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.The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), also known as the Amur tiger, is

a tiger subspecies inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region with a small subpopulation in
southwest Primorye province in the Russian Far East. In 2005, there were 331–393 adultsubadult Amur tigers in this region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The
population has been stable for more than a decade due to intensive conservationefforts, but partial
surveys conducted after 2005 indicate that the Russian tiger population is declining. [1]
The Siberian tiger is the largest living felid and ranks among the biggest felids to ever exist.[2]
Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the
ancestor of Amur and Caspian tigers colonizedCentral Asia via the Gansu−Silk Road corridor from
eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger population in
the Russian Far East.[3]

1 Characteristics


1.1 Skull


1.2 Fur and coat
2 Distribution and habitat
3 Ecology and behavior


3.1 Interspecific predatory relationships


3.2 Reproduction
4 Threats


4.1 Threats in the past
5 Conservation


5.1 Re-population ideas


5.2 In captivity
6 Genetic research
7 Attacks on humans

4 kg (389 lb).9 kg (260 lb). [4] It is typically 5– 10 cm (2–4 in) taller than the Bengal tiger. which is about 107–110 cm (42–43 in) tall. The longest female "Maria Ivanna" measured 270 cm (110 in) in total length (tail of 88 cm (35 in)) and had a chest girth of 108 cm (43 in).3 kg (490 lb). The mean weight of historical Siberian tigers is supposed to be higher: 215.[9] The largest male. a male called "Banzai" weighing 207 kg (460 lb) was radio-collared. measured 350 cm (140 in) "over curves". with an average of 195 cm (77 in) for males. It has an extended supple body standing on rather short legs with a fairly long tail.8 In culture 9 References 10 External links [edit]Characteristics The Siberian tiger is reddish-rusty or rusty-yellow in colour.[8] Measurements of more than fifty captured individuals suggest that body size is similar to that of Bengal tigers.[10] .[7] In May 2011. according to Mazák.3 kg (475 lb) for male tigers and 137.5 kg (303 lb) for females. The body length is not less than 150 cm (60 in). none of these cases can be confirmed via reliable sources. and length of upper carnassial tooth over 26 mm (1 in) long. These measurements show that the present Amur tiger is longer than the Bengal tiger and the African lion. with narrow black transverse stripes. an adult tigress weighs 117. The longest male "Maurice" measured 309 cm (122 in) in total length (tail of 101 cm (40 in)) and had a chest girth of 127 cm (50 in).[5] A Siberian tigress Measurements taken by scientists of the Siberian Tiger Project in Sikhote-Alin range from 178 to 208 cm (70 to 82 in) in head and body length measured in straight line. zygomatic width 180 mm (7 in). an average adult male of more than 35 months of age weighs 176. The tail length in fully grown males is about 1 m (39 in). condylobasal length of skull 250 mm (10 in). the average asymptotic limit being 222. Weights of up to 318 kg (700 lb) have been recorded and exceptionally large males weighing up to 384 kg (850 lb) are mentioned in the literature but. and for females ranging from 167 to 182 cm (66 to 72 in) with an average of 174 cm (69 in). equivalent to 330 cm (130 in) between pegs. [6] According to modern research of wild Siberian tigers in Sikhote-Alin. This individual is heavier but smaller in size than a previously radiocollared male. The average tail measures 99 cm (39 in) in males and 91 cm (36 in) in females. with largely assured references.

The height of the sagittal crest in its middle-part reaches as much as 27 mm (1. it's condylobasal length was of only 305 mm (12. while that of females measured 195.2 in) more than the maximum skull lengths achieved by tigers from the Amur region and northern India. However. which is considerably more than the known maximum for this population and slightly exceeds that of most Far Eastern tigers. and often much more massive than usually observed in the biggest skulls of Indian tigers.4 ft).2 mm (11. the Far Eastern Siberian tiger's summer and winter coats contrast sharply with other subspecies. However.[6] The biggest skull of a Siberian tiger from Manchuria measured 406 mm (16. The size variation in skulls of Siberian tigers ranges from 331 to 383 mm (13.8 in).5 in).7 to 310. and partly in colour. Individual variation is also found in form. [13] [edit]Fur and coat Siberian tiger cub The ground colour of Siberian tigers' pelage is often very pale. coarse and sparse compared to that of other felids living in the former Soviet Union. especially sagittal crest and crista occipitalis are very high and strong in old males.1 in). a tiger killed on the Sumbar in Kopet-Dag had a skull greatest length of 385 mm (15. Siberian tigers in captivity reached a body weight of up to 465 kg (1. such as the tiger "Jaipur". In some cases.[12] Female skulls range from 279.030 lb). length. The skull length of the males from Turkestan had a maximum length of 297.[11] [edit]Skull The skull of the Siberian tiger is distinguished by its larger overall size.79–1. variations within populations may be considerable.0 to 15.69 to 14.06 in). smaller than those of the Amur tigers.21 in). which have been described as being dark brown rather than black.01 to 12. whose height and strength exceeds that of other tigers and the lion. In January 1954. [4] Theskull prominences. .2 in). of the dark stripes. especially in winter coat. with a maximum recorded condylobasal length of 342 mm (13.[12] The fur of the Siberian tiger is moderately thick.0 in) in length.0 to 365.40 in). as well as the development of its sagittal crest. Generally. and in its posterior part up to 46 mm (1.7 to 255. which is about 20–30 mm (0.70 to 10. Compared to the now-extinct westernmost populations.0 in).A further unconfirmed report tells of a male tiger shot in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains in 1950 weighing 384 kg (850 lb) with an estimated length of 3.5 mm (7.8 mm (11. A female skull is always smaller and never so heavily built and robust as that of a male.48 m (11.1 in) in 9 individuals measured.

there were 331–393 Amur tigers in the Russian Far East. The ungulate complex is represented by seven species. This region represents a merger zone of two bioregions: the East Asian coniferous-deciduous complex and the northern boreal complex.6–2. and wild boar being the most common throughout the Sikhote-Alin mountains but rare in higher altitude spruce-fir forests.600 ft) above sea level. The summer coat is coarse. In both regions. [15] The number of Amur tigers in China is estimated at 18–22. with only a few reaching 1. Musk deer and Manchurian moose are associated with the conifer forests and are near the southern limits of their distribution in the central Sikhote-Alin mountains.the coat of western populations was brighter and more uniform than that of the Far Eastern populations.[1] An unknown number of tigers survive in the reserve areas around Baekdu Mountain. roe deer.0 in) along the top of the neck.6–4.7 in) on the throat. The summer fur on the back is 15–17 mm (0. and is markedly longer on the head. while the winter coat is denser. almost covering the ears.67 in) long.9 in) on the chest and 65–105 mm (2. softer.59–0.5–4.[14] The faunal complex of the region is represented by a mixture of Asian and boreal life forms.4–3.000 km (620 mi) throughout the length of Primorsky Krai and into southern Khabarovsk Krai east and south of the Amur River.[16] [edit]Ecology and behavior Taxidermy exhibit portraying a Siberian tiger chasing a sika deer . The whiskers and hair on the back of the head and the top of the neck are also greatly elongated. longer. peaks are generally 500 to 800 m (1.000 m (3. In 2005. More than 90% of the population occurs in the Sikhote Alin mountain region. and silkier.600 to 2.0 in). topography and history. Due to the winter fur's greater length. fewer than 100 likely to be sub-adults. 70–110 mm (2. and 14–16 mm (0.8–4. The whiskers are 90–115 mm (3. based on tracks and local sightings.2–2. more than 20 likely to be less than 3 years of age.5 in).8–3.55–0. The background color of the winter coat is generally less bright and rusty compared to that of the summer coat. The winter fur often appears quite shaggy on the trunk.63 in) on the tail. The winter fur on the back is 40–50 mm (1. 70–95 mm (2. 30–50 mm (1. Key habitats for the Amur tiger are Korean pinebroadleaf forests with a complex composition and structure. 25–35 mm (0.300 ft) or more.98–1. with red deer. They also occur within the Eastern Manchurian mountain system. which crosses into Russia from China at several places in southwest Primorye. resulting in a mosaic of forest types that vary with elevation.4 in) on the abdomen.3 in) on the top of the neck.1 in) on the abdomen. Sika deer are restricted to the southern half of the Sikhote-Alin mountains. 60–100 mm (2. the stripes appear broader with less defined outlines. comprising a breeding adult population of about 250.[4] [edit]Distribution and habitat The geographical range of Amur tigers in the Russian Far East stretches south to north for almost 1.

only 17 instances of tiger attacking bearswere recorded in the Russian Far East. overlap of these ungulates with tigers was low. and 0. These density values were dramatically lower than what had been reported for other subspecies at the time.4 tigers in 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in the southern part of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik.3 tigers in 100 km2 (39 sq mi). [17] Between January 1992 and November 1994. The distribution of preferred habitat of key prey species was an accurate predictor of tiger distribution.[14] In 2004.[4] In 1992 and 1993.8±0. due to their habit of living in more open areas and their inability to climb . Vladivostok Museum Siberian tigers are known to travel up to 1. Distribution of wild pigs was not as strong a predictor of tiger distribution.3 tigers in 100 km2(39 sq mi) in the central part of the protected area. 11 tigers were captured. a distance that marks the exchange limit over ecologically unbroken country. Brown bears are attacked by tigers more often than black bears. The maximum adult population estimated in 1993 reached 0.4 females per male. By 2007. rabbits. [18] Prey species include Manchurian wapiti. pikas and salmon. When survivorship of adult females was high.Taxidermy exhibit portraying a Siberian tiger fighting a brown bear. density of tigers was estimated at 0. dramatic changes in land tenure. density.62 tigers in 100 km2 (39 sq mi). Distribution of moose was poorly associated with tiger distribution. and reproductive output in the core area of the Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik Siberian Tiger Project were detected.6±0. musk deer. the maximum total population density of the Sikhote-Alin tiger population was estimated at 0.[10] [edit]Interspecific predatory relationships Tigers may prey on both brown and black bears when ungulate populations decrease. female adult density may increase dramatically. fitted with radio-collars and monitored for more than 15 months in the eastern slopes of the Sikhote-Alin mountain range. goral and smaller prey like hares.000 km (620 mi). Although they prey on both Siberian roe deer and sika deer. From 1944 to 1950. Results of this study indicate that their distribution is closely associated with distribution of red deer. They most typically attack brown bears near the hibernaculum in the winter. the mothers divided their territories with their daughters once the daughters reached maturity. with a sex ratio of averaging 2. suggesting that when tigers are well protected from human-induced mortality for long periods.

[10] Brown bears are estimated to constitute 1-1.5% of their diet. as bears often dominate these disputes over kills. While tigers can successfully hunt bears.[4] Asian black bears and Ussuri brown bears constitute 5–8% of the Siberian tiger's diet.[23] Tigers depress wolves' numbers.[20] Despite the threat of predation. as they limit ungulate populations less than wolves. the tiger will concentrate its feeding on the bear's fat deposits. either in disputes over prey or in self-defense. there are also records of brown bears killing tigers. hams and groin. and usually seen travelling as loners or in small groups. the two species typically display a great deal of dietary overlap. while wolves will scavenge from tiger kills. [4][22]Russian researchers have identified specific "satellite bears" who regularly follow tigers over extensive periods of time. sequentially usurping kills by tracking the tigers in the spring snow. Today. being found in scattered pockets. the tiger will spring from an overhead position and grab the bear from under the chin with one fore paw and the throat with the other. such as the back. of a bear consuming a tiger. and are effective in controlling wolf numbers. where until the beginning of the 20th century. tigers will position themselves from the leeward side of a rock or fallen tree. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human pressure decreases tiger numbers. as well as of bears following tiger tracks with no signs of fear and sleeping in the same den. waiting for the bear to pass by. After killing a bear.[24] This competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convince hunters in the Far East to tolerate the big cats. Wolf and tiger interactions are well documented in SikhoteAlin.[21] There have been observations of bears that changed their path after coming across tiger trails. some brown bears actually benefit from the tiger's presence by appropriating tiger kills that the bears may not be able to successfully hunt themselves. either to the point of localized extinction or to such low numbers as to make them a functionally insignificant component of the ecosystem. The immobilized bear is then killed with a bite to thespinal column. When hunting bears. In areas where wolves and tigers share ranges. First hand accounts on interactions between the two species indicate that tigers occasionally chase wolves from their kills. This is corroborated by native inhabitants of the region claiming that they had no memory of wolves inhabiting Sikhote-Alin until the 1930s. When the bear passes. wolves are considered scarce in tiger habitat. Tigers are not known to prey on wolves. Wolf numbers may have increased in the region after tigers were largely eliminated during the Russian colonization in the late 19th century and early 20th century. resulting in intense competition.trees.[25] [edit]Reproduction A Siberian tigress with a cub at Buffalo Zoo . very few wolves were sighted. when tiger numbers decreased. [19] Certain tigers have been reported to imitate the calls of Asian black bears to attract them. though there are four records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them. and in at least one instance.

it was estimated that the Siberian tiger population consisted of approximately 250 animals. In 1987. during which she is receptive for three days.[27] . by adulthood there are usually two to four females for every male. Subsequent illegal deforestation and bribery of park rangers made the poaching of Siberian tigers easier. which separates this sub-population from the much smaller sub-population found in southwest Primorye province. Legal tiger hunting within the Soviet Union would continue until 1947 when it was officially prohibited. once again putting the subspecies at risk from extinction. However. Heat sensing camera traps set up in the Demilitarized Zone in South Korea did not record any tigers.[5] [edit]Threats A broad genetic sampling of 95 wild Russian tigers found markedly low genetic diversity. Gestation lasts from 3 to 3½ months. A female signals her receptiveness by leaving urine deposits and scratch marks on trees. The female cubs remain with their mothers longer. The few that remained in the East Manchurian mountains were cut off from the main population by the building of railroads. Further exacerbating the problem is that more than 90% of the population occurs in the Sikhote Alin mountain region. The cubs are born blind in a sheltered den and are left alone when the female leaves to hunt for food.Siberian tigers reach sexual maturity at four years of age. Males. both Red and White armies based in Vladivostok nearly wiped out the local Siberian tigers. and there is little movement of tigers across the development corridor.[18] Poaching of tigers and their wild prey species is considered to be driving the decline. She will spend 5 or 6 days with the male. although heavy snows in the winter of 2009 could have biased the data. travel unaccompanied and range farther earlier in their lives. when the Manchurian Chinese were driven back across the Amur and the Ussuri. They mate at any time of the year. making them more vulnerable to poachers and other tigers. law and order almost entirely broke down due to the impending dissolution of the Soviet Union. In the mid 1980s. the tigers had already withdrawn from their northern and western range. Litter size is normally two or four cubs but there can be as many as six.[5] Decades of development and war have destroyed the population in Korea. Within a few years. on the other hand. with the population behaving as if it were just 27–35 individuals. and later they establish territories close to their original ranges. Cubs are divided equally between genders at birth. the last viable Siberian tiger population in Russia was confined to Ussuriland.[1] [edit]Threats in the past In the early years of the Russian Civil War. In 1935. [26] The winter of 2006–2007 was marked by heavy poaching. with the effective population size extraordinarily low in comparison to the census population size.