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Jean Jacques Rousseau. His life, contribution to education, and the impact of his work in
relation to our present era.
I’d like to start by saying that:
“The noblest work in education is to make a reasoning man, and we expect to train a young
child by making him reason! This beginning at the end; this is making an instrument of a
result. If children understood how to reason they would not need to be educated.”

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778) was a French philosopher and writer of the Age of
His Political Philosophy, particularly his formulation of social contract theory (or
Contractarianism), strongly influenced the French Revolution and the development of Liberal,
Conservative and Socialist theory. A brilliant, undisciplined and unconventional thinker
throughout his colorful life, his views on Philosophy of Education and on religion were equally
controversial but nevertheless influential.
He is considered to have invented modern autobiography and his novel "Julie, ou la nouvelle
Héloïse" was one of the best-selling fictional works of the 18th Century (and was important to
the development of Romanticism). He also made important contributions to music, both as a
theorist and as a composer.
 Contractarianism suggests that people are primarily self-interested, and that a rational
assessment of the best strategy for attaining the maximization of their self-interest will
lead them to act morally and to consent to governmental authority.

The Educational Theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau

Man's fundamental first duty is to learn the art of living; man's first duty is to be

he would be moved to learn. Studies must be on the practical side because a woman should be the center of the family.  EDUCATIONAL CONTRIBUTION The greatest work produced by Rousseau is ‘Emile’. a housewife. Some of the major points of this section of the book are: a. BOOK ONE: This book deals with the infancy of the child. The underlying thesis of all Rousseau's writings stresses the natural goodness of man. THEORY OF OPPORTUNITY. . THEORY OF HUMAN NATURE • The original nature of man is good but corrupted by society. if we use books in place of nature and our senses it teaches us to believe much and know little. represents the public spirit seeking the common good. expressed in laws to which all submit. b. No textbooks are utilized. should strive to please her husband and have a good reputation. experimentation through concrete medium. • A girl cannot be educated to be a man. Purpose of education The tutor permits the child to develop his natural capacities. objects and situations for learning to take place. assumes that everyone's true interests must coincide. c.•      Knowledge constitutes the ability to reason and use our senses to learn. THEORY OF TRANSMISSION • Students are provided with concrete materials. It is always individualistic. and mother. The child learns by using his senses in direct experience. BOOK TWO: Rousseau describes the education of the child when the tutor has full responsibility. The book describes the ideal education which prepares Emile and Sophie for their eventual marriage. good adult intended by nature. It is society that corrupts and makes a man evil. THEORY OF CONSENSUS • Rule by the general will. The following represents an outline of the vital educational principles found in Emile. This work is more a tract upon education under the guise of a story than it is a novel in the true sense of the word novel. The school Living in the country close to nature he should develop into the benevolent. THEORY OF LEARNING • Learning is done through trial and error. Problem centered When the child felt the need to know something. The aim of education is never social.

play-things. Attainment of fullest natural growth leading to balanced.d. Training of heart. moral and social education is recommended. social. BOOK THREE: This section describes the intellectual education. b. f. sense organs and powers i. b. c. light clothing. harmonious and useful life. d. h. e. She is expected to have and care for children. total intellectual and vocational development. history or geography. Religious. BOOK FOUR: This section describes the social education and the religious education. simple diet. When he is ready to learn and is interested in language. Sex instinct is to be sublimated by redirection in work and activity.e.  ROUSSEAU AIMS OF EDUCATION a. Character education The child learns morality by experiencing the consequences of his actions. Period of instruction. no instruction of language. . studies to reveal nature. g. history and science. Physical education Rousseau stresses the importance of physical activities in order to build a strong body. To provide the child with strength to attain well regulated freedom. Greatest freedom of physical movement to learn by own experience. To develop well regulated freedom. a) Social attitudes He is permitted to mingle with people in society at the age of sixteen. astronomy.  CURRICULUM a. learning to judge. c) Education of women Women are not educated as are men. advise and console her husband whenever necessary. labor and study. c. exercise the body. and to please. to make the child loving. geography. b) Natural religion The revelation and dogma of organized religion are unnecessary for man. e. no need to learn by heart. foresee and reason. science and arts and craft. he will possess the inner direction necessary to learn. Curriculum should be built around curiosity to develop the urge for knowledge. Prepares the child to live life. Allow the child to wander freely.

Man shows us how to use our body that we are born with. study of society. There is the education from things. . The education of nature consists only of what the human body is born with. ANALYSIS OF JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU WORK IN RELATION TO PRESENT ERA The three main educative forces. history and religion is important. they only teach us to talk about things that we know nothing about own experience. This is what we learn from objects and things around us. economics. 1. The highest function of the teachers consists not so much in imparting knowledge but on stimulating the pupils in their love and pursuit. Guide properly with perfect freedom. politics. He lays stress on direct experience of things and on the principle of learning by doing. Not an instructor but only a guide. 2. 3. are nature. “Let the child not be taught science. Must understand the nature of the child to be able to control his emotional reactions. it should always come as natural consequence of their fault.  ROUSSEAU’S PRINCIPLE OF TEACHING The principle of teaching as suggested implicitly by Rousseau reflects his naturalistic philosophy.  ROLE OF A TEACHER        Minor place to the teacher. Do not teach books. According to Rousseau. men. Not to impose any rules of control. and also things.  ROUSSEAU’S VIEW ON DISCIPLINE A free atmosphere can enable the child to develop his inborn and innate capacities Nature of the children are essentially good. Responsibility to motivate the child to learn. “Children should never receive punishment as such. let him discover it”.” He advises the teacher not to intervene in matters of moral guidance as means of disciplining the child. Rousseau talks about. The second educative force is that of man. Training of heart to be social and adapt to the conduct and interest of others. let them act freely No punishment to the child Discipline by natural consequences.d.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the greatest philosophers of the 18th century. Rousseau raised Emile with the least possible restrictions. We are indebted to Rousseau for his emphasis on such principles as’ learning by doing’ or ‘learning through one’s experience and heuristic teaching.html Rousseau's job as his tutor was to preserve. as he was the author of the theory that is very urgent even today. That was the reason a lot of modern thinkers addressed in their works Rousseau. Sources: http://www. That was this idea that is considered to be the main impetus towards French Revolution and many other events that shook our society for years. He tried to prove that the inequality is the product of the .He uses Emile to explain the role that nature plays in an individual's intellectual and moral development through education.philosophybasics.’ Heuristic teaching: an educational method in which learning takes place through discoveries that result from made by the student. and since people cannot return to the state of nature. they should change the system they live in.