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Finished Tales
Natalya P rokhorova’ s P roject

J.R.R. Tolkien
The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor
Compiler's Note
This historical and etymological essay, titled by Tolkien only "Nomenclature", belongs with other,
similar writings that Christopher Tolkien has dated to c.1967-69 (XII: 293-94), including Of Dwarves and
Men, The Shibboleth of Fëanor and The History of Galadriel and Celeborn. Indeed, Christopher Tolkien
gave numerous excerpts from this essay in Unfinished Tales. He prepared a fuller presentation of the text for
The Peoples of Middle-earth, providing it as usual by his own additional commentary, but all this was
omitted from that volume on consideration of length. Nevertheless at last those parts of the essay, which
were lacking from Unfinished Tales, were published in Vinyar Tengwar # 42, July 2001 (VT42: 5-31) by
Carl F. Hostetter.
This publication compiles the material from Unfinished Tales with that from Hostetter's publication and
so provides the full text of the essay. Author's notes marked * are given at the bottom of a page. Other notes
(based on an editorial notes of C. Hostetter) marked by numbers are collected at the end of the essay.
Concerning the origin and date of this essay, Christopher Tolkien writes (VT42: 6): "On 30 June 1969
my father wrote a letter to Mr Paul Bibire, who had written to him a week before, telling him that he had
passed the Bachelor of Philosophy examination in Old English at Oxford: he referred a little disparagingly
to his success, achieved despite neglect of certain parts of the course which he found less appealing, and
notably the works of the Old English poet Cynewulf. At the end of his letter Mr Bibire said: ‘Incidentally,
there's something that I've been wondering about since I saw the relevant addition to the second edition [of
The Lord of the Rings]: whether the River Glanduin is the same as the Swanfleet’"; also Christopher
Tolkien provides the relevant portions of his father's reply (which was not included in the collection of
letters edited with Humphrey Carpenter):
It was kind of you to write to me again. I was very interested in your news of yourself, and very
sympathetic. I found and find dear Cynewulf a lamentable bore — lamentable, because it is a matter
for tears that a man (or men) with talent in word-spinning, who must have heard (or read) so much
now lost, should spend their time composing such uninspired stuff. Also at more than one point in
my life I have endangered my prospects by neglecting things that I did not at that time find
amusing!..
I am grateful to you for pointing out the use of Glanduin in the Appendix A. I have no index of
the Appendices and must get one made. The Glanduin is the same river as the Swanfleet, but the
names are not related. I find on the map with corrections that are to be made for the new edition to
appear at the end of this year that this river is marked by me as both Glanduin and various
compounds with alph ‘swan’. The name Glanduin was meant to be ‘border-river’, a name given as
far back as the Second Age when it was the southern border of Eregion, beyond which were the
unfriendly people of Dunland. In the earlier centuries of the Two Kingdoms Enedwaith (Middle-folk)
was a region between the realm of Gondor and the slowly receding realm of Arnor (it originally
included Minhiriath (Mesopotamia)). Both kingdoms shared an interest in the region, but were

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mainly concerned with the upkeep of the great road that was their main way of communication except
by sea, and the bridge at Tharbad. People of Númenórean origin did not live there, except at
Tharbad, where a large garrison of soldiers and river-wardens was once maintained. In those days
there were drainage works, and the banks of the Hoarwell and Greyflood were strengthened. But in
the days of The Lord of the Rings the region had long become ruinous and lapsed into its primitive
state: a slow wide river running through a network of swamps, pools and eyots: the haunt of hosts of
swans and other water-birds.
If the name Glanduin was still remembered it would apply only to the upper course where the
river ran down swiftly, but was soon lost in the plains and disappeared into the fens. I think I may
keep Glanduin on the map for the upper part, and mark the lower part as fenlands with the name Nînin-Eilph (water-lands of the Swans), which will adequately explain Swanfleet river.
alph ‘swan’ occurs as far as I remember only on III, p. 392 [i.e. Appendix E, entry for PH]. It
could not be Quenya, as ph is not used in my transcription of Quenya, and Quenya does not tolerate
final consonants other than the dentals, t, n, l, r after a vowel1. Quenya for ‘swan’ was alqua
(alkwā). The "Celtic" branch of Eldarin (Telerin and Sindarin) turned kw > p, but did not, as Celtic
did, alter original p. The much changed Sindarin of Middle-earth turned the stops to spirants after l,
r, as did Welsh: so *alkwā > alpa (Telerin) > S. alf (spelt alph in my transcription).
At the head of the present essay Tolkien wrote "Nomenclature", followed by: "Swanfleet river (L.R. rev.
edition, III 263) and Glanduin, III App. A. 319"; and then by: "Queried by P. Bibire (letter June 23,1969;
ans. June 30). As more briefly stated in my reply: Glanduin means ‘border-river’". The essay is thus seen
to have arisen as an expansion and elaboration of the remarks in his reply.

The Names of the Rivers
Glanduin means ‘border-river’. It was the name first given (in the Second Age), since
the river was the southern boundary of Eregion, beyond which pre-Númenórean and
generally unfriendly peoples lived, such as the ancestors of the Dunlendings. Later it, with
the Gwathló formed by its confluence with the M itheithel, formed the southern boundary
of the North Kingdom. The land beyond, between the Gwathló and the Isen (Sîr Angren)
was called Enedhwaith2 (‘M iddle-folk’); it belonged to neither kingdom and received no
permanent settlements of men of Númenórean origin. But the great North-South Road,
which was the chief route of communication between the Two Kingdoms except by sea,
ran through it from Tharbad to the Fords of Isen (Ethraid Engren3). Before the decay of
the North Kingdom and the disasters that befell Condor, indeed until the coming of the
Great Plague in Third Age 1636, both kingdoms shared an interest in this region, and
together built and maintained the Bridge of Tharbad and the long causeways that carried
the road to it on either side of the Gwathló and M itheithel across the fens in the plains of
M inhiriath and Enedhwaith*. A considerable garrison of soldiers, mariners and engineers
had been kept there until the seventeenth century of the Third Age. But from then
*

In the early days of the kingdoms the most expeditious route from one to the other (except for great
armaments) was found to be by sea to the ancient port at the head of the estuary of the Gwathló and so to the
riverport of Tharbad, and thence by the Road. The ancient sea-port and its great quays were ruinous, but
with long labour a port capable of receiving seagoing vessels had been made at Tharbad, and a fort raised
there on great earthworks on both sides of the river, to guard the once famed Bridge of Tharbad. The ancient
port was one of the earliest ports of the Númenóreans, begun by the renowned mariner-king Tar-Aldarion,
and later enlarged and fortified. It was the main entry for the Númenóreans in the War against Sauron
(Second Age 1693-1701). It was called Lond Daer Enedh, the Great Middle Haven (as being between
Lindon in the North and Pelargir on the Anduin).

If the river had any name it was in the language of the Dunlendings. glandagol ‘boundary mark’. 6 it is called the Swanfleet river (not River). It is debated whether gl. This is seen in Q. and eyots. simply as being the river that went down into the Nîn-inEilph. lanca. If the name Glanduin was remembered at all it would only be in Rivendell. separate from. as in kuivie-lankasse. of a perilous situation in which one is likely to fall into death. border. soon to be lost in the plains and disappear in the fens: a network of swamps. enclose. landa ‘a boundary’. boundary. lanya verb ‘bound. open and mountainless. limit’. or in deep valleys. cf. owing to cloud or mist. and it would apply only to the upper course of the river where it still ran swiftly.g. however.was an initial group in Common Eldarin or was a TelerinSindarin innovation (much extended in Sindarin). But some hundred miles below Tharbad the slope increased. and many other water-birds. edge. the equivalents of Q. finite. and long before the time of The Lord of the Rings had gone back into wild fenlands. pools. The wide lands divided by the Gwathló into the regions called by the Númenóreans M inhiriath (‘Between the Rivers’. as e. In this case. at any rate. Gwathló The river Gwathló is translated ‘Greyflood’. literally ‘on the brink of life’. In The Return of the King VI. S. glanda ‘a boundary’: S. gleina. gland > glann ‘boundary’. mark the limit of’.3 onwards the region fell quickly into decay. where the only inhabitants were hosts of swans. they were made up in a hurry without sufficient consideration. This does not seem to fit the geography. But gwath is a Sindarin word for ‘shadow’. or the clean edge of things made by hand or built. ‘rim. only to find ruins on dwindling mounds. At the point of the confluence of Glanduin and M itheithel the land was almost flat. lane (lani-) ‘hem’. lanka): T. (well-) defined’. . lantalka ‘boundary post or mark’. limit’. border’ (of textiles and other hand-made things). and the waters become sluggish and tended to spread into fenland. bounded’. sudden end’. limited.‘bound. ‘the Waterlands of the Swans’. glanna ‘limited. glana ‘edge. by which a hazardous approach to Tharbad might be achieved. When Boromir made his great journey from Gondor to Rivendell — the courage and hardihood required is not fully recognized in the narrative — the North-South Road no longer existed except for the crumbling remains of the causeways. lanwa ‘within bounds. never became swift. in the sense of dim light. lanc. rim’. glan: base (G)LAN. Baranduin and Gwathló) and Enedhwaith (‘M iddle-folk’) were mainly plains. enclose. glania. the initial gl. a cliff-edge. and ships of smaller draught could without difficulty sail or be rowed as far as Tharbad. limit’. The names of the Rivers give some trouble. The Gwathló.is shared by Telerin and Sindarin and is found in all the derivatives in those languages (except in T. also used in transferred senses. glân ‘hem. impassable if the river had not been there slow and shallow — but wide. also lanka ‘sharp edge (not of tools). and a dangerous ford formed by the ruins of the bridge.‘to bound.

who were a secret and fell people. though a few secretive hunter-folk lived in the woods. In voyages down the coasts he saw with wonder the great forests. tireless and silent hunters. and he chose the estuary of the Gwathló for the site of a new haven entirely under Númenórean control (Gondor of course did not yet exist). at the time of the first explorations of the Númenóreans. and its dark woods were little visited. but they were forest-dwellers. but now the Númenóreans drove great tracks and roads into the forests northwards and southwards from the Gwathló. They were in awe of the Númenóreans. (They said that they had always been there. and became ruthless in their fellings. M aybe even in the days of the War of the Ring some of the Drû-folk lingered in the mountains of Angast (Long Cape)5. but most of the plains were grasslands. and had former lived also in the White M ountains. In the time of the War of the Ring the lands were still in places well-wooded. and the native folk that survived fled from M inhiriath into the dark woods of the great Cape of Eryn Vorn. especially in M inhiriath and in the south-east of Enedhwaith. and a fairly numerous but barbarous fisher-folk dwelt between the mouths of the Gwathló and the Angren (Isen). using poisoned darts. for fear of the Elvenfolk. There he began great works. From the East. the situation was quite different. In ages past they had paid no heed to the Great Dark One (M orgoth). for they hated all invaders from the East. The native people were fairly numerous and warlike. because of the "Púkel-men". Since the Great Plague of the year 1636 of the Third Age M inhiriath had been almost entirely deserted. his felling of trees in Númenor had caused great dissensions. but it was in origin a timber-port and ship-building harbour. they did not cross the Isen nor take refuge in the great promontory between Isen and Levnui4 that formed the north arm of the Bay of Belfalas*. the M ariner-king. Aldarion had a great hunger for timber desiring to make Númenor into a great naval power. and the Númenóreans treated them as enemies. This entry into Eriador later proved of great importance in the war against Sauron (Second Age 1693-1701). and timber had been floated down to the haven (Lond Daer). and they were wicked at heart. the * Afterwards called still Drúwaith (Iaur) ‘(Old) Púkel-land’. But in the earlier days. From Enedhwaith they took refuge in the eastern mountains where afterwards was Dunland. The changes that followed were largely due to the operations of Tar-Aldarion. nor considered as part of realm of Gondor. south of the mouth of the Baranduin. had come the tall M en who drove them from the White M ountains. M inhiriath and Enedhwaith were occupied by vast and almost continuous forests. even if they could.4 The origin of the name Gwathló must be sought in history. who formed a friendship and alliance with Gil-galad. except in the central region of the Great Fens. which they dared not cross. but they did not become hostile until the tree-felling became devastating. they said. Then they attacked and ambushed the Númenóreans when they could. giving no thought to husbandry or replanting. The fellings had at first been along both banks of the Gwathló. In Enedhwaith the remnants of the Dunlendings lived in the east. that continued to be extended after his days. scattered communities without central leadership. in the foothills of the M isty M ountains. . nor did they later ally themselves with Sauron.

veil. dim. It was derived from a Common Eldarin base WATH. Gwath-hîr. When Sauron was at last defeated and driven east out of Eriador most of the old forests had been destroyed.’ The form *loga produced S. The Gwathló flowed through a land that was far and wide on either bank a desert. but only the remnant in the woods of Anórien were known to the people of Gondor. swamped’. The name Gwathir was thus changed to Gwathló. vasar ‘a veil’. from *logna. earlier loga. owing to sound-changes which caused . Lô was derived from Common Eldarin base LOG ‘wet (and soft). but also for Númenor itself. obscure’. dim’. lô and T. So the first name they gave to it was ‘River of Shadow’. The Sindarin word that they used for the fenland was lô. not yet knowing the M itheithel that came down out of the mountains in the north. For long years these lands were their chief source of timber. but his raiders made much havoc on the fringe of the forests. under which the boats of the adventurers crept silently up into the unknown land. soaked. not only for their ship-yards at Lond Daer and elsewhere. gwethrin) ‘shadowy. and also. Also related was auth ‘a dim shape. and they thought at first that it was the source of the forest-river. Sauron knew of the importance to his enemies of the Great Haven and its ship-yards. The denuding of the lands was increased during the war in Eriador. gwathren (pl. for the exiled natives welcomed Sauron and hoped for his victory over the M en of the Sea.5 western outlier of the White M ountains. Shiploads innumerable passed west over the sea. from *aw'tha. setting fire in the woods and burning many of the great wood-stores of the Númenóreans. swampy. after its source Ringnen ‘chill-water’. etc.) The devastation wrought by the Númenóreans was incalculable. and he used these haters of Númenor as spies and guides for his raiders. the fourth of the rivers of Gondor. But the stem in Quenya. gwathra. though it was still long before they had the need or sufficient men to undertake the great works of drainage and dyke-building that made a great port on the site where Tharbad stood in the days of the Two Kingdoms.‘overshadow. Gwathir. This was also found in Quenya auþa. (A similar name is found in Ringló. loga. the shadowy river from the fens. it was later called Ringló. T. But later they penetrated northward as far as the beginning of the great fenlands. S. and wide though the waters were the huge trees cast great shadows on the river. and gathering the waters of the Bruinen and Glanduin poured flood-waters into the plain. That was not so when it first received its name from the hardy explorers of Tar-Aldarion's ship who ventured to pass up the river in small boats. spectral or vague apparition’. and appeared also in S.) Gwath was a common Sindarin word for ‘shadow’ or dim light — not for the shadows of actual objects or persons cast by sun or moon or other lights: these were called morchaint ‘dark-shapes’. Named as several other rivers. He had not enough force to spare for any assault upon the forts at the Haven or along the banks of the Gwathló. treeless but untilled. logna ‘soaking wet. ausa of similar sense. such as M itheithel and M orthond (black-root). As soon as the seaward region of salt airs and great winds was passed the forest drew down to the river-banks. but the stem was otherwise only represented in Quenya by the extention waþar. loen. vasarya‘to veil’.

oloire ‘a great flood’. * Thus the Quenya form of S. identical with lóna ‘pool. though -ui was only historically correct in othui ‘seventh’ and tolhui ‘eighth’. was little represented except in the intensive formation oloiya. minya). . cf. Serni below. In Eldarin er was not used in counting in series: it meant ‘one. later minui was substituted. But -i. The name must have been given because of the Rivers of Gondor it was the shortest and swiftest and was the only one without a tributary. etc. water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring’. ‘First’ was in older and more literery Sindarin mein (Q. loa < *lawa ‘year’. lond. the form of S. formed with an ending -sse. e were not preserved in Sindarin. -û would produce in Sindarin ui. ash-coloured. S. It is of uncertain origin. pebble’ (as described above).6 its derivatives to clash with other words*. logna would have been *lóna. the equivalent of Q. but ‘fourth’ cantui (canhui). Its mouth was blocked with shingles. and of ăya. erui is not the usual Sindarin for ‘single. wich could come from ēya. guarding’ from the stem tir. ŭya > œ. ĕya. It was the only one of the five to fall into the delta of Anduin. dusty’). erinqua). pebble-bank’. sarnie (sarniye) ‘shingle. flood’. -ssa. -ô. The Gwathló was one of the few geographical names that became generally known to others than mariners in Númenor. alone’: that was ereb (< erikwa. but it has the very common adjectival ending -ui of Sindarin**6. ĭya > ei. T. loen. seen in Quenya kelusse ‘freshet. Erui Though this was the first of the Rivers of Gondor it cannot be used for ‘first’. ŏya. which when added to noun-stems ending in C.‘flow out swiftly’. Serni An adjectival formation from S. alone’.g. remained also in (more limited) use. and from īya. sarn7 ‘small stone. The transference is exemplified in the ordinals. lô would have been *loa. ashy.E. in lithui ‘of ash’.‘to inundate. but was probably derived from the Commom Eldarin adjectival -ya. and at any rate in later times ships approaching Anduin and making for Pelargir went by the eastern side of Tol Falas and took the sea-way passage made by the Númenóreans in the midst of the delta of Anduin. Sirith This means simply ‘a flowing’: cf. identical with Q. Q. The products of āya > oe. mere’ (from base LON seen also in londe ‘haven’. tirith ‘watching. Though Serni was the shorer river its name was continued to the sea after its confluence with Gilrain. ** This was used as a general adjectival ending without specialized significance (as e. single. or ‘ashen. ‘ninth’ nerthui. and received an Adûnaic translation. Celos The name must be derived from the root kelu. sf. ‘six’ encui (enchui). This was Agathurush. which in Sindarin were formed with -ui from ‘fourth’ onwards. lonn). or a collective. This being more distinctive was then transferred to other stems.‘to watch’. On ‘fifth’ see below under the name Levnui.

to their source. So Dairon. When Nimrodel fled from Lórien it is said that seeking for the sea she became lost in the White M ountains. rembina ‘entangled’. This would not seem suitable to any of the rivers of Gondor. and she sat by a mere. as they claimed. seeing the stars reflected in its dim waters. gil ‘spark. for Daeron a derivative of S. and formed a small mere at the southern end before it cut through a ridge and went on swiftly again to join the Serni. ranya. but the names of rivers may often apply only to part of their course.E. knit. Probably it was derived from base RAN ‘wander. Gilraen. contrive network or lace’. In this case. carrea (< cas-raya) ‘a tressure’. *daira < base DAY. which as often happened in legends had replaced her true name. it was her true name. and listening to the waterfalls by which the river went again on its journey down to the sea. such as the tressure of Arwen described in L. It may have been a second name given to her after she had come to womanhood. remma ‘a snare’. The element raen was Sindarin form of Q. elen. raima ‘a net’. S. (Originally the difference between correct Sindarin ae and ai was neglected. etc. often in strengthened form waig-.E. but among other peoples they were used only by women of high rank among the "Rangers".in both is no doubt S. Q. descendants of Elros. great’: C. remba. The stems REB/REM were not "craft words". S. also ‘involve in a network. Q. 1]. not found in Quenya. go on uncertain course’. cathrae ‘tressure’. base RAY ‘net.) The element gil.stem. the equivalent of Q. The women of the Eldar were accustomed to wear such tressures. but unless it is misspelt must have had a different meaning. now corrected. In this it wandered for a while. stray. until at last (by what road or pass is not told) she came to a river that reminded her of her own stream in Lórien.R. but as it reached the end of the outlier of Ered Nimrais that separated it from the Celos it ran into a wide shallow depression. would thus be likely to become first names given to maid-children of the kindred of the "Lords of the Dúnedain". or to their lower reaches. The word was only applied to work with a single thread. snare. weaving with cross-threads or withes was represented by the distinct base WIG. Cf. raef or raew ‘net’. the fragments of the legend of Amroth and Nimrodel offer an explanation. M ore likely. since it had become a name given to women of her people. S. trap (as hunters or fishers) with lines or nets’. the remnants of the Númenóreans of the North Kingdom of unmingled blood. [II. raita [also meant] ‘catch in a net’. Q. Cf. raina ‘netted. entrap’. ai more usual in English being used for both in the general narrative.) The meaning of Gilraen as a woman's name is not in doubt. Her heart was lightened.‘snare’. and others of similar meaning. often used of the stars of heaven in place of the older and more elevated el-. no longer recorded. enlace’. remi. So Hithaiglir on map for Hitheaglir and Aiglos [for Aeglos]. and he was lost trying to swim back to * C. however. Q. Pleiades. It meant ‘one adorned with a tressure set with small gems in its network’. daer ‘large.‘catch in net’.7 Gilrain This resembles the name of Aragorn's mother. S. enlaced’*.‘net. but verbal bases meaning ‘entangle. twinkle of light. There she fell into a deep sleep of weariness and so long she slept that she did not come down into Belfalas until Amroth's ship had been blown out to sea. In Gilrain the element -rain though similar was distinct in origin. rembe ‘net’ (for catching). . (Similarly tinwe ‘spark’ was also used in Quenya. raeda. or to other features that struck explorers who named them. The Gilrain came swiftly down from the mountains as did the other rivers of that region. remmen. rea and raita ‘make network or lase’. Names such as Gilraen. Rem-mir-ath (‘group of jems in a net’). star’. Cf. rem(m).

but they took no title of King or Queen. Lórien had then long years of peace and obscurity under the rule of its own king Amdír. who passed through M oria after the destruction of Eregion by Sauron in the year 1697 of the Second Age. . stray. he was valiant and wise. Q. Communication was maintained constantly with Lorien. from Gondor and the borders of M ordor to Thranduil in the north. Celeborn rejoined Galadriel in Lindon. S. until the Downfall of Númenor and the sudden return of Sauron to M iddle-earth. but ruled by princes of Sindarin descent (as was the realm of Thranduil in the northern parts of M irkwood. Cf. and were welcomed by the people. They had however been much mingled with Noldor (of Sindarin speech). and his little kingdom was yet prosperous and beautiful. and was (as reported) wholly concerned with conquests in the East. or rendered in Elvish form from an older name of the same meaning8. for they said that they were only guardians of this small but fair realm. became king. rein. The people of Lórien were even then much as they were at the end of the Third Age: Silvan Elves in origin. RAN ‘wander. in the legend. Amroth. Celeborn and Galadriel returned to Lórien.E. Cf. named as King of Lórien.8 Belfalas. Celeborn and Galadriel passed over the mountains to Imladris. being especially concerned to learn all news and rumours of the growing shadow in M irkwood and the dark stronghold in Dol Guldur. But during the Third Age Galadriel became filled with foreboding. which was now left without a ruler (for Amroth was drowned in the sea in the Bay of Belfalas and left no heir). and there dwelt for many years. At that time Amroth was. Therefore after long journeys of enquiry in Rhovanion. The river Gilrain if related to the legend of Nimrodel must contain an element derived from C. Q. S. but Celeborn went at first to Lórien and fortified it against any further attempts of Sauron to cross the Anduin. Rána name of the spirit (M áya) that was said to abide in the M oon as its guardian. When however Sauron withdrew to M ordor. After the disaster in M oria and the sorrows of Lórien. This legend was well known in the Dor-en-Ernil (the Land of the Prince). There they dwelt while the Third Age lasted. and no doubt the name was given in memory of it. since he had early in the Third Age wedded their daughter Celebrían. How this fits with the rule of Galadriel and Celeborn will be made clear in a precis of the history of Galadriel and Celeborn. but he was slain in the Battle of Dagorlad and most of his company with him. for Elrond was their kinsman. meander’. the last eastward outpost of the Elves. Amdír obeyed the summons of Gil-galad and brought as large a force as he could muster to the Last Alliance. The flight of Nimrodel was dated by the chronologists at Third Age 1981. his son. and with Celeborn she journeyed to Lórien and stayed there long with Amroth. ranya ‘erratic wandering’. At that time Elrond went westward and established the refuge of Imladris. randír ‘wanderer’ in Mithrandir. though whether Thranduil and Amroth were akin is not now known). rain. But his people were content with Amroth.

There were many rocky outcrops there. is fitted in style to Sindarin. Arnach was applied to the valleys in the south of the mountains and their foothills between Celos and Erui. Adorn This river. Arnach is not Sindarin. It drew its first waters from a high snowfield that fed an icy tarn in the mountains. Morthond Similarly Morthond ‘Black-root’. and that is preferable. For though in the Appendices f is said to have the sound of English f except when standing at the end of a word. and living men did not go there. "futher Gondor". voiceless f does not in fact occur medially before consonants (in uncompounded words or names) in Sindarin. which began long before the Downfall.‘language’ can hardly be concerned). It may be connected with Arnen on the east side of Anduin. Serni. M orthond). . Kiril Uncertain. called Mornan not only because of the shadow of the two high mountains between which it lay. Levnui There were no other rivers in this region.E. but it has no meaning in that language. Lamedon has no meaning in Sindarin (if it was Sindarin it would be referred to *lambeton-. another of the many that refer to a river's source. though they maintained a Coast-guard force and beacons at the end of Cape Angast. It rose in Lamedon and flowed westward for some way in a deep rocky channel. Levnui is said to mean ‘fifth’ (after Erui. it would account for the name. Ringló For the element -ló see discussion of Gwathló above. This was held to be the boundary of Gondor in this direction. but its form offers difficulties. but hardly more than in the higher valleys of Gondor generally. the longest and widest of the Five. and probably is derived from one of the languages spoken in this region before the occupation of Gondor by Númenóreans.9 Ciril. *lambetân-. If this at seasons of snowmelting spread into a shallow lake. Sirith. It was a swift (and cold) river. lambe. but C. as the element ringimplies. flowing from the West of Ered Nimrais into the River Isen. (It is spelt Lefnui on the M ap. but probably from KIR ‘cut’. but because through it passed the road from the Gate of the Dead M en. for beyond it lay the promontory of Angast and the wilderness of ‘Old Púkel-land’ (Drúwaith Iaur) which the Númenóreans had never attempted to occupy with permanent settlements. while v is avoided before consonants in English)9. until one came to the Levnui. But there is no record of any swamps or marsh in its course. Several other names in Gondor are apparently of similar origin10. which rose in a dark valley in the mountains due south of Edoras.

round which the Anduin. especially fallen and long-lying snow. M ore probable is the view of the author (unknown) of the fragmentarily preserved Ondonóre Nómesseron Minaþurie (‘Enquiry into the Place-names of Gondor’). since an adjective of such shape would have a Sindarin plural ernain. titles. and these in revolt against the "Adunaic" Kings who forbade the use of the Elvish tongues gave all new names in the new realm in Sindarin.is an element in some preNúmenórean language meaning ‘rock’ is merely a guess. On internal evidence he lived as far back as the reign of M eneldil. or adapted older names to the manner of Sindarin. The name must therefore have meant ‘the hills of Arnen’.10 Arnen was a rock outlier of the Ephel Dúath. It was generally called in Gondor Lossarnach. and formulas were composed. primarily to the part between Cair Andros and the southern end of the bend of Anduin. . Once a name had become current it was accepted by the rulers and organizers. but ar. is not then related to Arnen. For when Elendil took as his dwelling the North Kingdom. mariners. or ernin. son of Anárion — no events later than that reign are mentioned — when memories and records of the early days of the settlements now lost were still available. but Anárion took the land from Erui to M ount M indolluin and thence westward to the North Wood". if the above explanation is accepted. "but Gondor south of Ered Nimrais they held in common". Its origin and source are in that case now lost. a place in Arnach). and committed the South Kingdom to his sons. sc. He thinks therefore that Arnen originally was intended to mean ‘beside the water. Suggestions of the historians of Gondor that arn. but vaguely extended north to the Nindalf and south towards the Poros. For what reason this was prefixed to Arnach is unclear. This was given to the narrow land between the Anduin and the Ephel Dúath. soldiers. Though no mention of this is found in any chronicles — as is often the case with matters of common knowledge — it seems probable that the reference was in fact to the fruit blossom. It is now forgotten. though all aspired to have some knowledge of it. and the process of naming was still going on. but it can be seen from old records that Arnen was the older name of the greater part of the region later called Ithilien. owing to his friendship with the Eldar. Arnach. men of the Elf-friend party and their followers. But mistakes were likely to be made. and emigrants. and below them there were great orchards. (later in Rohan called the Firien Wood). made a wide bend. Though since in the full name Emyn Arnen the Emyn is Sindarin plural of Amon ‘hill’. Gondor was certainly occupied from its beginning by the Faithful. south of M inas Tirith. from which at the time of the War of the Ring much of the fruit needed in M inas Tirith still came. Its upper valleys were renowned for their flowers. Expeditions to Lossarnach to see the flowers and trees were frequently made by the people of M inas Tirith ([cf.] Imloth M elui ‘sweet flower-valley’. They also renewed and encouraged the study of Quenya. as is said in ancient annals: "Isildur took as his own land all the region of Arnen.in this sense is Quenya. they divided it so. Loss is Sindarin for ‘snow’. not Sindarin. Anduin’. in which important documents. Arnen cannot be a Sindarin adjective. He points out that Sindarin was not well-known to many of the settlers who gave the names.

but loth is from LOT. In true Sindarin eilen could only be derived from *elyen. but the strengthened form gloss as an adjective ‘(dazzling) white’. Sindarin used loss as a noun.since medial s between vowels suffered changes that made them unsuitable or clashed with other stems. for its principal function was to warn the Rohirrim that Gondor was in danger or (more rarely) the reverse. there being little space on its sharp summit. and a single flower denoted by elloth (er-loth) or lotheg. and would normally be written eilien. The beacons were set on hills or on the high ends of ridges running out from the mountains. probably because other forms of the stem assumed a phonetic shape that seemed inappropriate. (t-t in inflexion > st). Númenórean. losta ‘to bloom’.g. How old the names then used were cannot be said. that was still operating in the War of the Ring. loss is a derivative of (G)LOS ‘white’. * S. loth is from a diminutive lotse and probably also from derivative lotta-. Both Quenya and Sindarin retain for ‘snow’ only the strengthened loss. olóte ‘bloom. lilótea ‘having many flowers’. *lod. and lóte ‘a flower’ (mostly applied to larger single flowers). Why it was given this name is not recorded. the flowers collectively of a single plant’. or Common Speech. little visited by men. Both were notable features. Eilenach was the highest point of the Drúadan Forest. . S. a rocky and barren hill standing out and isolated from the heavily wooded hills of the Drúadan Forest (Tawar-in-Drúedain). in which the words for fallen snow and flower were much alike. and its function in the days of the beacons was to transmit the warning of Amon Dîn.11 This use of ‘snow’ would be specially likely in Sindarin. *alyen. a head of small flowers’. Loth is actually most often used collectively in Sindarin. to keep watch over the passage into North Ithilien from Dagorlad and any attempt by enemies to cross the Anduin at or near Cair Andros. Probably an alien name. Q. *lûd. or were confusible with other stems (such as LUT ‘float’): e. though different in origin: loss and loth*. can have been no older than the settlement of the Rohirrim in Calenardhon about 500 years before. Eilenach (better spelt Eilienach). beasts or birds. It could be seen far to the West. Probably because it was distinctive. This and Eilenaer (older name of Halifirien: see that below) are the only names of this group that are certainly pre-Númenórean. They are evidently related. loth was the only derivative of LOT that it retained. lotse ‘a small single flower’. Cf. from which its beacon could be seen. Amon Dîn ‘the silent hill’ was perhaps the oldest. equivalent to goloth. with the original function of a fortified outpost of M inas Tirith. [the latter] meaning ‘inflorescence. losse ‘snow’. lossea ‘snow-white’. but it was not suitable for a large beacon-fire. The Names of the Beacon-hills The full beacon system. but some were not very notable objects. not Sindarin.

Calenhad would thus mean simply ‘green space’. It was a green hill without trees.‘single’ nor las(s) ‘leaf’ seem applicable. This became dense in lower ground. kalina). who also protected the quarries. turf’ — base SAD ‘strip. said ‘private.verb. etc. a place. adj. seidia. It was a mountain with easy approach to its summit. the wood had been called Eryn Fuir ‘North Wood’.] satya [with same sense] as S. Steward of Gondor. -hadh (the maps do not use dh. Erelas is Sindarin in style. -had appears to be for sad (with usual mutation in combinations). westward along the M ering Stream and northwards out into the moist plain through which the Stream flowed into the Entwash. separate. -hadh would then be for sadh (in isolated use sâdh) ‘sward. [Q. and there when they had looked forth over the land they fixed the bounds of the realm of Eorl. flay.‘set aside. if not misspelt this is from SAT ‘space. Erelas was a small beacon. so that the three intervening beacons did not cut off the view. etc. ‘month’ (sati. ‘divide. Q. The reason for the Rohan name is not now known for certain. Halifirien is a name in the language of Rohan. field. Calen was the usual word in Sindarin for ‘green’ (its older sense was ‘bright’. so that neither er. But -had may stand for S. but this is the only case where dh might be involved. as also was Calenhad. or other place in private ownership. excluded’. visible on a clear night even as far as the last beacon (Halifirien) some hundred and twenty miles to the westward*. originally part of the Drúadan Forest.12 Hence the name Nardol ‘Fire-hilltop’ of the next beacon westward. Nardol was manned by a guard. The older name in Sindarin had been Fornarthan ‘North Beacon’. it was on the end of a high ridge. Calenhad was similar but rather larger and higher. Q. applied to the flat turf-covered crown of the hill. spot’. seidia. but has no suitable meaning in that language. not common.was in Quenya applied to time as well as space). . to avoid the wet land beyond its eaves. Down its northern slopes grew the great wood called in Rohan the Firien Wood. sad ‘a limited area naturally or artificially defined.] asta a division of the year. appropriate to a special purpose or owner’). with sense of S. but according to their traditions at the time of the War of the Ring that was because it was on its summit that Eorl the Young met Cirion. sati. These were not always lit. also [Q. seen in S. place. it was well-stored with fuel and at need a great blaze could be lit. sc. yard. except Caradhras which is omitted. their lighting as in The Lord of the Rings was a signal of great urgency. said. and Enedhwaith which is misspelt. The great West Road passed through a long ride or clearing through the wood. whether enclosed or not’. (also sant ‘a garden. a limited area naturally or artificially defined’ (also applied to recognized periods or divisions of time). but long deprived of trees by masons and quarriers who came up the Stonewain Valley. mark off’. and Eorl swore to Cirion the Oath of Eorl — "the unbroken * The line of beacons from Nardol to Halifirien lay in a shallow curve bending a little southward. The mountain was regarded with reverence by the Rohirrim. The name Halifirien (modernized in spelling for Háligfirgen) meant Holy M ountain.(< satya-). peel off’.

For a religious structure that was "ancient" could only have been erected by the M en of Darkness.g. e. but a reminder of it. Before the removal of most of the survivors of these "Three Houses of Men" to Númenor. being not in any way an attempt to restore the worship of the One on the M eneltarma (‘pillar of heaven’). the description of the various men of the southern "fiefs" of Gondor. lingered in the West. all who accepted their leadership and received their instruction — were still permitted to address the One in thought and prayer direct. descended from others of the Three Houses of the Edain. shows that other kinds of Middle Men. Nothing is recorded of their religion or religious practices before they came in contact with the Númenóreans**. and was no doubt intended to do so. Had it been regarded as of "religious" significance it would in fact have made this use impossible. This would in effect hallow the spot for as long as the Númenórean realms endured. ** Because such matters had little interest for the Gondorian chroniclers. as was generally believed by their rulers. The Rohirrim were according to his classification Middle Men. which was characteristic of the Númenóreans until their rebellion. who were mainly of non-Númenórean descent. or further south — notably the people of Dor-en-Ernil (Dol Amroth). 5]. but they probably took the form of allusive terms such as Faramir used in explaining to Frodo the content of the unspoken "grace" (before communal meals) that was a Númenórean ritual. and which among the Faithful (of whom Elendil was the leader) after the Downfall and the loss of the Meneltarma became a ban on all places of worship. in Eriador (as the Men of Bree). and also because it was assumed that they had in general remained faithful to the monotheism of the Dúnedain. Since in oaths of the greatest solemnity the names of the Valar were invoked (cf. . but is no support to the view that the mountain was already in some sense "hallowed" before its use in the oath-taking. The M iddle M en. the Coronation of Aragorn) — and though the oath was called "the Oath of Eorl" in Rohan it was also called "the Oath of Cirion" (for Gondor was equally pledged to aid Rohan) and he would use solemn terms in his own tongue — this might be sufficient to hallow the spot. "These words shall stand by the faith of the heirs of the Downfallen in the keeping of the Thrones of the West and of that which is above all Thrones for ever". there is no mention of the reservation of a high place for worship of the One and the ban on all temples built by hand. The "ancient monument" — by which was evidently meant a structure made before the coming of the Númenóreans — is a curious feature. or honoured by * For the Númenórean view of the previous inhabitants see Faramir's conversation with Frodo [LotR: IV. But the account in annals contains two remarkable details: that there was at the place where Cirion and Eorl stood what appeared to be an ancient monument of rough stones nearly man-high with a flat top. and that on this occasion Cirion to the wonder of many invoked the One (that is God). and of the claim made by "the heirs of Elendil" that since they had never wavered in their allegiance they — and.13 oath" — of perpetual friendship and alliance with Gondor. corrupted by M orgoth or his servant Sauron. and their importance to Gondor in his time is chiefly in mind and modifies his account. The "ancient monument" can thus not have been made by the Rohirrim. His exact words are not recorded. descendants of the ancestors of the Númenóreans. and those who became associated or fused with the Númenóreans adopted their customs and beliefs (included in the "lore" which Faramir speaks of as being learned by the Rohirrim). the central mountain of Númenor (that would have been regarded as sacrilegious). unless it had at least been completely destroyed first *. allies and pupils of the Eldar. were not regarded as evil nor inevitable enemies of Gondor.

on account of that tomb on its summit. usually surrounded by dark trees. such as the dreadful halls and passages under the Haunted Mountain beyond the Dark Door (Gate of the Dead) in Dunharrow. written so late in my father's life. in Unfinished Tales. followed very shortly and perhaps with no interval at all the abandonment of this essay on the names of the rivers and beacon-hills of Gondor. and (no doubt immediately) marked the entire account of the Halifirien for deletion. .. and here he assumed without question that (while the hill had earlier borne the Sindarin name Fornarthan ‘North Beacon’) it was the Rohirrim who called it ‘the Holy Mountain’: and they called it so. It is thus seen that not only the present work but all the history of the Halifirien and Elendil's tomb arose from Mr. Tolkien abandoned this text. Christopher Tolkien writes (VT42: 22-23): "These last words may well signify the precise moment at which the tomb of Elendil on Halifirien [cf. often in caverns (natural or delved) in secret valleys of mountain-regions. since they had not yet established themselves in Rohan at the time of the Oath (soon after the Battle of the Field of Celebrant). But the door was shut in his face. But: "It may however have been a tomb". The account given above. and enemies that had followed him silently came up and broke his legs and left him to die in the darkness. "according to their traditions at the time of the War of the Ring". He refers to a record in the "annals" that "an ancient monument of rough stones nearly man-high with a flat top" stood on the summit of the Halifirien — but he at once proceeds to argue strongly that its presence can be "no support to the view that the mountain was in some sense "hallowed" before its use in the oath-taking". * The Men of Darkness built temples. seems to be the first statement on the subject. unable to find any way out. It may however have been a tomb. UT:304] entered the history. corrupted by Morgoth or his servant Sauron". some of great size. and such structures in high places as places of religious worship was no part of the customs of M en. in which the name of Eru was invoked. since any such ancient object of "religious" significance "could only have been erected by the Men of Darkness. Amon Anwar of the Númenóreans.. with the closely related texts. At the words "It may however have been a tomb". And thus the "hallowing" of the hill (anciently named Eilenaer) was carried back two and a half thousand years before the Rohirrim settled in Calenardhon: already at the beginning of the Third Age it was the Hill of Awe. probably without opposition up to that point. The special horror of the closed door before which the skeleton of Baldor was found was probably due to the fact that the door was the entrance to an evil temple hall to which Baldor had come. Bibire's brief query". good or evil*. I have no doubt that the account of the Oath of Cirion and Eorl given. because of the profound gravity and solemnity of the oath of Cirion and Eorl taken on its summit.14 them as sacred.

wave’). (VT42: 27) 2 The form Enedwaith in the published text (UT: 261-264) was an editorial change from Enedhwaith made in all excerpts from this essay containing the name in Unfinished Tales. (VT42: 9) 7 Christopher Tolkien notes: "The statement about this name is given in the Index to Unfinished Tales. falasse) meant ‘shore’ — especially one exposed to great waves and breakers (cf. lists". (VT42: 7) 3 The form Ethraid Engrin in the published text (UT: 264) was an editorial change from Ethraid Engren (but note (Ered) Engrin.379. and the Númenóreans evidently found many layers of mixed peoples. (VT42: 9) 5 The form Andrast in the published text (UT: 383) was an editorial change from Angast. (VT42: 11) 8 The legend of Amroth and Nimrodel given in UT:240-242 appeared as a separate offshoot from the essay (UT: 242). permitted. in particular the explanation of the number 5 (which was eventually dismissed with the note "Far too complicated"). However. But the great bay between Umbar and Angast (the Long Cape. So it is probable that Bêl was the name or part of the name of the region afterward usually called Dor-en-Ernil ‘land of the Prince’: it was perhaps the most important part of Gondor before the Númenórean settlement". footnote". in the entry for Levnui: a further sign of the fluid nature of this composition.) The second sketch (given in retelling in UT: 247) states: "Belfalas. falma ‘a wave-crest. in contrast to An-falas ‘long beach’. n. Christopher Tolkien notes: "The form Angast occurs more than once in the essay. and Bel-falas is an example of the type of place-name. V: 348. and numerous islands of isolated folk either clinging to old dwellings. so far as their population was concerned. Falas (Q. r.is certainly an element derived from a pre-Númenórean name. This change was based on the form Andrast communicated by my father to Pauline Baynes for inclusion. or in mountain-refuges from invaders. (VT42: 8-9) 6 The brief account of the phonological development of the Eldarin numerals given in this footnote differs in some respects from the much longer account arising later in this same essay.66. with other new names. and many other places beside). the entry for Levnui. l. on her decorated map of Middle-earth. t as final consonants: no other final consonants appear in the Q. (VT42: 24-27) Nevertheless from this discussion could be obtained the most significant information about Quenya and Sindarin numerals (cardinals and ordinals): it has been removed to an appendix below. beyond Levnui) was called the Bay of Belfalas (Côf Belfalas) or simply of Bel (Côf gwaeren Bêl ‘the windy Bay of Bêl’).in Belfalas has no suitable meaning in Sindarin. no doubt unintentionally. where the Man in the Moon fell ‘to a foaming bath in the windy Bay of Bel’. Q. Tolkien's list here omits s. This is a special case. 9 Tolkien then immediately embarks on a lengthy (more than 3 pages) and elaborate philological discussion of the Eldarin numerals. the poem The Man in the Moon came down too soon in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil (1962). (Christopher Tolkien notes: "With ‘the windy Bay of Bêl’ cf. but with a misprint that has never been corrected: the Sindarin word meaning ‘pebble’ is sarn. identified as Belfalas in the preface to the book". but its source is known. not sern". cf.383) was an editorial change from Levnui. (Though none of the regions of the Two Kingdoms were before — or after! — the Númenórean settlements densely populated as . s. It is possible that Bel had a similar sense in an alien tongue. cf. in which two elements of much the same topographical meaning are joined: the first being in the older and the second in the incoming language. (VT42: 7) 4 The form Lefnui in the published text (UT: 263. but actually usually referred to as i-Falas ‘the surf-beach’ (or sometimes as Then-falas ‘short beach’. Bel. 10 Tolkien provides at this point two (both rejected) sketches on the origin of the name Belfalas. Probably because the first was taken by the Incomers as a particular name. XII: 328-29. L:425: "Q. and was in fact Sindarin. indeed favoured. in Gondor the shore-land from the mouth of Anduin to Dol Amroth was called Belfalas. (VT42: 15-16) The first sketch states: "The element Bel. not uncommon when a region is occupied by a new people.1 Notes 1 Cf. between the mouths of Morthond and Levnui). see UT: 261. The regions of Gondor had a complex history in the remote past. the ‘dentals’ n.

perilous even to Elven-craft until Middle-earth was far behind. read "eastward"] in Eriador. Telerin Elves who had in the First Age never completed the journey to the shores of the Sea. of the people of Doriath. it seems. but these in fear of the Eldar fled into the mountains. whether Exiled Noldor or long-rooted Sindar. but the craft that were to make a long voyage over Sea. in the beginning of the Second Age. (All Elves were naturally skilled in making boats. mid-sentence. remained in Beleriand until its desolation in the Great War against Morgoth. The land between Morthond and Serni (the shoreward parts of Dor-en-Ernil)" The sketch ends here. There appears. Having learned the craft of shipbuilding they went in the course of years seeking a place for havens of their own.2 we should recon it.) But there was one small (but important) element in Gondor of quite exeptional kind: an Eldarin settlement. required more skill and knowledge.) . to have been a group of Sindar who went south. (Christopher Tolkien notes: "It was perhaps a purely experimental extension of the history. There. who harboured still their grudge against the Noldor and left the Grey Havens because these and all the ships there were commanded by Círdan (a Noldo). but both sides recognized their kinship as Eldar. but the assertion that Círdan was a Noldo is very strange. They were a remnant. however.) At last they settled at the mouth of the Morthond. at once abandoned. for the Eldarin Elves. There was already a primitive harbour there of fisher-folk. especially near the Hithaeglir (on either side). and without reaching an explanation of the element Bel-. This runs clean counter to the entire tradition concerning him — yet it is essential to the idea sketched in this passage. Possibly it was his realization of this that led my father to abandon it in mid-sentence". and then if they did not take sail over Sea wandered westward [sic. they found scattered settlements of the Nandor. Little is known of its history until shortly before it disappeared.

12 yunuk(w). were considered specially important. in particular the explanation of the number 5. minasse. are mostly not referable with certainty to other stems or bases. VT42: 26). But since this appears to have been a relatively late development (only begun after the Common Eldarin [?Period] except for the word for 12). city. 10 kwaya. as is usual. enek-we. kwa-t) ‘full. NEL-ED. 18. net-er are probably not significant. In Quenya the second vowel was syncopated as usual with short unstressed vowels following a stressed vowel of the same 1 The ómataima is a vowel (óma) of the same quality as the sundóma or base-vowel that is added to a root or stem as an extension. But already in Common Eldarin the multiples of three. 5 is omitted because it is exceptional. The stems of the Common Eldarin numerals (which up to 12 agree closely in the derived languages) were: 1 ‘single’ (non-serial) ER. complete. kway-am. all the ten fingers’. ‘five’. ‘one. prominent’. and meant ‘all. Q. and the bases OM. is related to base KWA (kwa-kwa. as a variant of lepen. Tolkien's interspersed notes are collected together at the end of this appendix. Cf. 6 en-ek(w) (the (w) only appears in Quenya). make long(er)’ (V:391). [Editorial note. ómataina (of the same meaning) XI: 319. such as steeples. for general arithmetical reasons. all. In the extracts from this discussion given below the earliest speculations about *lemen and its derivatives were omitted and replaced by the compiler with the statements within braces representing the final (at least in this essay) decisions on the Quenya ordinal ‘fifth’ (made by Tolkien on a torn half-sheet of paper which was placed with the essay. eteminya ‘prominent’. being the number of the fingers on one hand. 9 net-er.371.3 Appendix: The Eldarin numerals As has been stated in the note 9 Tolkien provided a lengthy discussion of the Eldarin numerals. 8 tol-ot.‘extend. 11 minik(w). cf. His chief concerns were the supposed Common Eldarin stem *lemen.] . Thus lepen is without doubt related to the stem LEP ‘finger’. 3 NEL.*‘voice’ (V:379) and TAY. though two of them had no initial consonant. and kwayam (-m being also of plural origin). augmented in mindon ‘lofty tower’. some of which. tall turrets. In Common Eldarin the full forms with ómataima1 (long or short) were employed as cardinals: as Telerin canat. and eventually beside the decimal numeration a complete duodecimal system was devised for calculations. (Note 2) It is also certain that 10 kwaya. Sindarin canad 4 < kanata. also minde ‘turret’. ‘fifth’. 7 ot-os. the whole lot. The form min is probably the same in origin as M IN that appears in words applying to isolated prominent things. every’. ATTA. but at the end he dismissed all the proposed explanations (given in full in VT42: 24-27) with the note "Far too complicated" and abandoned *lemen and *lemenya. and 144 (gross). and a supposed variant lemen neither of which ever appeared without the third consonant. 2 TATA. sharp mountain peaks. ‘Five’ was no doubt a special number primitively in peoples of elvish/human shape. especially six and twelve. as was not infrequent in Common Eldarin in this pattern): 4 kan-at. the vague similarity of nel(ed). were in general use. It had the stem lepen. minas: ‘fort. such as the special words for 12 (dozen). S. From 3-9 the stems were dissyllabic (Note 1) (triconsonantal. and the supposed Quenya ordinal *lemenya. with a citadel and central watch-tower’. minya ‘first’ thus meant ‘eminent. The numerals.417. first of a series’ M IN.

and then together with the original voiced stops in this position became nasals before homorganic nasals (tn. but so would a stem-form lepn. in contrast to Quenya and Sindarin. In Quenya the ending -ea was generalized for 3rd . kn were frequently reversed — a process assisted by the frequency with which nasal (homorganic) infixion competed with the suffixion of n. bm > mm). 2 tâd. The Sindarin forms were cardinal 1 mîn. 4th . Sindarin leben. the ordinals. 5 leben. 9 neder. 8th toldea. 6th . but it was lost in Sindarin. and is directly derived from C. it is therefore probable that in Common Eldarin *lepen had assumed the form lepene with a final vowel modelled on the other numerals. 9th nertea.). 3rd neil. 9th nedrui. 3 nêl. That Telerin. It is true that *lemnui made on a pattern similar to the other numerals would yield levnui. m in word formation. So lepene > lepne would yield lempe without need to substitute m. 10th quainea. [Editorial note.. The Quenya forms were: 1st minya. derived from ō-ya. tn. 8th tolodya. The Quenya form is lempe. n) was not lost. 1st mein. 7th odothui. g. For 5 Telerin had lepen. main (from minya. 6th . 10 pae. 4th kantea. 6th enquea. Not by syncope. It was the natural form for Quenya in 3rd . and also by the severe phonetic changes which overtook the voiceless stops before nasals (Note 3). pm. nelya and lepenya. 4th . 7th . 4th . and generalized as a suffix in these and other adjectives. 6th -9th inclusive. but according to the primitive modes of derivation from bases. The ordinals in Common Eldarin appear to have been formed by addition of adjectival -yā to a stem in which the second vowel was absent. 5th levnui. and ousted the oya proper to 7th .in Sindarin. [But] othui is the normal and older form. 2nd taid (only used in senses ‘supporting. though the Noldor all knew lepenya since that was used in Vanyarin and also in Telerin)}. and before the Exile this was already the usual spoken form of 5th in Noldorin Quenya. only used in senses ‘prime. under the influence of minya. dn > nn.e.. second in command’. tatya. pre-eminent’. but before other nasals became spirants as 2 Altered by Tolkien on the typescript of the essay from tolthui. 2nd tatya (Note 4) early replaced by attea. minui. 10th paenui. nail (late S..E. levnui [also] does not support *lemen. [.] . d. 7 odog (the historical form odo < otoso occurred in Doriathrin according to the grammarians). pn. 5th {lepenya (in Noldorin Quenya its aberration was corrected by lempea (with -ea of other ordinals) derived from lempe. In Sindarin voiceless stops [i. t. 10th paianya. 3rd nelya. 4th canatya. 6th enetya. ū-ya (which were present in 7th and 8th ). In Telerin final n (< m. 6 eneg. chief. 6th enchui. etc.4 quality: hence Q.. This does not support the view that 5 had in Common Eldarin an alternative stem lemen. 9th . In pre-record Quenya the sequences pm. 7th othui. p.). It may be observed that 5th was lepenya. also neldea. generalized the pattern in which -ya was added direct to the final consonant of the stem: so T. otsōya. 7th otsea. 9th neterya.] The S. was not immune from analogical changes is seen in the form ototya (with tya instead of sya) after -tya in 2nd . kanta 4 < kanatā. 8 toloð. nelui). 4th canthui. though in many ways the most archaic of the Eldarin tongues. since the cardinal was lepen and there was no such form as Q. êr. 7th ototya. (Note 5) Other occasional forms are 6th enecthui (with -thui deduced from 4th . etc. 8th ). 8th tollui2. 4 canad.] In Telerin. The Sindarin ordinals were mainly formed with suffixed -ui. tadui. lempe to induce a change to lemen-. 8th . k] before nasals became voiced > b. [..

km. nn represent long. finger. enchui. in numerals signifying ‘doubled’. etc. later > ðv. In the Southern dialects nt. ll. ‘double’ consonants". Telerin. tm. but T. atatya ‘double’ and S. tata. otsoia 7th . It was considered probable that originally it was a plural *lepem (m being certainly an ancient plural indicator in Common Eldarin) ‘fingers’. for similarly final lth > lt. Quenya and Telerin show clearly that the stem lepen was originally a distinct stem not primitively capable of extrusion of the second vowel. n. subsequently adopting as all the others of its neighbours the ending ui. mf (mp with bilabial f). mp remained when standing finally — or more probably the spirant was re-stopped in this position. r before stops. but its aberration from its neighbours would have only the support of the distant *neil(a) 3rd . In the Northern dialect (which perished in the course of the war against Morgoth) nt. bi-consonantal forms occur. suggest that the most primitive form was AT. dm > ðm. l. lh). as against those in which the sonants followed. and lth (lþ) became long voiceless n. similarly NEL-. S. ll stands in stark contrast to Tolkien's earlier comment in Appendix E to The Lord of the Rings that "consonants written twice. di-’. S. But if so lepem must have been altered by dissimilation > lepen and the final -n associated with the third consonant of the other numerals. and fist. Note 4: The reason for the Quenya divergence in the ordinal: Q. and among those to whom Sindarin became a language of lore. tl. except for words formed with still recognized prefixes. *netere which in Quenya appears as nerte. But whatever its origin ATATA was treated as a triconsonantal stem: those in which there was no actual initial consonant were in ancient modes of derivation often deprived of the initial vowel when the accent was placed on the second syllable. Of this an example occurs in C. l. The placing of the accent would not affect Quenya since in P[rehistoric] Q[uenya] the accent became placed on the first syllable in all cases. ñk. as in mallorn < malhorn < malþorn < malt ‘gold’ and orn ‘tree’ 3. tata. bn > vn. no doubt. of one hand. atta 2. while atatya remained because the second a was not syncopated. as tt. though the old spelling was mostly retained (beside nh. iw). Of a primitive atata the normal Quenya development was atta. KAN-. nch (ñx). it was therefore remodelled to lepni(a) after enki(a) 6th and nerti(a) 9th and the similar pattern of the stems in *kantaia 4th . lepenya would have produced *lepein(a). though rth remained finally. ðw. tad is not certain. tolthui are those of the southern Sindarin dialect adopted by the Noldor. reduplicated to Atat to enforce the duality. etc. Note 2: Cf. as the men of Gondor who were or claimed to be of Númenórean race. In the transcription of Elvish Sindarin in The Lord of the Rings "ll" is used in the manner of modern Welsh for the medial voiceless l. gn > gn > in. This lepni then followed the normal Sindarin development to levni.E. which was not a triconsonantal stem. Since. nc.] . mp had remained unchanged. edaid ‘double’. however. Note 3: But the chief reason. ñ. m. > rt. the probable ultimate relationship between five. tad may thus be referred to (a)táta. gm > gm > im > iv. however. Author's notes to the account of the Eldarin numerals Note 1: The simpler.5 generally medially (pn. [and] of Q. bi-.E. The appearance of at(a) in adverbial or prefixal use in Quenya. was the strong predilection which Quenya showed for the sequences of sonants: m. Medially however nth (nþ). T. ñ. and probably older. 3 This surprising statement regarding the pronunciation of S. ñh. lt. the actual history of the Sindarin aberration is probably this: the sequel of C. toltoia 8th . the spirant was reintroduced from the spelling. Transposition also occurs in Quenya in ancient forms of tr. ss. and Sindarin. being in a long syllable. sc. mh. kn. Note 5: The forms canthui. in adverbial or prefixed forms: as AT(A) ‘double. [Editorial note. In true Sindarin of the Elves or Elf-friends of the early ages the final form was often introduced medially.

6 Tolkien's notes on the Eldarin numerals could be summarized as follows: Sindarin mîn ‘one’. tadui neil. also enecthui othui. *er ‘single’ atta Cardinals Telerin ?mine ‘one’. also odothui tollui nerte *neter neder 9th nertea neterya nedrui 10 quaine *paian pae 10th quainea paianya paenui 11 12 *minque *yunque 1 2nd Quenya minya Ordinals Telerin minya nelya . late nelui canthui lepenya levnui 6th lepenya. êr ‘single’ tâd 1st 2 Quenya *mine ‘one’. nail. also neldea kantea tatya canatya Sindarin mein. ?er ‘single’ tata 3 nelde ?nele nêl 3rd 4 kanta canat canad 4th 5 lempe lepen leben 5th 6 enque *enet eneg 7 otso *otos 8 toldo 9 tatya. minui taid. late lempea enquea enetya odog 7th otsea ototya *tolod toloð 8th toldea tolodya enchui. main. late attea nelya.