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Curs 1-3

Curs 4 - Trajectory planning


Curs 5 part 1
Curs 5 part 2
Curs 6
Curs 6 senzori
Curs 7
Curs 8
Material suplimentar 1
Material suplimentar 2
La ROBO dam partial din cursurile 1 si 2, de asemenea din cursul 4 avem polinoamele de grad 3 si
5, trapezul, iar din cursul 5 avem partea de urmarire a traiectoriei, partea de control.
Din cursul 6 avem motorul de curent continuu, sisteme automate si calculul erorilor, urmarirea
traiectoriei.
Din cursul 7 avem traductoare si senzori.
Din cursul 3 avem doar ecuatia dinamicii asociate. Nu intra robotii dinamici.
Subiectele sunt grupate in fc de gradul de dificultate.

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Kinematics: relationships in terms of position /


velocity between the joint and work-space.

Dynamics: relationships between the torques


applied to the joints (mass of the rigid body) and
the consequent movements of the links.

Trajectory planning: planning of the desired


movements of the manipulator taking time into
consideration

Planning the trajectories :


Defining the points on the trajectory:
point-to-point
pre-defined path

In regard to the work space:


joint space trajectory planning;
operational space trajectory planning

Trajectory planning includes:


path planning
definition of a motion law
applying constrains (ex: path, continuity, resonant modes)

Path: geometrical place of points in the space


(either joint or operational).
Geometrical description of motion
Defined in joint space or work space
Trajectory: a path completed with a motion (time)
law
Motion law: velocities and accelerations
associated to path points.
s=s(t)

P
Trajectory in work space

Define path:
initial point ->
final point

Define total time


of movement

Calculate discrete
path

Advantages
Geometrical constrains
Disadvantages
Inverse kinematics calculated each step.
Total time hard to compute

Blend a
continuous time
function

Solve inverse
kinematics

Calculate inverse
kinematics for
path points

Define total time in


regard to max
velocities of joints

Calculate discrete
path

Advantages
Inverse kinematics is calculated at the beginning
Calculates directly joint angle, and velocities
Disadvantages
Difficult to model operational space obstacles.

Blend a
continuous time
function

Path in joint space:


defining initial, intermediate and final values for the joint
variables
assigning a desired motion law.

Motion law = continuous functions ( superior order of derivations


as to be able to calculate velocity and acceleration)

Motion law usually defined as polynomial functions a of n degree


(usually n: 1-5):

INPUT

OUTPUT
Trajectory in
joint space

Points on path

Geometrical
Constrains
Mechanical
Constrains

Trajectory planning
algorithm
Trajectory in
work space

Characteristics of the function that interpolates the given points:


the motion law must be continuous functions of time
numerical calculation efficiency
effect of calculation constrains must be minimized or completely avoided.

Polinoame de ordin 3

Conditii :
Initiale si finale
Pozitia si viteza initiala
Pozitia si viteza finala

Conditiile la limita aplicate:

For

Polinom de ordin 5 :

Se pot pune conditii legate de


pozitie
viteza
acceleratie
6 conditii la limita:

Pentru

Doua tipuri de segmente


Segment liniar-> viteza constanta
Segment parabolic -> viteza este o functie liniara

Traiectorie trapezoidala:
Primul si ultimul segment
acceleratie / deceleratie constanta
Viteza liniara
Pozitia parabola

Al doilea segment
Acceleratia este nula
Viteza este constanta
Pozitia variaza liniara in timp

Acceleration segment

Boundary conditions:
initial position
initial velocity
final velocity = constant velocity

for second segment

Constant velocity phase

Boundry conditions:
Constant velocity from the first segment
Final position from fist segment = initial position for

second segment

.
.

Deceleration phase

Boundary conditions:
final position
final velocity
initial velocity = constant velocity for second segment
Initial position = final position for second segment

Additional constrains (necessary to solve the


equation)
duration of the acceleration/deceleration segment
similar conditions

Define
maximum
acceleration

Calculate
duration of
acceleration

A function interpolating a set of n points can be represented


with a polynomial function of degree n 1.
Not a convenient solution

2 points = unique line


3 points = unique quadric
...
n points = unique polynomial
with degree n 1

Calculating n degree poliyom Lagrange


expression for polynomial equation:

Calculating n degree poliyom using Matrix


procedure

To avoid problem of n degree polynomial


equation we use n 1 polynomials with lower
degree p (p < n 1), each polynomial
interpolates a segment of the trajectory.
P=3

4 coefficients for each polynomial,


Calculate 4(n 1) coefficients

4(n 1) coefficients
- 2(n 1) conditions on the position (initial/final points);
- n 2 conditions on the continuity of velocity

(intermediate points);
- n 2 conditions on the continuity of acceleration
(intermediate points);

Result
4(n 1) 2(n 1) 2(n 2) = 2

degrees of freedom left to put extra conditions

P degree
polynom

P degree
polynom

..

..

Calculating the parameters


The systems:

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