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Multidisciplinary Aerospace Design Optimization: Survey of

Recent Developments
AIAA 96-0711
Jaroslaw Sobieszczanski- Sobieski
NASA Langley Research Center
Hampton, VA 23681-0001
34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit
January 15-18, 1995, Reno, Nevada
The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked increasing interest in
multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper presents a survey of recent publications in
the field of aerospace where interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The two main
challenges of MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly
the survey is focused on various ways different researchers use to deal with these challenges.
The survey is organized by a -breakdown of MDO into its conceptual components.
Accordingly, the survey includes sections on Mathematical Modeling, Design-oriented
Analysis, Approximation Concepts, Optimization Procedures, System Sensitivity, and Human
Interface. With the authors' main expertise being in the structures area, the bulk of the
references focus on the interaction of the structures discipline with other disciplines. In
particular, two sections at the end focus on two such interactions that have recently been
pursued with a particular vigor: Simultaneous Optimization of Structures and Aerodynamics,
and Simultaneous Optimization of Structures Combined With Active Control.

Knowledge Based Integrated Multidisciplinary Aircraft
Conceptual Design
Venkata Raghu Chaitanya Munjulury
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology
Thesis No. 1661
With the ever growing complexity of aircrafts, new tools and eventually methods to use these
tools are needed in aircraft conceptual design. To reduce the development cost, an
enhancement in the conceptual design is needed. This thesis presents a knowledge-based
aircraft geometry design tool RAPID and the methodology applied in realizing the design.
The parameters used to create a geometry need to be exchange between different tools. This
is achieved by using a centralized database or onedata concept. One-database will enable
creating a less number of cross connections between different tools to exchange data with one
another. Different types of aircraft configurations can be obtained with less effort. As RAPID
is developed based on relational design, any changes made to the geometric model will
update automatically. The geometry model is carefully defined to carry over to the
preliminary design. The validation of RAPID is done by implementing it in different aircraft
design courses at Linköping University. In the aircraft project course, RAPID was effectively
used and new features were added to the obtained desired design. Knowledge-base is used to

g. Conceptual Design. Effects of static aeroelasticity are simulated with an iterative fluid-structure coupling method. moment. The second method features high-fidelity nodal loads that allow for the realistic modeling of all wing load types: Aerodynamic and fuel loads are represented as surface distributed pressure loads. Following a recent trend in aircraft pre-design. Keywords: Knowledge-base. The finished process was used to perform a mass estimation of the wingbox of a generic long range aircraft derived from the DLR-F11 configuration. torsion) loads introduced into the wingbox structure at the wing rib stations. the CAD/CAE software features custom interfaces for the generation and application of wing loads such as aerodynamic or fuel loads. This publication presents a comparison of two different load introduction methods used for the mass estimation of transport aircraft wingbox structures. CAD. the sizing algorithm adjusts the local properties of the aircraft structure (e. As the stress distribution is driven by the loads acting on the structure. engine and landing gear loads are . a direct relationship between the local stress levels and local sheet thickness is assumed. Part II: Investigation of local load introduction methods Accurate mass estimation of aircraft structures plays an important role during the preliminary design phase. the multidisciplinary process relies on the integrated CAD/CAE software CATIA V5 for the generation of the parametric-associative geometrical and structural models. Optimization Mass Estimation of transport aircraft Wing box structures with a CAD/CAE based Multidisciplinary Process Florian Hurlimann Diss. A widespread method for mass estimation is based on the combination of computational structural analysis and a structural sizing algorithm. In case of the often used fully stressed design criterion. Aircraft.realize the design performance for the geometry with an integrated database approach for a multidisciplinary aircraft conceptual design. Besides multi-model generation capabilities. A structural sizing algorithm featuring novel FEM-based buckling criteria is used for the dimensioning of the wingbox structure. Multidisciplinary. are represented by surface-distributed hydrostatic pressure loads determined by the actual fuel distribution and the acceleration vector acting on the aircraft. XML Database. it is clear that realistic load modeling and load introduction are crucial for accurate mass estimation. The underlying method is physicsbased and emulates the structural design process that takes place during the preliminary design phase.ETH NO 19458 Part I: CAE/CAE-based mass estimation process The first part of the thesis describes a CAD/CAE-based multidisciplinary process for the mass estimation of transport aircraft wingbox structures. Special emphasis was put on the implementation of local load introduction methods: Fuel loads. for instance. The first method uses low-fidelity SMT (shear. the local sheet thickness) according to a number of predefined sizing criteria. Based on the results of the structural analysis.

the structure is sized according to different sizing criteria based either on analytical or numerical methods. design computation and manufacture. This typically includes stress. Surprisingly. the new method is not limited to specific buckling field geometries (e. Part III: FEM-based buckling criterion for structural sizing Structural sizing methods are often used for the preliminary design of lightweight structures. In an iterative process. And the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II(NSGA-II) is used to tackle the uncertainty in twist and sweep angle. The switch from SMT to nodal loads results in a small but significant increase of 4% in wingbox mass. curvature) and buckling field boundary conditions. People’s Republic of China AIAA Aviation 16-20 June 2014. Therefore the robust optimization algorithms can be a good tool to assist the designers to find the design that is less sensitive to the wing shape deviation due to errors from theoretical modeling.modeled as local loads introduced through dedicated load interfaces. Xi’an. The optimal based on robust design also provides the designer more flexibility on compromising among different disciplines during design processor more flexibility on different mission payload that may results in large variation of center of gravity. In this paper Concurrent Subspace Optimization based on Response Surface (RSCSSO) combining with Inexpensive Monte Carlo (IMC) is proposed as a tool to tackle this UAV design robust optimization problem. but without too much deterioration of performance. taper ratio. aspect ratio. Uniform Experiment Design (UED) was introduced to replace the disciplinary optimization in RSCSSO to obtain a set of design points directly. After the results are compared and analyzed. Atlanta. is accurately represented by SMT loads. Shaanxi Province. This suggests that aerodynamic loads. The Multi-disciplinary Robust Optimization for Tailless Aircraft Minghang Liu Yu Hu Northwestern Polytechnical University. elevon deflection and center of gravity. The resulting increase in buckling analysis fidelity contributes to the accuracy and the robustness of the structural sizing process. The wingbox of a generic long range aircraft based on the DLR-F11 configuration serves as a test model for the qualitative and quantitative comparison between the two load introduction methods. This publication presents a new buckling criterion for shell structures based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) buckling analysis.g. IMC-RSCSSO is proved to be useful for efficient search of robust designs. strain and buckling criteria. GA 15th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference The performance of tailless aircrafts is sensitive to the design parameters such as wing twist angle. landing gear loads and engine loads. The proposed IMC-RSCSSO algorithm is conducted on a tailless UAV design problem. . Compared to existing methods using analytical buckling criteria. which are the predominant driver for the wingbox mass. Subsequent analyses shows that this increase is mainly caused by the use of nodal loads modeling for fuel loads. In order to reduce the amount of disciplinary analysis and keep the accuracy of the approximation models. the use of nodal aerodynamic loads instead of SMT loads does not have a significant impact on the structural mass of the wingbox.

Dipankar Ghosh from Vanderplaats Research & Development. open issues that need to be addressed in order to develop an efficient UMDO framework for the design of space transportation systems are discussed and future trends for UMDO are highlighted. Koch from Engineous Software. The French Aerospace Lab.¶ and Ren-Jye Yang# 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization in Atlanta. They enable to handle the disciplinary couplings and to facilitate the search of compromises between conflicting objectives. France (c) CNRS LIMOS and Ecole des Mines de St-Etienne. Uncertainty existing at the early phases of the design process influences the final system performances and reliability. A literature review of case studies of UMDO process applied to aerospace systems is provided. Nicolas Bérend (b) . Simpson. Rodolphe Le Riche (c) (a)CNES. and Ren-Jye Yang from Ford Motor Company. (2) give one or two brief examples of typical uses of these methods by his . Patrick N.Challenges and future trends in Uncertainty-based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for space transportation system design Loïc Brevault(a. Palaiseau. uncertainty propagation or optimization problem formulation are presented and a qualitative comparison of the UMDO methodologies is performed in order to provide general guidelines.‡ Anthony A. Koch. Different techniques such as uncertainty modelling. Mathieu Balesdent(b) . Booker from The Boeing Company. 2002. France 5 th EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR AEROSPACE SCIENCES Abstract The design of a space transportation system is a complex multidisciplinary optimization problem. This paper provides a survey of the UMDO process.§ Patrick N. Anthony A. The objective in the panel was to discuss the current state-of-the-art of approximation methods and identify future research directions important to the community. Paris. France (b)Onera.b) . Moreover. 2002 Abstract This paper summarizes the discussion at the Approximation Methods Panel that was held at the 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization in Atlanta. St-Etienne. Each panelist was asked to (1) describe the current state-of-the-art of the approximation methods used by his company. Booker. Giunta. The panel consisted of five representatives from industry and government: Andrew J. Approximation Methods in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization: A Panel Discussion Timothy W. Launchers Directorate. GA on September 2-4.* Andrew J.† Dipankar Ghosh. GA on September 2-4. Giunta from Sandia National Laboratories. Uncertainty-based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (UMDO) methodologies allow to determine the optimal design solution with respect to the performance criteria while ensuring the reliability and the robustness of the final system to uncertainty.

company. employs classical statistical techniques in response surface modelling and least squares surface fitting to yield polynomial approximation models. Giunta A dissertation submitted to the faculty of Virginia polytechnic institute and state university In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of philosophy In Aerospace Engineering Design engineers often employ numerical optimization techniques to assist in the evaluation and comparison of new aircraft configurations. visualizing experimental results and data from approximation models. The first modelling method. and (4) identify future research directions in approximation methods. Aircraft multidisciplinary design Optimization using design of experiments Theory and response surface modelling Methods Anthony A. Common themes that arose from the discussion included differentiating between Design of Experiments and Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments. Numerical noise causes inaccurate gradient calculations which in turn slows or prevents convergence during optimization. which has been the primary focus of this work. While the use of numerical optimization methods is largely successful. Results from sample HSCT optimization studies involving five and ten variables are presented here to demonstrate the utility of the two modelling methods. (3) describe the current challenges in the use and adoption of approximation methods within your company. The particular application of this research involves modelling the subsonic and supersonic aerodynamic performance of high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft configurations. uses Bayesian statistics and an adaptation of the Kriging process in Geostatistics to create exponential function based interpolating models. The computational expenses of the analyses coupled with the convergence difficulties created by numerical noise are significant obstacles to performing aircraft multidisciplinary design optimization. handling problems with large numbers of variables. The second method. The aerodynamic models created using the two methods outlined above are employed in HSCT optimization studies so that the detrimental effects of numerical noise are reduced or eliminated during optimization. the presence of numerical noise in realistic engineering optimization problems often inhibits the use of many gradient-based optimization techniques. These two methods use elements of statistical analysis and the overall procedure for using the methods is made computationally affordable by the application of parallel computing techniques. The problems created by numerical noise are particularly acute in aircraft design applications where a single aerodynamic or structural analysis of a realistic aircraft configuration may require tens of CPU hours on a supercomputer. To address these issues. capturing uncertainty with approximation methods. and educating engineers in using approximation methods. . in which only a preliminary investigation has been performed. a procedure has been developed to create two types of noise-free mathematical models for use in aircraft optimization studies.