gilbert investigates
whether GH really does build muscle and burn fat

MUSCLE & FitnESS

113

We have all heard about the


wonders of growth hormone
Buff movie stars use it to look younger,
leaner and more muscular. Athletes and
bodybuilders use it to help build huge
muscles and get ripped. Many of you
M&F readers have followed diet,
supplement and workout strategies
to boost it naturally.
So much has been written about
growth hormone in magazines and on
internet message boards, but does it
really build muscle and have all of these
other effects?
The International Olympic Committee
tests athletes for growth hormone abuse,
and clinics all over the world claim it
restores youth, grows muscle and burns
fat, so it must be true, right? Well, not
exactly

Growth hormone (GH) levels are at their


highest in the human lifecycle during
puberty when we experience our most
dramatic growth spurthence the name
growth hormone.
Giving GH to those who are deficient
in the hormone, like the elderly, also
seems to be anabolic.
Intense exercise, including lifting
weights, causes substantial increases in
GH levels afterwards. In some studies
the degree of this increase in GH after
training has been connected to the
degree of muscle gain.1 It has even been
shown to be anabolic in animal studies.
On the surface, it seems like a mighty
strong case can be made that GH helps
pack on the muscle. However, as with
most things hormonal, its much more
complex than that.
First of all, among the various ways of
increasing GH secretion in the body, the
single biggest influencer is closing your
eyes and going to sleep.
And, actually, as much as you may
have read about GH being boosted by
lifting heavy iron, most studies seem
to show a greater GH response from
various forms of aerobic exercise like

114

MUSCLE & FitnESS

IAN SPANIer

The GrowTh Miracle

sprinting. Obviously this isnt a straightforward relationship.2


What about the elderly and all the
animal research? Well, this is fairly
suspect too.
You see, the two scenarios in which
GH seems to work best is in those who
are deficient and in those who are still
growing. Well, elderly people generally
produce about 50% to 70% less GH and
the animal studies used animals who
were probably still in a growth phase

(also, animals are not humans).


In both of these cases, there is good
reason to be sceptical of the power of
GH to build muscle. What we really need
to know is if it builds muscle in healthy
people aged between 20 and 45, and
especially those who lift weights.

real Muscle Builder

Fortunately, those studies have been


done and this is where GH loses a little
bit of its allure.3,4,5,6

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Men aged 21 to 34 were split into a GH


group and a placebo group and put on an
identical 12-week heavy resistancetraining programme.
While measures of fat-free mass and
total body water did increase, more so
in the GH group, muscle strength and
muscle circumference did not.
This led the study authors to conclude
that the increase in lean mass and water
retention had occurred in body tissue
other than the muscle. Could this be the
source of the infamous bloatthe
large, distended stomachs that some
people attribute to growth hormone use?
It is a plausible theory when looking at
bodybuilders of the past like Arnold and
Frank Zane, in the pre-GH era.
This same group of researchers looked
at whether GH increased muscle-building
activity in experienced weightlifters,
too, and again, no improvement could be
found.5
However, there was a very substantial
increase in IGF-1 and this study was only
over two weeks, so it is possible that
increases could have occurred with
continued use.
But two weeks should have been more
than sufficient to see an increase in
muscle-building activity, because they
werent measuring actual muscle gains
but muscle-signalling activity, which
comes long before measurable increases
in muscle mass with most anabolic
agents.
Longer studies with strength athletes
also found increases in IGF-1, yet

116

MUSCLE & FitnESS

similarly no difference in muscle mass


or strength.6
So, taking recombinant growth
hormone drugs in an attempt to increase
muscle mass or performance doesnt
seem to be an effective strategy whether
you are young or old, or whether you lift
weights or not.

Organic grOwth

There is another potential side to this


story though.
You see, there are a lot of interesting
connections and possible interactions
here when it comes to naturally boosting
the bodys own production and secretion
of growth hormone.
You may have noticed the first study
I referred to showed that those who
produced the greatest increases in GH
post-exercise, also gained the most
muscle over the course of a resistance
training programme (and other studies
back up this result).1,7
Thats right. When guys were put on
a heavy lifting programme for 12 weeks
and their blood was measured to see who
produced the most testosterone, GH,
IGF-1 and cortisol after their training
session, it wasnt the guys who produced
the most testosterone or IGF-1 who
packed on the most muscle (as may have
been suspected). It was actually the guys
who produced the most GH and cortisol.
Of course, there are several ways to
look at these results. One likely conclusion is that short spikes in testosterone
and IGF-1 that only occur after workouts

arent very important over the course of


a day or a week but that it is the longterm average levels that determine its
anabolic effects. However, GH is
classically known as a pulsatile
hormone, so instead of the body
secreting fairly consistent levels of this
hormone, it produces bursts every few
hours and in response to certain stimuli.
It is possible that by creating multiple
spikes via weight training, cardio, HIIT,
and so on, that you could significantly
influence body composition.
But wait a second, didnt I just say that
GH is useless for building muscle? The
answer is that I did say that taking
recombinant GH (the drug form) isnt
likely to build muscle on its own.
However, again, its not that simple.
It is becoming clear that GH isnt just
one molecule but that it has several
isoforms.
There are different forms of GH, which
probably have subtly different effects and
may work in harmony with each other.

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One of the minor forms of GH is


preferentially secreted in response to
exercise.7 However, it is equally (or
more) likely that growth hormone is
simply an indicator of the intensity of
a workout. We know that more intense
exercise (doing more work in a shorter
time frame) results in a greater GH
response and evidence is mounting
that it is this level of intensity that may
be most important for stimulating
gains in muscle mass.

We know it probably isnt the


principal hormone for these purposes
or it would be boosted more by intense
weight training than by cardio. Interestingly, another thing thats connected
with less fat and increases in GH is
restricting your carb intake.
So, by all means, do what you can to
boost your bodys natural GH secretion
but definitely stay away from the drugs.

Fat Loss

What about the other side of GH, fat


loss? Well, again, GH is heavily
associated with fat loss. In the short
term, boosting GH causes an increase
in the sensitivity of the key hormone
that breaks down stored fats in the fat
cells, called hormone-sensitive lipase
(HSL).8 It probably does so through
adrenal hormones that have a wellestablished role in fat-loss signalling.
Furthermore, in obese people GH
secretion is reduced and, of course,
intense exercise jacks up GH levels
acutely, which may play a role in
exercises effects on fat loss.
But higher-intensity exercise causes
a greater GH response. So GH could
just be a marker for higher-intensity
exercise, which also results in more fat
loss than less intense activity. However, as with its anabolic abilities, if it
is more than just a marker for the
effects of exercise, the influence of GH
on burning body fat is probably not
dramatic and is just as likely to be
stimulated by naturally-induced
increases in GH as from taking
recombinant growth hormone.

In my opinion, taking GH-boosting


drugs simply isnt effective, at least at
low and moderate dosages. However,
training and eating in a way that boosts
GH is associated with reduced body
fat and more muscle.
It doesnt really matter whether
GH is the cause of improvements in
body composition or if levels of GH
just tend to increase when we do
things that make us leaner and more
muscular.

118

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Marius Bugge

ConCLusion

Mark Gilberthas a B.Sc. in

nutrition and is a CISSN certified sports


nutritionist. Hes been involved in the
sports nutrition industry for 20 years
and is a director of MuscleGenes.com
andFitnessInventor.

For references to this article go to


www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/
scientific-references

Amy Leigh-Quine went


from stick-thin modeL
to fitness chAmpion in
Less thAn A yeAr.

By John Plummer // PhotograPhy By ChristoPher Bailey


120

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Just one year ago, Amy Leigh-Quine


had never lifted a weight in her life.
Shed been a sporty child, doing
everything from gymnastics to
karate, but working out had never
featured on her radar.
Like many females, Leigh-Quine,
22, had grown up with the idea
that gyms were for men and that
muscles would make her manly.
Being a model didnt encourage
her to think differently. That world
was about being thin rather than
buff. I was constantly told my legs
were too big and I had to lose
weight, she says.
Her diet, therefore, wasnt particularly substantial or healthy. Youd
never see anything green on my
plate, she says. Just bland colours
and I was such a sugar fiend.
So the body you see here, and
which placed third in the bikini
fitness class at the recent British
Championships, is a startling
example of what can be achieved
in a short period of time.
Fitness Commitment
Like many young females, LeighQuine dreamed of being a model.
Tall and attractive, she went to
the London School of Modelling,
did commercial shoots and
appeared in music videos. But
despite its glamorous image, she
hated her body.
I lost all my shape because
I was trying to be skinny, she
says. I stopped exercising
completely and my weight
went down.
At the start of 2014
she decided enough
was enough and saw
fitness as her way out.
I wanted to change, she
says. My best friend was
really into clean eating
and her boyfriend at the
time was into the gym
so I kind of went down
to the local gym with
her, not really knowing
what I wanted.

122

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Shortly afterwards when


her friend joined the
Showgirls training team
run by British IFBB
bikini pro and
Muscle&Fitness
columnist Michelle
Brannan, LeighQuine didnt
want to feel left
out so she joined
too.
I dont really
like to wait
around so I
signed up to
Showgirls
on 1st
May, she
says. I
heard a
lot about
the
competing side
and about
training and
eating right and
it sounded
awesome.

That very same month LeighQuine entered two fitness model


competitions at the BodyPower
expo in Birmingham. Although she
had only been training four months,
and had no contest experience, she
finished second in one and placed in
the top 20 of the other.
Its easy to see why: her looks
stand out in any line-up, and having
modelled she knew how to strike
a pose.
Her physique, however, wasnt up
to scratch. I had pretty much no
muscle, I was just very lean, she
says. But she loved the experience.
Im usually quite nervous and shy
but put me on stage and I become
someone else, she says.
So three months later she was
back on stage at the Kent Classic,
which is promoted by the UKBFF,
the UKs biggest bodybuilding and
fitness federation.
Eleven women entered her height
class aiming to book a place at the
British Championships. LeighQuine beat the lot. It was the
biggest shock ever, she says.
Sponsorship and photoshoots
followed, and suddenly everybody
was talking about her. In between it
all, she worked with new trainers
Jamie Chivers and Brian Williams
for Octobers British Championships, while maintaining her
accountancy studies.
Filling out her frame was still her
main focus. Being lean and attractive will get you so far but all the
British pros, such as Brannan and
Nina Ross, have tight, muscular
bodies.
Leigh-Quine had good abs and
shape but her lower body needed
developing. Given the short timeframe she did a remarkable job: she
competed at the finals in Nottingham at 57 kgsome 7 kg more than
her modelling days.
The package she presented
finished third in a line-up of more
than 30 women. For somebody who
10 months earlier had never lifted
weights, or knew the first thing

about diet, it was a sensational end


to a fabulous year.
Naturally, shes ecstatic. I put
everything I could into it but still never
expected to do so well, she says.
Her trophy collection isnt the
only thing that has grown. My
confidence levels have soared and
my life has changed completely, she
says. Im so much happier now.
The fashion world was bitchy and
cliquey but in fitness everyone
appreciates how much hard work
you put in and helps each other.
Training and dieT
So how did Leigh-Quine go from
skinny fashionista to fitness diva in
less than a year?
Like many models, she is genetically gifted with wide shoulders,
small hips and a tiny waist. Shes
also naturally lean, with great abs.
But whereas a year ago she was

starving her frame, she is now


nourishing it with seven feeds
a day and training to develop it.
I weight train 5-6 times a week,
splitting my training between
different muscle groups, she says.
I like to change between heavy
sessions and lighter rep sessions.
Brian and Jamie change my
training so Im not doing exactly the
same routine every week and they
can target my weaknesses. Glutes
and hamstrings remain her priority
but theyre already unrecognisable
from a year ago.
2015 promises to be a big year.
Leigh-Quine could compete
internationally, challenge for the
national title and perhaps even turn
pro with the IFBB.
Whatever happens, there will be no
going back to her old look even though
she knows shes way too muscular now
for commercial fashion work.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

123

My dream now is to become a


fitness cover model, she says. But
even if I get nowhere at least in
fitness you still get results from your
hard work.
Her new body gets mixed feedback. My family think its great and
my closest friends really like it and
think Ive done well.
I get the occasional comment like
you dont want to look like a man
but that doesnt faze me. I know I
dont. Even with muscle I think I
look more feminine now and its
great to wake up each morning and
see results.

AMYS DIET

MEAl 1 PrE-WorkouT
Banana
MEAl 2 BrEAkfAST
Alpen and protein shake
MEAl 3
Turkey mince and sweet potato
MEAl 4
Chicken, vegetables and avocado
MEAl 5
Chicken, vegetables and
nut butter
MEAl 6
Steak and vegetables
MEAl 7
Berries and hot chocolate drink

BuIlDING A BooTY
Heres a sample of Amys glutes
and hamstring routine:
30 walking lunges
SUPERSET WITH

15 kettlebell sumo squats.


Do three sets.
12-15 donkey kickbacks on Smith
machine
SUPERSET WITH

20 barbell hip thrusts.


Do three sets.
3 x 15 single-leg leg presses, lying
on side
3 x 15 reverse hack squats
Reverse lunges on Smith machine
SUPERSET WITH

Stiff-leg deadlifts
3 x 12 each leg Roman bench
lunges

124

MUSCLE & FitnESS

SCULPTING

AGENT
ENERGY*

WEIGHT
MANAGEMENT*

FOCUS*

.com/Cellucor

.com/Cellucor

@Cellucor

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

SNAPSHOT
Age: 22

Birthplace: High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire


Lives: High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire
Height: 5 ft 5 ins / 165 cm
Weight: 126 lbs / 57 kg
Career Highlights: 2014 British Bodyfitness
Championships 3rd, 2014 Kent Classic
bodyfitness champion
Ambition: To be a fitness model and turn
professional
Sponsor: Blade Nutrition
Contact: Twitter @xalqx

126

MUSCLE & FitnESS


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Inc. All trademarks are owned by their respective trademark owners. Carefully read the entire label before use and follow directions. 2014

WE

ADD 30 KG TO YOUR SQUAT IN

Chris Jenkins reveals how


the programme that helped him
become European powerlifting
champion can help you
128

MUSCLE & FitnESS

SEKS

by Ben Kenyon
photography by

Christopher Bailey
MUSCLE & FitnESS

129

The squat is considered by many


to be the king of lower-body
exercises.
Heavy squatting is widely seen as a
sure-fire way to power up your pins and
pack on muscle, yet many lifters spend
years toiling beneath the bar with little
or no success.
Others find their initial gains eventually grind to a halt and their quads
stop growing, no matter how many plates
they pile on or how deep their ass goes.
It happens to the best of useven
champion powerlifter Chris Jenkins
who can squat more than three times
his 90 kg bodyweight.
When the Welshman hit the wall,
he developed a plateau-pulverising
programme that helped him bump up
his maximum squat by 30 kg in just
eight weeks.
Jenkins credits the two-month regime
with helping him win gold at last years
European Powerlifting Championships.
Here he reveals how he did it and how
you can achieve similar gains in such a
short period.

Power and aesthetics

Jenkins, 33, is well qualified to talk


about the squat. He has clocked up an
unassisted raw squat of 310 kg and is
now gunning for the world record of
352.5 kg at 90 kg body weight.
But his physique also has a degree
of aesthetics not usually seen on the
powerlifting platform. His lean, muscular physique would not look out of place
at a bodybuilding contest.
Jenkins has impressive functionality
too: he can sprint 100 metres in about 11
seconds, has a vertical jump of 64 inches,
and boasts a black belt in karate. He puts
all this is down to one move above all
othersthe squat.

the dreaded Plateau

Like most squatters, Jenkins reached


a point one day where leg training
had become monotonous and gains
had slowed.
The high-weight, low-rep Smolov
and Bulgarian methods that had seen
his squat numbers skyrocket in his
early days to break record after record
were losing their potency.
I was doing a lot of heavy singles
and doubles, training at 90% all the
time, which was very taxing on my
130

MUSCLE & FitNESS

Not many powerlifters


have a physique as
aesthetic as Jenkins

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Front squat

CHRIS JENKINS
8-WeeK SqUat
pROgRaMMe FOR THE
EUROPEAN POWERLIFTING
CHAMPIONSHIPS
WaRM-Up: SqUatS
10 reps x 1 set empty bar (20 kg)
5 reps x 2 sets 60 kg (or similar weight)
2-3 reps building up by 15 kg-20 kg to top
set weight

Max Weight
Week 1: 2 sets of 5 reps at 235 kg
Week 2: 2 sets of 5 reps at 240 kg
Week 3: 2 sets of 5 reps at 245 kg
Week 4: 2 sets of 5 reps at 250 kg
Week 5: 2 sets of 5 reps at 255 kg
Week 6: 2 sets of 3 reps at 260 kg
Week 7: 2 sets of 3 reps at 265 kg
Week 8: 2 sets of 3 reps at 270 kg

aSSiStaNCe exeRCiSeS
ExErcisE
sEts
Narrow-stance squat
3
Stiff-leg deadlift
3
Clean-grip front squat
3

central nervous system, he explains.


My genetics had carried me for years
and years, but I was becoming stale.
Jenkins contacted Ed Coan, widely
regarded as the greatest powerlifter of all
time, and Coan suggested he try lightening the loads and increasing volume to
get his leg muscles firing again.
After just two months of training this
way, his quads started to grow and his
numbers shot up.
The dynamite programme he built
with Coans advice propelled him to
victory at the European Championships
but he believes it could benefit anyone,
from bodybuilders to elite athletes, who
take the squat seriously.
It will, he says, build not only strong
legs but also boost the spinal erectors as
132

MUSCLE & FitnESS

well as developing upper body muscles,


such as the traps.
Squatting will make you run faster
and jump higher, he says. Any good
squatter should have a decent vertical
jump. When I trained in judo I found

rEps
5-10
5-10
5-10

that squatting gave me a fantastic base,


making it difficult for an opponent to
break my balance.
Every athlete should be doing
thisespecially for power sports like
rowing, cycling or rugby.

Narrow-stance squat

The Programme

When he was following traditional powerlifting programmes, such as Smolov,


Jenkins was squatting three times a week.
Under his new regime, he just does one
heavy squat session each week.
The reduction in sessions gives his
central nervous system respite and
enables him to recover better.
Now, instead of doing lots of heavy
singles and doubles at around 90% of
his one rep max his main focus is to
work up to two sets of five reps at a
lighter weight, combined with the right
assistance exercises.
The extra volume, he says, has helped
him grow more muscle and strengthened his tendons and ligaments.
To begin the programme, take your
one-rep squat max and lower the
weight to a point where you can just
about complete five reps.
The fifth rep should be a struggleif
it isnt then the weight is too light and

should be increased for the next set. The


goal of each workout should be to work
up to two demanding top sets of five
reps, once a week.
Each session Chris adds 5 kg to the top
set weightalthough he says you can add
2.5 kg or 7.5 kg depending on your recovery.
The main goal is to hit the rep range
and increase the weight slowly each
session.
This methodical weekly weight
increase stresses the body and forces it
to adapt to develop more strength to
deal with the heavy load.
When the weights start getting serious,
the routine switches to two top sets of
three reps for the final three sessions.
To warm up, Chris says you should
start by repping the empty bar for 10,
followed by two sets of five reps at 60 kg.
Using a low-rep range of 2-3 to avoid
burnout, you then increase the weight in
15-20 kg increments up to your two top
weight sets.

SNaPShoT
CHRIS JENKINS

Age: 33 Birthplace: Neath, Wales


Lives: Port Talbot, Wales Height: 5 9 /
175 cms Weight: 198 lbs / 90 kg
Career Highlights: Winning the WPC
World Championships 2009 at 90 kg,
the 2011 Mr Olympia Pro Invitational
mens 100 kg class weighing 92 kg, and
the mens 90 kg open GPC European
Championships 2014 in Czech Republic.
Goals: To break the all-time 90 kg squat
record of 352.5 kg
Advice: Keep lifting basic, aim to improve
by small amounts but keep improving.
Never let anybody tell you that you cant
do somethingyou can.
Sponsors: Body Temple and Iconx
Barbell Clothing
Contact: Instagram
@chrisjenkinspowerlifter, Facebook,
or Chris Jenkins Gaspari athlete page

134

MUSCLE & FitNESS

Back squat

AssistAnce exercises

Building a strong, explosive and


ultra-defined pair of legs requires
assistance exercises to bolster your
squat regime.
Following his main squat programme,
Jenkins incorporates close-legged squats
which stress his quads more and also
builds strength for his heavy deadlift day.
He does three sets of five reps on the
exercise, followed by the same set and
rep range on stiff-leg deadlifts and
clean-grip front squats.
It is vital to bring up the supporting
muscle groups with assistance exercises
to support the big three powerlifts,
he says.

I use a higher-rep range on assistance exercises to develop my muscles


and condition myself for a long day
lifting in competition.
He says all compound lifts, such as
front squats and stiff-leg deadlifts can
be trained with rep ranges up to 10 reps
but it needs to be early in the routine,
and then you reduce your rep range as
the weeks progress.
The assistance exercises follow the
main lift weight increase but never take
precedence over the squat, says
Jenkins. The main goal is to improve
the squat using basic weight increases
and getting as much rest as possible in
between to keep moving up.

Want more info on how to get really strong?


Check out the M&F Strength Series at
www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/strength

CHRIS JENKINS
squAt tips
Footwear

Soft-heeled trainers made of


rubber will stretch and move when
youre lifting heavy weights, which
reduces stability and can be
dangerous. Proper weightlifting
shoes will keep you more upright,
give your foot greater support and
stability and enable you to achieve
better depth when squatting.

Foot position

Turn your feet outwards when


setting up and push your knees
outwards when you squat. This
will stop the stress going through
your knee, which can cause injury.

Body position

Keep your chest and head upright


and your rear pushed right out at
the back when you squat. This will
stop you leaning over to make
depth; remaining upright protects
your back. The tighter and more
solid you can keep your body the
more force you can generate.

Bar placement

You can choose a high bar (on top


of traps) or low bar (on top of rear
deltoids) placement.
Low bar will allow you to lift more
weight, and improve balance but is
slightly harder to make depth.
High bar is a great assistance to
classical Olympic lifts, stresses
the quads extremely well and
allows you to hit greater depths.

recovery

To squeeze those extra kilos


out it is important to complement
your training with a sound
recovery plan. I dont recommend
drinking any alcohol during the
programme. Eat a well-balanced
diet, high in low-GI carbs and a
number of protein sources,
which will be beneficial for
recovery. The day after squats
I like to stretch and perform
mobility work.

Stiff-leg deadlift

MUSCLE & FitnESS

135

Training hard can affect the immune system


and leave you susceptible to illness. Follow
these simple strategies to keep yourself in
the gym and out of the doctors surgery.

By Oliver Wilson

Lecturer in nutrition and immune function


136

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Cold War

The most widespread human infection


is probably the common cold. The
average healthy adult suffers two to five
colds a year and people remain infectious until symptoms disappear, which
can take up to two weeks.
There are more than 200 viruses
that can cause a cold, including the
rhinovirus, which tends to cause colds
in spring and autumn and the coronavirus, which often attacks in winter.
Both can be passed directly in the air we
breathe or indirectly by touching
everything from door handles to gym
equipment.
Fortunately, the immune system has
developed two lines of defence that can
restrict, hunt, memorise and terminate
invading viruses and bacteria in a
manner the worlds military can only
dream of. Its warfare but at a microscopic level.

138

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Innate ImmunIty

The first line of defence is our innate


immunity, which is designed to hinder
and kill invading germs. This includes
physical barriers such as the skin and
saliva, chemical barriers such as the gut,
and immune cells such as the antibodies
found in saliva and the white blood cells
that patrol the bloodstream. The latter
are predators that have perfected the art
of killing. They include the neutrophils
that hunt, engulf and digest any
organism that isnt labelled as you,
and the natural killer cells, which
destroy any cells that have been invaded
by viruses.

adaptIve ImmunIty

Sometimes our innate immunity is


overwhelmed and our adaptive
immunity kicks into action. This
contains specialised killer immune cells
called T-cells. Some older T-cells that
have battled before can remember
specific viruses, even if the virus was
first encountered many years ago. This
is how vaccinations work and means the
viruses can be identified and killed at a
much faster rate than before.
The T-cells are found in the lymph
glands such as those in your neckyou
may have noticed swollen lymph glands
when you are ill. This swelling is a sign a
virus is mounting an assault and the
T-cells are being rapidly produced
and mobilised in order to fight the
infection.

loWer Illness rIsk

Anecdotal evidence suggests people


who exercise regularly have an
increased protection or resistance
to infection and research seems to
support this notion.1 Indeed, those
who frequently engage in moderate
to vigorous exercise have a 29% lower
risk of coughs and colds than those who
do little exercise.2

traIn Hard, Get Ill

In contrast, many athletes seem to be


on a knife-edge between optimal fitness
and illness. Researchers noticed that
when elite athletes completed strenuous endurance events like marathon
running, many of the runners caught
a cough, cold or sore throat in the two
weeks after the race.3
Runners were more than twice
as likely to catch an illness after a
marathon than non-running controls,
and colds were more common in those
with faster race times.3 Similar relationships were noticed in elite cyclists,
overtrained swimmers and American
football players.1,4,5
A common observation is that
illnesses often occur during periods
of intensified training or competition.
The relationship between exercise
intensity and the risk of infection can
best be seen in the J-shaped curve on
the accompanying graph. Where
low-intensity exercise has no effect on
the risk of infection from coughs, colds

Phil Dat e

Have you ever noticed that a nasty cough or cold often


appears one to two weeks after a hard training block?
Frustrating, isnt it? Instead of enjoying the fruits of
your labour, youre suffering a cough, blocked nose or
sore throat, unable to complete your usual workouts.
Youre not aloneathletes, coaches and doctors have
all noticed the same thing and researchers have linked
it to impaired immune function. But why does this
happen? And how can you reduce the risk of it
happening again?

InfectIon RIsk

Scientists have now shown regular


bouts of hard training can impair both
innate and adaptive immunity.
Firstly, the number of antibodies
in the saliva is often lower in athletes
with heavy training loads and fewer
antibodies mean a greater risk of
infection.5,6
The killing ability of neutrophils is
70% lower in resting athletes than
untrained people and this impairment
continues in the hours after exercise.7
The number of natural killer cells
patrolling the bloodstream and their
killing ability is shown to fall below
pre-exercise values for up to 3.5 hours
after both prolonged and high-intensity
exercise.8
Adaptive immunity is also affected by
prolonged exercise where the number
of T-cells in the bloodstream can fall
140

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Above
average

Risk of
coughs,
colds
and
sore
throats

Below
average

Low

Moderate

High

Exercise intensity
by up to 42% below pre-exercise values
in the hours after exercise.9 Highintensity exercise can suppress T-cell
immune function for up to 3.5 hours
after exercise compared with moderateintensity exercise.9

Collectively, these findings suggest


the innate and adaptive immunity are
both hit in the hours after prolonged
and high-intensity exercise, leading to
a potential open window of infection.
So, is there anything that can help?

Photodisc

and sore throats, moderate-intensity


exercise significantly lowers the risk,
while high-intensity exercise significantly increases the risk. But why are
highly trained athletes so fragile?

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HOW TO AVOID
INFECTION

Unless you live in a sterile


bubble you cant avoid germs
entirely, but these tips may
help you reduce the risk.
Wash your hands regularly.
Avoid touching your mouth,
nose and eyes.
Dont bite your nails.
Avoid sharing water bottles.
Minimise stress.
Keep keyboards, desks and
worktops clean.
Avoid large crowds in the
hours after hard exercise.
Wash any gloves regularly.
Avoid a low-carbohydrate
diet whilst training hard.
Eat a high-protein diet
during a hard training block.
Consume 3060 g
carbohydrate during
your exercise session.
Caffeine may help improve
immunity as well as sports
performance.

NutritioN for
improved immuNity

Protein may also play a role in immune


function. According to one study,
immunity was strengthened during a
period of high-intensity training and
overreaching when consuming a
high-protein diet (3 g per kg body mass
per day) compared to a moderate
protein intake (1.5 g per kg body mass
per day).11
A high-protein diet was also associated with fewer symptoms of coughs,
colds and sore throats. Consuming a
high- protein diet during periods of
intensified training may therefore
improve resistance to infection whilst
maximising potential muscle gains.
Caffeine could also play an important
role. Taking 6 mg per kg body mass of
caffeine before prolonged intensive
exercise increased the number and
concentration of saliva antibodies
during and after exercise.12 It also
increased the number and activation
142

MUSCLE & FitnESS

of patrolling natural killer cells after the


same exercise bout.13 However, caffeine
had little effect on the killing ability of
neutrophils and reduced the activation
of certain T-cells in the adaptive
immunity.14,15 So, caffeine may help
some, but not all parts of the immune
system after strenuous exercise.
Vitamin C and zinc may help cut the
duration of colds but supplements like
echinacea will not. While vitamins E
and A are important for immune
function, taking excessive doses actually
impairs immune function.10
Regular strenuous exercise places
significant demands on our muscles, but
it can also put the immune system under
pressure, leading to impaired immune
function. This may lead to an open
window of infection where we
succumb to infection and develop
coughs, colds and other illnesses.
Athletes with additional life stresses
may also be at a higher risk of infection
due to their higher cortisol levels.

However, following some simple


hygiene rules and washing down an
adequate dietary intake of carbohydrate
and protein with some full-strength
coffee may be all you need to avoid the
germs in the gym.
For references to this article go to
www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/scientific-references
Dr. Oliver Wilson is Senior Lecturer in Exercise
Physiology at Leeds Beckett University. He
has published in scientific journals and has
investigated the effect of nutrition on immune
function.

Photodisc, Johansen Krause,

Carbohydrate appears to benefit


immune function. Strenuous exercise
increases the production of cortisol, a
stress-response hormone known to
reduce immune function. Exercising on
a low-carbohydrate diet significantly
raises cortisol levels and negatively
affects immune function. Therefore,
athletes looking to get leaner by
restricting carbohydrate intake during
periods of hard training may be at
greater risk of infection.
Consuming 30 g to 60 g of carbohydrate per hour during prolonged
exercise lowers cortisol levels and
prevents immune function decline, so
athletes should fuel up to guard against
infection after training.10

144

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Grappler rope pull

Overhead
cable press

The English Premier League is


probably the most physically
demanding in the world. Fast-paced
and fierce, it tests even the strongest
and fittest players.
So its perhaps not surprising that
powerhouse Dutch defender Ron Vlaar
is one of its current stars.
Vlaar is one of the most physically
imposing players on the planet. At
6 ft 3 ins tall and weighing 91 kg with
just 8% body fat, it is little wonder he
has earned the nickname Concrete
Ron. He isnt an easy man to get
around or knock off the ball.
Vlaar was a key member of the Dutch
team that reached the semi-final of the
2014 World Cup in Brazil. He also
captains one-time European champions
Aston Villa in the Premier League
where each week he takes on some of

146

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Europes deadliest strikers, such as


Sergio Agero, Diego Costa and Wayne
Rooney.
The 29-year-old works as hard in the
gym as he does on the pitch. Watching
him train with Villas strength and
conditioning team it was evident how
important strength training, and
particularly core strength training,
is for elite footballers.
But its far more specific than just
repping out sets of body part exercises.

Strong Belief

Its obvious watching elite football


that speed is essential but strength
and power are equally important.
Vlaar says this is particularly true in
England because the game is tougher
than elsewhere, including Holland,
where he played for Feyenoord.
It is a more physical and strong
league, he says. The speed in the
games is so much higher so you need
to be strongerthat is the difference.

RON VLAAR
STRENGTH
AND STABILITY
WORKOUT
Alternating Dumbbell Press

3 x 10 each arm

Half-Kneeling RIP Trainer Push Rotation

3 x 12 each side

Alternating Seated Cable Row

3 x 10 each arm

Half-Kneeling RIP Trainer Row Rotation

3 x 12 each side

Half-Kneeling Barbell Landmine

3 x 10 each arm

Half-Kneeling Overhead Cable Press

3x6

NOTE: Do three rounds and perform as a metabolic circuit with just 60


seconds rest between each pair of exercises.
Grappler Rope Pull Finisher
Alternating
Dumbbell press

15 seconds on
15 seconds off
maximum effort 4 minutes

IT IS NO GOOD
BEING VERY
STRONG IN THE
GYm If YOU cANT
TRANSLATE IT TO
THE pITcH

RIP trainer
push rotation

Often foreign players need time to


adjust to the Premier Leagues physicality but Vlaars previous strength and
conditioning work smoothed his
transition.
I needed time to adapt but for myself
I am a big guy and I was pretty strong, he
says. I had some injuries in the past for
which I did a lot of physical work on my
upper body and my core. So it was easy to
adapt to the physical side and the speed.
The centre-back, who maintains
an organic diet, says consistency and
dedication are the keys to surviving
at the top.
Our body is our tool and we have to
do everything with it, he says. I just
aim to be as fit as possible, in really good
shape and condition, and physically fit.
I see the gym as part of it.
Vlaar aims to become a better athlete
each season. Since I arrived here in
England, every year I expect more from

MUSCLE & FItnESS

147

If I ran 10 km
In a game last
season I want
to run 10.5 km or
11 km thIs season

miChael
Watts

Benjamin
siegrist

AGE:
33

AGE:
22

PlAcE of Birth:
Derby

PlAcE of Birth:
Basel, Switzerland

livEs: Lichfield,
Staffordshire

livEs: Sutton
Coldfield

rolE: Aston Villa


strength and
conditioning coach

Position:
Goalkeeper
hEiGht: 6 ft 5 ins /
195 cms

currEnt cluB:
Aston Villa

WEiGht: 212 lbs / 96 kg

PrEvious cluBs:
Chengdu Blades,
Sheffield United and
Norwich City

cArEEr
hiGhliGhts:
To come here from a
foreign country so young
and train with the first
teammy first day was
with John Carew, Gabby
Agbonlahor and Ashley
Young. I also won the
U17 World Cup in
Nigeria in 2009
AmBition: I want to
make it in the Premier
League
trAininG AdvicE:
Dont give up, just
stick with it even if
it is hard

148

cArEEr
hiGhliGhts:
Promotion to the
Premier League with
Norwich and working
for such a big club as
Aston Villa
AmBition: To work in
a European tournament
like the Champions
League or at
international level
trAininG AdvicE:
The key is attitude and
discipline

MUSCLE & FitnESS

ron
Vlaar
AGE:
29
BirthPlAcE:
Hensbroek, Holland
livEs:
Sutton Coldfield
Position:
Defender
hEiGht: 6 ft 3 ins /
190 cms
WEiGht: 201 lbs /
91 kg
cArEEr
hiGhliGht: Playing
in the World Cup was
a great experience. We
played well and I had a
great tournament
myself
AmBition: I want to
become a better player
and I am working on it
every day
trAininG
AdvicE:
If you want to be a
champion, you need
to train like a
champion

my body. I became a better player so you


get to a higher level and you have to work
harder.
Everyone wants to get your place but
you want to get to the next level again
so every time you have to work harder
and improve everythingphysically and
mentally.
Vlaars hunger to improvewhether it is
how much he can lift in the gym or how far
he can run on the pitchdrives him on.
I set myself goals always higher than Im
used to. You need a challenge and you need
to challenge yourselfthat is what you
need to go to the next level again.
If I ran 10 km in a game last season I
want to run 10.5 km or 11 km this season
and put more energy into itthat says
youre physically stronger. You want to
deliver throughout the 90 minutes in a
gamethats the most important thing.

Core PrinCiPles

Ask any top player or coach what is one of


the most important elements of strength in
professional football and you will more
than likely get the same answerthe core.
A strong and stable core makes players
quicker and more powerful.
Or, as Vlaar puts it: When youre in battle
with another player you have to be really
strong in your core. It is only a split second
we touch each other and that split second
you have to be at your strongest so you
have to be really aggressive at that time.
It isnt just hard-tackling defenders
like Vlaar that benefit from core strengthening gym work. Villas young Swiss
goalkeeper Benjamin Siegrist says core
stability circuits make him harder to
beat between the posts.
The 22-year-old, who won the under-17
World Cup with his native Switzerland,
says: Everything starts with your core.
If your core is switched on then your arms
and legs are automatically in the right
position to help you make the save.

ts no secret, the harder you workout


out the better results youre gonna get.
Every workout, every set, every rep
and every minute on the treadmill is an
investment of your own sweat and hard
work. The return on your investment
is seeing your goal achieved; a better
physique and heads
turning as you walk
through the gym.

You know that in order to amplify


your results you have to amplify your
investment, but how do you do that? The
answer is you need to train stronger,
longer and with more intensity! Every
workout needs to be your hardest. Every
workout needs to be your best. Now, I
dont know about you
but Im not always able
to muster the energy,
focus and motivation
to crush every workout
all on my own. I need
a little help. I need
something that is going
to take me from an
empty tank of gas to
fuel injected! I need
something that is going
to charge me up so
much that I cant wait to hit the gym and
grab some weights.

EVERYONE THATS
IN THE KNOW
UNDERSTANDS
THAT THIS IS WHAT
GETS THE GAINS

The question is, what


kind of results do
you want? Are you
OK with simply going
through the motions
and getting mediocre
results? Is simply
showing up enough
for you If so, keep
doing what youre
doing. Now if on the other hand youre
ready to achieve the strength, power
and muscle development that youve
always wanted, read on.

1 Photos and quotes are of members of Team BPI who have received complimentarty products for their testimonial.
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TRX body saw


with crunch

The 6 ft 5 ins stoppers gruelling gym


routine combines strength work with
instability exercises that test his core
to the limit.
For a warm-up I do two sets of core
and then upper body and then legs,
he says. Then I go into squats and
deadlifts. I used to do some snatches.
Everything starts with the hips so if you
do a snatch it is explosive from the hips.
If youre in goal you open up your hip
over your knee to jump.
The main reason to train in the gym
is to be able to translate that onto the
pitch. It is no good being strong in the
gym if you cant translate it to the pitch.
The core is the most important
thing because it controls the rest of
the body.

lent choice because we try and avoid


working muscle groups in isolation if
players are fully fit.
Watts, who previously worked at
GettinG SuSpended
Norwich City, says suspension training
Villas strength and conditioning coach
is also good for injury prevention.
Michael Watts says one of his main
Soccer is a multidirectional sport so the
challenges is finding a balance between
ability to be able to train in multiple planes
strength training and peaking for
of direction is a big benefit, he says.
weekly matches. TRX suspension
Functional training is about getting
training, he says, does the job effectively.
the guys doing movement patterns that
At Villa, players use TRX to
are taking them out of one plane of
strengthen their upper and lower
motion all the time.
body. Its also good for flexibility,
Most injuries happen in the transstability, and endurance, he adds.
verse plane. You can get some rotation
The fact that all TRX exercises also
going on in the exercises just to stabilise
activate the core make them an excel-

150

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

joints whether it is knee, ankle, hip or


shoulder. This will help the guys lower
or avoid the risk of injury.
Suspension training uses a single
anchor point generally supporting the
players hands or feet while the opposite
end of the body is in contact with the
ground.
Watts has created a Premier
League-style full-body workout for
Muscle&Fitness readers that will train
the core while working the legs and
upper body (see overleaf ).
He also describes a Ron Vlaar-style
TRX circuit that he uses for strength
and core stability.

TRX FULL-BODY
WORKOUT
TRX lunge

TRX CroSSing
BalanCe lunge

TRX Body Saw


with CrunCh

SETS AND REPS: 3 x 12 (each leg)

SETS AND REPS: 3 x 12

BENEfiTS: Offers great range of


motion in unilateral leg training because
a percentage of bodyweight is unloaded
onto the TRX. Works glutes, quads, and
hamstrings.

BENEfiTS: Integrates core stability


with shoulder strength and mobility.
Adding the crunch to the plank and saw
intensifies the core work.

TEchNiquE: Grasp the handles and


face the anchor point. Raise one leg until
the knee is parallel with the hip, lower
yourself down and at the same time cross
the knee behind the working leg, letting the
pelvis drop to increase demand on the
outside hip. Return to start position and
repeat on the opposite side.

TRX hamString
runner
SETS AND REPS: 3 x 10 (each leg)
BENEfiTS: Strengthens hamstrings,
hips, glutes, back extensors, and overall
core.
TEchNiquE: On your back, put your
heels into foot cradles directly below the
anchor point. Press heels evenly into the
foot cradles and lift hips off the floor. One
leg at a time pull leg towards your bottom,
simulating a marching movement to fully
engage target muscles.

TRX lunge
SETS AND REPS: 3 x 15 (each leg)

TRX power pull

BENEfiTS: This balance exercise


brings strength and stability into your
game. It works on your leg muscles,
develops muscle control, increases
stability and muscle endurance.
TEchNiquE: Stand facing away from
the anchor point with one foot in the foot
cradle. Lower down into a lunge with a
90-degree bend in the standing leg; to
get back to the start position drive up
through the standing foot. Keep your
body in an upright position throughout.
You can add a weight vest or change the
tempo to increase the difficulty.

TEchNiquE: Lie face down on the


floor with your feet in the cradles and
position yourself into the plank.
Maintaining body alignment and keeping
your shoulders pulled back throughout
the movement, slowly move your body
back as far as you can towards the
anchor point, returning to the start
position. Tuck your knees in close to
your chest by lifting your hips slightly for
every rep.

TRX CheSt PreSS


SETS AND REPS: 3 x 12
BENEfiTS: Helps shoulder stability
and works the chest. Also improves
core stability.
TEchNiquE: Grab the handles and
take a step forwards to angle the body
at 45 degrees. With the weight through
the shoulders and chest lower your
body down into a press-up position,
then press back up with the hands and
lock out the arms.

TRX Power Pull


SETS AND REPS: 3 x 12 (each side)
BENEfiTS: Provides a large range of
motion that integrates back and core
rotational strength and control.
TEchNiquE: Facing towards the
anchor point hold the trainer with a
single hand, lower and rotate your body
back into an extended position driving
the movement from your back and core.
Pull back to the start position with the
back and lats rather than the biceps.

NOTE: Do three rounds. You can add a metabolic element to the training session by
completing each exercise as a circuit and resting after the sixth exercise for 60-90 seconds.

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STRAIGHT-UP

Triceps
Build thick, braided horseshoes
with this man-making routine that
is both heavy and high-volume.
By Eric Velazquez
PHOTOGRAPHS BY PER BERNAL
154

MUSCLE & FITnESS

Take a look in the mirror.


Now hit a gnarly side
triceps pose like
nobodys looking. Do
you lovereally love
what you see? If you
answered anything but
yes, we now challenge
you to look at your
triceps-training routine.
If its dominated by
single-joint moves,
youre in good company.
The majority of us have
been conditioned to
bring up this upper-arm
muscle by isolating
itbesieging it with
direct, focused work,

TNT CABLE
PRESSDOWN
Who says you cant make
pressdowns a compound
movement? This version
of everyones favourite
isolation move looks
more like a downward
vertical presslike youre
pressing down on a
dynamite detonator.
With your pecs and delts
contributing to the move,
youre able to handle more
weight. Allow your elbows
to flare out and keep your
head to one side of the
cable. Maintain a narrow
grip and press to full
extension.

MUSCLE & FITNESS

155

week after week.


Growth via attrition,
if you will. This
approach can work
for a time, but as
some heads of state
eventually discover,
isolationism has its
limitations.
To build truly
behemoth triceps,
you have to amass
the power first.
Remember that the
triceps main job is to
help you push stuff.
So pushdont just
extend. Movements
such as dips and
close-grip push-ups
help train your triceps
to do what they were
intended to do, and
one modification to
pressdowns can
really help you pile on
the poundage. This
routine brings you
back to heavy basics.

THE
WORKOUT
E x Erc isE sE t s/ rEp s

Weighted
Triceps Dip

4/10,8,8,6

TNT Cable
Pressdown

4/10

Band
Pressdown

3/12

Close-grip
Push-up

x 100

156

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

WEIGHTED TRICEPS DIP


To keep the emphasis on your triceps, keep your elbows
tight to your sides and your torso vertical. Press to full extension
and squeeze your triceps hard. Use a weight that brings you
to near failure at the rep count listed. If you fail ahead
of the assigned rep range, rest 1020 seconds, then finish
the remaining reps (and adjust the weight on the next set).

CLOSE-GRIP PUSH-UP
Push-ups, also known as earth downs, make for a great finisher.
With your triceps fatigued from the previous sets, youll be able to rely on the
contribution of assisting muscle groups to get through this epic set
of 100 reps. Keeping your hands narrowly spaced, right under the
chest, simply do as many sets as necessary, to failure, to reach 100.
Rest no longer than 30 seconds between work segments.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

157

The triceps
main job
is to help you
push stuff.
So push
dont just
extend.
BAND
PRESSDOWN
With the linear variable
resistance (LVR) provided
by bands, the tension
increases as the band
stretches. This enhances
your ability to overcome
sticking points. Ideally,
pressdowns are done
with bands that have
handles, like the ones
shown here. Simply hook
the bands over a pull-up
bar or high anchor point
with sufficient tension to
keep you in the 12-rep
range.

SUPPS

BRIAN KLUTCH

THE LATEST IN SUPPLEMENT AND PRODUCT NEWS

NEXT-GEN
MUSCLE BUILDERS
Up your game with these supplements and
combos, shown by recent research to drive superior
muscle gains. By Adam Gonzalez

160

MUSCLE & FitnESS

SUPPS

maximiSe gainS

WhILE yoU may bE mIxINg and matching stand-alone

supplements and getting great results, you might not fully realise the
synergistic effects that some supplements have with one another.
Ongoing research on supplements and their interactions confirms
that combining particular supplements may provide much better
results than taking any one product alone. These studies can help
you understand which supplements to pair togetherand when
to take themfor maximum muscle building.
Here we spotlight specific ingredients that boost the effectiveness
of a particular system, especially when combined with another
supplement. For instance, you can increase nitric oxide (NO)
production more effectively when citrulline is partnered with
arginine. Similarly, Nitrosiginea combination of arginine and
siliconhas synergistic effects because silicon, involved with
blood vessel linings, allows arginine to work more effectively.
here are six supplements you should consider
adding to your regime, what you should pair them
with, and how you can get the most from each.
CITRULLINE

WHAT IT Is Citrulline is an
amino acid that converts to
arginine, another amino. Taking
citrulline encourages greater
arginine production than taking
arginine alone does.
WHAT IT does Once supplemental
citrulline converts to arginine, your
blood vessels relax, allowing greater
blood flow and delivery of nutrients
to muscles.
HoW To TAKe IT Citrulline
is best taken with an efficacious
dose of arginine. Research has
shown that taking citrulline
and arginine together is better
for increasing NO production
and vasodilation than taking
either alone.

NITRoSIgINE
WHAT IT Is A unique bonded
complex of arginine and silicon,
it delivers the enhanced benefits
of each of these molecules and
supports muscle building.
WHAT IT does Nitrosigine
improves NO production compared
to taking the amino acid arginine
alone. Silicon, present in arteries,
makes this lining tissue more
permeable. Nitrosigine increases
blood vessel relaxation five times
more than arginine HCl does,
allowing greater flow through
your system.
HoW To TAKe IT Take Nitrosigine
before workouts to increase
vasodilation for greater delivery
of blood to muscle tissue, and then
supplement it after workouts to
drive nutrients to muscle tissue
for recovery.

PRoTEaSE ENZymES
WHAT THey Are Enzymes are
chemical substances that help
break down macronutrients so
they are more readily absorbed
and used to fuel various processes
in the body.
WHAT THey do Each macro
nutrient responds to different
enzymes, and protein is hard to
digest for some people. Taking a
protein product that has protease
enzymes added to it will help your
body absorb more of the protein
that you consume.
HoW To TAKe THem While you
can always take digestive enzymes
for protein, carbs, or fats on their
own, many protein products now
contain protease enzymes right in
the powder.

MUSCLE & FiTNESS

161

SuPPS

maximise gains
PROTEIN BLENDS
What they are These are combinations
of proteins, often from different sources. More
important, these proteins digest at varying
rates; some are quick and some are slow.
What they do Fast-digesting proteins rush
to muscle tissue to support protein synthesis
before, during, and after workouts. Slowdigesting proteins clump and deliver their
aminos over time, helping to protect your
muscles from catabolism at other times of
day when its difficult to take in another meal,
such as when youre sleeping.
hoW to take them Research has shown
that a blend of proteins taken before or after
workouts works more effectively than any
single type of protein.

SILK AMINO ACIDS


What they are SAAs are a group of
sequenced amino acids that includes alanine,
glycine, serine, valine, and threonine. They are,
no surprise, derived from silk.
What they do Taking supplemental SAAs
supports endurance, increased testosterone
levels, and enhanced recovery from training.
SAAs support muscle building through these
processes.
hoW to take them Take SAAs before,
during, and after workouts to enjoy their
workout and recovery advantages.
Add fast-digesting carbs after training
to drive your gains even further.

What it is Maltodextrin is a carbohydrate


that breaks down quickly after its consumed,
encouraging the release of insulin. Other carbs
such as waxy maize, glucose, and dextrose
have similar effects.
What it does Before and after workouts
you want your insulin to spike so your body will
deliver fuel and nutrients to working muscle
tissue. At these times, insulin is a powerful
anabolic hormone. On the other hand, you want
to avoid spiking insulin at other times of day
when calories are more likely to be driven to
fat storage.
hoW to take it Pair maltodextrin with
other carbs that spur insulin release, and
add amino acids such as glycine and
phenylalanine that increase this effect.
Emphasise supplementation before and
immediately after workouts for best results.

162

MUSCLE & FitnESS

ian logan

MALTODEXTRIN

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Powertec owns its factory so aside from having a highly experienced workforce; we can also control and
maintain our quality. We have always done all production procedures under one roof. We source only the
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30-34 Grosvenor Road


Tunbridge Wells
Kent
TN1 2AP

Newcastle Upon Tyne


Royal Quays Outlet
Centre, Coble Dene,
North Shields
NE29 6DW

Junction 32 Retail Outlet

supps

maximise gains

THe
FUTURe OF
mUsCLe
gROWTH
Your genetic
potential
is limited by
myostatin.
Inhibiting
this
protein
might be
the key to
unlocking
massive
muscle gains.
By Adam
Gonzalez

164

MUSCLE & FitnESS

myOsTaTin: THe FaCTs


Reduced myostatin
levels help increase muscle
mass, a fact revealed when
researchers observed
that Belgian Blue and
Piedmontese cattlewhich
carry much more muscle
mass than typical cattle
produced much less
myostatin than their bovine
brethren. This led scientists
to consider how to reduce
myostatin in humans
so we could maximise
our potential.

a compound going
by the elaborate name
fecunded g. gallus
domesticus yolk isolate
helps reduce myostatin
levels. Supplementing with
it wont reduce myostatin
production to the degree
shown by the genetic
mutation of Belgian Blue or
Piedmontese cattle, but it
may slow myostatin
release, allowing you to
grow beyond your genetic
potential.

Recent studies
support the benefits
of supplementing with
these proteins.
Test subjects who took
this supplement
showed significantly
lower levels of
serum myostatin,
and added eight
pounds of muscle
mass in 12 weeks
when following
a moderate weight
training programme.

ISTOCKPHOTO

Myostatin is a naturally
occurring protein that limits
muscle growth beyond a certain
size. Its a counterbalance to
other chemicals like growth
hormone and testosterone that
support muscle mass. You may
be seeking maximal muscle
tissue, but your body doesnt
want you to have too much or
too little. Learning how to
inhibit your natural levels of
myostatin may be one of the
most important ways for you
to break through muscle gain
plateaus. Here we break down
the important facts about
myostatin and show you how
you can take control of muscle
gains and rise above your
genetic potential.

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30/32 High Street,


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Newcastle Upon Tyne


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Centre, Coble Dene,
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Junction 32 Retail Outlet


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SUPPS

PRODUCT REvIEw

UNDER THE
MICROSCOPE
Taking a purely scientific look at the best
products in the world of sports supplements
By Tim N. Ziegenfuss, PhD, FISSN
We examine the critical active ingredients in various
sports supplements. We award high marks to those with existing
supportive data, real-world results and innovation in formulation.
Here we put muscle bomb under the microscope.
muscle bomb is a powerful
preworkout formula that contains beta
alanine, betaine anhydrous, carnitine,
citrulline malate and caffeine along with
the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs),
taurine and B-vitamins. In contrast to
many other formulas that use aspartame/neotame as a sweetener, Muscle
Bomb uses stevia and contains no
artificial ingredients.
beta alanine is a widely popular
amino acid that reduces muscle fatigue
during intense exercise. When beta
alanine is ingested, it combines with
another amino acid called histidine to
form a compound called carnosine. In
exercising muscle, carnosine acts as a
buffer of hydrogen ions that are generated from lactic acid (lactate) production.
This is relevant to bodybuilders during
sets that last longer than about 60
seconds or when training with short rest
periods where lactate accumulation can
reduce the total number of repetitions
completed. In theory, beta alanine may
also be useful during very low carb diets
to offset changes in pH due to ketone
production. For best results, beta alanine
must be consumed continuously for at
least four weeks.
grade: HHHHH
reason: Beta alanine helps reduce
fatigue during intense bodybuilding
exercise, thus allowing for a greater
training stimulus. All other things being

166

MUSCLE & FitnESS

equal, a greater training stimulus =


greater gains over time.
betaine (also known as trimethylglycine) is an organic osmolyte that helps
regulate cellular hydration. It was first
discovered in the juice of sugar beets,
but it is also found in spinach, wheat
bran/germ and shellfish. Several human
studies have been conducted on betaine
supplementation, and most have
reported increases in power output and
force production (strength) in either the
squat or bench press. And while the
exact mechanism behind this effect is
still unknown, these results are usually
seen within 7-14 days of daily supplementation. Chronically, betaine
decreases homocysteine (a biomarker
of inflammation) and may even increase
muscle mass when 2.5 g are ingested per
day for at least six weeks.
grade: HHHHH
reason: With a great safety record
and several studies supporting its
positive effects on muscle power and
force production, this is one amino acid
derivative that deserves a spot in your
nutrition programme.
l-carnitine is a naturally occurring
amino acid found in meat and dairy.
Most carnitine is found in muscle,
where it helps transport long-chain fatty
acids into the mitochondria where they
are burned for energy. Despite this

strong theoretical benefit, most studies


that have given subjects oral carnitine
supplements have not reported
increases in physical performance or
fat loss. However, a few recent studies
have shown that 1000-2000 mg of
carnitine per day can improve recovery
from intense weight training exercise.
In these studies, androgen receptor
content was also upregulated in
subjects who ingested a specific form
called L-carnitine L-tartrate. Other
forms of L-carnitine include acetyl-Lcarnitine (which appears to cross the
blood-brain barrier and may have
neurological benefits), propionyl-Lcarnitine (which has beneficial effects
on heart function), and glycine propionylL-carnitine (which has beneficial effects
on blood flow).
grade: HHHH
reason: Although its not a potent fat
burner, at the right dose L-carnitine has a
bevvy of benefits, including enhancement of muscle recovery as well as
mitochondrial and cognitive support.
citrulline is a naturally occurring
chemical cousin of the amino acid
arginine. Its name is derived from the
scientific name for watermelon (Citrullus
vulgaris), the food from which it was first

isolated. During its normal metabolism in


the body, citrulline is synthesised from
glutamine and ornithine in the intestines,
converted to arginine in the kidneys, and
helps stimulate nitric oxide production in
peripheral tissues. Among its many roles
within the body, nitric oxide causes
arterial blood vessels to dilate, thus
improving blood flow to active muscles.
Many bodybuilders use citrulline to
amplify their pump response to training.
Experimentally, a few recent studies
have shown that oral citrulline supplementation can enhance muscular
performance and reduce fatigue by
enhancing the resynthesis of high-energy
phosphates (ATP and creatine phosphate) that are used during intense
exercise.
GRADE: HHHH
REASON: Watermelon juice or
supplements? Either way, many gym
rats are reaping the improvements in
exercise capacity and muscle function
from citrulline.
CAFFEINE, also known as 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is the worlds most
well-studied nutritional performance
enhancer, second only to carbohydrate.
By blocking adenosine receptors in the
brain, caffeine ingestion reduces the
perception of effort, making tough
workouts and competitions seem a little
easier. The most well established effect
of caffeine is as a stimulant. Caffeine
improves both physical and mental
performance, including focus and
concentration. In fact, caffeine is one
of the only supplements that can
improve both aerobic (long distance)
and anaerobic (weight lifting) events.
GRADE: HHHHH
REASON: Whether sourced from
coffee beans, tea, chocolate or chemically synthesised, the effects of caffeine
are undeniable: better physical and
mental performance. Downregulation of
these effects can be problematic, but
can be minimised by not using it every
day and saving bigger doses for tougher
workouts.
BCAAs refer to a group of three
essential amino acids: leucine, isoleucine

and valine. These aminos are among


the most important nitrogen-containing
compounds for the manufacture,
maintenance and repair of muscle tissue.
Of the three, leucine is clearly the most
important. Research shows that it can
stimulate protein synthesis (the process
of building muscle protein and therefore
growth) all by itself, yet the three work
better together to provide a host of
benefits and even boost energy during
workouts. Studies show BCAAs can
blunt the catabolic hormone cortisol
and decrease delayed-onset muscle
soreness.
GRADE: HHHHH

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REASON: BCAAs are versatile compounds that can enhance the effects of
most intense exercise programmes. If
you dont eat 4-5 moderate sized meals
a day, adding BCAAs to your diet can
probably help you build a leaner, more
muscular physique.

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TAURINE is a conditionally essential


amino acid that is abundant in meat
and fish. Although it is not used to make
proteins or enzymes, taurine is the
second most abundant amino acid in
muscle. Functionally, taurine is associated with the regulation of cardio
vascular health, water balance, muscle
function, central nervous system
function, eye health, platelet activity,
sperm motility and insulin action. At
doses of 1000-6000 mg per day, some
research has reported improvements
in physical and mental performance
from taurine supplementation.
GRADE: HHH

n Upper and lower resistance training for


fat loss and muscle toning

REASON: Although compelling


research exists that demonstrates
the clinical benefits of higher doses of
taurine, more work needs to be done in
healthy humans on lower doses. That
being said, taurine is a very promising
ingredient with great potential.

The RaTings
HHHHH Outstanding scientific
research on humans available
HHHH Solid research available;
anecdotally effective
HHH Not much human research
available but premise is sound

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SUPPS

PRODUCT NEWS

TESTOSTERONE
BOOSTER
ExtrEmE NutritioN
has uNvEilEd two NEw
products dEsigNEd to
boost tEstostEroNE.
The company says RELOAD and
Trib-Z are International Olympic
Committee and World Anti-Doping
Agency testing safe.
The manufacturer claims Trib-Z is
designed to increase muscle mass,
strength and appetite and to speed
recovery time.
Extreme Nutrition claims the
RELOAD product may enhance
natural testosterone whilst lowering oestrogen levels and says the
ingredients are supported with

evidence from independent clinical


trials.
The products are the first in the
Extreme Nutrition range to be
released with the new packaging.
In other news, Extreme Nutrition
athlete Lynsey Beattie is pregnant
with her fourth child.

She plans to continue training


throughout her pregnancy and will
be writing a blog on her training
regime and dieting throughout.
Beatties blog and training
videos will be live on the new
Extreme Nutrition website at
www.extremenutrition.co.uk

CREATINE
BLEND

bEast sports has crEatEd


a NEw product, which
blENds fivE typEs of
crEatiNE.
The company says Creature,
which won Creatine of the Year
2014, was designed with ingredients
specifically chosen for purity.
Beast Sports claims this purity
may help quicker absorption into
the body and avoid bloating.
The reformulation of Creature
includes Astragin and Cinulin PF,
which Beast Sports claims may
help assure maximum uptake
directly into muscle cells.
The company says the ingredients
in Creature are designed to enhance
endurance by boosting adenosine

168

MUSCLE & FitnESS

triphosphate (ATP) levels, which


is the main fuel for short-term
contractions in muscles.
The product is available in

capsules and powders including


cherry limeade, citrus, Beast
punch, and pink lemonade flavours,
as well as unflavoured.

SUPPS

PRODUCT NEWS

HOME GYM
EQUIPMENT

Looking to train in your


own home? Valley Fitness
supplies gym equipment for people
who want to get their workout in
without having to head to the gym.
The foundations of any home gym
are a good bench and a set of
dumbbells.
The Ironmaster range, available in
the UK exclusively from Valley
Fitness, is one of the best selling
ranges of home gym equipment in the
USA. The Super Bench, which has 11
lock-out positions, is compact, rated
up to 450 kg and has thick padding.
Extra attachments are also available
to help you mix up your training.
Valley Fitness also offers Ironmasters Quick-Lock adjustable
dumbbells, which are constructed to
allow weight changes from 2.5 kg to
54 kg in seconds and come with a

compact stand. Ironmaster says they


offer the same freedom of movement
and the same feel as traditional
dumbbells. The weights can also be
used with Ironmasters adjustable
kettlebells, bars, and Super Bench
leg attachment.
Visit www.valleyfitness.co.uk
for more information.

CALL or CLICK to subscribe


Call: 01858 435346 QUOTE CODE FL89
Open weekdays 8am-9.30pm,
Saturday 8am-4pm
Click: www.subscription.co.uk/flex/fl89
*This is a direct debit offer open to UK residents only. This offer is
not available to Digital Edition subscribers. Payments will increase to
16.99 every 6 issues unless advised to stop

SEE SOME OF THE WORLD'S STRONGEST MEN


DONCASTER DOME | 14TH FEBRUARY 2015
Tickets 25, doors open 12 noon, show starts at 2pm
Buy tickets from europestrongestman.com, or call 01302 303959

EXpErt

ADVICE ON TRAINING, NUTRITION AND SUPPLEMENTATION FROM TOP ATHLETES AND FITNESS PROFESSIONALS

this
months
highlights
includE

CrossFitter David Shorunke


on the versatility needed
for the sport of fitness
heavy hitter
Anthony Joshua
on training to be
world champion
how to add pounds
to your big lifts by
perfecting the
kettlebell goblet
squat

Adrian Hodgson on
why a high-protein
diet will help you build
muscle and lose fat

m at t m a r s h

James Collins
on why chewing
gum could
improve your
performance
in the gym

EXPERT

TRAINING TALK

FIT FOR
PURPOSE

DaviD shorunke is one of


Europes top 10 CrossFit athletes
By Ben Kenyon
Photography by Matt Marsh
BasketBall player, university
rower and competitive weightlifter
David Shorunke is the archetypal
all-rounder.
So when the 6 ft 2 in athlete found
a discipline that combined the
strength, power and endurance of all
three of those sports, he was always
likely to excel.
Shorunke was indeed a natural
at CrossFit, the sport of fitness.
The 24-year-olds raw athleticism
saw him qualify for his first major
international competitionthe
CrossFit European Regionalsless
than a year after he took up the sport.
He ranked as the 10th fittest man
on the continent in 2014. Now he has
set his sights on finishing in the top
three and qualifying for the CrossFit
Games in 2015.

a mental perspectivebeing able to


stay in that suffering zone with the
pain for a long period of time is a
useful thing in CrossFit. Weightlifting
is the complete oppositeit is the
power and speed and understanding
the concepts and technique which
benefits CrossFit massively.

Muscle&Fitness: What is your


fitness background?
DaviD shorunke: From a young
age I have done a ton of sports.
I swam, did karate and martial arts.
I played basketball nationally for six
or seven years. I then rowed for my
university for about three years.
I moved on to weightlifting, which
is more power and speed. From
weightlifting I was trying to get into
the Royal Marines when I found
CrossFit.

Will kane, who trains with you


now at crossFit cheltenham,
also finished in the top 10 at
regionals. Do you help each
other?
It is a really nice dynamic. We must be
the luckiest guys in Europe to place
three points apart from each other
in the top 10 and go to the same gym.
We both push each other hard. Even
on days when we dont work out, we
give each other a text or call asking
how we did on certain workouts.

i imagine weightlifting and


rowing help your crossFit
training?
I am very lucky to have that
background. Rowing is great from

What does your weekly strength


and conditioning training look
like?
It is a huge mix of things because the
demands of CrossFit are so broad. I

172

MUSCLE & FitnESS

how did you manage to get to


the crossFit regionals in less
than 12 months?
The difficulty with CrossFit is that
theres such a massive amalgamation
of skills it is very difficult to find the
time to divide them up equally and
work on them individually. Coming
from rowing, basketball, swimming,
and weightlifting, I had the opportunity to work on those individual skills
for long periods of time.

train about 15 or 16 times a week.


Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday
and Saturday I train twice a day and
then Thursday and Sunday I will do
one training session, which is like
active recovery.
Morning sessions usually consist
of some kind of interval training or
light to medium aerobic conditioning
to wake the body up. Then I do some
accessory strength work. I do the
bulk of my Olympic lifting and skill
work in the evening and I finish that
session with more conditioning.
What are your numbers looking
like at the moment for some of
your big lifts?
I hit a 113 kg snatch the other day and
I am still working on the clean and
jerk. I hit a 145 kg jerk for three reps,
which I was pretty happy with.
What kind of stuff will you do
to put yourself through the mill
with conditioning?
It is a balance. I have to push myself
and make sure I keep that conditioning process going, and keep the
progression coming but not to the
extent where I am drawing away
from my strength training. There has
to be a good balance. I do a lot of
on-the-minute-every-minute work.
You can alternate between different
exercises like double-unders or box
jumps at odd minutes and even. I will
do this for like 20 or 30 minutes.
It gets your heart going but it still
means you can train again later in
the day.
What is your diet like?
I try to keep my diet very clean.
I make sure that as much as possible
of the food I get is organic and lower
in things like saturated fat and sugar.
I eat quite a lot of fat and quite a lot of
carbsnot just for the fuel for training
but to help get that recovery as well.
First thing in the morning I may
have a three-egg omelette with loads
of spinach, gluten-free bread, milk,
apple, and peanut butter. Throughout
the day it is a mix of protein shakes,
lots of meat and veg. With the carbs
I stick to less starchy sources like
lentils, beans, lots of vegetables.

I train about
15 or 16 times
a week

SNAPSHOT

Age: 24
Birthplace: London
Lives: Cheltenham
Height: 6' 2" / 188 cms
Weight: 207 lbs / 94 kg
Career Highlight: Becoming the
10th best CrossFitter in Europe
in 2014
Ambition: To get to the
CrossFit Games
Training Advice: I would give a
quote by Jim Rohn Take care
of your body, it is the only
place you have to live.
Sponsors: PurePharma,
Xendurance, 2POOD
Contact:
Instagram @shorunke;
Facebook Shorunke
Training

MUSCLE & FitnESS

173

EXPERT

TRAINING TALK

ON A
MISSION

Superfit model and TV star


Gemma atkinson wants to
get more women lifting weights
By Fiaz Rafiq
Image courtesty of USA PRO

Gemma atkinson rose to fame


playing Lisa Hunter in Hollyoaks. The
actress and fitness model, who
currently plays Tamzin Bayle in
Casualty, is widely known for being
one of the fittest female celebrities.

muscle&Fitness: When did


you become interested in
fitness?
Gemma atkinson: I used to run
for Manchester Athletics girls team
when I was in high school. I was also
on the netball, hockey, and rounders
teams so I used to train quite seriously
twice a week on the racetrack and
at my local gym. But when I got
the job on Hollyoaks, I was doing
12-hour days six days a week so
training took a back seat and I gained
a bit of weight. So when I finished
Hollyoaks I decided to get back into
it. I looked into nutrition and got back
to training. So it kicked off when I left
Hollyoaks.
Describe your weight training.
I try to change it every six weeks. At
the minute Im doing an upper and
lower body split. I work my whole
body over two days, then I do my
cardio, then I work my whole body
over the next two days again. I like
doing metabolic circuit training, which
trains your muscles to exhaustion.
You dont go in thinking youll do six
reps or whatever; you just do as
many as you can. I love this type of
training; it keeps your heart rate up.
I do love weight training. Im on a

1 74

MUSCLE & FitnESS

mission to get more women to lift


weights!
Describe your cardio training.
I do cardio twice a week. I love
high-intensity interval training so
I might go on the treadmill and do
ten seconds on, ten seconds off.
I love doing Insanity workouts and
my gym has a track in the middle.
I find track work very beneficial for
cardio. I prefer a short burst of
energy as opposed to going for
a long run.
Have you considered entering
a fitness competition?
I have been asked to enter bikini
competitions but its not something
I want to do. I admire those that put
themselves forward for it; its brilliant.
But I train more for my health as
opposed to my physical appearance.
Ive got friends who compete and
they train so hard and put everything
into it. To be put on stage in front of
loads of people and not be good
enough or not place, that kind of
takes the fun out of competing for me.
When and how did you get into
martial arts?
I wanted to learn Thai boxing, but my
mother wouldnt let me because she
said it was too dangerous. She did
let me do karate so I started taking
karate lessons when I was about
10 years old for about four years, but
again with Hollyoaks I couldnt keep it
up. When I left Hollyoaks, I started

Thai boxing three times a week. I just


kept it up from there really. Ive got
a trainer called Daz Morris, who
works at Bolton Thai Boxing. I dont
fight, obviously, because of my work.
But I just love the training and the
conditioning is good.
mixed martial arts training is
hardcore but do you get in the
ring or just train for fitness?
I dont fight at all in the ring; I spar
with Daz but I never fight. This is the
fittest Ive been. Obviously, I train in
the gym as well which helps. A lot of
people think martial arts is just about
fighting and beating people up. I read
an interview with Jackie Chan not
long ago and the interviewer said:
Being the experienced person you
are you can kill someone with your
bare hands. He said: Yeah, but the
more I learn about martial arts the
less I fight.
tell us about your diet.
Diet for me is everything. People say
you can eat what you want as long
as you train, but thats completely
untrue. I try to think of food as fuel,
and I always feel with every meal you
have an opportunity to nourish or
destroy your body. I dont eat red
meat. I eat a lot of chicken, fish,
vegetables, and I love sweet potatoes. Monday to Saturday I try to eat
six meals a day. I try to avoid sugar,
the only sugar I have is because I like
dark chocolate, so now and again Ill
have a little of that.
Do you take any supplements?
I take protein, BCAAs, glutamine,
vitamin D and multivitamins. I find,
for me performance-wise, theyre
brilliant because unfortunately
in the age we are living in even
if you eat a lot of vegetables and
protein, you still arent getting all the
benefits because of fertilisers and
chemicals. We dont get a lot of sun
here in the UK so again its good to
give yourself a vitamin D boost.
I notice a difference in my skin as
well and my nails and hair. Also,
if I fancy a treat I get my protein and
mix it with natural yogurt. Its kind of
like an ice cream.

This is the
fittest Ive
ever been

MUSCLE & FitnESS

175

EXPERT

TRAINING TALK

HEAVY
HITTER

anThony Joshua won


Olympic gold. Now he wants to be
world heavyweight champion
By Nate Williams
Photography by Scott Heavey

The BriTish heavyweighT


boxing scene is not short of talent at the
moment, with the likes of Tyson Fury
and Dereck Chisora leading the way.
But Anthony Joshua might be the best
long-term bet for success.
Joshua followed in the footsteps of
Audley Harrison when he won gold in
the super-heavyweights at the London
2012 Olympic Games.
Twelve months after turning pro,
Joshuas star is rising in the professional ranks.
The 17 st fighter, who was given an
MBE in 2013, has dispatched his first
nine opponents within the first three
rounds and hopes to move into title
reckoning in 2015.

Muscle&FiTness: how did you


get involved with boxing?
anThony Joshua: I moved to
London from Watford and my cousin
was training as a boxer at the Finchley
Gym. I didnt have many friends at the
time so I was hanging around with him.
I watched at first and then one day
I bought my first pair of boots, I trained
hard every day and I got my first bout
and then couldnt stop boxing.
what are the key attributes for
a heavyweight boxer?
When I started, I used to rely on power
and getting people out of the ring with
one punch but my time at GB Boxing
helped me become a smart boxer and
figure out my moves ahead of a fight
because defence and being sharp in the

176

MUSCLE & FitnESS

ring is important. I think my ability to


learn is one of my strengths as well.
who are your idols and what have
you learned from them?
Ive learned how not to get sucked into
a trade-off by watching Evander
Holyfield. When you watch Holyfield
tuck up and counterpunch you realise
thats how to win fights. If you get
caught in a trade-off at heavyweight
you will lose and I dont want to lose.
Ive got so much time for what Audley
Harrisons done for the sport with his
medal and I look up to Lennox Lewis as
well because hes helped me a lot.
you recently travelled to austria
for a sparring camp with heavyweight world champion wladimir
Klitschko. how was that?
Sparring with Wladimir was greathe
can definitely punch. He messaged me
afterwards to say the sky is the limit for
me. I felt I belonged there but Wladimir is
different to everyone else. Hes been
the champ for 10 years and is in a
league of his own. I feel I am talented
enough to become world champion but
to stay there for as long as he has, keep
defending the titles and stay hungry for
it, thats what I need to learn.
what does training focus on and
how do you vary it?
I love what I do and theres lots of ways
that I vary the training. Theres many
different ways of cardio and boxingbased training. I do sessions on the

bags, the pads with Tony [Sims, trainer]


and Rob [McCracken, head coach of GB
team] and various sparring sessions so I
never really get bored. I learn something
new every day.
in the build-up to a fight, do you
change the intensity of sessions?
Closer to a fight I ease up on strength
and conditioning. Sparring never eases
up because we spar with different guys
every week up until the last week of the
fight. Eddie [Hearn, Joshuas promoter]
likes to bring in fighters from day one
that have been at a good level.
when you were in the gB Boxing
team you had a reputation for
being a top chef. where did you
learn to cook?
Before GB, I moved away at the age of
16 so I had to learn to provide for myself.
I learned to cook simple dishes at first
like spaghetti and pasta. Then I started
mixing it up with chicken, fish and eating
stuff like that worked really well for me.
Do you have a set meal plan?
Not really. I just eat clean and eat as
much as I can.
what nutritional advice would you
give to anyone starting out in a
sport?
The most important thing is to get plenty
of good sleep and rest well because
thats when your body grows. Nutritionwise, I think you should never miss
breakfast because when youre training
hard your food is your fueljust like a
car. Breakfast is key but I also think you
should never skip any meal. I eat when I
can and eat healthy because I dont eat
at set times. So as long as you get good
food into your system, youll be fine.
where do you want to be in the
future?
I dont really focus on the future. I only
focus on continuous hard work.
Things havent changed for me since
the Olympics. My desires have
definitely changed, like wanting to
become world champion one day, but
my attitude has always remained the
same. Im hungry. As long as I keep
that attitude, Ill always achieve the
things I set out to do in my life.

SNAPSHOT

Age: 25
Birthplace: Watford
Lives: Watford
Height: 6' 6"/ 198 cms
Weight: 238 lbs / 107 kg
Career Highlights: Winning
a senior ABA title in 2010
and being crowned Olympic
champion at the London 2012
Games
Ambition: To keep working hard
and become the best I can be.
Training Advice: Stay dedicated.
Theres going to be tough times
but if you keep at it, everything
will fall into place.
Sponsors: FCUK, LA Muscle,
StubHub
Contact: ajboxing.com
Social Media:
Twitter anthonyfjoshua;
Instagram anthony_joshua;
official Facebook page
#StayHungry

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EXPERT

PerforMANce NUtrItIoN

GUMMY GAINS
Could chewing caffeinated gum improve performance?

By James Collins and Mark Hobden


In sport, everyone wants to get
better. Therefore sportspeople
are increasingly turning to ergogenic aids. These can be any
external influence that boosts
performancefor example, trainers
that make you run faster or a
supplement that lets you lift heavier.
Caffeine is one dietary option that
has recently been attracting interest
due to its potential performanceenhancing benefits.
The main dietary sources of
caffeine are coffee and tea. Many
supplements, especially pre-workout products, also contain caffeine
but the latest to hit the headlines is
caffeinated chewing gum. A couple
of studies have suggested this can
improve cycling performance.
A further study has looked into the
performance-enhancing effects of
caffeinated gum in a cycling time
trial. The researchers also aimed to
investigate the effects of beetroot
juice.

MAIN FINDINGS
Chewing caffeinated gum before
the time trial improved power
output by approximately 4% as
compared to not doing so.
A combination of chewing caffeinated gum alongside drinking
beetroot juice improved cycling
power output by approximately
3% compared to not doing so.
Drinking beetroot juice without
chewing caffeinated gum did not
improve performance when
compared with the control group.

SIGNIFICANT METHODOLOGY
Twelve male and twelve female
competitive cyclists took part in the
study. Each completed a total of four

180

MUSCLE & FitNESS

separate exercise
trials on a laboratory stationary
bike. The trials
covered 29 km
for women and
43 km for men,
and simulated the
2012 Olympics
course famously
won by Bradley
Wiggins.
The cyclists
chewed caffeinated gum (3 mg/kg
body mass) 40
minutes before
the time trial,
consumed
beetroot juice
(8.4 mmol of
nitrate) two hours
before the time trial, used a combination of chewing gum and beetroot
juice, or consumed a placebo before
each trial.
All trials were completed following
a carbohydrate-rich meal and while
regularly sipping a carbohydrateelectrolyte drink during the time trial,
in order to reflect the nutritional
practices regularly used by
competitive cyclists.

TAKE-HOME MESSAGE
Chewing caffeinated gum 40 minutes
before cycling improves performance. Importantly, these ergogenic
effects were seen even though the
cyclists were consuming carbohydrates before and during exercise.
Chewing caffeinated gum is a
convenient way get a caffeine boost
prior to training or competition. While
the dose used in this study3 mg/kg
body massmay be suitable for

Tests on cyclists
yielded positive
results

some people, it is important to


experiment with your intake during
training, as responses to caffeine
are highly individual. For those who
dont regularly consume coffee or
tea, an intake at this level may be
needlessly high.
It is important to note that in this
study, caffeinated gum was chewed
before exercise only, not during
the time trial. Chewing gum during
exercise is not recommended as it
will most likely interfere with breathing and could induce feelings of
nausea. If chewing gum is not your
thing, then simply drinking a cup of
coffee before exercise has also been
shown to improve performance.

REFERENCE

Lane SC, Hawley JA, Desbrow B, Jones AM, Blackwell


JR, Ross ML, Zemski AJ, Burke LM (2014) Single and
combined effects of beetroot juice and caffeine
supplementation on cycling time trial performance.
Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism
39(9):1050-7

Performance nutrition

SKeLetaL
StrenGtH
Bone up on the key micronutrients
for bone health
Nutrition to support bone health
is often overlooked in favour of
pre-workout fuelling and postworkout strategies. But having
strong bones is vital for everyone,
and particularly for those involved in
contact sports like rugby and the
martial arts. The most important
micronutrients for bone health are
calcium and vitamin D, yet very few
studies have investigated the effects
of supplementation on bone health in
athletic populations.
A recent study has attempted to fill
this gap by investigating the effects
of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in military recruits during their
first nine weeks of training. While this
isnt exactly an athletic population,
the physical demands of the military
are similar to those of athletes during
a tough phase of training.

MAIN FINDINGS
Consumption of a calcium and
vitamin D supplement improved
a number of blood measures of

bone health, including increased


levels of calcium in the blood, a
steady parathyroid hormone level
(a hormone involved in calcium
metabolism and vitamin D synthesis) during the course of training,
and an increased osteoprotegerin/
RANKL ratio (crucial in bone
remodelling).
A calcium and vitamin D supplement also improved anatomical
measures of bone health, including
increases in bone mineral density
and bone thickness, in comparison
to the control supplement.

SIGNIFICANT METHODOLOGY
A total of 156 male and 87 female
army recruits volunteered to take
part in the study. Throughout nine
weeks of initial military training the
recruits supplemented their diets
with calcium and vitamin D (2000 mg
and 1000 IU per day, respectively) or
a control supplement. The supplements were in the form of two snack
bars each day. Parathyroid hormone

levels, vitamin D status, and measures of bone density and strength


were collected before and at the end
of training.

TAKE-HOME MESSAGE
Ensuring you get plenty of calcium
and vitamin D is a priority for all
sportspeople and military personnel.
Vitamin D is vital to the proper
absorption and utilisation of calcium.
Other micronutrients, including
vitamins C, E and K, magnesium
and boron also assist the body in
absorbing calcium.
Calcium is present in many foods,
particularly dairy produce, green
leafy vegetables, nuts and beans.
Those who are lactose intolerant or
generally dont consume enough of
these foods may wish to consider
calcium supplements to boost intake,
but always follow the manufacturers
guidelines and try to spread out
servings throughout the day to
optimise absorption.
The main source of vitamin D is
through exposure to sunlight, therefore adequate but safe (remember
the sun cream) exposure to the sun
during the summer is important for
topping up vitamin D levels. During
the winter months, vitamin levels
often drop so vitamin D supplementation is recommended.

REFERENCE

Gaffney-Stomberg E, Lutz LJ, Rood JC, Cable SJ,


Pasiakos SM, Young AJ, McClung JP (2014) Calcium
and vitamin D supplementation maintains parathyroid
hormone and improves bone density during initial
military training: A randomized, double-blind, placebo
controlled trial. Bone [Epub ahead of print]

Performance Nutrition is a London-based


consultancy, providing comprehensive support
to elite and recreational athletes. Director
James Collins is a leading nutritionist who
was part of Englands back-room team at the
World Cup in Brazil and is head nutritionist
for Arsenal FC. For more information visit
www.theperformancenutritionist.com
Mark Hobden is head of research & development
at Performance Nutrition. He is currently
completing a doctorate in nutrition at the
University of Reading, where he sits on the
committee of the Institute of Cardiovascular and
Metabolic Research. Mark has degrees in sports
biology and sport and exercise nutrition. He has
previously worked for the Gatorade Sports Science
Institute, the Porsche human performance team at
Silverstone and in professional rugby.

MUSCLE & FitNESS

181

Photodisc

EXPERT

EXPERT

ReseaRch BRiefing

get Big
& Lean

Weight loss and the high protein diet


by Dr Adrian Hodgson
Eating a high protEin diEt
has many benefits, including improving body composition, especially
when combined with a good training
programme. This is not just down to
the stimulation of muscle protein
synthesisthe process responsible
for building new musclebut also
because body fat is reduced
The decrease in body fat with
higher protein diets is often attributed
to a reduction in carbohydrate intake
or alternatively, a reduced calorie
intake throughout the day thanks to
protein making you feel fuller for
longer. But a number of studies have
also shown that protein intake can
increase the amount of energy that is
expended after eating. However, the
reason for the increase in energy
expenditure is unclear.
One explanation is that the reduction in carbohydrate intake means
that the body has to work to maintain the availability of carbohydrate
specifically glucosefor basic
processes such as brain function.
The body makes glucose in one of
two wayseither by breaking down
glycogen, or by using amino acids or
glycerol in a process known as
gluconeogenesis. This is important

in terms of body composition as this


process is very energy expensive
it is estimated to amount to 20% of
the bodys total energy cost within
a high-protein diet.
Yet little is known about the
impact of very high protein, carbohydrate-free diets (greater than
30% of energy intake, equivalent to
more than 2 g per kg of body weight
per day on a 2,500-calorie diet) on
glucose production and energy
expenditure. This is an important
subject, as many athletes follow
this kind of diet.
A group of researchers from
Wageningen University in the
Netherlands took 10 young men and
gave them either a high-protein,
carbohydrate-free diet or a normal
protein diet for 1.5 days on separate
occasions.
The diets consisted of a mix of
meats, dairy, vegetables and fruit,
which varied depending on the diet
being consumed. Energy intake
was calculated based on basal
metabolic rate. The high protein
group ate a diet made up of 30%
protein, 0% carbohydrate and 70%
fat, while the normal protein group
had 12%, 55% and 33% of each
macronutrient respectively.

Both diets were divided over


three meals per day. Participants
also performed glycogen-depleting
exercise the night before starting
their diet. The diets were consumed
in a respiratory chamber, allowing
energy expenditure to be measured
constantly.
Results showed that when a high
protein diet was consumed for just
1.5 days, glucose production was
reduced when compared to a
normal protein diet. The majority of
the glucose produced came from
gluconeogenesis rather than the
breakdown of glycogen.
The high protein diet also
increased energy expenditure when
compared to a normal protein diet
due to the increase in gluconeogenesis, which amounted to 42% of the
rise in energy expended.
What doEs this all mEan?
This research suggests that high
protein diets are capable of increasing energy expenditure. It also
indicates that the rise in energy
expenditure with high protein diets
is due to reduced carbohydrate
availability, meaning that the body
has to work harder to produce
glucose from other sources in the
body. Reducing carbohydrate
availability is possible through
low carbohydrate diets and/or
high intensity exercise to reduce
glycogen levels.
Over time these simple steps
can help reduce body fat while
preserving lean muscle. This is in
line with recent recommendations
that consuming more than 1.8 g/kg/
day of protein in a reduced-energy
restricted diet, in combination with
exercise, can result in lower body
fat over time.

n Murphy CH, Hector AJ, Phillips SM.


Considerations for protein intake in
managing weight loss in athletes. Eur J
Sport Sci. 2014 Jul 11:1-8. [Epub ahead
of print]
n Veldhorst, MAB, Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, and Westerterp, KR. Gluconeogenesis and energy expenditure after
a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet.
Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90:51926.

182

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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EXPERT

Muscle MoveMents

cHest

Dumbbell incline
bench press

Top trainer Phil Learneys


masterclass on anatomy
and training for different body
parts continues with chest
Photography by
Christopher Bailey
Big chests turn heads. Whether youre at the
beach or down the gym, a Herculean set of pecs
will get you noticed.
But carving an armour-plated chest is not
as simple as jumping on the bench press and
repping out. The secret to sculpting vest-ripping
muscles lies in understanding the fundamental
movement patterns of this prominent body part.
Knowing how the muscle works and the best
exercises to stimulate the fibres will help you get
the maximum out of your chest training and turn
your pecs from lacklustre to blockbuster.

Muscle AnAtoMy
Your chest is made up of two main
musclesthe pectoralis minor and
pectoralis major.
You will have to look hard for the
pec minor on your anatomy chartthe
thin triangle-shaped muscle is tucked
away under its bigger, broader
counterpart.
The pec major is the real showpiece.
While actually one big muscle, the pec
major is comprised of three partsthe
clavicular (top), sternal (middle) and
costal (bottom).
Your pec muscles are responsible
for flexion of the shoulderthe
movement of throwing a ball sidearm.
On top of this, the pecs control the
horizontal adduction of the shoulder
moving it towards the vertical midline
of the body as in the movement of a
cable flye.
They are also responsible for
extension in exercises like the dumbbell pullover.
Knowing the role of the pecs and
how they move should inform how to
train them efficiently and effectively.

Muscle MoveMents
The difference between effective and
ineffective chest training is often slight
but significant.

184

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Dumbbell pullover
One of the biggest problems is
that the upper back muscle can
become overactive because of the
internal rotation of the shoulders.
Most people are internally rotated.
This means the shoulders are pulled
forwards so when your arms are at
rest by your side, the hands cross the
body and the palms face the body.
If you are internally rotated, your
chest shortens and gets tight. The
muscles on your upper back also get
stretched. Because they get over-

stretched they get tight and they start


to become overactive.
When the pecs become inhibited,
the anterior delt (front shoulder) starts
to take over and do a lot of the work.
If this is not corrected you end up in
the computer-physique posture
hunched over with no chest and all
shoulders.
Hand position is therefore crucial
when doing the bench press.
Also, people dont stabilise themselves when they bench because the

Read about
phil leaRney online at

www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/phillearney

shoulder is anteriorly (forward)


positioned. So retract the shoulder
blades slightly and push the shoulders
back into the bench. It wont take your
shoulders completely out of the
equationit just allows your chest to
dominate the movement.
One way to avoid your shoulders
coming forwards when benching is to
keep your spine neutral and curved.
Flattening your back on the bench
automatically pulls your shoulders
forwards and brings your delts and
triceps into playmeaning you can
shift more weight but it wont hit your
chest.
Dont push the bar away from you,
push yourself into the benchit keeps
your shoulders back.
The key to growing more muscle
tissue is to stretch and contract the
muscle. You have to stretch the
muscle out, which tears it apart
and creates space, and you have
to contract the muscle, which
shortens it.
The problem with the barbell bench
press is that the bar touches the chest
before the muscle has had chance to
lengthen and stretch.
Therefore, it is important to use
exercises that incorporate a lot of
stretching movements.

Try This WorkouT


Dumbbell incline bench press
Go heavier 4 sets x 8-10 reps
Flat bench press
3 sets x 10-12 reps
Pullover 3 sets x 15 reps
standing flye 2 sets x 15 reps

flat bench preSS


You cant really isolate and hit the
upper chest, the middle chest and
lower chest individuallythey all
work together. But you can stretch
the particular fibres a little more. You
get more activation of the pecs doing
the incline press, which involves the
flexion of the shoulder.
Press the dumbbells straight up
so they dont come together at the
topthis will stop the shoulders
rotating in.
You can also use this move to
target the posterior (back) portion of
the back a little more, from a stability
perspectivemaking it more stable.
Pullover This chest extension
exercise was a favourite of Arnold

Schwarzenegger. Back in the day,


bodybuilders believed it could actually
expand the ribcage. In fact, it hits
the pec minor muscle and will give
you a thicker chest. If not performed
correctly it can target the triceps
and front delt instead of stretching
out the chest.
Flat bench press Most people just
let the bar rest in the hands on this
movebut it is more constructive to
create tension. The key is to create
an isometric contraction of the pecs
by gripping the bar hard, and squeezing the arms together (adduction) to
get the most out of the press.
standing flye This is a transverse
(upright) adduction movement. Done
incorrectly this move looks like a
bear hugging a treethis means the
weight is too heavy. To perform this
properly you need to retract the
shoulder blades slightly and push
your chest out. Keep your arms as
far away from your body as possible
with a slight bend in the elbow and
squeeze the pecs.

Phil learney

Standing flye

is a respected strength
and conditioning expert with 20
years experience. He is a coach,
writer and speaker with an
open-minded, results-based
approach. He is the director
of Phil Learney Performance
Education and teaches
extensively across the UK.

MUSCle & FitneSS

185

EXPERT

BIKINI BODY
Starting a new training routine can
make us even more tired than usual.
This isnt ideal: fitness, after all, is not
just about looking better but also
about feeling better.
So, how do you go about feeling
great and using fitness to boost your
energy levels?
Firstly, it is important to look at
your lifestyle as a whole and adjust
some things if necessary. If you are
burning the candle at both ends it
is not possible to implement a
sustainable long-term fitness
programme. Your body needs time
to rest and recover.
This means if you are serious about
making a change it is likely you will
need to give up something to accommodate your new schedule.
This might mean seeing friends
once less during the week or only on
one day at the weekend. Giving up
one activity to make room for fitness
may mean you have more energy to
make sure you get things done.

STAYING
POWER

Tips on maintaining motivation


beyond January
By Michelle Brannan
Its that tIme of year agaIn
when New Years resolutions are
made, only to be broken.
Fitness for some is good in theory
but in practice daily life seems to get in
the way, particularly when a busy life,
full-time job and children are involved.
One of the main obstacles I see
186

MUSCLE & FitnESS

people faced with is not so much


finding the time to fit in training but
coping with the tiredness that comes
with a hectic lifestyle.
We probably all agree there is that
extra hour we could use for fitness
but when it comes down to it, we are
simply too tired.

start WIth nutrItIon


Good nutrition is the foundation to
fitness, giving your body the energy
and fuel it needs to carry out daily
tasks and make it through your gym
sessions.
It is easy to get caught up with
skipping meals because you want to
lose weight, particularly after the
festive season, but this can lead to
the all-too-common binge/starve
cycle, which is not helpful to anyone.
Not eating can actually slow down
your metabolism because it tells your
body there is a lack of food available,
which can cause it to slow down its
metabolic processes as a defence
mechanism.
Starving yourself will also make
you hungry, especially if you are
burning energy at the gym a few
times a week. You will find yourself
ravenous and eating anything in sight.
It is easy to overindulge when you are
hungry, which then leads to guilt and
back to starving yourself again.
Keep doing this for a length of time
and your body will be burning as few
calories as possible to protect itself.

Learn more for more great diet and training advice to create a healthy and beautiful
figure, check out our Bikini Body Fitness e-book at www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/bikinibook

Michelle on stage
in Prague in October

emergency, for example a shake or a


decent protein bar in the car in case I
get stuck in a traffic jam.
Supplements can be helpful in
providing your body with additional
vitamins, minerals and amino acids,
which are essential for someone who
is training.
Also RemembeR
Stay hydrated. Drinking enough
water sounds simple but many
people find it difficult. I aim to consume
three to four litres of water a day
plus an additional litre for every hour
I spend training.
Drinking alcohol can undermine
your fitness plans, not only due to

the additional calories in drinks


but because of the way alcohol
is metabolised. Your body will
essentially stop burning fat to deal
with the alcohol first.
Many people find drinking alcohol
slows their progress greatly. It can
also leave you tired and dehydrated
the next day which often leads to a
missed gym session.
Get enough sleep. This sounds
obvious but it is surprising how many
people dont actually do it. With so
much social media and digital
communication it is not uncommon
for many of us to take our phones or
laptops to bed with us and not
actually go straight to sleep.
If this applies to you introduce
some rules to allow you time to relax
and get to sleep at night. If you have
problems falling sleep consider
cutting out caffeine in the afternoon
and evening.
There are only so many hours in the
day. We cannot create more time but
we can choose to spend the time we
do have wisely.
It is important to invest in your
health and fitness but it should not
make you miserable and exhausted.
Find a way of making fitness work for
you: choose activities you enjoy
going to the gym is not the only option.
If you prefer to attend group
classes, join a running club or dance
class. Doing what you enjoy will help
you stick at it longer.
Above all, make time for good
nutrition. The right food helps you
look and feel better and exercise
without proper nutrition isnt half
as effective as both combined.
Equally, eating well without
doing exercise isnt as effective
as combining both and often isnt
sustainable. Fitness is a way of
life: make it your choice.
Jakub kopcek , GeNe X

It is much better to eat little and


often, making sure you pick nutritious
foods from all the food groups to give
yourself as varied a diet as possible
and to stop you getting bored.
Fitness isnt about dieting and
being miserable; it is about making
the right choices.
It is not necessary to cook all your
food for the week in advance but it is
necessary to understand what you put
in your mouth and plan ahead a little bit.
I do not carry food with me everywhere I go and I can eat in most
restaurants. There is always something to choose providing you have
the willpower. I do, however, always
carry a back-up plan in case of an

MiChELLE Brannan

is a British IFBB pro bikini fitness


competitor. She won the 2012 British
Grand Prix, competed at the 2013
Bikini Olympia and runs a training
team called Showgirl Fitness. For more
information visit showgirlfitness.com.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

187

EXPERT

KETTLEBELL MASTERCLASS
Squatting iS a natural
human movement. Toddlers do it
effortlessly all the way down, with
perfect form.
But the reality is that most adults
cannot squat. Heck, many power
lifters have bad squat mechanics
even though the squat is one of the
moves they perform in competition.
Fixing your squat will make you
stronger from head to toe and make
you a better athlete. It will also give
you a harder, more defined mid
section and add muscle to your legs
in doublequick time.
Only wannabes train upper body
only. Real men train their lower body,
and that means they squat.
Regardless of whether you are a
seasoned squatter who can shift
three, four or five plates a side, or
somebody who hasnt squatted for
20 years, the kettlebell goblet squat
is something you should add to your
training programme.
First, lets talk about how to perform
the kettlebell goblet squat correctly.
Then well talk about how to put it
into your training programme.

PErFECting tHE
tECHniquE

THE
GOBLET
SQUAT

First of a new series on effective


kettlebell exercises and how to
incorporate them into your routine
By Andy Bolton
Photography by Christopher Bailey
188

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Start position:
n Stand erect with a kettlebell in
your hands. The bottom of the bell
should be facing upwards.
n Your knees should be locked and
your upper body completely
perpendicular to the floor. Do not
lean backwards as thats very bad
for your back. Look straight ahead.
n Drive your feet through the floor,
flex your quads, tighten your glutes
(think of crushing a walnut), brace
your abs (as if youre about to take a
punch), tense your lats and crush
grip the kettlebell. You should feel
extremely tight. You are now ready
to squat.

the descent:
n Breathe in through your nose
and fill your lower lungs with air,
expanding your abdomen. This
creates tightness. That tightness
creates intraabdominal pressure,
helps you stabilise your spine,

EXPERT

KETTLEBELL MASTERCLASS

protects your back and makes you


strong.
n Push your knees out slightly and
descend into the squat, maintaining
the tightness you created in the start
position. Look straight ahead (or
slightly upwards) and maintain your
neutral lower back position. Try to
get your elbows to fall inside of your
knees.
n Once you have descended as
deep as you can, you are ready
to reverse the movement. Before
doing so, pause for a second in
the hole and stay tight.

n Alternate sets of the kettlebell


swing and kettlebell goblet squat.
Do 10-20 reps on your swings and
5-10 reps on your squats. Rest one
to two minutes between sets. This
is a programme that truly will build
strength, muscle, speed, power,
and endurance all in one go. Not
many can do that. For an emphasis
on strength, stick to 10 reps on
your swings and five on your
squats. Rest 90-120 seconds
between sets. For endurance and
fat loss, favour higher reps and
shorter rest periods.

The ascent:

THE WHAT-THE-HECK
(WTH) EFFECT

n Drive out of the hole as hard as


you can. Focus on looking straight
ahead and keeping your lats and
abs tensed as hard as you can.
n Breathe out slightly at the sticking
point, or hold your breath, until you
are standing up straightthe choice
is yours.
n Once you reach the start/finish
position, exhale while staying tight,
breathe in some more air and repeat
for repetitions.

PROGRAMME YOUR
WORKOUT
There are many ways to add the
kettlebell goblet squat into your
programme. Here are a few ideas:
n To get used to the movement
and totally own it, perform three
sets of three reps with a 16 kg or
24 kg kettlebell every day. This
wont tire you out, but it will give
you awesome technique on the
movement, providing you follow
the technique advice in this article.
Women can begin with a 12 kg or
16 kg kettlebell.
n Choose a kettlebell you can goblet
squat for five sets of five reps with
a solid one second pause in the
hole. Add one set a session. In six
sessions youll be able to do 10 sets
of five reps with that kettlebell. Now
its time to progress to a bigger
kettlebell. If you follow this simple
programme youll be pretty strong
when you can do 10 sets of five
reps with the 48 kg kettlebell.

In the kettlebell community there


is a phenomenon called the
what-the-heck effect. It sounds
crazy, but youll experience it
yourself when you start doing
things like the goblet squat with
a kettlebell.
The WTH effect basically means
you train a particular exercise with
a kettlebell and then find that you
become better at all manner of
athletic movements that you would
think the kettlebell would be too
light, or simply too unrelated, to
have a positive effect on. The
goblet squat is a great example.
If you worked up to being able to
handle the beastly 48 kg kettlebell
on the goblet squat for multiple
sets of five, youd find that your
squatting strength on barbell
variations like back squats, front
squats and Zercher squats would
go through the roof.
Give it a try and youll see what
I mean.
As an example, one of my rivals,
Donnie Thompson, swears by
performing the double kettlebell
front squat with a pair of 40 kg
kettlebells. Thats 80 kg total.

Jonathan Walker
demonstrates
the goblet squat
in Gambaru Gym
in Harrogate

Doesnt sound much for a guy


weighing 180 kg and squatting nearly
600 kg with a regular power bar. But
Donnie swears by his double 40 kg
front squats with a pair of kettlebells.
If its good enough for Donnie
its probably good enough for
you, too.

ANDY BOLTON is a multiple world champion powerlifter


and world record holder. He was the first man to deadlift more
than 1,000 lbs. For more information visit: andyboltonstrength.org
Want more great advice from Andy on how to get really
strong, safely? Check out the M&F Strength Series at
www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/strength

MUSCLE & FitnESS

189

last set

Before you openly deride the next


vegetarian you meet, make sure
youve got the facts. By Ian Cohen
WHEN YOU work at Muscle &
Fitness, two things are certain:
youre going to be immersed in gym
culture, and youre going to be
working with guys who eat meat
a lot of it. If it once walked, crawled,
flew, swam, or was hit by a truck,
these guys will eat it.
Truth is, the protein found in meat
whatever animal it comes fromreigns
supreme when it comes to the diet of
your average M&F reader.
In the race to build bigger muscles,
everyone can agree that protein is
the driving force that powers your
body to the finish line. And most
would also argue that meatalong
with certain dairy productsis the
preferred food for getting your fill. In
the quest for protein, however, this is
where a few of us jump ship and head
for greener pastures.
Specifically, Im talking about plant

190

MUSCLE & FitnESS

proteins. Im not trying to convert


carnivores with this. My only beef
with some beef eaters is their quick
condemnation of those who look
beyond livestock for their protein fix.
Believe me, its not easy ordering a
veggie burger in the company of a
bunch of guys who expect their food
to have been packing muscle. From
subtle digs to outright mockery,
the response to my food selection
continues to be a point of contention.
I often think I would be judged less
harshly if I ordered fried panda with
a side of kitten.
Just know that a well-rounded,
plant-based diet rich in fruit,
vegetables, nuts, and whole grains
can easily provide all the protein your
body needs to build muscle. More
importantly, according to numerous
studies, including the landmark
Adventist Health Study-2, people

who eat a plant-based diet live longer,


healthier lives. They have fewer cases
of cancer, heart disease, type-2
diabetes, and are less likely to be
overweight. And if your carbon
footprint is important to you, youll
leave a smaller one of those, too.
Research also shows that the risk of
hospitalisation or death from heart
disease is 32% lower for vegetarians.
Never mind the fact that you wont
have to worry about the next mad
cow disease beef recall.
True, vegetables might not be as
satisfying to the palette, but they
satisfy my nutritional needs, and more
significantly, my soul. Plus, Im in great
shape. Im lifting big weights and have
conquered some brutal Spartan
races. Im continuing to add more lean
muscle mass to my physiqueall while
on a plant-based diet.
This route is not for everyone, and
thats to be expected. But the world
is changing, and as more men learn
about the immense health benefits of
plant-based nutrition, the more likely
theyll be able to accept it as a viable
alternative to meat on occasionor
maybe even for good.

DEVON JARVIS

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MUSCLE & FitnESS

191

HOT BOD

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MUSCLE & FitnESS

M AT T M A R S H

Yoanna Zervides, 34,


has been working in
fitness for 15 Years.
In that time shes crafted an
incredible body and earlier
this year decided to show it
off by taking to the stage in
physique contests. Having
just placed second in the
bodyfitness division at the
UKBFF British Championships,
the cooking enthusiast is
officially the owner of one
of Britains best bodies. You
wont hear any disagreement
in the M&F office!