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Lean Manufacturing includes many types of new techniques to improve
everything. Maybe no change something immediately, but it starts with few
changes. Some of this tools or methods include the six sigma and the 5S
method. Following, we will describe these two methods.
The first one is the six sigma, it comes from 5 Chinese words, and every word
translated to English, start with s. Every word has a different meaning, but
always referred to improvement.
The 5s method is related to improve too. But is directed for a workplace.


To know about new tools of lean manufacturing


To know what is the six sigma methodology

To know which are the steps of de six methodology
To develop the meaning and the steps of the 5S method.

Six Sigma at many organizations simply means a measure of quality that
strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and
methodology for eliminating defects (driving toward six standard deviations
between the mean and the nearest specification limit) in any process from
manufacturing to transactional and from product to service.
Six Sigma is based on a handful of basic principles, and these principles
create the entire Six Sigma arrangement. Here are Six Sigma's fundamental

Y = f(X) + : All outcomes and results (the Y) are determined by inputs

(the Xs) with some degree of uncertainty ().

To change or improve results (the Y), you have to focus on the inputs
(the Xs), modify them, and control them.

Variation is everywhere, and it degrades consistent, good performance.

The Job is to find it and minimize it!

Valid measurements and data are required foundations for consistent,

breakthrough improvement.

Only a critical few inputs have significant effect on the output.

Concentrate on the critical few.

Their steps are the followings

1. Define
In this step, you identify the pain area or the process that needs
improvement. You define the nature of the problem. The objectives for adopting
the six sigma improvement process are defined during this step. You form a
team and train them about the benefits of adopting the six sigma methodology
to improve your current process. It is advised that the team that you form is
motivated and believes in the benefits that will be accrued by completing this
Next, you identify the customers or the people who would be impacted by
this six sigma project. The critical requirements for these customers are also
documented. Finally, you create the team charter which details project scope,
business case, and the problem statement. This marks the completion of the
define step.

The key tools used during the define phase are: Project Charter, stakeholder
analysis, and SIPOC (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, and Customers)
diagram which visually depicts the key elements for the Six Sigma project.

2. Measure
This step is a little more time-consuming as compared to the Define phase
of the six sigma methodology. It is during this phase that you define the
parameters that will be used to measure performance improvement. During
this phase, you define the baseline performance and also the extent to which
the process can be improved. The key defects in the process are identified and
defined. Once the key measures for improvement are defined, data is collected
to analyze the difference between the current performance and the desired
performance. You also need to establish the process variations during this
The key tools used during the Measure phase are: Pareto charts, control
charts, and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).


During this phase, the data collected during the measure phase is used to
analyze the gap between the current and desired performance. Next, you
perform a root-cause analysis to define the possible reasons for the
performance gap and quantify the main causes for variation. The gap between
the current and desired state is also calculated in financial terms.
The key tools used during the Analyze phase are Cause and Effect diagram,
Regression analysis, and Flow diagrams.
4. Improve
Now that you have defined the problem, measured the performance gap,
and analyzed the reason for the gap, it is time to move over to the Improve
phase of the steps in six sigma methodology. During this phase, you will devise
a set of possible solutions and then select the best possible solution for the
problem identified. Once you have selected the best solution, it is imperative to
devise the implementation plan with the time frame for implementation. The
main outcome of the improve phase is the designing of the performance
improvement plan which will bring about a marked, measured difference in
your existing process.
The key tools used during this phase are: Force field diagram, Stakeholder
Definition, and FMEA.

5. Control
The final phase of the steps of six sigma methodology is the Control phase
wherein you formulate project management plans and procedures to control or
sustain the improved process.
This is one of the most important steps of the six sigma methodology and a
failure to devise a control plan might ruin the entire effort spent on improving
the original process. During this phase you need to document the revised
process, devise, and deploy the response plan, and transfer knowledge of the
new process to the process owner and the team.
The key tools used during the Control phase are: Quality control process charts,
control charts, and standardization practices.
5S is the name of a workplace organization methodology that uses a list of
five Japanese words
are seiri,
seiketsu and shitsuke. Transliterated or translated into English, they all start
with the letter "S". The list describes how to organize a work space for
efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing the items used,
maintaining the area and items, and sustaining the new order. The decisionmaking process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization which
builds a clear understanding among employees of how work should be done. It
also instills ownership of the process in each employee
Phases of 5S
There are 5 primary phases of 5S: sorting, straightening, systematic
cleaning, standardizing, and sustaining. Additionally, there are three other
phases sometimes included; safety, security, and satisfaction.
Sorting (Seiri, )
Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, and instructions. Go through all tools,
materials, and so forth in the plant and work area. Keep only essential items
and eliminate what is not required, prioritizing things per requirements and
keeping them in easily-accessible places. Everything else is stored or
Stabilizing or Straightening Out (Seiton, )
There should be a place for everything and everything should be in its
place. The place for each item should be clearly labeled or demarcated. Items
should be arranged in a manner that promotes efficient work flow, with

equipment used most often being the most easily accessible. Workers should
not have to bend repetitively to access materials. Each tool, part, supply, or
piece of equipment should be kept close to where it will be used in other
words, straightening the flow path. Seiton is one of the features that
distinguishes 5S from "standardized cleanup". This phase can also be referred
to as Simplifying.[1]
Sweeping or Shining (Seiso', )
Clean the workspace and all equipment, and keep it clean, tidy and
organized. At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything
is restored to its place. This makes it easy to know what goes where and
ensures that everything is where it belongs. Spills, leaks, and other messes
also then become a visual signal for equipment or process steps that need
attention. A key point is that maintaining cleanliness should be part of the daily
work not an occasional activity initiated when things get too messy.
Standardizing (Seiketsu, )
Work practices should be consistent and standardized. All work stations for
a particular job should be identical. All employees doing the same job should
be able to work in any station with the same tools that are in the same location
in every station. Everyone should know exactly what his or her responsibilities
are for adhering to the first 3 S's.
Sustaining the Practice (Shitsuke, )
Maintain and review standards. Once the previous 4 S's have been
established, they become the new way to operate. Maintain focus on this new
way and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways. While thinking
about the new way, also be thinking about yet better ways. When an issue
arises such as a suggested improvement, a new way of working, a new tool or
a new output requirement, review the first 4 S's and make changes as

Objectives of the 5S method

The most obvious benefit from items being organized in such a way (i.e.
that they are always readily available) is that of improved productivity.
Production workers being diverted from production to look for tools, gauges,
production paperwork, fasteners, and so on is the most frustrating form of lost
time in any plant.

The next aim is perhaps Quality. The degree of impact of dirt in a
manufacturing environment, obviously, varies with the nature of the product
and its process but there are few, if any, areas where dirt is welcome. Even if it
is only in the form of soiled documentation accompanying the goods to the
customer this can send a very negative message about the company and its
culture. In other cases dirt can have a serious impact on product performance
either directly or indirectly, perhaps through compromising the integrity of test
Another goal is improved Health & Safety. Clear pathways between
workbenches and storage racks can minimise accidents, as can properly-swept
floors. As with Quality, a well-organised, clean and tidy facility lends itself more
readily to standard practice


Six sigma and the 5S method are tools that helps and develop a lean

The application of the six method, may causes a complete change, being

from a little change until a complete transformation

The six sigma method is a method that identifies a problem, studies it,
know about the risks and the why, propose a plan to change it, and

apply the plan. Then ensure the method is well applied.

The 5S method, is almost the same steps of the six sigma methods, but
is more applied to a work area; organize a place, eliminating things that
are not necessary.