Está en la página 1de 57

# Calculating Pump

Slippage
Kyle Chambliss
Oxy Permian

Objective
z

data.

## Increases operating efficiency of wells which is a

benefit to operators

Presentation Outline
z
z
z
z
z

## What is Pump Slippage?

Review of Historical Pump Slippage Equations
Experimental Slippage Test
Experimental Results
ARCO-HF-COP Formula

z
z
z

## Need enough slippage to properly lubricate

barrel, typically 2 to 5% of total production
Improper slippage will damage pump and rod
string causing need for costly repair
Too much slippage is lost production, or in the
case of stripper wells, increased electrical cost

## Historical Slippage Data and Equations

z
z
z
z
z

Robinson (1935)
Davis and Stearns (1944)
Robinson and Reekstin (1960)
Davis, Stearns and Reekstin (1960)
ARCO-Harbison Fisher (2000)

z
z
z

## 1 inch by 72 inch Plunger

Viscosity of 7 centipoise
Pressure of 2230 psi

14
Robinson Data
12
10
8

## Davis and Stearns

Robinson and Reekstin
ARCO-HF

6
4
2
0
0.000

0.001

0.002

0.003

Clearance (inches)

0.004

0.005

z
z
z
z

## Equations do not agree

Plunger leakage calculations can vary by a
factor of 15 or more
Equations were derived from field and
experimental data which may be inaccurate
A new theoretical equation could determine
which historical leakage equation, if any, is
accurate

z

correct?

## Texas Tech Test Well

Red Raider # 1
Measure Pump Slippage in Controlled
Environment

Red Raider # 1
z

Depth

Casing

Measured - 4006.6 ft
9 5/8
N-80
43.5 lb/ft

Location

## East Loop 289 and 4th Street

10 minutes from Campus

Production Equipment
z

z
z

C 456-305-144
5 Sheave Sizes 16, 12, 10, 8.5 and 6
ABB Variable Speed Drive
Rod String
7/8 and 3/4 Rod String
1 Rod String
1 Fiberglass String with 1 5/8 Sinker Bars
Tubing
2 7/8 J-55 6.5 lb/ft
Sucker Rod Pump
2 Barrel
0.009 Clearance
48 Plunger
1.5 Barrel
0.005 Clearance
48 Plunger

z
z
z
z
z
z

## Lufkin Automation SAM Controller

Echometer Well Management System
Wood Group Smart Guard RTU package
ION Power Measurement System
ABB Variable Speed Drive
Micromotion Mass Flow Meter

Experimental Procedure
z

## Measure Pump Displacement with Echometer

Equipment and Lufkin SAM Controller

## Measure Actual Production at Surface using

Micromotion Mass Flow Meter

## Difference of Pump Displacement and Pump

Production is Slippage assuming no Leakage through
Traveling and Standing Valves This is a good
assumption for new pump with clean fluid

## Test Data 2 Pump

Stroke
Rod Lengt
String h (in)

Control
Method 3

Pump
Pump Intake
Intake
Echometer
Lufkin
Pump Pressure Pressure
Inferred
Inferred
Surface Echometer Lufkin Average Pump
Frequency Speed Woodgroup Echometer Production Production Production Slippage Slippage Slippage Efficinc
(Hz) 4
(spm)
(psig)
(psig)
(bpd)
(bpd)
(bpd)
(bpd)
(bpd)
(bpd)
y (%)

Test #

Date

1-01

7/8/05

76 1

60

161.5

427.72

424.8

367.1

60.6

57.7

59.1

86.1

1-02

7/8/05

76

60

152.6

428.11

425.6

368.0

60.1

57.6

58.8

86.2

1-03

7/8/05

76

51

165.5

357.49

350.2

301.3

56.2

48.9

52.6

85.1

1-04

7/8/05

76

43

6.93

167

167.7

297.36

292.6

242.4

55.0

50.2

52.6

82.2

1-05

7/8/05

76 1

31.5

5.03

165.7

172

214.7

214.0

163.5

51.2

50.5

50.9

76.3

1-06

7/8/05

76 1

na

1.82

183.2

182.7

81.5

81.0

41.6

39.9

39.4

39.6

51.2

2-01

7/28/05

88

.8 spm

0.80

175

178.1

39.2

NA

5.6

33.6

na

na

14.2

2-02

7/28/05

88

.7 spm

0.70

178

178.1

34.4

NA

4.4

30.0

na

na

12.8

2-03

7/28/05

88

.6 spm

0.60

179

178.1

29.55

NA

0.0

29.6

na

na

0.0

2-05

7/28/05

88

60

9.72

150

165.4

444.6

437.8

377.9

66.7

59.9

63.3

85.6

2-06

7/28/05

88

60

9.71

150

151.7

444.6

440.0

378.2

66.4

61.8

64.1

85.5

2-07

7/28/05

88

51

8.22

153

149.9

371.6

370.0

308.6

63.0

61.4

62.2

83.2

2-08

7/28/05

88

43

6.90

156

154.6

313.4

312.6

250.9

62.5

61.7

62.1

80.2

2-09

7/28/05

88

5.01

156

163

224

223.6

170.2

53.8

53.4

53.6

76.0

3-01

7/5/05

31.5

76

60

na

na

591.1

496.4

na

94.7

na

84.0

4-01

7/14/05 FG

60

12.95

na

na

641.7

565.8

na

75.9

na

88.2

5-01

7/14/05 FG

6-01

7/26/05

88

87.5

ABB (16")

145

72.5

15.47

138

na

na

868.3

777.2

na

91.1

na

89.5

60

12.92

146

na

na

625.7

540.1

na

85.6

na

86.3

Control
Method 3

## Pump Intake Pump Intake Echometer

Pressure
Pressure
Inferred
Pump Speed Woodgroup Echometer Production
(spm)
(psig)
(psig)
(bpd)

Lufkin
Inferred
Production
(bpd)

Surface
Production
(bpd)

Echometer
Slippage
(bpd)

Lufkin
Slippage
(bpd)

Average
Slippage
(bpd)

Pump
Efficincy (%)

Test #

Date

Rod String

Stroke
Length (in)

7-01

8/25/06

76

105.6

ABB (12")

9.7

130

139.3

254.19

na

230.1

60.6

na

na

90.5

7-02

8/25/06

76

105.6

ABB (12")

8.3

134

122.4

207.94

na

207.9

22.9

na

na

89.0

7-03

8/25/06

76

105.6

ABB (12")

7.1

135

116.8

180.43

na

180.4

21.4

na

na

88.2

7-04

8/25/06

76

105.6

ABB (12")

5.1

136

132.6

127.03

na

127.0

19.4

na

na

84.7

7-05

8/25/06

76

105.6

ABB (12")

2.5

141

142.2

62.47

na

62.5

16.9

na

na

72.9

7-06

8/25/06

76

105.6

ABB (12")

1.0

145

142.2

24.38

na

24.4

14.1

na

na

42.2

7-07

8/25/06

76

105.6

ABB (12")

0.5

151

142.2

11.49

na

11.5

11.2

na

na

2.4

100
90

## 76 String 2 " Pump

76 String 1.5 " Pump

80

## 88 String 2 " Pump

FG String 2 " Pump

Slippage (bpd)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

Speed (spm)

10

12

14

16

100
90
80

Efficiency (%)

70
60

50

## 76 String 2 " Pump

88 String 2 " Pump

40

## FG String 2 " Pump

30
20
10
0
0

Speed (spm)

10

12

14

16

Comparison to ARCO-Harbison
Fisher Formula

## Measured Slippage Not Constant, Changes

with Pumping Speed

ARCO-Harbison Fisher

## 59.0 bpd for 2 pump

23.0 bpd for 1.5 pump

100

90

80

## 88 String 2 " Pump

FG String 2 " Pump

Slippage (bpd)

70

60

## ARCO-HF 2" Pump

50
40
30
20
10
0
0

Speed (spm)

10

12

14

16

ARCO-HF-COP

1.52

DPC
452 [(0.14 SPM ) + 1]
L

ARCO-HF-COP
120

## 76 String 2 " Pump

76 String 1.5 " Pump
100

Slippage (bpd)

## FG String 2 " Pump

ARCO-HF 1.5" Pump

80

## ARCO-HF 2" Pump

ARCO-HF-COP 1.5 " Pump
60

40

20

0
0

Speed (spm)

10

12

14

16

Conclusions
z

## Pumping Rate affects Slippage. As Pump

Speed Increases, Pump Efficiency Increases
and Slippage Increases

## The experimental setup works as intended,

producing reliable data

Recommendations
z

## Using more pumps to determine if coefficients of

ARCO-Harbison Fisher equation are correct
More test of pumps at different pumping rates
Using different stroke lengths

data

z
z
z
z
z
z
z

## Harbison-Fischer MFG. Co.

Key Energy Service
Key Energy Trucking
Lufkin Oil Field Services
Norris Rods
Wood Group Production Technology
Wood Group Telecom, LLC

z
z
z
z
z
z

BP America
ChevronTexaco Exploration and Production Technology
ConocoPhillips Co.
Echometer Co.
Lufkin Automation
Occidental Oil & Gas Corporation (Oxy Permian)

Calculating Pump
Slippage
Kyle Chambliss
Oxy Permian

ARCO
-HF Slippage Equation
ARCO-HF
ARCO-HF Slippage Equation
Does Not Include Effects of:
1) Rod Design
2) Speed (SPM)
3) Plunger Velocity

## Slippage: Fluid that

falls back between
the plunger OD and
the barrel ID when
traveling ball is on
seat into the chamber
between the standing
valve and traveling
valve.

## Another Advantage of Using ABB

2 Plunger, 1 Rod String, 0.009 Clearance, 12 Sheave
15.63 Wrf + Fo Max

12.50

12.50

0.6 HP

Wrf

Wrf

9.38

9.38

## 0.6 SPM, Input 4.8 HP,

0% System Efficiency

6.25 Fo Max

0.7 HP
0.7 SPM, Input 5 HP,
2.4% System Efficiency

6.25

Fo Max

## Fo From Fluid Level

3.13

3.13

100 Sec/Stroke
0

-3.13

85.53 Sec/Stroke
104.0

0 BPD in Tank,
29.0 BPD @ 104 Pump Stroke
0

105.6

-3.13

105.0

## 4.7 BPD in Tank,

34.4 BPD @ 105 Pump Stroke
0

105.6

## When Producing Water the Surface Flow Rate is Directly

Related to the Plunger Velocity on Upstroke & Down Stroke

## Dynamometer Cards 5.01 SPM

2 Plunger, 0.009 Clearance, 12 Sheave, 31.5 HZ

17.50

Wrf + Fo Max

15.00

12.50

10.00 Wrf

7.50
Fo Max
5.00

215 BPD @ Pump
163 BPD in Tank,
51 BPD Slippage

226 BPD @ Pump

2.50

-2.50

56 BPD Slippage

98.6

105.6

BDS = 4.17 10

PC

1.9

(d

2
2

d L
0.1
2

2
1

BRR

0.7

PD C
= 1.80 10
L
8

3.3

1.52

B AH

DPC
= 870
L

Velocity Profile

## Velocity Profile Equation

r
r

ln
ln

R0
R0
p 2
2
2
2
r R0 Ri R0
+ VP
Vz ( r ) =
Ri
Ri
4
ln
ln

R0
R0

) (

Slippage Calculation
z

B = (Annular Area)x
(Average Velocity)x
(Plunger Travel Time)

Moving Plunger

Factors

Eccentricity
Pumping Rate

z
z
z
z
z

## 1 inch by 72 inch Plunger

Viscosity of 7 centipoise
Pressure of 2230 psi
Pumping Rate of 10 strokes per minute
Stroke Length of 55 inches

## Average Velocity of Flow Through Annulus

4
Ri2
Ri2 ln R0
R02
P R0 Ri4
2
R0
+
+
V =
2
2

4 2 R0 Ri
R
R
R

R02 Ri2 ln i ln i
R02 Ri2 ln i

R0
R0
R0

(
(

)
)

(
)
R02 ln (R0 )
ln
R

+ VP

Ri
Ri
Ri
2
2
R0 Ri ln ln
ln
R

0
R0
R0

1
1

2
= R ln R0 Ri ln Ri
2
2

2
0

## Slippage Compared to Historical Data

14
Pump Slippage (Barrels per Day)

12

ARCO-HF

10

## New Method (Eccentric)

6
4
2
0
0.000

0.001

0.002

0.003

Clearance (inches)

0.004

0.005

140

## Slippage (Barrels per Day)

120
100

ARCO-HF
New Method (Concentric)
New Method (Eccentric)

80
60
40
20
0
0.000

0.005

0.010
Clearance (Inches)

0.015

0.020

## Comparison of Pumping Rate

z
z
z
z
z

3 inch by 24 inch
Viscosity of 7 centipoise
Pressure of 2620 psi
Pumping Rate of 8
strokes per minute
Stroke Length of 55
inches

z
z
z
z
z

3 inch by 24 inch
Viscosity of 7 centipoise
Pressure of 2620 psi
Pumping Rate of 16
strokes per minute
Stroke Length of 55
inches

## Comparison of Pumping Rate

8

8 SPM Concentric
16 SPM Concentric

0
0.000

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

z

## Ratio of Eccentric to Concentric Slippage

Ratio of Eccentric to Concentric Slippage

2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2

Pump 1

1.8
1.6

Pump 2

1.4
1.2
1
0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.10

## Ratio of Eccentric to Concentric Slippage

z
z
z
z
z

1 inch by 72 inch
Plunger
Viscosity of 7 centipoise
Pressure of 2230 psi
Pumping Rate of 10
strokes per minute
Stroke Length of 55
inches

z
z
z
z
z

5 inch by 24 inch
Plunger
Viscosity of 15
centipoise
Pressure of 1000 psi
Pumping Rate of 5
strokes per minute
Stroke Length of 144
inches

z
z
z
z

## Pumping Rate has small effect on slippage

Eccentricity as a large effect on slippage
Ratio of eccentric to concentric slippage is not
2.5 for all pump clearances
ARCO-Harbison Fisher Equation agrees with
new equation up to a Plunger Clearance of
0.005 inches