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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

dead crude oil viscosities

Jos L. Mendoza de la Cruz a,n, Sergio Alvarez-Badillo b, Edgar Ramrez-Jaramillo a,

Marco A. Aquino-Olivos a, Pedro Orea c

a

Coordinacin de Investigacin y Desarrollo Tecnolgico de Aseguramiento de la Produccin de Hidrocarburos, Instituto Mexicano del Petrleo,

Eje Central Lzaro Crdenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico, DF, Mexico

b

Direccin de Investigacin y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petrleo, Eje Central Lzaro Crdenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan,

07730 Mexico, DF, Mexico

c

Programa de Ingeniera Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petrleo, Eje Central Lzaro Crdenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan,

07730 Mexico, DF, Mexico

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 30 June 2011

Accepted 3 September 2013

Available online 27 September 2013

This work presents reliable measurements for dynamic viscosity of representative heavy oil samples

from Mexican reservoirs. Most of the experimental data of dynamic viscosity were measured using a

constant force electromagnetic viscometer. The viscometer was calibrated using several viscosity

standards based on a maximum standard deviation of 0.5% in all measurements for the three pistons

used. Dynamic viscosities of heavy dead crude oils were obtained at a temperature range from 397.1 to

300.8 K, viscosities in the range of 10.97476.7 cP, oil API gravity from 11.5 to 19.4, and at a constant

pressure of 0.1 MPa. The estimated uncertainty on viscosity was less than 7 1.0% over the temperature

range of measurements. A new correlation approach was developed to estimate dynamic viscosities of

Mexican heavy crude oils based on oil API gravity, and temperature.

& 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

heavy dead crude oil

dynamic viscosity

correlation

viscometer

1. Introduction

The knowledge of the dynamic viscosity of heavy and extraheavy oils is very important in the petroleum industry; particularly, dynamic viscosity of dead crude oil can be used as input

information to simulators for designing of tubing or pipelines,

pumping, optimizing production strategies, and transportation

systems as well as for heavy crude oil recovery processes

(Barrufet and Setiadarma, 2003; Barrufet and Dexheimer, 2004;

Naseri et al., 2005; Malallah et al., 2006; Ikiensikimama and

Ogboja, 2009). Nowadays, the enormous increase in oil demand

and the progressive depletion of low-viscosity oil reservoirs have

led to the fast development of very large world resources of heavy

and extra-heavy crude oils. However, production, distribution,

transport, blending, and the conditioning process (dehydration

and desalted) of such crude oils are technological challenges due

to their very high viscosities (Barrufet and Setiadarma, 2003).

Generally, the very common practice for estimating dynamic

viscosity of crude oils is by means of viscosity correlations.

Nevertheless, it is well-known that most of these correlations

n

E-mail addresses: jlmendoz@imp.mx (J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz),

salvarez@imp.mx (S. Alvarez-Badillo), eramirez@imp.mx (E. Ramrez-Jaramillo),

maquino@imp.mx (M.A. Aquino-Olivos), porea@imp.mx (P. Orea).

0920-4105/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.09.003

operating conditions such as temperature and pressure. Even

though numerous viscosity correlations and prediction methods

are reported in the literature almost all of them are empirical

(Beal, 1946; Beggs and Robinson, 1975; Vazquez and Beggs, 1980;

Glas, 1980; Ng and Egbogah, 1990; Sutton and Farshad, 1990;

Labedi, 1992; Kartoatmodjo and Schmidt, 1994; de Ghetto et al.,

1995; Petrosky and Farshad, 1995; Elsharkawy and Alikhan, 1999;

Dindoruk and Christman, 2004; Naseri et al., 2005; Hossain et al.,

2005; Sattarin et al., 2007) or semi-empirical (Lohrenz et al., 1964;

Little and Kennedy, 1968; Teja and Rice, 1982; Ahrabi et al., 1987;

Johnson and Mehrotra, 1987; Mehrotra and Svrcek, 1988;

Mehrotra, 1991; Miadonye, 1992; Orbey and Sandler, 1993;

Barrufet and Setiadarma, 2003). The published correlations are

mostly based on regional data thereby a universal correlation

capable of being applied to crude oils produced in a different

geographic region is not available. This deviation is attributed to

the complexity of crude oil itself for different regions (Sattarin

et al., 2007). Our study was focused on developing a heavy dead oil

correlation for on-shore and off-shore Mexican crude oils with

respect to their nature.

On the other hand, there are difculties in obtaining reliable

viscosity measurements (Bennison, 1998; Sattarin et al., 2007); the

viscosity of crude oils is commonly measured by either the rolling

ball viscometer or the capillary tube viscometer. In the rolling ball

J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 110 (2013) 184192

the uid is correlated to its density and viscosity. In addition, this

method is limited and subject to errors, because density at the

same temperatures and pressures is needed as a multiplier to

calculate the dynamic viscosity value; it is common that this

density is measured in a pVT cell connected to the viscometer and

it is very difcult to achieve the same pressures and temperatures

used in the density measurements (Barrufet et al., 1993; EstradaBaltazar et al., 1998; Iglesias-Silva et al., 1999). The apparatus

described here is based on a simple and reliable electromagnetic

concept. Two coils move a mobile element back and forth

magnetically at a constant force; the main advantages of this

viscometer are the small amount of sample needed and the short

time required for a measurement; we measured the dynamic

viscosity of heavy dead crude oils at temperatures ranging from

397.1 to 300.8 K, and viscosities in the range of 10.9147476.729 cP

at a pressure of 0.1 MPa. The oil samples were collected from

representative monophasic-bottom-hole uids of Mexican reservoirs, after they were ashed at atmospheric conditions. Moreover,

we used experimental measurements of viscosity from elds

located in the area in order to test the viability of using this

correlation. Statistical comparisons indicated that the new correlation developed in the present work reduces the error involved in

predicting the dynamic viscosity of Mexican heavy crude oils

when existing correlations in literature are employed. The proposed correlation, based on a database of 104 viscosity data, shows

signicant improvement (from 11% to 90%) over previous correlations published in the literature; therefore, the aim of this rst

paper is to develop a dynamic viscosity correlation for Mexican

heavy dead crude oils, which can reliably be used by reservoir

engineers for evaluating crude oil and/or mixture viscosity as well

as by chemical engineers for designing of oileld and renery

processes.

185

Table 1

SARA analysis of the most of heavy dead crude oils used in this work.

Group

Saturates

Aromatics

Resins

Asphaltenes

Crude oil

2

26.23

31.03

29.92

13.82

15.50

28.61

33.75

22.14

12.89

40.05

31.86

15.13

16.49

10.33

60.18

12.96

17.32

44.51

30.78

7.34

3. Experimental section

2. Reservoir uids, viscosity standards and methods

and on-shore heavy dead crude oil samples was measured in our

laboratory over the last ten years; six viscosity data sets were

collected from another laboratory. All the viscosity standards used

in this investigation were supplied by Cannon Instrument Company; they were used without further purication or analysis. The

ASTM-D5002 procedure was used to measure density and relative

density of dead crude oil samples.

In order to measure the performance of the proposed correlation here, we adopted two forms of analysis: (i) quantitative

analysis by means of statistical error analysis and (ii) qualitative

analysis using cross plots. The existing oil viscosity correlations

were assessed for their performances using statistical parameters

(see Appendix) and performance plots. From the general evaluation, we utilized the percent mean absolute relative error as the

screening criterion (Hossain et al., 2005; Ikiensikimama and

Ogboja, 2009).

designed and manufactured by Cambridge Applied Systems (CAS,

USA) to make viscosity measurements of liquids for a viscosity

range of 0.210,000 cP (mPa s) at pressures up to 137.9 MPa

(20,000 psi) and for temperatures up to 463.2 K (190 1C). The

internal volume of the viscometer is less than 2 mL (Jakeways

and Goodwin, 2005). The six pistons (0.22, 0.510, 120, 10200,

1002000, and 50010,000 cP) were calibrated by the manufacturer with an uncertainty of 7 1% of full scale. In this study, based

on the viscosity of the uids analyzed, we used only three pistons

in the viscosity range from 10 to 10,000 cP.

The majority of dead crude oils used here have a high content

of asphaltenes. Asphaltene fraction was extracted from crude oils

by addition of an excess of n-heptane (ASTM D 3279-97). The

maltenes fraction was separated in saturates, aromatics, and resins

using a procedure by an HPLC technique as has been described

elsewhere (Buenrostro-Gonzalez et al., 2001). Table 1 shows the

different fractions for ve dead crude oils. Unfortunately, we do

not have information of the SARA analysis for crude oils 1 and 7.

3.2. Operation

The operation principle of this apparatus is based on a simple

and reliable electromagnetic concept which uses solely one movable constituent through a uid in a small measurement chamber

(MC). A schematic diagram of the viscometer is shown in Fig. 1. A

ferromagnetic piston (P) is immersed into the MC which is ooded

continuously with the uid sample to be analyzed. The viscometer

contains two magnetic coils (C) inside a stainless steel body

(B) which are placed surrounding the MC; the P inside the MC is

magnetically forced back and forth at a constant force. When the

MC is lled up with the uid sample, the inner B coil is activated

and the magnetic force exerted on the P pulls it down toward the

base of the MC; thus, it forces the uid sample to ow around the

piston toward the sensor opening where it interchanges with the

normal ow of the uid sample. Simultaneously, the upper A coil

is used to magnetically monitor the piston motion downstream. On

186

J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 110 (2013) 184192

the upward piston stroke, fresh uid sample is pulled around the P

to the bottom of the MC. The ow detector continuously diverts the

uid sample from the uid stream into the outer region of the MC.

The motion of the P into and out of the MC drags a fresh uid

sample into the rear region of the MC continuously refreshing the

MC; this motion of the P is detected magnetically by means of the

two magnetic coils.

When the piston reaches the bottom of the MC, the upper A

coil is activated and the lower coil B is used then to monitor the

displacement of the P's upward stream. During this reverse cycle,

sample uid is pulled in behind the P. When P reaches the

deector fence, the inner B coil is again activated and the

process is repeated. As the piston is driven back and forth, both

the retaining fence and the piston motion continuously refresh the

uid sample inside the MC. Since measurement of the motion of

the P is made in two directions, variations in travel time due to

vibration, orientation, and ow are assumed to be negligible.

Throughout the cycle, the temperature of the uid sample is

measured using a temperature sensor (RTD) mounted at the base

of the MC. The time required for the piston to move a xed

distance is then accurately related to the dynamic viscosity of the

uid. Thus, the higher the viscosity of the uid inside the MC, the

slower the piston motion .

3.3. Calibration and validation of the viscometer

In order to determine accurate values of the viscosity it is very

important to carry out a careful calibration of the apparatus, as

well as the temperature sensor and the pressure transducer used

in experiments. Viscosity standards supplied by Cannon Instruments Company were used by the manufacturer to calibrate all the

pistons covering the viscosity range of 0.210,000 cP; kinematic

viscosity measurements at temperatures of 2040 1C were made

using Cannon and Cannon-Ubbelohde Master viscometers according to ASTM D2162. Measurements at lower and higher temperatures were determined by Cannon-Ubbelohde Laboratory Standard

viscometers; the expanded uncertainty of the measurements at

95% condence over the temperature range of 40 1C to 150 1C

was as follow: (i) up to 1000 mm2/s (70.44%), (ii) between 1000

and 10,000 mm2/s (70.55%), and (iii) greater than 10,000 mm2/s

(70.74%). The assigned accuracy of the primary viscosity standard

[water at 20 1C (ITS-90) with a viscosity of 1.0016 cP or kinematic

viscosity of 1.0034 mm2/s as listed in ISO 3666] was 7 0.17%.

In our laboratory, the viscometer pistons were recalibrated in

the measuring range of 1010,000 cP (three pistons: 10200 cP,

1002000 cP, and 50010,000 cP) with several calibration uids

with a maximum standard deviation of 0.5% (for calibration uids).

To validate the calibration process, viscosity measurements with

some viscosity standards were carried out at various temperatures

in order to verify the accuracy of each piston used; the differences

between our results and those reported by the supplier were less

than 75% over the temperature range of interest; the repeatability was about 71%.

70.1 1C in the working temperature range.

3.5. Pressure measurement and generation of the viscometer

A high pressure positive displacement pump (maximum working

pressure of 103.4 MPa, total volume of 500 mL) was used to transfer

the uid as well as to reach the desired pressure in the whole system.

Pressures were measured by means of a transducer (Heise, model

901A, pressure range from 0 to 68.9 MPa) connected to the measurement circuit. The pressure transducer was calibrated against a dead

weight balance (Pressurements, model M 2 200/4, accuracy of 0.015%

in full scale). The estimated uncertainty of the pressure measurements

was 70.02% in the working pressure range.

3.6. Procedure

Fig. 2 shows the schematic diagram of the experimental setup

used in this investigation to measure liquid viscosities. Firstly, an

aliquot (approximately 1015 mL) of crude oil to be studied is

placed in a high pressure cylinder (CYL, volume capacity 250 mL

and maximum pressure 68.9 MPa); the pressure is provided by

means of a positive displacement pump (P, pressure maximum

68.9 MPa, volume displacement capacity 500 mL). Once the sample is loaded inside the cylinder, the next step is to connect it

through valves V4 and V5; then, a vacuum pump (VP) is connected

through V7 to evacuate the entire system until a suitable vacuum

is attained (usually after 2030 min). In viscosity measurements of

the reservoir uid, the viscometer is lled with each uid at least

to the temperature of 371.0 K and cooled to the lowest temperature (303.0 K) while continuously oscillating the piston before

The viscometer was thermostated by circulating white mineral

from a stirred uid bath (Polystat, Cole Parmer, model 12105-10)

through an insulating jacket that surrounded the stainless steel body,

with a stability of 70.01 1C. Heating tapes were used for heating all

the external tubing lines from the viscometer. The temperature of the

viscometer was measured with a platinum resistance thermometer

with a nominal resistance of 100 (RTD) which is mounted and

welded at the base of MC and is connected to a digital indicator. The

RTD and the digital panel meter were calibrated with a platinum

pressure and temperature conditions. CTC: circulating bath; RCT: resistance

temperature detector; VP: vacuum pump; DPI: digital pressure indicator; HF:

hydraulic uid; M: manometer; DP: positive displacement pump; V: viscometer;

and RV: relief valve.

J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 110 (2013) 184192

2.9

Table 2

List of obtained values using ln vs. ln ln model.

Oil 1

2.8

Oil 2

187

Crude oil

Experimental data

Lineal behavior

ln ln[(

od+1)API3]

Oil 3

2.7

Oil 4

Oil 5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

2.6

Oil 6

2.5

Oil 7

2.4

-2.02

-2.00

-1.98

-1.96

-1.94

-1.92

-1.90

14

20

13

17

15

19

6

r2

4.9447

4.1240

3.6080

4.2946

4.9137

3.8717

3.3419

12.2268

10.6471

9.6009

10.9158

12.1411

10.0899

9.0849

0.999

0.992

0.995

0.996

0.999

0.988

0.998

2.3

-1.88

ln (1/T 1/3)

1000

100

od (cP)

system pressure is increased up to 0.1 MPa, and viscosity measurements are obtained (Heredia-Castro, 2007).

10

In this work, dynamic viscosity data of seven heavy dead crude

oils from Mexican reservoir have been used. A reliable set of 104

Mexican off and on-shore dead crude oil viscosities was collected

over the last 10 years in the Laboratorio de Productividad de Pozos

(LPP) from the Instituto Mexicano del Petrleo; 98 dynamic viscosity data sets were measured at LPP while the rest of them were

collected from another laboratory. Most of the oil samples were

measured at a temperature range of 397.1300.8 K; for oil API

gravity, data were considered in the range from 11.5 to 19.4.

The basic statistical parameters used for correlation performance evaluation were average percentage relative error (APRE),

average absolute percentage relative error (AAPRE), standard

deviation, and correlation coefcient (r2). See Appendix for more

details.

The correlation for heavy dead crude oil viscosity was developed by plotting ln(1/T1/3) vs. ln ln[(od 1)API3] on Cartesian

coordinates. The plots revealed a series of straight lines of constant

slope (Fig. 3). It was found that each of these lines corresponded to

a different crude oil API gravity; then, these lines were tted with

an empirical equation to obtain

od

ea

API3

1

where

a 39; 053:9772T 1:3683

and T [ ] in K.

Table 2 shows the obtained parameters for each set of dynamic

viscosity corresponding to different heavy crude oils used. It is

evident that all viscosity data for each crude oil follow a lineal

behavior, as shown in Fig. 1 and Table 2.

1

310

Beal

Glas

Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt

Bennison

Proposed correlation

Experimental

Beggs-Robinson

Ng-Egbogah

Petrosky-Farshad

Elsharkawy-Alikhan

320

330

340

350

360

370

380

390

Temperature (K)

Fig. 4. Predicted dead crude oil viscosity vs. temperature compared with experimental data for Oil 3 (oil API gravity of 19.4).

published in literature

Several published correlations for dead oil viscosity data were

compared with the data set measured and collected at the LPP. A

list of these correlations can be found elsewhere (Orbey and

Sandler, 1993; Petrosky and Farshad, 1995). The majority of the

oil viscosity correlations were assessed and analyzed by comparing the predicted and measured viscosities in our lab, their trends;

their values of AAPRE, APRE, standard deviation, and correlation

coefcient, which are the main criteria for evaluating the correlations presented here.

As the rst step, calculated dynamic viscosities were compared

with measured viscosities at different temperatures for each

correlation by plotting them as a function of temperature. Fig. 4

shows a sample graph of a heavy crude oil (Oil 3) from Mexican

reservoirs in ln(od) vs. temperature coordinates. It can be

observed that all the correlations underestimate the viscosity.

Table 3 gives the results of proposed correlation and also of others

for estimating dead oil viscosity; this table shows that the

suggested correlation to predict the dynamic viscosity for Oil

3 has the lowest average absolute percentage relative error (AAPRE

%) and standard deviation in comparison with currently available

correlations. Sattarin et al. (2007) correlation has the biggest

AAPRE % and standard deviation. This correlation is not shown

in the plot. Fig. 4 shows the predicted vs. experimental dynamic

viscosities in the temperature range from 319 to 379 K and for

viscosities in the range of 27317 cP.

For higher viscosities, we analyzed Oil 4 for those correlations

that predict the viscosities with a good approximation as well as

for those correlations for predicting such transport property with

high errors, including in both analyses of our proposed correlation.

From Fig. 5 we can observe that Bennison's correlation predicted the viscosity behavior with good accuracy in the temperature

188

J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 110 (2013) 184192

Table 3

Statistical parameters for dead oil viscosity correlations compared with Oil 3.

Correlation

Table 4

Statistical parameters for dead oil viscosity correlations compared with Oil 4.

Statistical parameters

Beal

BeggsRobinson

Glas

Egbogah

NgEgbogah

KartoatmodjoSchmidt

Labedi

PetroskyFarshad

Bennison

ElsharkawyAlikhan

Naseri et al.

Sattarin et al.

This work

Correlation

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

DMax (%)

s (%)

59

75

56

59

62

43

55

58

63

52

71

78

13

59

75

59

59

62

43

4

58

63

52

71

78

4

74

80

80

84

135

75

125

86

75

76

88

85

21

62

78

61

64

79

50

67

64

66

57

75

81

14

Statistical parameters

Beal

BeggsRobinson

Glas

Egbogah

NgEgbogah

KartoatmodjoSchmidt

Labedi

PetroskyFarshad

Bennison

ElsharkawyAlikhan

Naseri et al.

Sattarin et al.

This work

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

DMax (%)

s (%)

38

86

43

65

38

159

134

55

51

52

61

57

26

38

86

15

65

24

155

77

32

51

52

60

57

25

52

89

80

90

63

437

490

90

52

74

94

92

59

41

89

51

7080

44

215

19,724

64

52

58

70

65

32

10000

0

300

Experimental

320

340

360

380

400

Beal

-50

Bennison

1000

d

od /dT

od (cP)

Proposed correlation

100

-100

Experimental

Beal

-150

Bennison

Proposed correlation

-200

10

300

320

340

360

380

400

Temperature (K)

-250

Fig. 5. Best correlations for predicting dead crude oil viscosity vs. temperature

compared with experimental data for Oil 4 (oil API gravity of 12.0).

Temperature (K)

Fig. 7. Viscosity derivatives vs. temperature compared with the best correlations

for Oil 4.

10000

10000

1000

100

10

1

300

Experimental

Beggs-Robinson

Glas

Ng-Egbogah

Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt

Petrosky-Farshad

Elsharkawy-Alikhan

Proposed correlation

320

340

360

od (cP)

od (cP)

1000

Experimental

100

Beal

Ng-Egbogah

Bennison

Proposed correlation

380

400

Temperature (K)

Fig. 6. Predicted dead crude oil viscosity vs. temperature compared with experimental data for Oil 4 (oil API gravity of 12.0).

range from 313 to 343 K (relative error less than 10%), which

corresponds to viscosities of 1700200 cP while at higher temperatures the relative error was signicant. Beal's correlation

overestimates the viscosities up to 353 K (maximum relative error

of 50%) and at higher temperatures the viscosity is underestimated

with a maximum error of 39%. The proposed correlation in this

study overestimated the viscosity in all ranges of temperature

with a maximum deviation of 21%. Fig. 6 shows the rest of the

correlations analyzed here. We can observe that most of the

correlations, except for the Ng and Egbogah model, underestimate

the viscosity values. Table 4 summaries the comparisons among

10

300

320

340

360

380

Temperature (K)

Fig. 8. Best correlations for predicting dead crude oil viscosity vs. temperature

compared with experimental data for Oil 1 (oil API gravity of 11.5).

and the measured Oil 4 viscosities. KartoatmodjoSchmidt and

Labedi correlations have bigger values of AAPRE %, DMax %, and

standard deviation for this type of heavy dead oil.

Viscosity trend as a function of temperature is another important criterion in order to select the best correlation for development or modication (Dindoruk and Christman, 2004). The

derivatives of the viscosities with respect to temperature were

applied for Oil 4 as it can be seen in Fig. 7. From this behavior, we

J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 110 (2013) 184192

can observe that Bennison's correlation is the closest in comparison with Beal's and our proposed correlations at high temperatures. However, at temperatures lower than 320 K our model is the

closest.

Finally, we analyzed our proposed correlation with those

correlations available in literature for Oil 1, which were measured

in a temperature range from 308 to 375 K corresponding to

viscosities of 7477 and 78 cP, respectively. Fig. 8 shows the best

correlations for dynamic viscosity data for Oil 1. It can be observed

Table 5

Statistical data for dead oil viscosity correlations compared with Oil 1.

Correlation

Statistical parameters

Beal

BeggsRobinson

Glas

Egbogah

NgEgbogah

KartoatmodjoSchmidt

Labedi

PetroskyFarshad

Bennison

ElsharkawyAlikhan

Naseri et al.

Sattarin et al.

This work

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

DMax (%)

s (%)

38

86

43

65

38

159

134

55

51

52

61

57

26

38

86

15

65

24

155

77

32

51

52

60

57

25

52

89

80

90

63

437

490

90

52

74

94

92

59

41

89

51

7080

44

215

19,724

64

52

58

70

65

32

10000

od (cP)

1000

100

Experimental

Beggs-Robinson

Glas

Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt

Petrosky-Farshad

Elsharkawy-Alikhan

Proposed correlation

10

300

320

340

360

380

Temperature (K)

Fig. 9. Predicted dead crude oil viscosity vs. temperature compared with experimental data for Oil 1 (oil API gravity of 11.5).

189

except for the Ng and Egbogah correlations at temperatures higher

than 196 K. Table 5 summarizes the comparison between predictions and experimental data for Oil 1. In Fig. 8 and Table 5, it can be

observed that our proposed correlation was better than others to

predict the experimental viscosity data, up to a temperature of

323 K corresponding to the viscosities of 2000 cP. At lower

temperatures of 323 K, Beal's correlation predicts the viscosity

value with a good approximation. The viscosity behavior predicted

by Bennison correlation is similar to that estimated by Beal

correlation. Fig. 9 shows the comparisons among predictions and

experimental data using other correlations for Oil 1. In Fig. 9 and

Table 5, we can see that BeggRobinson, Egboga, Kartoatmodjo

Schmidt, and Labedi correlations are inappropriate for predicting

viscosities of heavy crude oils. Tables 6 and 7 show summaries of

the statistical parameters obtained for dead crude oil correlations

available in the literature, including our proposed correlation.

Following the viscosity trend as a function of temperature,

Fig. 10 shows the derivatives of the viscosity data with respect to

temperature for Oil 1. It can be seen that Beals's correlations is the

closest in comparison with NgEgbogah, Bennison, and our

proposed correlation. The derivative dod/dT, calculated from all

these correlations, undergoes a deviation as temperature of crude

oil is decreased.

The performance of the various dead oil viscosity correlations

was evaluated and analyzed for all heavy oil data used. For all

correlations, both quantitative and qualitative statistical calculations were done. Figs. 11 and 12 show the cross plots for viscosities

of the seven samples of heavy oil (Oil 17) compared with the best

correlations and those correlations inappropriate to predict the

dynamic viscosity of heavy oil; we included our proposed correlation in both of these gures. Table 8 shows some statistical

parameters for the most common published dead oil correlations

including the one proposed for the Mexican heavy dead crude oils.

The statistical parameters used for these comparisons are in the

Appendix.

In Figs. 11 and 12, and Table 8, we can observe that Beal and

Bennison correlations are the closest in order to predict dead

crude oil viscosities for this type of heavy oil from Mexican

reservoirs. The rest of the viscosity correlations are inadequate to

be applied. The results obtained of AAPRE, and APRE, for our

proposed correlation, are lower than those obtained with currently available correlations. From statistical parameters analyzed,

the proposed correlation shows signicant improvement (from

11% to 90%) over all correlations evaluated and analyzed. It is

important to point out that the proposed correlation is only

Table 6

AAPRE and APRE for dead oil viscosity correlations for the rest of the heavy crude oils.

Correlation

Beal

BeggsRobinson

Glas

Egbogah

NgEgbogah

KartoatmodjoSchmidt

Labedi

PetroskyFarshad

Bennison

ElsharkawyAlikhan

Naserti et al.

Sattarin et al.

This work

Oil 2

Oil 4

Oil 5

Oil 6

Oil 7

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

AAPRE (%)

APRE (%)

69

83

57

64

46

45

104

57

68

59

71

87

39

69

83

57

64

7

26

35

57

68

59

71

87

39

28

72

69

40

61

343

318

76

14

26

48

56

42

5

72

57

26

60

343

294

36

11

4

18

31

42

21

79

45

59

35

148

134

58

34

43

60

41

19

21

79

11

59

1

145

70

32

34

41

58

41

1

41

61

38

46

126

43

118

47

44

36

57

69

51

41

61

35

41

126

8

63

39

44

29

57

69

51

64

68

60

58

79

53

86

60

67

52

73

81

33

64

68

60

58

79

51

7

60

67

51

73

81

12

190

J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 110 (2013) 184192

Table 7

Standard deviation and DMax for dead oil viscosity correlations for the rest of the heavy crude oils.

Correlation

Oil 2

Beal

BeggsRobinson

Glas

Egbogah

NgEgbogah

KartoatmodjoSchmidt

Labedi

PetroskyFarshad

Bennison

ElsharkawyAlikhan

Naserti et al.

Sattarin et al.

This work

Oil 4

Oil 5

Oil 7

sa (%)

DMax (%)

sa (%)

DMax

sa (%)

DMax (%)

sa (%)

DMax (%)

sa (%)

DMax (%)

71

86

64

71

55

53

135

67

71

65

76

89

41

88

89

92

94

97

87

290

96

88

87

97

96

58

32

74

88

47

82

397

467

98

18

31

56

65

45

50

76

162

73

159

633

1056

207

33

53

83

96

58

22

82

54

67

44

208

199

66

36

49

69

52

23

28

84

98

85

100

441

512

96

38

63

92

86

37

46

63

49

55

150

50

155

58

49

44

64

71

58

74

72

81

85

255

76

342

90

71

68

91

85

92

71

76

70

72

115

65

117

74

73

63

82

88

41

80

78

84

87

219

83

218

91

72

76

91

87

58

8000

320

340

360

380

Predicted (cP)

0

300

-100

-200

Experimental

d

od /dT

Oil 6

-300

Beal

Ng-Egbogah

-400

Bennison

6000

Beggs-Robinson

Glas

Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt

Petrosky-Farshad

Elsharkawy-Alikhan

Proposed correlation

4000

2000

Proposed correlation

-500

0

-600

4000

6000

8000

Measured (cP)

-700

Temperature (K)

Fig. 10. Viscosity derivatives vs. temperature compared with the best correlations

for Oil 1.

Beal

Ng-Egbogah

Bennison

Proposed correlation

6000

Correlation

4000

2000

0

0

2000

Fig. 12. Comparison of the proposed heavy dead oil viscosity correlation with the

other correlations available in the literature.

Table 8

Statistical data for dead oil viscosity correlations compared with the proposed

correlation.

8000

Predicted (cP)

2000

4000

6000

8000

Measured (cP)

Beal

BeggsRobinson

Glas

NgEgbogah

KartoatmodjoSchmidt

PetroskyFarshad

Bennison

ElsharkawyAlikhan

This work

Statistical parameter

APRE (%)

AAPRE (%)

r2 (%)

39

73

22

43

83

32

47

40

6

45

73

52

64

123

59

47

45

33

0.87

0.45

0.60

0.80

0.84

0.19

0.81

0.60

0.84

Fig. 11. Comparison of the proposed heavy dead oil viscosity correlation with the

best correlations.

gravity range of 11.5 to 19.4, and its applicability to other regions

should be checked.

5. Conclusions

Dynamic viscosities of heavy dead crude oil from Mexican

reservoirs were measured using a constant force electromagnetic

viscometer. Dynamic viscosity reliable measurements of heavy

dead oil samples were obtained at a temperature range from 397.1

gravity from 11.5 to 19.4, and at a constant pressure of 0.1 MPa

with an estimated uncertainty on viscosity less than 71.0% over

the temperature range of measurements.

The new correlation developed, based on a database of 104

viscosity data for heavy dead oils, shows signicant improvement

(from 11% to 90%) over previous correlations published in the

literature. An average percentage relative error of 33% was

achieved. Several empirical models for estimating the viscosity

of dead oils were evaluated using dynamic viscosity data of crude

oils from Mexican reservoirs. It was found that most of the

published models for predicting the dynamic viscosity of heavy

J.L. Mendoza de la Cruz et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 110 (2013) 184192

statistical analysis, it was demonstrated that the correlation

proposed is one of the best in comparison with those published

in the literature, which could be used to predict better outcomes in

future works.

It represents the degree of success in reducing the standard

deviation by regression analysis, dened by

s

r

where

and nancially supported by the Laboratorio de Productividad de

Pozos (rea de Termodinmica de Altas Presiones).

statistical error analysis was performed. The following statistical

parameters were used for comparison:

A1. Average percentage relative error (APRE)

This parameter is a measure of the relative deviation of the

predicted values from the experimental values in percentage, and

is expressed as

APRE

1 n

100pre exp =exp

ni1

A1

where exp and pre are the experimental and predicted viscosities,

respectively. The smaller the APRE is the more evenly distributed

the positive and negative differences between predicted and

measured values are.

A2. Average absolute percentage relative error (AAPRE)

This statistical parameter measures the average value of the

absolute relative deviation of the measured valued from experimental data; this parameter is dened as

AAPRE

1 n

100jpre exp =exp

ni1

A2

values of AAPRE, the lowest standard deviation value denes the

best correlation. If the exp is close to zero the value of APRE and

AAPRE can be signicantly high.

A3. Standard deviation

The standard deviation of the average absolute percentage

relative error (AAPRE) is dened in Eq. (A2), and it is a measure

of the percent relative absolute spread or dispersion of the data

distribution:

v

#

"

u

2

u n

pre

exp

%SDA sa t 100

A3

=n 1

exp

i1

A lower value of standard deviation means a smaller degree of

dispersion. The accuracy of the correlation is determined by the

value of the standard deviation, where a smaller value indicates

higher accuracy. The value of the standard deviation is usually

expressed as a percentage.

i1

i1

Acknowledgments

Appendix

191

1 n

n i 1 exp i

A4

A5

coefcient of zero indicates no relationship between the experimental and the predicted values while a 1 coefcient indicates a

perfect positive relationship.

The performance plot (cross plot) is a graph of the predicted vs.

measured properties with a reference 451 line to readily ascertain

the correlations tness and accuracy. A perfect correlation would

plot as a straight line with a slope of 451 (see Figs. 11 and 12). In

addition to the statistical parameters, this is necessary for selecting the best of the very good correlations.

A5. The deviation maximum

!

pre

exp

DMax Max 100

exp

A6

References

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