Algebraic Geometry
Also of Interest
Knots
Burde/Zieschang/Heusener, 2013
ISBN 9783110270747, eISBN 9783110270785
Abstract Algebra
Carstensen/Fine/Rosenberger, 2011
ISBN 9783110250084, eISBN 9783110250091
Advances in Geometry
Grundhfer/Strambach (Managing Editors)
ISSN: 1615715X, eISSN 16157168
Elena Rubei
Algebraic
Geometry
A Concise Dictionary
ISBN 9783110316223
eISBN 9783110316230
SetISBN 9783110316001
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detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.dnb.de.
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Notation
()
(, )
For any topological space and ring , (, ) (Betti number) denotes the
rank of (, ); it is also denoted by (, ); see Singular homology and
cohomology.
, ()
b.p.f.
For any almost complex manifold (see Almost complex manifolds, holomorphic maps, holomorphic tangent bundles), , () denotes the vector space
of the (, )forms on .
The abbreviation b.p.f. stands for base point free, see Bundles, fibre .
()
For any algebraic variety , () denotes the th Chow group of ; see
Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and Picard
groups.
()
For any algebraic variety , () denotes the divisor class group of ; see
Divisors.
(, )
()
For any Cartier divisor , () denotes the line bundle associated to ; see Divisors.
, L()
, , 1
For any line bundle on a variety , denotes the map associated to ; see
Bundles, fibre .
(, ), (, )
(, ), (, )
(, ), (, )
For any topological space and any ring , (, ) denotes the th homology
module of with coefficients in (see Singular homology and cohomology);
(, ) denotes its rank; (, ) is also denoted by (, ) (Betti number)
For any topological space and any ring , (, ) denotes the th cohomology module of with coefficients in (see Singular homology and cohomology); (, ) denotes its rank.
viii  Notation
(, E)
()
(, E)
,
F , F
( , )
nef
The abbreviation nef stands for numerically effective; see Bundles, fibre .
()
O , O ()
If is a complex manifold, O (or simply O) denotes the sheaf of holomorphic functions; if is an algebraic variety, it denotes the sheaf of the regular
functions; more generally, it denotes the structure sheaf of a ringed space; see
Space, ringed ; for the definition of O (), see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves.
O(), ()
(), (), ()
()
For any complex manifold , denotes the sheaf of the holomorphic forms;
for any algebraic variety, denotes the sheaf of the regular forms; see
Zariski tangent space, differential forms, tangent bundle, normal bundle.
We denote by the projective space of dimension over .
For any algebraic variety , () denotes the Picard group of ; see Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and Picard groups.
PID
PID stands for principal ideal domain, i.e., for an integral domain such that
every ideal is principal.
(, )
For any topological space and any , (, ) denotes the th fundamental group of at the basepoint ; see Fundamental group.
Notation
()
,
()
ix
(), ()
For any ring , () denotes its spectrum, see Schemes. See Schemes
also for the definition of () for graded ring.
The symbol denotes the fibred product of and over ; see Fibred
product.
, + , ( : )
: (, ) (, )
= {  {0} s.t. }.
Note. The end of the definitions, theorems, and propositions is indicated by the symbol
A
Abelian varieties.
Adjunction formula. ([72], [93], [107], [129], [140]). Let be a complex manifold
or a smooth algebraic variety and let be a submanifold, respectively a smooth closed
subvariety. We have
=  , ,
where , is the normal bundle and and are the canonical bundles respectively of and (see Canonical bundle, canonical sheaf, Zariski tangent space,
differential forms, tangent bundle, normal bundle).
If, in addition, is a hypersurface, the formula becomes
=  () ,
where () is the bundle associated to the divisor , since, in this case the bundle ,
is the bundle given by (see Bundles, fibre  for the definition of bundles associated
to divisors).
Albanese varieties.
0 (, 1 )
,
(1 (, ))
is defined in the following way: we fix a point 0 of (base point) and we define
() =
0
for any , where is the integral along a path joining 0 and (thus, obviously, it
0
() = ( 1 , . . . , ).
2  Algebras
For any compact Khler manifold of dimension , the Albanese variety of is isomorphic to the th intermediate Griffiths Jacobian of . The Albanese variety of a
smooth complex projective algebraic variety is an Abelian variety, that is, it can be
embedded in a projective space. See Jacobians, Weil and Griffiths intermediate ,
Tori, complex  and Abelian varieties.
Algebraic groups. ([27], [126], [228], [235], and references in Tori, complex  and
Abelian varieties). An algebraic group is a set that is both an algebraic variety (see
Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms
and rational maps) and a group and the two structures are compatible, that is, the
map
,
(, ) 1
Definition. We say that an algebraic group is reductive if all its representations are
completely reducible (see Representations).
Almost complex manifolds, holomorphic maps, holomorphic tangent bundles. ([121], [147], [192], [251]). An almost complex manifold is the
data of
a manifold ;
a section of the bundle (where is the real tangent bundle)
such that, if we see as a map
: (, ) (, )
where is the identity map; in other words, for every , the linear map :
induced on the real tangent space of at is such that
2 = .
We can extend to := by linearity. We define the holomorphic tangent space of at to be the eigenspace of ; we denote it by 1,0
and we denote the holomorphic tangent bundle, i.e., the bundle whose fibre in is
1,0 , by 1,0 . We define the antiholomorphic tangent space of at to be the
eigenspace of ; we denote it by 0,1 and we denote the antiholomorphic tangent
bundle, i.e., the bundle whose fibre in is 0,1 , by 0,1 . Thus
= 1,0 0,1 .
)=
,
)=
1,0 = (
:=
0,1 = (
) ,
:=
+
.
, .
Let
:= +
and
:= .
1,0
goes to
1
).
2
0,1
For any almost complex manifold , let , () be the space of the (, )forms
on .
: , () +1, () ,+1 ()
as
= + ,
where
: , () +1, (),
: , () ,+1 ()
: .
(ii)
and
= 1 ;
(iii) = (where and denote the operators on and respectively), i.e., the differential of is linear for the complex structures given
by ;
Bertinis theorem
Artinian.
See
B
Base point free (b.p.f.)
Beilinsons complex.
+1
0 +1 1 0
if
if
= 0,
= 0.
Beilinsons theorem II. Let F be a coherent sheaf on . Then there exists a complex
of sheaves
+1
0 +1 1 0
if
if
= 0,
= 0.
Bertinis theorem. ([93], [104], [107], [129], [136], [228]). On a smooth quasiprojective algebraic variety over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0,
6  Bezouts theorem
the general element of a finitedimensional linear system (see Linear systems) is
smooth away from the base locus of the system.
Bezouts theorem.
field.
Bezouts theorem. Let and be two projective algebraic varieties of respective dimension and in . Suppose that + and that, for every irreducible
component of and for general point of , and are smooth at and
( ) = () + ( ), where denotes the tangent space at . Then
deg( ) = deg() deg( ) .
where the sum runs over all irreducible components of (see, e.g., [72]).
Bielliptic surfaces.
Big.
Birational.
See Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps.
Blowingup (or process). ([22], [93], [104], [107], [196], [228]). We follow
mainly [93] and [104].
Roughly speaking, the blowup of a manifold along a subvariety is a geometric transformation replacing the subvariety with all the directions pointing out from it. For
instance the blowup of a manifold in a point replaces the point with all the directions
pointing out from it.
We define the blowup of in a point as follows. By changing coordinates we
can suppose = 0; we define the blowup of in 0 as the set
0 ( ) := {(, ) 1
 }
Blowingup
(recall that 1
= ( ) is the set of lines of passing through 0), with the projection
: 0 ( ) ,
(, ) .
Observe that
1 () = {
a point
{0} 1
if
if
= 0,
= 0.
Precisely, if = 0, the set 1 () is {(, )} where is the unique line through and
1
0. Thus we can say that 0 ( ) is obtained from by replacing 0 with
, which
By using the definition of blowup of in a point, we can define the blowup of any
manifold in a point. Let be a complex manifold and let . We define the blowup of in as follows: let be a neighborhood of ; the blowup of in is
8  Blowingup
the set
:= () := (( {}) ())/ ,
where is the relation that identifies the points in {} in {} with the points
of {} in (), with the obvious projection
: () .
We can define also the blowup of a manifold along a submanifold. Let < ; the
blowup of along = {  +1 = = = 0} is defined to be
( ) = {(, ) 1  [+1 : : ] }
: ( ) ,
(, ) .
Let be an algebraically closed field. The blowup can be defined for algebraic varieties over in the following way. Let be an affine algebraic variety over and
be a closed subvariety. Let {0 , . . . , } be a set of generators of the ideal of in . Let
:
Blowingup
We define the blowup of along as the graph of with the obvious projection
: (the graph of a rational map is defined to be the closure of the graph
of  , where is any open subset on which is defined). The divisor 1 () is called
the exceptional divisor of the blowup. If is a projective variety, we take as 0 , . . . ,
homogeneous polynomials of the same degree generating an ideal whose saturation
(see Saturation) is the ideal of in , and we define the blowup analogously.
We can prove that the definition of blowup doesnt depend on the choice of 0 , . . . ,
and that, for any open affine subset in , we have that the blowup of along
is equal to the inverse image of in the blowup of along . The map :
is birational.
For example, the blowup of in 0 is
with the projection
1
 }
0 ( ) = {(, )
: 0 ( ) ,
0 ( )
(, ) .
10  Buchbergers algorithm
ular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps). Furthermore, they are
useful in the study of singularities (see Regular rings, smooth points, singular points
and Genus, arithmetic, geometric, real, virtual ).
Buchbergers algorithm.
Bundles, fibre .
/ ,
yy
yy
y
yy 1
y
y
Bundles, fibre 
11
1 (
( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ;
, : (),
for any , . The , are called the transition functions of the bundle . They satisfy
()
, () , () = , () , , , .
Conversely, given topological spaces , , an open covering { } of and functions , : () satisfying () and such that the maps (, )
(, , ()()) are homeomorphisms on ( ) , it is easy to construct a bundle
on with fibre and with the , as transition functions: define
= ( )/
It sends a point to a point whose first coordinate is , let us say (, ()). The
maps
:
12  Bundles, fibre which we have just defined have the property that
() = , ()( ())
and : is the projection onto the first factor. The pullback bundle is
denoted by . Observe that
( ) = {( , ) () = ( )} = ( ) .
covering of trivializing for both bundles. Let the transition functions be , and ,
respectively.
The direct sum is the bundle whose fibre is and whose transition functions
are
0
( ,
).
0
,,
The tensor product is the bundle whose fibre is and whose transition
functions are , ,,
. The tensor product ( repeated times) is denoted
by , or, if is a line bundle, also by or .
Bundles, fibre 
13
The wedge product is the bundle whose fibre is and whose transition functions are , . If = , where is the rank of , then is called determinant
bundle and denoted by () (and the transition functions are obviously (, )).
The dual bundle is the bundle with fibre on is and whose transition
functions are
, ()1 .
If has rank 1, the bundle is denoted also by 1 , since is trivial.
,
0
,
)
,
for some functions , , , . The quotient bundle / is the bundle whose fibre on
is / and whose transition functions are , . We have that = if and only if
, = 0 for all , .
A morphism between vector bundles on , precisely from (, , , ) to ( , ,
, ), is a continuous map : such that = and such that :
is linear.
Let () := ( ) and () := ( ). They determine subbundles if and
only if the rank of does not depend on .
(, ) (, (1 ))
for any .
Obviously, if is a topological vector space and : (), then the determined
bundle is a vector bundle on with fibre .
Bundles, fibre 
15
on is isomorphic also to 1 (, O ), via the isomorphism induced by the map sending a bundle to its transition functions.
If is a smooth projective algebraic variety over , one can prove that, for any divisor
, the first Chern class (see Chern classes) of the line bundle associated to is the
Poincar dual of the class of .
: (0 (, O()) ),
{ 0 (, O()) () = 0};
defined only on the set of the points of such that there exists 0 (, O()) with
() = 0.
We say that is very ample if the associated map is well defined on the whole and
is an embedding. In this case we have that (O(1)) = , where O(1) is the hyperplane
bundle on (0 (, O()) ) (see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves).
We say that is ample if there exists such that is very ample.
We say that is numerically effective (nef) if ( ) 0 for any (irreducible)
curve in , that is the intersection number is nonnegative for any divisor such
that the associated line bundle is and any (irreducible) curve (see Intersection of
cycles).
Let
() = {  0 (, O( )) = 0};
we define the Iitaka dimension of to be if () = {0}, to be
max { ()}
()
We say that a vector bundle on is ample if O() (1) is ample on (), where O() (1)
is the line bundle that restricted to any fibre of () is O(1), i.e., the dual of the
universal bundle (see Tautological (or universal) bundle).
Let be a vector bundle on . We say that 0 (, O()) is base point free (b.p.f.)
if there does not exist such that () = 0 for all . We say that is base
point free if there does not exist such that () = 0 for all 0 (, O()).
16  Bundles, fibre Let be a vector bundle on . We say that is globally generated if for all we
have that is generated by 0 (,O()) ().
Obviously, for line bundle, being globally generated is equivalent to being base point
free.
We say that a Cartier divisor is ample, very ample, big, nef, b.p.f., if and only if the
corresponding line bundle () is.
Thus ample implies nef. We have also that, under nice assumptions, for instance if
is a smooth projective algebraic variety over an algebraically closed field, the interior
part of the cone generated by the nef divisors in the space of the divisors up to numerical equivalence is the cone generated by the ample divisors; see [142] (we say that two
divisors are numerically equivalent if their intersection number with any curve is the
same).
17
nef
ample
big
See also Sheaves, Chern classes, Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow,
NeronSeveri and Picard groups, CartanSerre theorem.
C
CalabiYau manifolds.
([94], [252]). There are several possible (also nonequivalent) definitions. One of the most common definitions is the following (see Canonical
bundle, canonical sheaf and Hermitian and Khlerian metrics for the definitions
of canonical bundle and Khler manifold).
Definition. A CalabiYau manifold is a compact Khler manifold with trivial canonical
bundle.
Another (nonequivalent, precisely weaker) definition is: a CalabiYau manifold is a
compact Khler manifold such that there exists a finite (holomorphically) covering
space (see Covering projections) of with trivial canonical bundle.
Examples. Elliptic Riemann surfaces and K3 surfaces satisfy both definitions, while
Enriques surfaces satisfy the second definition, but not the first (see Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves, Surfaces, algebraic  for the definitions).
18  Cap product
Example.
= ( 1),
Cap product.
CartanSerre theorems.
Furthermore, in [42], Cartan and Serre proved that, for any coherent sheaf F on a compact complex manifold , the complex vector space (, F) is finite dimensional for
any .
CastelnuovoEnriques Criterion.
CastelnuovoEnriques theorem.
Categories.
([26], [79], [116], [168], [179]). We follow mainly the exposition in [79].
A category C consists of
(i) a set of objects;
(ii) for every ordered pair of objects, , , a set denoted C (, ) (or simply
(, )), whose elements are called morphisms or arrows;
(iii) for each triple of objects , , , a map
(, ) (, ) (, )
(the image of (, ) (, ) (, ) by this map is called the composition of and and is denoted by or by ) such that
Categories
19
We write an arrow (, ) as : .
is injective.
We say that is full if, for any , objects of C, we have that
is surjective.
: C (, ) D ((), ())
Definition. Let C be a category. The dual category C is the category defined in the
following way: the objects are the objects of C (an object in C will be denoted by
as an object of C ); we define C ( , ) := C (, ) (an arrow : in
C (, ) will be denoted : as an element of C ( , )) and we
define = ( ) and = () .
A controvariant functor from C D is a covariant functor C D, thus it is given
by a map from the set of the objects of C to the set of objects of D and, for each ordered
pair of objects , of C, a map
C (, ) D ((), ()) .
20  Categories
Definition. We say that two objects , in a category C are isomorphic if and only if
there are two arrows : and : such that = 1 and = 1 .
()
()
()
()
/ ()
()
/ ()
Taking the natural transformations as morphisms, we get that the functors from C to
D form a new category, which we denote by (C, D).
In particular two functors , from C to D are isomorphic if there exist a natural transformation from to and a natural transformation from to such that =
and = . Equivalently, and are isomorphic if there exists a natural transformation from to such that () : () () is an isomorphism for any
object of C.
Definition. We say that two categories C and D are isomorphic if and only if there are
functors : C D and : D C such that = D and = C .
Definition. We say that two categories C and D are equivalent if and only if there are
functors : C D and : D C such that is isomorphic to D and is
isomorphic to C .
Proposition. Two categories C and D are equivalent if and only if there exists a functor
: C D such that
: C (, ) D ((), ())
is a bijection for any , objects of C (that is, is full and faithful) and, for any object
of D, there exists an object of C such that and () are isomorphic.
Let C be a category and S be the category of the sets (that is, the category whose objects
are the sets and, for any sets 1 , 2 , (1 , 2 ) is the set of the functions from 1 to 2 ).
Let be an object of C. Let : C S be the covariant functor defined by
() = C (, )
Categories
21
Definition. We say that a covariant functor : C S is representable if it is isomorphic to for some object of C (in this case, we say that represents ).
We say that a controvariant functor : C S is representable if it is isomorphic to
for some object of C (in this case, we say that represents ).
We can prove that an object representing a functor is unique up to isomorphism.
Definition. We say that a category C is additive if it satisfies the following three axioms:
C (, ) is an Abelian group for any objects and of C and the composition
of arrows is biadditive, i.e.,
( + ) = + ,
( + ) = +
: for = 1, 2
Definition. Let C and D be two additive categories. We say that a functor from C to D
is additive if, for any , , objects of C, the map
: C (, ) D ((), ())
Let be the category of Abelian groups, that is, the category whose objects are the
Abelian groups and, for any Abelian groups 1 , 2 , (1 , 2 ) is the set of the homomorphisms from 1 to 2 . Let C be an additive category and let : be an
arrow in C. We define a controvariant functor
: C ,
22  Chern classes
in the following way: for any object of C, we define
( )() = (C (, ) C (, )),
Definition. We say that a category C is Abelian if it is additive and it satisfies the following axiom:
Ker and Coker. For any arrow : in C, there exists a sequence
such that
(i) = ;
(ii) is the kernel of , is the cokernel of ;
(iii) is the kernel of and the cokernel of .
Chern classes. ([45], [93], [96], [107], [135], [146], [147], [181],[188]). Let be a holomorphic vector bundle of rank on a complex compact manifold . The Chern classes
() 2 (, )
() = 1 + 1 () + + () =0,..., 2 (, )
Chern classes
23
(the first map is given by the inclusion and the second by 2 ; see Exponential
sequence).
where the product at the second member is the cup product, see Singular homology
and cohomology.
Axiom 3: Functoriality. if : is a continuous map and a vector bundle on ,
then
( ) = ().
We define the Chern polynomial of to be
()() = 1 + 1 () + + () .
()
/
The theorem above is sometimes used (once 0 and 1 are defined) to define the Chern
classes (to be the unique elements satisfying the equation above).
Some useful formulas about Chern classes are:
(i) For any
( ) = (1) ().
()() = (1 + )
24  Chern classes
be the formal factorizations of the Chern polynomials of and . Then
From (ii) we easily get that
( )() = (1 + ( + )).
,
Moreover, if () = and () = 1,
( ) = (
=0,...,
) ()1 () .
The definition of Chern classes can be given, more generally, for complex bundles on
compact manifolds in a way analogous to the definition above (the only difference
being in the normalization axiom). We skip it, but we mention other ways to define
Chern classes.
If is a complex vector bundle on a compact manifold and is a connection on
(see Connections), we can define for any
() = ( (
)) ,
2
25
with the line bundles, the are the 1 ( ). We define the Chern character () =
() of by
() = exp( ) = (1 + +
=1,...,
We have that
=1,...,
2 3
+
+ ).
2!
3!
1
1
[ ()2 22 ()] + [1 ()3 31 ()2 () + 33 ()] + .
2 1
6
( ) = () + (),
( ) = ()().
Chows theorem.
(1) We say that an algebraic set over is CohenMacaulay if, for any , the
local ring O, (the stalk in of the sheaf of the regular functions on ) is Cohen
Macaulay.
(2) An equidimensional projective algebraic set of codimension in is said arithmetically CohenMacaulay if the minimal free resolution (see Minimal free resolutions) of the sheaf O has length (which is the minimal possible length):
0 F F1 F1 O O 0.
(/) = ,
where the stands for projective dimension and the projective dimension of an module is the minimal length of a projective resolution of (a projective resolution
of is an exact sequence
0 0 0
with projective modules; see Injective and projective modules and Injective
and projective resolutions; is the length of the resolution).
The condition (/) = is obviously equivalent to the condition
that is,
(/) = () = () (/),
() (/) = (/),
Coherent sheaves
27
0 1 (/, ) 0
(4) We say that an equidimensional projective algebraic subset of of codimension is Gorestein if it is CohenMacaulay and its dualizing sheaf, that is
EXT (O , O )( 1) (see Dualizing sheaf, , EXT ) is locally free of rank 1.
28  Coherent sheaves
O  O  F 0,
Completion
29
herent sheaves on the analytic space associated to and this equivalence maintains
the cohomology.
See also CartanSerre theorems.
Cohomology of a complex.
Cohomology, singular .
See Complexes.
Definition. An algebraic variety is said to be complete if, for all algebraic varieties
, the projection morphism : is a closed map, i.e., the image through
of any closed subset (closed in the Zariski topology) is a closed subset.
Chows lemma. For any complete variety over an algebraically closed field, there
exists a projective algebraic variety and a surjective birational morphism from
to .
Completion. ([12], [62], [107], [185], [256]). Let (, +) be a topological Abelian group
with a sequence of subgroups, { } , such that
= 0 1
30  Complexes
The completion of , denoted by , is defined to be the set of the equivalence classes
of the Cauchy sequences in .
In algebraic geometry one often meets completions of local rings (, ) (see Local);
in this case we consider { } as fundamental system of neighborhoods of 0. Precisely, for any algebraic variety and any , the completion of the local ring
(O, , ) gives information about the local behavior of around and the study of
the completions of the local rings (O, , ) for is linked to the study of singularities of .
If and are two algebraic varieties over a field and and , we say that
in and in are analytically isomorphic if and only if the completions of O,
and O, are isomorphic as algebras.
Complexes.
/ 1
/ +1
+1
/ ,
Cone, tangent 
31
/ 1
/ 1
/
/
/ +1
/ +1
+1
+1
/
/
/ 1
/ 1
/
/ +1
+1
/ +1
+1
+1
/
/ .
= +1 + 1 .
1
/
/ +1











 +1




~
~
/ 1
/
/ +1
/ 1
+1
+1
/
/ .
Cone, tangent .
([104], [228]). Let be an affine algebraic variety over an algebraically closed field and let = () be the ideal of (see Varieties, algebraic ,
Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps). Let
32  Connections
. Choose coordinates such that = 0. For every , let () be the sum of the
monomials of of the lowest degree. Let
() := {() }.
Connections.
(where, for any bundle , () denotes the set of sections of and denotes
the dual of the tangent bundle) such that
(1 + 2 ) = 1 + 2
() = +
1 , 2 (),
(), : .
=1,...,
( ) = +
= + , = ( + , ),
+ ,
Connections
where
33
1
.
= ( .. ) .
( ) = +
() = ()
for all () and for all maps : . If is the connection matrix of with
respect to a frame on an open subset of , we have that is given by the matrix of
2forms
= + ,
where denotes the usual matrix product where the entries are multiplied by the
wedge product.
1
.. ) .
.
Then, if and are the connection matrices of with respect the two frames and
and are the matrices of the curvatures, we have that
= 1 + 1 ,
= 1 .
34  Connections
where the subscript in an operator means that, after applying the operator, we evaluate the result in the vector indicated in the subscript and [, ] means .
Connections on tensor products and dual bundles
Remark. If and are two vector bundles and and are two connections respectively on and , we can define a connection on the tensor product in
the following way:
( )( ) = +
for any (), ( ).
for any (), ( ) (where (, ) means that we are applying the element of
( ) to the element of ()).
Definition. Let (, (, )) be a complex vector bundle with a Hermitian metric. A connection on is said to be compatible with the metric if
for all 1 , 2 ().
(1 , 2 ) = (1 , 2 ) + (1 , 2 )
(i.e., the entries of the connection matrix are of type (1, 0)).
Covering projections
35
1 ,
2 ),
2 1 = , (,
Covering projections.
is a topological covering projection (covering projection for short) of if, for all
, there exists an open subset of such that 1 () is a disjoint union of open
subsets of such that  : is a homeomorphism for all . The space is
said to be covering space.
Definitions.
We say that a map between two topological spaces, : , is a local homeomorphism if, for all , there exists an open subset of containing
such that () is an open subset of and : () is a homeomorphism.
Let , , be topological spaces. Let : and : be continuous
maps. A lifting of (for ) is a continuous map : such that = .
?
~~
~
~~
~~
/
We say that a continuous map : is complete with respect to a topological space , if, for every continuous map : [0, 1] , every lifting of
{0} can be extended to a lifting of .
We say that a continuous map : has unique path lifting if, given paths
and in (that is two continuous maps from [0, 1] to ) such that (0) = (0)
and = , then = .
We say that a topological space is locally pathconnected if the pathconnected
components of open subsets are open.
36  Covering projections
We say that a topological space is semilocally simply connected if every
has a neighborhood such that all loops in are homotopically trivial
in .
Theorem. Let be a locally pathconnected and semilocal simply connected topological space and let be a locally pathconnected topological space. Let :
be a continuous map complete with respect to any topological space and with unique
path lifting. Then : is a covering projection.
Definition. Let and be two topological spaces and let and be points respectively of and . A pointed covering projection : ( , ) (, ) is a covering
projection : such that ( ) = .
Cremona transformations
37
Theorem. Let be a pathconnected, locally pathconnected, semilocally simply connected topological space. Let . There is a bijection between the following sets:
and
(1).
Observe that, if is a point of such that ( ) = and is the image through
of a path from to , then (1 ( , )) = 1 . Thus, in the assumptions of the
theorem above, there exists a pointed covering homeomorphism between ( , ) and
( , ) if and only if 1 = .
In particular, if is normal, the group of covering homeomorphisms of on is
transitive on 1 () and is isomorphic to 1 (, )/.
Note. In the case of two complex manifolds, (ramified) covering projections sometimes stands for holomorphic surjective maps between complex manifolds of the same
dimension. When it is a true topological covering projection, i.e., it is not ramified, we
say that it is an tale covering projection.
mations.
38  Cross ratio
Cross ratio.
1
1
0
((1 ), (2 ), (3 ), (4 )) = ([ ] , [ ] , [ ] , [ 1 ]) ,
2
1
0
1
((1 ), (2 ), (3 ), (4 )) = (, 0, 1, ),
where = 2 / 1 . It is equal to
simple ratio(1 , 2 , 3 )
,
simple ratio(1 , 2 , 4 )
1
1
1
1
) det ( 2
3
2
4
) det ( 2
4
2
4
)
4
3
)
3
3 1
.
3 2
More
Since the cross ratio of (1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ) and the cross ratio of ((1) , (2) , (3) , (4) ) are
the same for any composition of two disjoint transpositions, we have that the possible values of the cross ratio of ((1) , (2) , (3) , (4) ) for 4 are at most 6, precisely,
if is the cross ratio of (1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ), the 6 possible values are
Cup product.
Curves.
Cusps.
1
,
1 ,
1
,
1
1
,
1
.
1
Deformations
39
D
Deformations.
(See Proper, Flat (module, morphism), Spaces, analytic  for the definitions of
these terms.)
We say that two deformations of , : (, ) and : ( , ), are isomorphic if there exist isomorphisms of analytic spaces : and : ( , ) (, )
such that = and the composition of from 1 ( ) to 1 () with the isomorphisms with is the identity.
40  Deformations
Observe that all the universal deformations of a complex manifold are locally canonically isomorphic, and all the semiuniversal deformations of are locally isomorphic.
Obviously, from the moduli problem viewpoint, the best situation is the one of universal deformations.
Definition. Let : (, ) be a deformation of . Let 1,0 be the holomorphic
tangent space of at and let = O(1,0 ), where 1,0 is the holomorphic tangent
bundle of . The KodairaSpencer map associated to : (, ) is the map
: 1,0 1 ( )
Observe that the trivial deformation (i.e., ) has zero KodairaSpencer map.
41
Let be a local Noetherian complete ring with residue field and let be the category of the local Artinian algebras with residue field . Schlessingers theory studies
the functors
:
(see Categories for the definition of functor) such that () is a set with only one
element.
The link between this theory and deformation theory is the following: consider for
instance deformations of schemes; consider the functor : such that
() is the set of isomorphisms classes of deformations on () of a scheme
and, if : is a homomorphism, () is the map from the set of isomorphisms
classes of deformations on () of to the set of isomorphisms classes of deformations on () of associating to a deformation on () its pullback through
: () (). If we fix and (), the pullback gives a morphism
of functors (, ) ; obviously its surjectivity, that is the surjectivity of the maps
(, ) () for , corresponds to the completeness of the deformation
() and the bijectivity to the universality; so the universality is related with
representability of the functor .
See Determinantal
Degree of an algebraic subset. ([93], [104], [107], [196]). Let be an algebraically closed field.
Let be an algebraic subset of dimension in
. The degree of is defined to be !
times the leading coefficient of the Hilbert polynomial (see Hilbert function and
Hilbert polynomial).
Equivalently, one can define the degree of an algebraic variety of dimension in
to be the number of intersection points of with a generic ( )dimensional subspace (i.e., a subspace of complementary dimension) and the degree of an algebraic
subset of dimension in
to be the sum of the degrees of its irreducible components
of dimension .
If is the zero locus of a homogeneous polynomial , we have that the degree of is
the degree of .
(see
Singular
homology
and
cohomology).
More
,
)
is
,
where
is
the
fundamental
class
of
a
subspace
of
precisely 2 (
; so
the fundamental class of is for some ; is the degree of .
The degree of is also , where is the FubiniStudy form on
(see FubiniStudy metric).
See also Bezouts Theorem and Minimal degree.
42  Depth
Depth. ([62], [159], [185]). Let be a Noetherian ring and let be a finitely generated
module. If is an ideal of such that = , we define the depth (sometimes
called grade) of to be the number of the elements of a maximal regular sequence in (see Regular sequences). If is also local and is its maximal ideal, we
call depth of the depth of .
AuslanderBuchsbaum theorem. Let be a Noetherian local ring. For any finitely generated module with finite projective dimension, we have that
() + () = (),
{closed forms on }
,
{exact forms on }
() .
(, )
43
We say that a morphism in (A), where is one among 0, , +, , is a quasiisomorphism if it induces an isomorphism in cohomology.
Let be a complex
1 +1 ;
) ( ()
0
).
)(
? `A
AAAA
AA
A
_?
> .
??
}}
}
??
}
}}
??
}}
?.
By the proposition above one can define the composition of two morphisms
_@
@@
@@
@@
?
}>
}
}
}}
}}
in (A) in the following way: by the proposition above there exist , , with
quasiisomorphism such that the following diagram is commutative:
_?
??
??
??
? _?
???
?
??
_?
??
??
??
?
;
>





.
~>
~~
~
~~
~~
Definition. We define the localizing functor from the homotopy category to the
derived category
A : (A) (A)
in the following way: it is the identity on the set of the objects and, for any morphism
in (A), we define A () to be
_@
@@
@@
@@
?
.
45
all the complexes of objects in A and the morphisms are defined in such way that
two quasiisomorphic complexes are isomorphic in (A). In such a way, any object
of A, considered as an element of (A) (that is, 0 0) is isomorphic to all its
resolutions.
Definition. Let C be an additive category and let be an additive automorphism of C
(we call shift operator). A triangle in C is a sextuple (, , , , , ) of objects , ,
in C and morphisms : , : , : (). It is often denoted
().
/
/
/ ()
()
/ ( ) .
Definition. We say that an additive category C equipped with an additive automorphism and with a family of triangles, called distinguished triangles, is a triangulated category if the following axioms hold:
(1) Every triangle isomorphic to a distinguished triangle is a distinguished triangle.
For every morphism : , there is a distinguished triangle (, , , , , ).
The triangle (, , 0, , 0, 0) is a distinguished triangle.
(2) A triangle (, , , , , ) is distinguished if and only if the triangle
(, , (), , , ())
is distinguished.
(3) Given two distinguished triangles (, , , , , ) and ( , , , , , ) and
morphism : and : commuting with and , there exists
a morphism : such that (, , ) is a morphism from the first triangle to
the second.
(4) Given distinguished triangles
(, , , , , ),
(, , , , , ),
(, , , , , ),
() (),
is a functor and
: (A) (B)
: B A
Theorem. Let A and B be two Abelian categories and : (A) (B) a functor.
Suppose there exists a triangulated subcategory of (A) such that
Determinantal varieties
47
(i) for every object of (A), there exists a quasiisomorphism from it to an object
of ;
(ii) for every exact object of (i.e., () = 0 for any ), we have that () is also
exact.
Then there exists a right derived functor of and, if is an object of (A) and
an object of and they are quasiisomorphic, then () and ( ) are isomorphic
in (B).
Let be an additive functor between two Abelian categories. If it is a left exact functor
(that is, it takes any exact sequence 0 to an exact sequence 0
() () ()), and exists, then we define
:= ()
and we call it the classical th right derived functor for . Analogously, if is a right
exact functor, we can define the classical th left derived functor for , .
For instance, let A be an Abelian category such that every bounded complex of objects
in A admits a quasiisomorphism to a bounded complex of injective objects (we say
that an object in an Abelian category is injective if, for any morphism :
and any monomorhism : , there exists a morphism : such that
= ), e.g., we can take A equal to the category of modules for some commutative
ring with unity . Let be an object of A. Let be the subcategory of (A) given by
the complexes of of injective objects. Consider the left exact functor = (, )
from (A) to () (where is the category of Abelian groups). Then there exists
the derived functor (, ) and
(, ) (, ).
Let A be the category of modules for some commutative ring with unity and let
be an module. The classical th left derived functor of the right exact functor
is (, ).
See Ext, EXT and Tor, TOR.
Example. Take =
and = =1,..., O( ), = =1,..., O( ). Then is given by a
matrix whose entry , is a polynomial of degree if and 0 if <
and () is the zero locus in of the minors ( + 1) ( + 1) of .
48  Dimension
For instance, take = 1 for some and . Let = O and = O(1) . Call the
coordinates in , for = 1, . . . , , = 1, . . . , . Let be the matrix such that , = , .
We have that 1 () is the image of the Segre embedding (see Segre embedding)
1 1 ,
(. . . , , . . .), (. . . , , . . .) (. . . , , . . .).
Dimension.
([12], [104], [107], [159], [164], [185], [228]). We define the dimension of
a topological space to be the supremum of the set of all integers such that there
exists a chain 0 1 of distinct irreducible closed subsets of .
The (Krull) dimension of a ring is defined to be the supremum of the set of all
integers such that there exists a chain 0 1 of distinct prime ideals
of .
The dimension of an algebraic variety is its dimension as topological space (with
the Zariski topology).
Let be an algebraically closed field. By using Hilberts Nullstellensatz (see Hilberts
Nullstellensatz), we can prove easily that the dimension of an affine algebraic variety
over is the dimension of the affine coordinate ring and the dimension of a projective
algebraic variety over is the dimension of the homogeneous coordinate ring minus 1.
In particular, the dimension of the affine coordinate ring of an irreducible affine algebraic variety over a field is equal to the transcendence degree over of its quotient
field.
Proposition. The degree of the Hilbert polynomial (see Hilbert function and Hilbert
polynomial) of a projective algebraic variety is the dimension of the projective
variety.
The (Krull) dimension of a nonzero module is defined to be the Krull dimension of
/(),
where () = {  = 0}.
We say that an module has finite projective dimension if there exists a projective resolution of (see Injective and projective modules,Injective and projective
resolutions) of the form
0 0 0
49
(the number is said to be the length of the resolution). In this case, the projective
dimension of the module , denoted by (), is the minimum of the lengths of
such resolutions.
([93], [107]). Let : be a continuous map between two topological spaces. Let F be a sheaf on (see Sheaves).
The direct image sheaf (pushforward) F is the sheaf on
F(1 ()),
The direct image sheaf (F) (or (F)) is the sheaf on associated to the
presheaf
(1 (), F1 () ),
lim
open, ()
G()
for any open subset of (see Limits, direct and inverse ).
Moreover, if (, O ), (, O ) are ringed spaces (see Spaces, ringed ) and G is a sheaf
of O modules on , then we define
G = 1 G 1 O O ;
this is called inverse image sheaf by . One can prove easily that, if F is a sheaf of
O modules, then
O ( G, F) O (G, F).
Discrete valuation rings. ([12], [73], [107]). Let be an integral domain that is
not a field. We say that it is a discrete valuation ring if it is Noetherian (see Noetherian,
Artinian), local (see Local) and the maximal ideal is principal.
We can prove that these three conditions together are equivalent to the following condition: there exists an irreducible element such that every {0} can be
written uniquely in the form
= ,
(1)
50  Divisors
where is a unit in and . The element is a generator of and it is called
uniformizing parameter.
If is a discrete valuation ring, we can define a map
: {0}
by sending to , with as in (1); we can prove that the map does not depend on the
choice of the uniformizing parameter ; the map is called valuation map of . If we
denote by the quotient field of (see Localization, quotient ring, quotient field),
we can extend to a map
: {0}
We can prove that a point in an algebraic curve over an algebraically closed field
is smooth (see Regular rings, smooth points, singular points) if and only if O, is a
discrete valuation ring.
Divisors.
([72], [74], [93], [107], [129], [228], [241]). Let be an algebraically closed
field and let be an algebraic variety over .
Divisors
51
For any subvariety of of codimension 1, let O, be the set of the pairs (, ), where
is an open subset of such that = 0 and is a regular function on , up to
the following equivalence relation: (, ) is equivalent to ( , ) if = on .
where , O, and = /.
such that
(1) if is normal, then is injective;
(2) if is smooth, then is bijective.
The map can be described as follows. For any Cartier divisor on and any subvariety on of codimension 1, we define () to be ( ), where is a local
equation of on any affine open subset such that = 0. For any Cartier divisor
, we define () to be the Weil divisor
() ,
Definition. Let be a not identically vanishing rational function on . Obviously it defines a Cartier divisor, we denote by () or simply by (), by taking any open covering
and the restriction of to any open set of the covering.
52  Dolbeaults theorem
The function defines also a Weil divisor, we denote by () or simply by (): we
define
() = (),
Definition. Two Cartier divisors, respectively Weil divisors, 1 and 2 on are said
linearly equivalent if there exists a rational function on such that 1 2 = () ,
respectively 1 2 = () .
The group of Weil divisors of up to linear equivalence is called divisor class group
of and denoted by ().
The group of Cartier divisors of up to linear equivalence is called Picard group of
and denoted by ().
Theorem. The map induces a homomorphism : () () and is injective
if is normal, it is bijective if is smooth.
Definition. We say that a Cartier divisor is ample, or very ample, or big, or nef, or
b.p.f. if the corresponding line bundle () is. See Bundles, fibre .
See Linear systems and Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, Neron
Severi and Picard groups.
Dolbeaults theorem.
{closed (, )forms on }
{exact (, )forms on }
(),
Dualizing sheaf
53
Dominant.
See Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps.
Dual variety and biduality theorem. ([59], [60], [78], [143], [162]). Let be a
projective algebraic variety in := . Let ( ) be the closure of the set of all
hyperplanes tangent to (we say that a hyperplane is tangent to if there exists a
smooth point in such that contains the tangent space of at ). It is called the
dual variety of . In most cases it is a hypersurface.
Dualizing sheaf.
which, for = 0, is the one induced by the bilinear form above (see Ext, EXT for the
definition of ).
0
0
(F,
) (, F) (,
) ,
where the first map is the natural bilinear form, induces an isomorphism
0
(F,
) (, F) .
54  Dynkin diagrams
One can prove that, if a dualizing sheaf exists, then it is unique.
If is projective scheme, then a dualizing sheaf exists: if and its codimension
is , we can prove that the dualizing sheaf is the sheaf
EXT (O , ).
Theorem. If is a CohenMacaulay and equidimensional projective scheme of dimension over , we have that the natural maps
0
) (, F)
(F,
In fact,
for any sheaf G of O modules, (O , G) (, G) for any 0;
for any sheaves of O modules, G, G , L with L locally free of finite rank, we have
that (G L, G ) (G, L G );
(see Ext, EXT ), so
0
0
0
) (O , F
) (F,
) (, F).
(, F
for any locally free sheaf F of finite rank on (see Zariski tangent space, differential
forms, tangent bundle, normal bundle for the definition of ).
(It follows from the previous corollary and from the fact that ( ) ). See
Serre duality.
Dynkin diagrams.
55
E
Effective.
See Divisors.
Elliptic Riemann surfaces, elliptic curves. ([93], [107], [127], [144], [148],
[165]). A compact Riemann surface (see Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves) is said to be elliptic if its genus is 1. One can easily prove that it is
isomorphic to its Jacobian (see Jacobians of compact Riemann surfaces), thus it is
isomorphic to a torus
/,
where is a lattice of rank 2 in , that is, there exists a basis { 1 , 2 } of over such
that = 1 + 2 (see Figure 4).
with the imaginary part of , (), greater than 0 , where 1, means 1 + (see
Figure 5).
Observe that a holomorphic map : / 1 / 2 is, up to translation, equal to a map
for some such that 1 2 , in fact: can be lifted to a map :
(see Covering projections) and
is 1 invariant, thus it defines a holomorphic
1
Fig. 5. Generators of the lattice.
) (2, ) acts
Let be an algebraic closed field. A complete (see Complete varieties) smooth algebraic curve is said to be elliptic if its genus is 1.
Observe that, if , then the line bundle (3) embeds into 2 and the image
is a smooth cubic curve (see again Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic
curves). Moreover, any smooth cubic curve in 2 is an elliptic curve (see Genus,
arithmetic, geometric, real, virtual ). If the characteristic of is 0, a smooth cubic
curve can be written in the Weierstrass form
2 = ( )( )
for some {0, 1} (see Weierstrass form of cubic curves) and two curves,
2 = ( )( ),
2 = ( )( ),
1
, 1 , 1
} (see Cross ratio). We can prove that
thus if and only if { 1 , 1 , 1
() = 28
(2 + 1)3
.
2 ( 1)2
57
+
Fig. 6. The group law on an elliptic curve.
Thus, through the function , the set of the elliptic curves over , up to isomorphisms,
is parametrized by .
Let be an elliptic complete smooth curve over and let 0 . Observe that the
map
0 ()
sending to the class of the divisor 0 is a bijection (see Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and Picard groups for the definition
of 0 ()); in fact, by using RiemannRoch theorem, we can prove that, for any divisor on of degree 0, there exists such that is linearly equivalent to 0
(apply RiemannRoch theorem to +0 ). So inherits a group structure from 0 ().
In particular it is an Abelian variety (of dimension 1), see Tori, complex  and Abelian
varieties.
As we have already said, the line bundle (30 ) embeds into 2 and the image is a
smooth cubic curve, we call again . The smooth cubic curve inherits a group structure from 0 (). We want to illustrate how we can read the group structure inherited from 0 () on the cubic curve. Observe that
=
=1,...,
=1,...,
(where is the sum on inherited from 0 ()) if and only if there is the following
linear equivalence of divisors:
0 0 ,
=1,...,
=1,...,
(where denotes linear equivalence), and obviously this holds if and only if
+ ( )0 .
=1,...,
=1,...,
In particular 0 is the zero element of the group. Observe also that three points , ,
in embedded in 2 are collinear if and only if the divisor ++ is linearly equivalent
58  Elliptic surfaces
to 30 . So, if , , are collinear, then for the sum we have defined on we have that
+ + = 0.
Now take coordinates on 2 such that 0 = [0 : 1 : 0]. Observe that any vertical line
= meets the cubic in 0 and in two points, call them , ; then, for the sum we
have defined on , we have that + = 0.
Thus, if , are two points on the cubic, then is the third point of intersection of
the cubic with the line and + is the third point of intersection of the cubic with
the line passing through and 0 (which will be a vertical line); see Figure 6.
Elliptic surfaces.
ded ideals.
Enriques surfaces.
of dimension over an algebraically closed field . Throughout this item, with the
word cycle we will mean an algebraic cycle (see Cycles).
59
. .
. .
. .
.
.
1 2
60  Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear Theorem. The map associating to a Cartier divisor the line bundle () induces an
isomorphism from the Picard group () to the group of the isomorphism classes of
line bundles on . The group of the isomorphism classes of line bundles on is isomorphic also to 1 (, O ), via the isomorphism induced by the map sending a bundle
to its transition functions.
Let 0 () denote the group of the isomorphism classes of the holomorphic line bundles on with first Chern class 1 () equal to 0. Since the first Chern class of a
line bundle associated to a divisor is the Poincar dual of the class of , the group
0 () can be seen also as the group of divisors on that are homologous to 0, up to
linear equivalence.
Consider the exponential sequence
0 O O 0
0 1 (, O)/1 (, ) 1 (, O )
2 (, )
2 (, O)
0 () =
(2)
1 (, O)
1 (, )
Proposition. Two divisors on a smooth projective algebraic variety over are algebraic
equivalent if and only if they are homologous.
Therefore, 1 (), which is defined to be the set of divisors up to algebraic equivalence, is also the set of divisors up to homological equivalence and thus it is equal to
1 (, O )/(1 ) (1 ) and the sequence (2) becomes
0 0 () () 1 () 0.
Exponential sequence
61
with the obvious map to ( is called universal bundle, see Tautological (or universal) bundle).
The Euler sequence on is the following exact sequence:
0 O 0,
where is the inclusion map, is the quotient bundle and the projection.
We can easily prove that is O(1) (see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves) and
is 1,0 (1), where 1,0 is the holomorphic tangent bundle of . So the Euler
sequence is
Exact sequences.
+1
1 +1
1 0 0
0 0 1
Exponential sequence. ([93], [107]). Let be a complex manifold. The exponential sequence is the exact sequence of sheaves on
0 O O 0,
62  Ext, EXT
where
is the sheaf associating to any open subset of the set of the continuous
functions from to the group endowed with the discrete topology;
O is the sheaf associating to any open subset the group of the holomorphic functions on (with the sum as group operation) ;
O is the sheaf associating to any open subset the group of the holomorphic
functions on that vanish nowhere (with the product as group operation);
the map is given by the inclusion and the map is the map sending any
O() to 2 O () .
Ext, EXT . ([62], [79], [84], [93], [107], [116]). Let be a commutative ring with unity.
Let and be modules and let
1 0 0
1 0 0.
0 (0 , ) (1 , ) ( , ) ,
where, for every , the map is given by the composition with the map . For every
, we define
(, ) = ( ( , )),
i.e.,
(, ) = ( )/(1 ).
0 0 1
0 0 1 ,
0 0,
Ext, EXT
63
0 (, ) (, ) (, )
1 (, ) 1 (, ) 1 (, )
2 (, ) 2 (, ) 2 (, )
.
More synthetically, (, ) can be defined as the th classical right derived functor
of the left exact functor (, ) (see Derived categories and derived functors).
Let (, O ) be a ringed space (see Spaces, ringed ). Let M() be the category of
sheaves of O modules (see Sheaves).
Let F and G be in M(). Define (F, G) to be the group of O module homomorphisms and HOM(F, G) to be the sheaf associated to the presheaf
O (F , G ).
For F M() we define (F, ) to be the th right derived functor of the functor
(F, ) and we define EXT (F, ) to be the th right derived functor of the functor
HOM(F, ).
Properties. Let F be in M(). We have
if = 0,
0 if > 0;
(b) (O , F) (, F) 0.
(c) If 0 H G F 0 is an exact sequence in M(), then, for any T in M(),
we have an exact sequence
(a) EXT (O , F) = {
(f) If is a Noetherian scheme and F, G M() with F coherent (see Schemes and
Coherent sheaves), then, for any and any 0, we have:
EXT (F, G) O (F , G ).
64  Fano varieties
(g) Let be a projective scheme over a Noetherian ring and let L, F and G be in
M(); let L be a very ample locally free sheaf of rank 1 and F and G be coherent.
Then there is an integer 0 > 0 depending on F, G and such that for all 0 we
have
(F, G L ) 0 (, EXT (F, G L )) .
More generally the relation between and EXT is given by a spectral sequence,
see [84].
See also Tor, TOR.
F
Fano varieties. ([68], [131], [191]). A Fano (or anticanonical) variety is a smooth
complete algebraic variety such that 1 is ample (where is the canonical bundle,
see Complete varieties, Canonical bundle, canonical sheaf).
Examples of Fano varieties are the projective spaces and the Del Pezzo surfaces (see
Surfaces, algebraic ).
An instrument to classify Fano varieties is the socalled index: the index of a Fano
variety is defined to be
:= max{  1 = for some line bundle }.
Fibred product.
:= {(, )  () = ( )}.
Five Lemma. ([62], [79], [91], [208], [234]). Let 1 , . . . , 5 , 1 , . . . , 5 be modules over
a ring and let
1
/ 2
/ 2
/ 3
/ 3
/ 4
/ 4
/ 5
/ 5
be a commutative diagram of morphisms of modules. If the rows are exact sequences, 1 is surjective, 5 is injective and 2 and 4 are isomorphisms, then 3 is
an isomorphism.
Flag varieties. ([36], [126], [181]). Flag varieties parametrize the chains of projective
subspaces in a projective space. Precisely, for any field and 1 , . . . , , , we
65
(1 , . . . , , , ) = {(1 , . . . , ) (1 , ) ( , ) 1 },
=1,...,
where we set +1 = .
is exact, that is, if it changes every exact sequence into an exact sequence.
Proposition. We have that is flat if and only if every exact sequence of modules
implies the exact sequence
0 1 2 3 0
(3)
0 1 2 3 0 .
Observe that, in general, the exact sequence (3) implies only the exact sequence
1 2 3 0,
thus the functor is only rightexact. For instance, let and be positive
natural numbers and consider the exact sequence of modules
0 / 0,
0 /(, ) / / /(, ) 0.
We say that a morphism of varieties (or schemes) : is flat if, for all ,
such that () = , we have that O, is a flat O, module via the map induced
by f, : O, O, , where O, is the stalk in of the sheaf of the regular functions
on and analogously O, .
See Tor, Grauerts semicontinuity theorem.
66  Flexes
Flexes. ([93], [107], [228], [246]). Let be an algebraic closed field of characteristic 0.
Fig. 8. Flex.
(observe that the partial derivatives of a polynomial can be defined over any field by
applying the usual rules for derivatives).
In particular, if is smooth and of degree 3, then has at least one flex (see Bezouts theorem).
FubiniStudy metric.
:=
log(2 ).
2
One can show that does not depend on the choice of the map and in this way
we define a form on all . We can prove that is closed, of type (1, 1), positive
and its class in cohomology is the Poincar dual of a hyperplane (see Positive and
Singular homology and cohomology). The form is called the FubiniStudy form.
We define the FubiniStudy metric to be the Klerian metric whose Khler form is
(see Hermitian and Khlerian metrics).
Functors.
See Categories.
Fundamental group
67
Fundamental group. ([37], [38], [91], [112], [158], [215], [234]). Let be a topological space.
A path in is a continuous map : [0, 1] .
A loop in is a path : [0, 1] such that (0) = (1).
Given two paths and in , we define their composition to be the path in such
that
(2)
if [0, 1/2],
()() = {
(2 1) if [1/2, 1].
Let 0 , 1 and let and be two paths in with (0) = (0) = 0 and (1) = (1) =
1 . We say that and are homotopic with end points held fixed if there exists a
continuous map : [0, 1] [0, 1] such that
a) (, 0) = () for any ;
b) (, 1) = () for any ;
c) (0, ) = 0 for any ;
d) (1, ) = 1 for any .
Obviously, for each , the map (, ) is a path from 0 to 1 .
Let 0 . Let ,0 be the set of loops in such that (0) = (1) = 0 . The first
fundamental group of , denoted by 1 (, 0 ), is defined as follows:
1 (, 0 ) := ,0 / homotopy with end points held fixed.
It is a group with the composition given by the composition of paths defined above.
Definition. We say that a pathconnected topological space is simply connected if its
first fundamental group is trivial.
Definition. Let and be two topological spaces and let 0 and 0 . If :
is a continuous map such that (0 ) = 0 , then we define
: 1 (, 0 ) 1 (, 0 )
Before stating the main theorems about the fundamental group, we need to recall the
definition of the free product of groups.
Let , for , be groups. Their free product is defined to be
( )/ ,
where ( ) is the set of words with letters in (i.e., the finite sequences of
elements of the union of the ) and is the equivalence relation satisfying
(1)
(1 . . . +1 . . . + ) (1 . . . +1 . . . + )
68  Fundamental group
for any , , for any 1 , . . . , + , for any and where is the identity
element of , and
(1 . . . +1 . . . + ) (1 . . . ( ) +1 . . . + )
(2)
With this product, the free product is a group; it contains all the as subgroups.
(3)
(1 . . . +1 . . . + ) (1 . . . +1 . . . + )
for any , , for any 1 , . . . , + and for any . If we endow it with the
product given by concatenation, it is a group.
The following theorem (due to Seifert and Van Kampen, but generally called Van Kampens theorem I) computes, under some assumptions, the fundamental group of a
space from the fundamental groups of two subspaces whose union is .
where : are the inclusions and the second member can be interpreted both
as the free product of 1 (1 , 0 ) and 1 (2 , 0 ) with the relations 1 () 2 ()1 for
1 (0 , 0 ) and as the quotient of 1 (1 , 0 ) 1 (2 , 0 ) by the normal subgroup
generated by 1 () 2 ()1 for 1 (0 , 0 ).
Fundamental group
69
For the following theorem, which is often called Van Kampens theorem II, see [37].
The main instrument for the proof is the socalled fundamental groupoid: instead
of considering the loops based at a fixed point up to homotopy, one can consider all
the paths up to homotopy fixing the initial and final point; this yields not a group but
a groupoid, a category where all arrows are isomorphisms; the groupoid obtained in
this way is called the fundamental groupoid of the space.
Van Kampens theorem II. Let = 1 2 be a topological space such that
is open and pathconnected for = 1, 2;
1 2 = with and disjoint pathconnected open subsets;
2 , and are simply connected.
Then
1 () = 1 (1 ) .
Theorem. Let be a topological space, and let 0 . Let 1 (, ) denotes the first
singular homology module of over (see Singular homology and cohomology).
There is a group homomorphism
: 1 (, 0 ) 1 (, )
which sends the homotopy class of to the homology class of for any loop with
(0) = 0 . If is path connected, then is surjective and its kernel is the commutator
70  Fundamental group
subgroup
1 1  , 1 (, 0 ) .
Definition. For any topological space , we denote by 0 () the set of the pathconnected components of .
Let be a topological space. Let [0,1] be the set of the paths in ; endow it with the
compactopen topology, i.e., the topology whose prebase is the set of the subsets
[, ] := { : [0, 1]  () }
for compact subset of [0, 1] and open subset of . For any 0 , the subset
,0 is closed in [0,1] if 0 is closed in . Endow the subset ,0 with the induced
topology.
(, 0 ) = 1 (,0 , )
: (, 0 ) (, 0 )
G.A.G.A.
71
In particular, if the fibre is discrete, i.e., the bundle is a covering space, we get that
(, ) and (, ) are isomorphic for any 2.
Examples.
1 (1 ) = , 1 ( ) = 0 if 2.
If is the bouquet of circles, then 1 ( ) = ( times).
1 (1 ) = .
1 ( ) = /2 if 2.
1 ( ) is trivial for all .
Let be the topological torus with holes, i.e., the topological space obtained
by attaching to a bouquet of 2 circles ( 1 ,. . . , 2 ) a 4agon with the law
1
1 , +1 , 1
1 , +1 , . . . . We have
1
1 1
1 ( ) = 1 2 / 1 +1 1
1 +1 2 2 .
( ) = 0 if < , ( ) = .
G
G.A.G.A.
([93], [107], [222], [228], [241]). G.A.G.A. is the abbreviation of the title of
Serres paper [222] Gomtrie algbrique et gomtrie analytique. Roughly speaking, the G.A.G.A. principle can be formulated as follows. Global analytic things on a
projective algebraic variety over are algebraic; for instance an analytic subvariety
of is an algebraic subvariety (see Chows theorem), a meromorphic function on
is rational, a holomorphic vector bundle is an algebraic vector bundle. Precisely,
there is a functor from the category of schemes of finite type over to the category
of analytic spaces (see Spaces, analytic ) and Serre proved the following theorem
and obtained some of the results above (some of them were already known) as consequences of it.
Theorem. For any projective scheme over , the functor induces an equivalence
of categories from the category of coherent sheaves on (see Coherent sheaves)
to the category of coherent sheaves on the analytic space associated to and this
equivalence maintains the cohomology.
72  GaussBonnetHopf theorem
GaussBonnetHopf theorem.
of dimension . We have
() = (),
where () is the Euler characteristic (1) (, ) and () is the th Chern class
of the holomorphic tangent bundle 1,0 . More precisely, here, by (), we mean
() evaluated in the fundamental class of , i.e., in the element of 2 (, ) giving
the orientation of (see Chern classes, Singular homology and cohomology).
General type, of .
Genus, arithmetic, geometric, real, virtual . ([93], [107], [118], [196], [241]).
Let be an algebraically closed field.
Let be a compact complex manifold or a projective algebraic variety over . The
arithmetic genus () is defined by
() = (1) ((, O ) 1).
Theorem. If and are birationally equivalent smooth projective algebraic varieties over (see Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps for the definition of birational equivalent),
then () = ( ) and, if the characteristic of is 0, () = ( ) (see [118],
[107]).
If is a singular projective algebraic variety, its geometric genus is defined to be the
geometric genus of a desingularization of , that is, the geometric genus of a smooth
projective algebraic variety that is birational equivalent to , when it exists.
73
surfaces (see Surfaces, algebraic ) to calculate (O ()) and by using the exact
sequence 0 O () O O 0, we get that
and thus
1 (, O ) =
+
+ 1,
2
+
+1
2
(observe that, if is smooth, we can be prove that this number is also equal to the
geometric genus by adjunction formula).
Sometimes, the number
+
+1
2
is called the virtual genus of a curve on a smooth algebraic projective surface , or,
more generally, of a divisor on a smooth projective algebraic surface . If is a curve
in a smooth projective algebraic surface over , we have that the virtual genus is the
genus (the geometric one, the arithmetic one and the number of the holes) of every
smooth curve homologous to (in fact, since is homologous to we have that
+
+
+1=
+ 1, which is the genus
= and = , so
2
2
of ).
() =
Observe that, if = 2 and is an algebraic curve of degree , then the virtual genus
(and thus the arithmetic genus) is
( 1)( 2)
2
In some books, e.g., [93], the real genus of a projective algebraic curve is defined to
be the genus of , where is the desingularization (which is the normalization; see
Normal) of . So it is another name for the geometric genus.
Let be a smooth projective algebraic surface over , and let be an algebraic curve
in . It holds (see, e.g., [107, Chapter V, 3])
() = ()
( 1)
,
2
(4 1)(4 2)
= 3.
2
desingularization of
Let us calculate (). The unique singular point of is the point = [0 : 0 : 1]; its
multiplicity is 2. Let = {[ : : ] 2  = 0} = 2, :
= {(, ) 2 2 + 4 + 4 = 0};
{((, ), [0 : 1 ]) 0 = 1 } = 2, ;
{(, ) 1 2 + 2 + 4 2 = 0}
(6 1)(6 2)
= 10.
2
Let us calculate (). The unique singular point of is the point = [0 : 1 : 0]; its
multiplicity is 4. Let = {[ : : ] 2  = 0} = 2, :
= {(, ) 4 6 + 6 = 0};
{((, ), [0 : 1 ]) 0 = 1 } = 2, ;
75
{(, ) 2 + 4 + 2 6 = 0}
{((, ), [0 : 1 ]) 0 = 1 } 2, ;
{(, ) 2 + 2 + 2 6 = 0},
{((, ), [0 : 1 ]) 0 = 1 } 2, ;
{(, ) 1 + 2 + 6 6 = 0}
and 31 () 3 = { = 0} 3 is the set of the smooth points = (1, 0) and = (1, 0).
Thus
1
() = 10 [ ( 1) + ( 1) + ( 1)] = 10 8 = 2.
2
Geometric invariant theory (G.I.T.). ([81], [82], [194], [199], [204]). Let be an
algebraic closed field. Let be a reductive algebraic group over (see Representations, Algebraic groups, Lie groups). Suppose acts on a scheme of finite type
over () (see Schemes). Geometric invariant theory is the theory investigating
whether the quotient / is a good quotient. More precisely:
Definition. A good quotient of by is a surjective affine invariant morphism
: ,
If, in addition, for all , the set 1 () is exactly one orbit, then we say that is a
geometric quotient.
76  Globally generated
Remark. When a good quotient exists, it is unique (up to isomorphism).
From now on, suppose that and that the action of on is the restriction of
a representation : ( + 1, ).
We denote the set of semistable points by and the set of stable points by .
Globally generated.
Gorenstein.
Grassmannians.
Grassmannians
77
1 , . . . , [1 ]
{1, . . . , },
1 < < .
for all 0 , . . . , , 1 , . . . , 1 .
Let = (but an analogous theory can be developed also over ; see [188]). Let
= 1 1 0
Now let 1 , . . . , be natural numbers with 1 1 < < . We define the Schubert cell with Schubert symbol = (1 , . . . , ), and we denote it by , as follows:
= { (, ) () = } .
The subset is called the Schubert cycle, with the Schubert symbol .
Please note that in some works (for instance [75], [93], [181]) another notation is used:
let
= +
for = 1, . . . , ; then
0 1 ;
the Schubert cells (1 ,..., ) are denoted by ( 1 ,..., ) (or something else instead of )
and analogously the Schubert cycles, so
(1 ,..., ) = ( 1 ,..., )
and
if + + +1
}
= { (, ) ( ) =
for 1
(1 ,..., ) = ( 1 ,..., )
.
= { (, ) ( + ) for 1 }
Theorem. The algebra ((, ), ) (with the intersection as product) is torsion free,
and it is freely generated by the Schubert cycles.
Finally, we mention that the algebra ((, ), ) can be seen as a quotient of the
algebra of symmetric polynomials in variables; see [75] and[181] (see Symmetric
polynomials for the definition of the symmetric polynomials).
Groebner bases
79
Groebner bases.
If 1 , 2 are monomials in , with 1 > 2 , and , {0}, then we say that 1 > 2 ,
and analogously replacing > with .
Let . We denote the greatest (with respect to >) term of by > ().
Let be a submodule of . Let > be the submodule of generated by the elements
> () for in . We say that 1 , . . . , form a Groebner basis of if they generate
and > (1 ), . . . , > ( ) generate > .
80  Grothendieck group
where stands for the greatest common divisor) in the obvious sense; we
define , in the following way: one can prove that we can write , , as
, , = , + ,
=1,...,
> (, , ) > (, )
Buchbergers theorem. The elements 1 , . . . , form a Groebner basis for the submodule they generate if and only if , = 0 for all , .
or
, , ,
Grothendieck group. ([11], [12], [21] [72]). Let be a Noetherian ring. Let M be
the free Abelian group generated by the isomorphism classes of the finitely generated
modules. For any finitely generated module , denote the isomorphism class of
Group algebra
81
Let be an algebraic variety. The Grothendieck group of vector bundles on , denoted by 0 (), is the quotient of the free Abelian group generated by the set of isomorphism classes of vector bundles on by the subgroup generated by the elements
[1 ] [2 ] + [3 ] for any exact sequence 0 1 2 3 0 (where [] is the
isomorphism class of ). The group 0 () with the tensor product is a ring.
The Grothendieck group of coherent sheaves on (see Coherent sheaves), denoted by 0 (), is the quotient of the free Abelian group generated by the set of isomorphism classes of coherent sheaves on by the subgroup generated by the elements [E1 ] [E2 ] + [E3 ] for any exact sequence 0 E1 E2 E3 0, where [E]
is the isomorphism class of E. We have that 0 () is a 0 ()module with the tensor
product as product.
We say that a function from the set of isomorphism classes of coherent sheaves on
to an Abelian group is additive if (A) + (C) (B) = 0 for any exact sequence
0 A B C 0. Obviously, for any additive function from the set of isomorphism classes of coherent sheaves on to an Abelian group (for instance for the
EulerPoincar characteristic), we have that factorizes through a map from 0 () to
; analogously for bundles and 0 (). The Grothendieck groups of bundles and of coherent sheaves were introduced by Grothendieck to prove the HirzebruchRiemann
Roch theorem (see HirzebruchRiemannRoch theorem).
GrothendieckSegre theorem.
([80], [93, Chapter IV, 3], [97], [107, Chapter V], [207], [219]). Let be an algebraically closed field. Let E be a locally free sheaf
(see Sheaves) on 1 of rank . Then there exists a unique (up to permutation)
sequence of integer numbers 1 , . . . , such that
E O( )
=1,...,
Group algebra. Let be a group. The group algebra of over a field , generally
denoted by [], is the algebra whose underlying vector space is
endowed with the product given by
= .
82  Hartogs theorem
H
Hartogs theorem.
Hartshornes conjecture.
Hermitian and Khlerian metrics. ([93], [147], [192]). We use the notation introduced in Almost complex manifolds, holomorphic maps, holomorphic tangent
bundles.
A Riemannian metric on a manifold is given by a positive definite symmetric
bilinear form
: ( ) ( )
83
).
We write
and we have
= , .
We say that a Hermitian metric is a Khler metric if and only if the associated Khler
form is closed.
See Noetherian, Artinian for the definition of Noetherian ring. Since every field is
Noetherian, from the Hilbert basis theorem we get the following corollary:
84  Hilberts Nullstellensatz
Corollary. If is a field, then [1 , . . . , ] is Noetherian.
Hilberts Nullstellensatz.
Notation. For any ideal in a ring , let denote the radical ideal of , i.e.,
:= {  {0} such that } .
() := { [1 , . . . , ] () = 0 } .
Corollary. Let be an algebraically closed field. There is a bijection between the set
of the algebraic subsets of and the set of the radical ideals of [1 , . . . , ].
85
() =
0 (O ())
0 (I ())
() = (O ()),
where O is the sheaf of the regular functions on , I is the ideal sheaf of and
is the EulerPoincar characteristic. In fact, by Serres theorem (see CartanSerre
theorems, for >> 0, we have (I ()) = (O ()) = 0 for all > 0, thus, for >> 0,
we have
0 (O ())
0
= 0 (O ()) = (O ())
(I ())
by the sequence
0 I O O 0.
We can prove that the degree of is the dimension of , and we may define the
degree (see Degree of an algebraic subset) of to be ! times the leading coefficient
of .
+
),
where the second equality holds since the Veronese variety is projectively normal
(see Normal, projectively , normal, linearly normal). Since , () is a polynomial we have that
, () = , ().
In particular for = 1, i.e., for the rational normal curve, we get
1, () = + 1.
Hilbert syzygy theorem. Let be a field and = [0 , . . . , ]. Every finitely generated graded module has a finite graded free resolution of length by finitely
generated free modules, that is, there exists a graded exact sequence (i.e., an exact
sequence where the maps preserve the degree)
0 1 0 0,
HirzebruchRiemannRoch theorem
87
In the case where and are surfaces, we have a stronger statement; see Structure
of birational maps on surfaces in Surfaces, algebraic .
Finally, we want to mention that it is known that in dimension 3 not every birational
morphism is the composition of blowups along smooth subvarieties (see [229]).
See also [2].
Hirzebruch surfaces.
HirzebruchRiemannRoch theorem.
()() = 0 () + 1 () + + ()
()() = =1,..., (1 + ).
() :=
=1,...,
,
1
1 2
1 4
where 1 is the series 1 + 12 + 12
720
... .
We recall also that the symbol denotes the cup product; see Singular homology and
cohomology for the definition.
HirzebruchRiemannRoch theorem. Let be a compact complex manifold of dimension and let be a holomorphic vector bundle on of rank . We have that
(O()) = () (1,0 ),
that is, (O()) (the EulerPoincar characteristic of O()) is equal to the component
in 2 (, ) of () (1,0 ) evaluated in the fundamental class of , i.e., in the
class of the 2cycle determined by the natural orientation of .
In the case where is a compact Riemann surface of genus (see Riemann surfaces
(compact ) and algebraic curves) and is a line bundle, we get the usual Riemann
Roch theorem:
0 (, O()) 1 (, O()) = () + 1;
88  Hodge theory
The component of (1 + 1 ()) (1 12 1 ( )) in 2 () is 1 () 12 1 ( ); thus we get
1
(O()) = deg() ( ).
2
Taking to be trivial, we get that the degree of is 2 2; hence, by substituting,
we get the RiemannRoch formula for any holomorphic line bundle on a compact
Riemann surface.
Analogously, in the case where is a surface and is a holomorphic line bundle, we
get the usual RiemannRoch theorem for surfaces (see Surfaces, algebraic ).
The theorem also holds for nonsingular projective algebraic varieties over algebraically closed fields; we will not state it in this context, since it requires the generalization of some concepts, such as Chern classes and intersection theory, for such
varieties. The statement for complex nonsingular projective varieties is due to Hirzebruch, the one for compact complex manifolds to AtiyahSinger, the one for nonsingular projective varieties over algebraically closed fields to Grothendieck (see [29]).
Hodge theory. ([44], [90], [93], [245]). Let be a compact complex manifold of
(complex) dimension . Let be a Hermitian metric on and let be the associated
(1, 1)form (see Hermitian and Khlerian metrics).
Let us denote by (,) the bundle 1,0 0,1 , where 1,0 and 0,1
are the holomorphic and the antiholomorphic tangent bundles (see Almost complex
manifolds, holomorphic maps, holomorphic tangent bundles).
For any , the metric induces a Hermitian metric on (,) , we call again ,
defined in the following way: let = 2 =1,..., in local coordinates 1 , . . . ,
around ; let be such that the for  = and  = form an orthogonal
basis in (,) and the norm of every is 2+ . For any , , let ( , ) be the
following positive definite product on the set , () of the (, )forms on :
(, ) = ((), ())
()
.
!
( , ) = (, )
:= + .
The forms s.t = 0 are called harmonic. Let H () be the space of the
( , ) = (( + ), ) = ( , ) + (, ).
Hodge theory
89
Theorem.
,
(i) The space H () is finite dimensional. Thus, we can define an orthogonal pro
jection : , () H ().
,
(H ()) = 0, commutes with and and, for all , (),
= + .
Observe that the implication of (iii) is obvious and the other implication follows
,
from (ii); in fact, let H (); by (ii) we have = + = .
()
() .
= + + = + + = + ,
An analogous theory can be developed for a Riemannian manifold and the operator
instead of the operator (and := + instead of , where is the adjoint
operator of with respect to , where is the star operator; see Star operator).
If is a Khler manifold, we have that
,
2 = = 2 .
H () = += H ();
,
H () = H ().
where () is the set the closed forms (over ) modulo the set of the exact
,
forms (over ) and () is the set of the closed (, )forms modulo the exact
(, )forms. Thus we get the following theorem:
90  Holomorphic
Theorem. If is a compact Khler manifold, then
(, ) = += , (),
Holomorphic.
tangent bundles.
, () = , () .
Homogeneous bundles. ([30], [210]). Let be a homogeneous complex algebraic variety (see Homogeneous varieties) and be a vector bundle on . We say
that is homogeneous if there is an action of on (that is, a homomorphism from
to the group of automorphisms of ) such that
(, ) (, (1 ))
for any .
For a vector bundle on a homogeneous rational variety /, with simply connected semisimple group, parabolic subgroup (see Lie groups), we have that is
homogeneous if and only if for every , where : is the left
multiplication by .
Proposition.
An ideal in [0 , . . . , ] is homogeneous if and only if it is generated by homogeneous polynomials.
The sum, product, intersection of homogeneous ideals are homogeneous, the radical of a homogeneous ideal is homogeneous.
A homogeneous ideal is prime if and only if, for any , [0 , . . . , ] with ,
homogeneous and such that , we have either or .
Horrocks theorem
91
Homogeneous varieties.
for some simple Lie groups and parabolic subgroups (see Lie groups).
Homology, Singular .
Homology of a complex.
See Complexes.
Horrocks Criterion.
HorrocksMumford bundle. ([122], [123], [124]). The HorrocksMumford bundle is an indecomposable algebraic vector bundle of rank 2 on 4 (indecomposable
means that is it not the direct sum of two algebraic line bundles). It is the only bundle
with these features we know so far.
The zero locus of a generic section of the HorrocksMumford bundle is an Abelian
surface (see Tori, complex  and Abelian varieties) of degree 10.
See also Hartshornes conjecture.
Horrocks theorem. ([122], [209]). Let be an algebraic vector bundle (or more
generally a torsionfree sheaf of Omodules) on . Then has a free resolution of
length 1, that is, there exists an exact sequence
0 1 1 0 0
with all the direct sum of algebraic line bundles on , thus direct sum of hyperplanes bundles (see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves).
92  Horseshoe lemma
Horseshoe lemma.
([208]).
/ 1
and
...
/ 2
/ ......
/ ......
1
1
/ 3
/0
0
/ 0
/ 0
/ 1
/0
/ 3
/0
...
...
...
/
/
/
0
/ ......
/ ......
/ ......
/ ......
1
1
1
/ 0 0
0
/ 0
/ 0 0
0
/ 0
0
0
0
0
/ 2
/0
/ 1
/ 2
/ 3
0
/0
/0
/0
is commutative with exact rows and columns (where, for any , the map is the obvious injection and the map is the obvious projection).
The lemma takes its name from the shape of the given part of the diagram (the short
exact sequence, and the given projective resolutions).
Hurwitzs theorem.
ly [93].
Let
93
F F+1
(F () F+1 ())
(F1 () F ())
where is induced by the differential of F . Let (U) be the associated single complex
given by (U) = += (U, F ) with differential = + .
The hypercohomology of the complex of sheaves F is defined to be the limit on U of
the cohomology of the complex (U), where the set of the open coverings is partially
ordered by refinement (see Limits, direct and inverse ):
IHI (, F ) = lim ( (U))
U
for any .
By considering the two filtrations of U and by passing to the limit for U, we get two
,
spectral sequences (see Spectral sequences) and with 2 (, H (F ))
and 2
( (, F )).
Proposition. If a map between complexes of sheaves induces an isomorphism on cohomology sheaves, then it also induces an isomorphism on hypercohomology.
gebraic curves.
(0 , . . . , , ) (0 , . . . , , ) {0};
is given by
([(0 , . . . , , )]) = [0 : : ].
= {[0 : : ]  = 0}
, ([0 : : ]) = .
The bundle 1 is called a hyperplane bundle (since it is associated to the divisor given
by a hyperplane) and is the dual of the universal bundle (see Tautological (or universal) bundle). Obviously = . The sheaf O() (or, more precisely, O ()) is defined to be the sheaf of the sections of . Sometimes O() denotes also the line bundle
itself. The sheaves O() are called Serres twisting sheaves.
For any sheaf E on , we denote E O() by E().
A more general way to define the hyperplane bundles and the twisting sheaves is the
following one.
Let be a graded commutative ring with unity. For any graded module , let F
be the following sheaf on the scheme () (see Schemes): for every (),
let () be the group of the elements of degree 0 in the localization of with respect
to the multiplicative system of the homogeneous elements in (see Localization,
quotient ring, quotient field); for every open subset of (), let F () be the set
of the functions
: ()
such that () () for every and is locally a fraction, i.e., for all ,
there exists a neighborhood of in and homogeneous elements , of
the same degree such that, for all , we have and ( ) = .
For any graded module and , let () be the graded module whose part of
degree is + (the part of degree + of ). For any , we define the twisting
sheaf O () on := () in the following way:
O () = F() ,
i.e., O () is defined to be the sheaf associated to the module (). We can prove that
O () is locally free (see Sheaves) of rank 1 and that, for any , ,
O () O () = O ( + ).
95
0 (, O()) = [0 , . . . , ] ,
0 (, O()) = (
+
)
for 0
0 (, O()) = 0
Furthermore,
(, O()) = 0
for < 0.
, for > 0, = .
0 (, O()) = (, O( 1)) .
Theorem. Let be an algebraically closed field. Then any locally free sheaf of rank 1
on the scheme is isomorphic to O() for some .
Injective and projective modules. ([41], [62], [116], [159], [208]). Let be a
ring. An module is said to be injective if for every injective morphism of modules : and every morphism : there exists an morphism
: such that = :
/



.

}
//
}}
}
}
.
}}
~ }
}
//
Proposition. Let be a ring with unity and consider only unital modules.
Free modules (i.e., direct sums of copies of ) are projective.
Any projective module is a direct summand of a free module.
Let be a field. Any finitely generated projective [0 , . . . , ]module is free (see [159,
Chapter IV, Theorem 3.15]).
Integrally closed. ([12], [62], [164], [256]). Let be a commutative ring with unity.
Let be a subring of (so the unity belongs to ). We say that is integral over
if there exists a monic polynomial with coefficients in such that () = 0.
The integral closure of in is defined to be the set
:= {  integral over }.
Proposition.
(i) Let be a commutative ring with unity. Let be a subring of .
An element is integral over if and only if [] is a finitely generated
module.
The integral closure of in is a subring of .
If is integral over and is an ideal of , then / is integral over /( ).
Let be the integral closure of in and let be a multiplicative part of ,
then 1 is the integral closure of 1 in 1 (see Localization, quotient
ring, quotient field for the notation 1 ).
Intersection of cycles
97
(ii) Let be a commutative ring with unity and let , be two subrings of with
. If is integral over and is integral over , then is integral
over .
(iii) Let be a domain. Then is integrally closed if and only if is integrally closed
for every prime ideal of and this is true if and only if is integrally closed for
every maximal ideal of (see Localization, quotient ring, quotient field for
the notation and ).
(iv) A unique factorization domain is integrally closed, in particular, for any field ,
the ring [1 , . . . , ] is integrally closed.
Intersection of cycles.
2 (, )
(see Singular homology and cohomology for the notation). Let 1 and 2 be two
piecewise smooth cycles such that [1 ] = 1 , [2 ] = 2 , and 1 and 2 intersect transversely (i.e., every intersection point is smooth in 1 and 2 and = 1 2 ,
where denotes the tangent space at ). We define
1 2 =
(1 , 2 ),
1 2
2 2 (, ),
with 1 + 2 < . Let 1 and 2 be two piecewise smooth cycles such that [1 ] = 1 ,
[2 ] = 2 and 1 and 2 intersect transversely almost everywhere (we say that they
intersect transversely in a point if is smooth in 1 and 2 and 1 + 2 = ).
We define 1 2 to be the element of 1 2 (, ) given by 1 2 with the following
orientation: if B is a positively oriented basis of (1 2 ), where is a smooth point of
1 2 , and B1 , B is a positively oriented basis of 1 and B, B2 is a positively oriented
basis of 2 , then B1 , B, B2 is a positively oriented basis of .
where the sum runs over all the irreducible components of 1 2 and the number
(1 , 2 ) is the socalled intersection multiplicity of 1 and 2 along . There are
several definitions of intersection multiplicity; we report Serres definition (see [227]):
if is an irreducible component of 1 2 ,
(1 , 2 ) := (1) ( (/1 , /2 )) ,
where O is the sheaf of the holomorphic functions, respectively of the regular functions, on . The irregularity of is generally denoted by ().
99
J
Jacobians of compact Riemann surfaces. ([93], [101], [102], [163], [165],
[195]). To every compact Riemann surface we can associate a principally polarized
Abelian variety, called its Jacobian. Jacobians were the first Abelian varieties to be
studied.
Let be a compact Riemann surface of genus (see Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves). By Riemanns theorem, the complex vector space
0 (, O( )), where is the canonical bundle of (see Canonical bundle, canonical sheaf), has dimension . Consider the map
: 1 (, ) 0 (, O( ))
defined by
() = .
0 (, O( ))
(1 (, ))
is a complex torus of dimension (see Tori, complex  and Abelian varieties). The
Jacobian of is the complex torus above endowed with the following polarization:
let be the alternating form on 0 (, O( )) obtained extending on the form on
1 (, ) given by the intersection of 1cycles; let
: 0 (, O( )) 0 (, O( )) ,
defined by
0
(, ) = (, ) + (, ),
for any , (, O( )) . We endow the complex torus above with the polarization
given by . One can prove that it is a principal polarization. Thus the Jacobian of is
a principally polarized Abelian variety.
The Jacobian of coincides with the Albanese variety of (see Albanese varieties).
0 () ()
( )
=1,...,
=1,...,
(again called the AbelJacobi map and denoted by ) by composing the map
() 0 (),
AbelJacobi theorem. The AbelJacobi map defines an isomorphism (again called the
AbelJacobi map)
0 () () .
where  denotes the linear system of (see Linear systems) Let 1; then the
map : () is injective and the map : () () is generically injective
for .
In addition, is a translate of the image through the AbelJacobi map of the set of the
101
= 1 + ,
Torellis theorem. The map from the set of compact Riemann surfaces up to isomorphisms to the set of the principally polarized Abelian varieties up to isomorphisms,
associating to every Riemann surface its Jacobian () is injective.
=,...,21 21, (, )
(21 (, ))
1 (, O)
= 0 ().
(1 (, ))
1, (, )
1,0 (, )
0 (, 1 )
= (),
21
(
(, )) (1 (, )) (1 (, ))
where is the map (see Dolbeaults theorem, Hodge theory, Serre duality
to understand the isomorphisms above).
We have
(1,0 (, ), )
0,1 ((), )
0 (()) =
(1 (, ))
(1 ((), ))
1 (, O)
= 0 (),
(1 (, ))
102  Jacobians, Weil and Griffiths intermediate and analogously we also have an isomorphism (0 ()) (). So 0 () and
() are dual complex tori (see Tori, complex  and Abelian varieties). More generally, we can prove that () and +1 () are dual complex tori.
Now let be a smooth complex projective algebraic variety, and let be the FubiniStudy form restricted to (thus is a closed positive integer (1, 1)form).
If 2 1 , we can consider on () the polarization with index defined by the
following Hermitian form (if 2 1 > , we define the polarization with index as the
dual polarization with index of the one on +1 ()):
(, ) = 2(1) 2+1 ;
2 1 (, )
,
(2 1 (, ))
(, ) := (, ) + (, ),
103
([61], [207]).
Let be a holomorphic vector bundle of rank on = . Let be a line in . By
the GrothendieckSegre theorem (see GrothendieckSegre theorem), we have that
 = O (1 ) O ( )
for some 1 , . . . , (see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves for the definition
of O ( )). Suppose 1 . We say that
(1 , . . . , )
Let
By Lemma above, there is a Zariski open subset of (1, ) such that () = for
. We say that is the generic splitting type of . If (1, ) , we say that
is a jumping line for .
About the generic splitting type we can recall the following theorem (see Stable
sheaves for the definition of semistable bundle):
GrauertMlichSpindler theorem. Let be a semistable holomorphic vector bundle on with generic splitting type (1 , . . . , ), 1 . We have +1 1 for
1 1.
104  Khler
K
Khler.
where is the canonical bundle and is the map associated to the line bundle
(see Bundles, fibre ).
Observe that the converse is also true: an ample holomorphic line bundle is positive.
In fact, if embeds into and is the hyperplane bundle of , then () =
and so 1 ( ) = (1 ()) and, since the hyperplane bundle is positive (see FubiniStudy metric), we conclude.
Another statement of the Kodaira embedding theorem is the following.
105
Koszul complex. ([62], [89], [93], [107], [164], [185], [209]). Let be a commutative ring with unity and 1 , . . . , ; let be a free module of rank with basis
{1 , . . . , }; the Koszul complex is the following complex:
1 /(1 , . . . , ) 0,
(4)
for any and for any distinct 1 , . . . , {1, . . . , }. If is an module, by tensoring (4) by we get the complex
1 /(1 , . . . , ) 0,
(5)
K3 surfaces.
Kummer surfaces.
L
Lefschetz decomposition and hard Lefschetz theorem.
and let be the adjoint operator of with respect to the product (, ) = , where
the star operator is defined as usual on real forms and extended by linearity on
complex forms (see Star operator). We say that a form is primitive if
() = 0.
by (, ) the th De Rham cohomology of , i.e., the vector space of the closed
complex forms on modulo the vector space of the exact complex forms on . If
(, ) is Khler, i.e., is closed, then the operators and induce operators, called
(, ) and (, ) is said to
again and , on the De Rham cohomology
be primitive if () = 0.
Let
(, ) = { (, ) () = 0}.
Lefschetz decomposition.
(, ) = 2 (, ) .
+
:
(, )
(, )
([6], [31], [93], [172], [245]). Let be an dimensional compact complex manifold and a smooth hypersurface such that
the associated line bundle () (see Bundles, fibre ) is positive. The map
(, ) (, )
Length of a module. ([12], [62], [256]). Let be a commutative ring with unity. Let
be an module. A chain of length of submodules of is a sequence of submodules , = 0, . . . , , such that = 0 1 = 0 and all the inclusions are
strict.
We say that a chain is maximal if we cannot insert other submodules. One can prove
that two maximal chains of a module have the same length.
If in a module there exists a maximal chain of submodules, we say that is of
finite length and we call length of the length of any maximal chain; we denote it
by (). If in there is not a maximal chain of submodules, we say that the length of
is +.
Liaison or linkage
107
Proposition.
(i) A module is of finite length if and only if it is Artinian and Noetherian (see
Noetherian, Artinian).
(ii) If 0 1 2 3 0 is an exact sequence of modules of finite length,
then (2 ) = (1 ) + (3 ).
(iii) Let be a field. A vector space has finite dimension if and only if has finite
length and, in this case, the dimension is equal to the length.
where is any open subset of (see Sheaves, Direct and inverse image sheaves).
Under certain assumptions, there exists a spectral sequence { } (see Spectral sequences), called Leray spectral sequence, such that
,
2 = (, R (F)),
(, F).
Let and be compact Khler manifolds (see Hermitian and Khlerian metrics)
and : be a surjective holomorphic of maximal rank. One can prove (see [53]
or [93]) that in this case Leray spectral sequence degenerates at 2 , i.e.,
Liaison or linkage.
2 = .
Let 1 and 2 be two subschemes of . We say that 1 and 2 are algebraically G(resp. CI) linked if there exists arithmetically Gorenstein (resp. complete intersection) such that 1 2 , ( : 1 ) = 2 and ( : 2 ) = 1 , where denotes the
saturated ideal of (see Notation for the definition of ( : )).
One can prove that geometric linkage implies algebraic linkage.
Lie algebras.
with a map,
([76], [115], [125], [133]). A Lie algebra is a vector space over a field
[ , ] : ,
Examples. Let (, ) be the set of the matrices with entries in . It is a Lie algebra
with the bracket:
[, ] = .
Let (, ) be the set of the matrices with entries in and with null trace. It is a
Lie algebra with the bracket:
[, ] = .
The Lie algebras (, ), (, ) take their names from the fact that they can be identified respectively with the tangent space in the identity of (, ) (the set of invertible
matrices with entries in ) and the tangent space in the identity of (, ) (the
set of matrices with entries in and with determinant equal to 1).
Definition. A Lie algebras morphism from a Lie algebra (, [ , ]) to a Lie algebra
( , [ , ] ) is a linear map
:
Definition.
(i) A subspace of a Lie algebra (, [ , ]) is called a Lie subalgebra of if [, ] .
(ii) A subspace of a Lie algebra (, [ , ]) is called an ideal of if [, ] .
(iii) Let be a Lie subalgebra of a Lie algebra (, [ , ]). The normalizer of is the set
{  [, ] } .
From now on, we will consider only Lie algebras of finite dimension.
Definition.
We say that a Lie subalgebra of a Lie algebra (, [ , ]) is solvable if the sequence
of subalgebras
1 := [, ],
terminates to zero.
2 := [1 , 1 ],
:= [1 , 1 ], . . .
Lie algebras
109
terminates to zero.
2 := [, 1 ],
:= [, 1 ], . . .
From now on, we will consider only Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field
of characteristic 0.
() :
[, ]
Notation. The Killing form on a Lie algebra (, [ , ]) is the symmetric bilinear form
defined in the following way:
(, ) := (() ())
Definition.
(a) We say that a nonzero Lie algebra (, [ , ]) is simple if there is no nontrivial ideals
(in some works, the condition > 1 is also required; in other works, the
(stronger) condition that is not Abelian is also required).
(b) We say that a nonzero Lie algebra (, [ , ]) is semisimple if there are no nonzero
solvable ideals (equivalently if the Killing form is nondegenerate).
Theorem. A semisimple Lie algebra is the direct sum of all its simple ideals.
Definition. We say that a Lie subalgebra of a Lie algebra (, [ , ]) is a Cartan subalgebra if it is nilpotent and is equal to its normalizer.
The Cartan subalgebras are useful for classifying semisimple Lie algebras.
Definition. Let (, [ , ]) be a semisimple Lie algebra and let be a Cartan subalgebra (we can prove that it exists and that, in the case of semisimple Lie algebras, it is
Abelian and its elements are semisimple, i.e., diagonalizable).
We say that a linear map : is a root if it is nonzero, and if we define
:= {  [, ] = () }
We say that a root system is reducible if there exist 1 , 2 such that 1 and 2 are
perpendicular for ( , ) and = 1 2 .
2( , )
( , )
Theorem. The Dynkin diagram associated to a roots system does not depend on the
choice of a basis.
The Dynkin diagram of an irreducible root system is one of the diagrams in Figure 12.
The map
{irreducible roots systems}/isomorphisms {Dynkin diagrams of kind , . . . , },
associating to every class of an irreducible root system its Dynkin diagram, is a bijection.
Lie algebras
( > 0)
( > 1)
( > 2)
( > 3)
6
l1
l2
l1
l2
l1
l3
l2
111
(2 + 1)
(2 + 1)
l
l1
l
(2)
(2)
7
8
Theorem. Let be a semisimple Lie algebra and one of its Cartan subalgebras. On
(the dual space of ) we define the following form ( , ):
For any there exists a unique such that ( , ) = () for all , where
is the Killing form; we set (, ) = ( , ) for any , .
Let be the subspace of spanned by the set of the roots; the form just defined
gives a positive definite bilinear form on it, so it is an euclidean space.
(1) The set of roots is a root system of .
(2) We have
=
(Cartan decomposition).
(3) For any , the subalgebra has dimension 1. For any , the subalgebra
[ , ] has dimension 1 and it is generated by .
(4) If , , = 0, then there exists such that, if we define
= [ , ], we have , , generate a subalgebra of isomorphic to (2, )
via
0 1
0 0
1 0
),
),
).
(
(
(
0 0
1 0
0 1
Theorem. The root system associated to a semisimple Lie algebra, as described in the
theorem above, does not depend on the choice of the Cartan subalgebra. The map
{semisimple Lie algebras over }/isomorphisms {root systems}/isomorphisms
is a bijection.
Lie groups.
([3], [76], [115], [126], [210], [226]). A Lie group is a group endowed
with a structure of manifold such that the product and the map associating to any
element of its inverse are maps.
A morphism of Lie groups is a homomorphism of groups.
Let be a Lie group, and let () be the group of the automorphisms of . Let
be defined in the following way:
: ()
()() = 1
for any , . Observe that, if is the identity element, ()() = for all ; thus
the differential of () in is a map from the tangent space of at to itself:
(()) : .
: ( ),
where ( ()) is the vector space of the endomorphisms of (). We can define a
bracket on by
[, ] = ()().
With this bracket, the vector space is a Lie algebra (see Lie algebras), which is
denoted (), and is a representation of the Lie algebra () on ().
In fact, for any , the map () is the map 1 , then () is the map
1 and, for any , , the map (+) is the map (+)(+)1 .
So () () is the map .
Definition. We say that a subset of a Lie group is a Lie subgroup if it is a subgroup
and a closed submanifold.
Lie groups
113
Remark. Let and be two Lie groups and let : be a morphism of Lie
groups. The map : is a Lie algebra morphism.
Proposition. Let and be two Lie groups with connected. Then a morphism of
Lie groups : is uniquely determined by .
Furthermore, if is simply connected, the map sending a morphism of Lie groups
: to its differential at , : , is a bijection between the set of
the morphisms of Lie groups from to and the set of the morphisms of Lie algebras
from () to ( ).
Proposition. Let be a Lie group. Let . There exists a unique Lie group morphism : such that ( )0 (1) = .
Definition. We define the exponential map
by
for any .
exp :
exp () = (),
Definition. We say that a connected Lie group is simple if there are not in nontrivial
normal connected Lie subgroups.
We say that a connected Lie group is semisimple if there are not in nontrivial
normal solvable connected Lie subgroups.
Example. (, ) is simple.
114  Limits, direct and inverse Definition. We say that a subalgebra of a semisimple Lie algebra is Borel if it is a
maximal solvable Lie subalgebra.
We say that a Lie subgroup of a semisimple Lie group is Borel if the corresponding
subalgebra is Borel (or equivalently if it is a maximal solvable connected subgroup).
We say that a Lie subgroup of a semisimple Lie group is parabolic if it contains a
Borel subgroup.
Proposition. Let be a semisimple Lie group. A Lie subgroup is parabolic if and only
if / is a projective algebraic variety.
such that
(i) if 1 2 3 , then 3 ,2 2 ,1 = 3 ,1 ;
(ii) , is the identity for all .
115
2
1
2
/
1
/
2
1
2
/
1
/
2
where the vertical arrows are the maps of the direct systems. Then we have an exact
sequence
Linear systems. ([93], [107], [129], [228]). Let be an algebraically closed field.
Let be a complex manifold, respectively an algebraic variety over that is smooth
in codimension 1 (i.e., the codimension of the set of the singular points is greater than
or equal to 2), e.g., a normal variety (see Normal).
Let 1 and 2 be two Weil divisors on . We say that 1 and 2 , are linearly equivalent
if there exists a meromorphic, respectively rational, function on such that 1
2 = (), where () is the Weil divisor associated to (see Divisors, Equivalence,
algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and Picard groups). If is a Weil
divisor on , the complete linear system  is defined in the following way:
 = {  effective Weil divisor on and },
One can easily prove that L() is a vector space over . Analogous definitions can be
given for Cartier divisors.
Let be a compact complex manifold or a complete normal algebraic variety over .
In this case, if and are two meromorphic, respectively rational, functions such that
() = (), then and are multiple by a constant. Therefore, for any divisor there
is an obvious bijection
 (L()).
where () is the line bundle associated to . The bijection can be described as follows.
If { } is an open covering of and on is given by = 0 ( meromorphic,
respectively rational, function), the transition functions of the bundle associated to
are , := .
117
Linkage.
Local.
on .
([12], [62]). We say that a ring is local if it has a unique maximal ideal.
([12], [62]). Let be a commutative ring with unity 1. We say that is a multiplicative part of if 1 and is closed
under multiplication. Let
1 := / ,
(, ) ( , )  ( ) = 0.
We denote by / the equivalence class of (, ). With the usual definition of sum and
product of fractions,
/ + / := ( + )/ ,
(/)( / ) := / ,
we have that 1 is a commutative ring with unity. We call 1 the quotient ring
of with respect to .
Let be a prime ideal of ; then is a multiplicative part of ; we define the
localization of in to be 1 , where = , and we denote this by . It is a
local ring: the unique maximal ideal is {/  , }.
( {0})/ ,
(, ) ( , ) = 0;
this is a field (with the usual definition of sum and product of fractions) and is called
the quotient field of and denoted by ().
is exact.
(ii) Let be an module. Then 1 1 as 1 modules.
(iii) Let : be a homomorphism of modules. Then is injective (respectively
surjective) : is injective (respectively surjective) for every prime
ideal : is injective (respectively surjective) for every maximal
ideal .
(iv) Let be an module. We have: is a flat module is a flat module
for every prime ideal is a flat module for every maximal ideal (see
Flat (module, morphism)).
M
Manifolds. ([171], [200]) A topological manifold of dimension is a connected Haus
dorff topological space such that there exists a countable open covering { }
and, for any , a homeomorphism
: .
/ 1
/ 2
/ 3
/0
be an exact sequence of modules for some commutative ring with unity. Let
0
/ ......
/ 0
/ 1
/0
and
0
/ ......
/ 0
/ 2
119
/0
be two free resolutions of 1 and 2 respectively (that is, two exact sequences with
and free modules for any ). Then we have a free resolution of 3
...
/ 1 2
...
/ 2
...
...
/ 2
/ 1 2
2
2
2
/ 0 1
/ 1
/ 1
/ 0 1
1
1
1
/ 0
/ 0
/ 0
/ 0
0
0
0
/ 3
/0
/ 1
/0
/ 2
/ 3
/0
/ 0,
where the maps are the maps (0, ) for 1 and the identity for = 0 and the
maps : 1 2 1 are defined by
(, ) = (1 (), 1 () + ())
Minimal free resolutions. ([51], [89], [164], [209]). For any graded module
over a ring and for any , we denote by () the graded module whose part of
degree is + (the part of degree + of ). Let = [0 , . . . , ], where is a field
and let be a finitely generated graded module. Let
1 1 0 0
be a free graded resolution of , that is, an exact sequence where the are twisted
free graded modules (i.e., every is equal to (1 ) ( ) for some ,
1 , . . . , ) and the homomorphisms are graded homomorphisms of degree 0.
We say that the resolution above is minimal if for every 1 the constant entries of
the matrix of : 1 are zero.
Proposition. The resolution above is minimal if and only if for every 0 the map
takes the standard basis of to a minimal set of generators of the image of (see
Minimal set of generators).
Minimal degree.
Modules.
Definition. Let be a ring. We say that a set is a (left) module if it is an Abelian
group for an operation + : and there is an operation : such
that
( + ) = + ,
( + ) = + ,
( ) = ( ) ,
Moduli spaces
121
Moduli spaces.
([7], [99], [100], [105], [111], [194], [199], [244]). Roughly speaking,
the expression moduli space means variety parametrizing, i.e., a moduli space
is a geometric space whose points represent geometric objects of some fixed kind or
isomorphism classes of such geometric objects. For example, if is a vector space, the
Grassmannian (, ) (see Grassmannians) is the moduli space of the planes in .
Let
: (Schemes) (Sets)
be a controvariant functor from the category of schemes to the category of sets that
associates to a scheme the set of (the equivalence classes of) the families of objects
over of a certain kind (see Categories, Schemes).
We say that a scheme is a coarse moduli space for if there is a natural transformation from to (, ) such that
(1) the induced map from ( ) to ( , ) = is a bijection (i.e., the set
of the points of is in bijection with the set of the equivalence classes of families
over a point);
(2) if is another scheme with the properties above, then there is a unique morphism : such that the following diagram of natural transformations
commutes
/ (, )
K
KK
nn
KK
nnn
KK
n
n
KK
nn
K%
wnnn
(, )
where (, ) (, ) is induced by .
For example, let [], where is a field. A flat family over a scheme of subschemes of with Hilbert polynomial is a closed subscheme such that,
if we denote the projection by , we have
(1)  : is flat;
(2) 1
() is a subscheme with Hilbert polynomial for any
that associates to the set of the flat families over of subschemes of with Hilbert
polynomial . In 1961 Grothendieck proved that there exists a projective scheme which
is a fine moduli space for such a functor; it is called Hilbert scheme , . In 1966
Hartshorne proved that it is connected.
One of the most studied moduli spaces is the one of smooth curves with a fixed
genus. There is not a fine moduli space for them, but only a coarse one.
Theorem (Baily, Mumford, Deligne, Knudsen). ([7], [14], [54], [145]). The set M of the
isomorphism classes of smooth projective algebraic curves of genus over has a
structure of quasiprojective normal algebraic variety. If > 1, its dimension is 3 3.
There is a natural compactification M , consisting of the isomorphism classes of the
socalled stable curves of arithmetic genus (a stable curve is a curve such that the
only singularities are nodes and whose smooth rational components contain at least
three singular points of the curve; see Genus, arithmetic, geometric, real, virtual 
for the definition of arithmetic genus). M is a projective algebraic variety.
In general M and M are singular; the singularities come from the curves with nontrivial group of automorphisms.
A subject obviously linked to the one of moduli spaces is the one of deformations (see
Deformations). Another one is the geometric invariant theory (see Geometric invariant theory (G.I.T.)); in fact, the existence of nontrivial automorphisms of the objects which we want to classify causes trouble for the construction of moduli spaces,
so one can look for the moduli space of these objects with some additional structure
in such a way that the only automorphism is the identity; the moduli space of the original objects will be the quotient of the moduli space of the objects with the additional
structure by a group, and so one can reduce the original problem to a problem of geometric invariant theory.
Monoidal transformations.
In some books the term monoidal transformation is a synonym of blowingup (see Blowingup (or process)). In other books,
it denotes the blowingup of a point in a surface.
Morphisms. See Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps.
Noetherian, Artinian
123
N
NakaiMoishezon theorem.
Nef.
NeronSeveri group.
Net.
Node.
Noetherian, Artinian.
or, equivalently, if for every nonempty set of submodules of there exists a maximal
element for (respectively ).
We say that the ring is Noetherian (respectively Artinian) if it is Noetherian (respectively Artinian) as module, and thus if, for every chain of ideals 1 , 2 . . . such that
1 2 (respectively 1 2 ) of , there exists such that = +1 = .
Definition. We say that an ideal in a ring is irreducible if it satisfies the following condition: if is the intersection of two ideals, and , then or = either
= .
Theorem. In a Noetherian ring every ideal is the intersection of a finite number of
irreducible ideals and every irreducible ideal is primary. So, in a Noetherian ring,
every ideal has a primary decomposition (see Primary ideals, primary decompositions).
Theorem.
(i) In an Artinian ring every prime ideal is maximal.
(ii) Every Artinian ring is Noetherian.
(iii) Every Artinian ring is the direct sum of a finite number of local Artinian
rings.
Proposition. Let be a Noetherian ring. Then it is Artinian if and only if () is
finite and discrete (see Schemes for the definition of ).
Noethers formula.
Nondegenerate. We say that an affine or a projective algebraic variety is nondegenerate if it is not contained in any hyperplane.
Normal.
125
Integrally closed and Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational
functions, morphisms and rational maps).
Proposition. An affine algebraic variety is normal if and only if its coordinate ring is
integrally closed.
A quasiprojective algebraic variety is normal if and only if every point has a normal
affine neighborhood.
Theorem. Smooth algebraic varieties are normal.
Theorem. The codimension of the set of singular points of a normal algebraic variety
is 2. In particular, an algebraic curve is normal if and only if it is smooth.
(We recall that for us all algebraic varieties, in particular all algebraic curves, are irreducible).
given by the restriction is surjective, that is, if and only if the hypersurfaces of
degree cut on a complete linear system.
We say that is linearly normal if and only if it is 1normal.
We say that is projectively normal if and only if the projective coordinate ring
is integrally closed (see Integrally closed).
We can prove that is projectively normal if and only if it is normal (see Normal)
and it is normal for any . Thus a smooth projective algebraic variety is projectively
normal if and only if it is normal for any .
Normal crossing and log complex. ([66], [93]). Let be a complex manifold
of dimension and a divisor on . We say that has normal crossings if the irreducible components of are smooth and meet transversally (i.e., for every point in
the intersection of some components and for any , any of the tangent spaces at of
these components intersect in a subspace of codimension ).
() = ()
and ( (), ) are used to study the singular cohomology of . The complex
( (), ) is called log complex.
Np , Property .
See Syzygies.
relation bundle on
morphism
([207]). Let be an odd natural number. A null coris a bundle on that is the kernel of a surjective bundle
1,0 (1) O(1),
where 1,0 is the holomorphic tangent bundle on and O(1) is the hyperplane bundle
(see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves). So there is an exact sequence
0 1,0 (1) O(1) 0.
By using Euler sequence, one can easily see that the Chern classes of a null correlation
bundle are the following: () = 1 for even, 1, () = 0 otherwise (see Euler
sequence and Chern classes).
Observe that to find a surjective bundle morphism 1,0 (1) O(1) it is sufficient to
construct a section without zeroes of 1 (2) and then dualize.
O
O(s).
Orbit Lemma, Closed . ([27], [126], [210], [235] 4.3). Let be an algebraically
closed field and be an algebraic group over (see Algebraic groups). Suppose that
Pfaffian
127
(, )
such that = and ( ) = ( ) for any , , , where is the identity element of . Then every orbit is a smooth variety and it is open in its closure.
Moreover, the boundary of any orbit is the disjoint union of orbits of lower dimension.
In particular, the orbits of minimum dimension are closed; therefore, there exists a
closed orbit.
P
Pencil.
Pfaffian. ([188, Appendix C, Lemma 9], [211]). Let {0}. One can prove that,
if is a 2 2 antisymmetric matrix, then the determinant of can be written as
the square of a polynomial in the entries of . One of such polynomials is called the
Pfaffian of .
Precisely, if is a 2 2 antisymmetric matrix, we define the Pfaffian of , written
(), in the following way:
() := ()1 ,1 . . . , ,
where the sum is over all the partitions of {1, . . . , 2} into disjoint 2subsets
{1 , 1 }, . . . , { , } and () is defined as follows: we can suppose < for = 1, . . . , ;
we define () to be the sign of the permutation sending 1, . . . , 2 respectively to
1 , 1 , . . . , , . It holds that
()2 = ().
Examples.
0
) = ,
0
(
0
) = + .
() := 0 (,
),
Positive.
in local holomorphic coordinates, the matrix (, ()), (which is a Hermitian matrix since is real) is positive definite for any .
We say that a holomorphic line bundle on is positive if in its first Chern class
1 () 2 (, ) there is a positive (1, 1)form (see Bundles, fibre  and Chern
classes).
([12], [62],
129
is minimal if the radical ideals of the are distinct and =1,...,,= for any =
1, . . . , .
From a primary decomposition of an ideal we can easily get a minimal primary decomposition.
Theorem. Let be a decomposable ideal and let = =1,..., be a minimal primary decomposition. Let = . The prime ideals 1 , . . . , do not depend on the particular
decomposition of .
Definition. The prime ideals 1 , . . . , in the theorem above are said the prime ideals
associated to . The minimal ones (minimal for the inclusion) are called minimal
prime ideals, the others are called embedded prime ideals.
Proposition. In a Noetherian ring (see Noetherian, Artinian) every ideal has a primary
decomposition.
Let = [1 , . . . , ] for some algebraically closed field . Then the minimal prime
ideals associated to an ideal correspond to the irreducible components of the scheme
given by and the embedded prime ideals correspond to the subschemes of the irreducible components, the socalled embedded components. If a component is given
by only one point, we speak of embedded point.
Example. Let = (2 , ) in [, ]. Then = 1 22 where 1 = () and 2 = (, ).
Both 1 and 22 are primary, in fact: 1 is prime and thus primary, besides 22 = 2 is
maximal so 22 is primary. Thus the prime ideals associated to are 1 and 2 . Since
Principal bundles.
Process, .
Product, Semidirect .
{(, ) }
Remark. Let be a group and and two subgroups such that is normal, =
and = { }. Then
,
where : () is defined by
( 1 ) .
Proper.
Projective resolutions.
Pullback and pushforward of cycles. ([72],[74]). Let and be two varieties over an algebraically closed field and let : be a proper morphism. For
any subvariety of we define
deg(/()) = {
0
[() : (())]
if
if
() > (()),
() = (()),
131
where () is the rational function field of , (()) is the rational function field
of () and [() : (())] is the degree of () as field extension of (()) (see
Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms
and rational maps for the definition of rational function field). In the complex case,
if () = (()), the map () is generically a finite sheeted covering and
we can also define deg(/()) to be the number of the sheets of the covering.
We define the pushforward of the cycle by , denoted by (), to be deg(/())
times the cycle (), i.e.,
() = deg(/()) ()
(see Cycles); we extend the definition of to all the cycles by linearity. One can
prove that the image through of any cycle that is rationally equivalent to 0 is rationally equivalent to 0. So induces a map, called again , between the Chow groups:
: () ()
for any (see Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and
Picard groups for the definition of Chow group).
Let and be two varieties and : be a flat morphism (see Flat (module,
morphism)). Suppose that there exists an integer such that, for any subvariety
of , all the irreducible components of 1 () have dimension ()+ (for instance
a projection from a vector bundle to its base or an open embedding).
For any subvariety of , we define the pullback of the cycle , which we denote
by (), to be the cycle given by the inverse image scheme 1 () (see Schemes).
We extend the definition of to all the cycles by linearity. This map induces a map
between the Chow groups:
: () + ().
sheaves.
Q
Quadratic transformations, Cremona transformations. ([93], [107],
[220], [228]). Let be an algebraically closed field. A quadratic transformation of
2 is a birational map : 2 2 defined in the following way:
Let , , be three noncollinear points of 2 ; let 2 be the blowup of 2 at , , and
,
be the strict transforms of the lines , , ; denote by : 2 2
let ,
the induced morphism and let 1 be the inverse birational map from 2 to 2 ; let
: 2 2
Quotient field.
R
Rank of finitely generated Abelian groups. ([164]). Let be a finitely generated Abelian group. The elements of of finite order form a group , called torsion
group, and one can easily prove that / is a free Abelian group. The minimal number
of generators of /, i.e., the cardinality of a basis of /, is called rank of .
The rank of a module is its rank as Abelian group.
Rational normal curves. ([104], [107]). Let be an algebraically closed field.
We say that a curve in is a rational normal curve if it is projectively equivalent to
the image of 1 embedded into by the map
[0 : 1 ] [0 : 01 1 : : 0 11 : 1 ],
i.e., of 1 embedded into by the uple Veronese embedding (see Veronese embedding). One can prove easily that it is projectively normal (see Normal, projectively , normal, linearly normal), and that it is the zero locus of polynomials of
degree 2, in fact 1 embedded into by the uple Veronese embedding is the zero
locus of the polynomials 1 +1 for 1 1, where 0 , . . . , are the
projective coordinates on .
Any rational normal curve has degree . One can show that any nondegenerate algebraic curve in has degree greater than or equal to and that any nondegenerate
algebraic curve in of degree is a rational normal curve (we recall that, for us, an
algebraic curve is irreducible).
Rational functions, rational maps. See Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps.
Regular rings
133
See Schemes.
Regular functions. See Varieties, algebraic ,Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps.
Regular rings, smooth points, singular points. ([12], [62], [73], [104], [107],
(/2 ) = ,
Proposition. The set of the singular points of an algebraic variety is a proper closed
subset.
Definition. If and are two algebraic varieties over and and , we say
that in and in are analytically isomorphic if and only if the completions of
O, and O, are isomorphic as algebras (see Completion).
Let be an affine plane algebraic curve and let be a generator of the ideal of . Let
. By changing coordinates, we can suppose = (0, 0). If we write = =0,..., ,
with homogeneous polynomial of degree , we define () to be the minimum
of the such that = 0 (see Multiplicity of a curve in a surface at a point). Obviously
is singular if and only if () > 1.
Regular sequences. ([62], [159], [185]). Let be a commutative ring with unity
and let be an module.
An regular sequence is a sequence of elements (1 , . . . , ) in such that
(1 , . . . , ) = and +1 is not a zerodivisor in /(1 , . . . , ) for = 0, . . . , 1.
Representations
135
Regularity.
regular if
([62], [89], [198]). We say that a sheaf F on a projective space is (F( )) = 0 > 0.
0 E E1 E0 F 0
([93], [241]). Let and be two complex manifolds, and let : be a holomorphic map. Let be an analytic subvariety of such that  is proper (see Varieties and subvarieties, analytic  and
Proper). Then () is an analytic subvariety of .
where () is the Lie algebra defined to be the vector space of the endomorphisms
of , endowed with the bracket [, ] = .
Maschkes theorem. Let be a field of characteristic 0. If is a finite group, any representation over is completely reducible.
Definition. Let be a vector space of finite dimension over a field and let be a
finite group. We define the character of a representation : () to be
: ,
(() : ),
Theorem. Let be a field of characteristic 0 and let be a finite group. Then any
irreducible finitedimensional representation over is determined by its character.
Theorem. All the representations of the complex Lie groups ( ) and of ( ) are
completely reducible.
See Schur functors for a description of the representations of the complex Lie groups
( ) and of ( ). See also Lie algebras and Lie groups.
Residue field. Let be a local ring (that is, a ring with a unique maximal ideal)
and let be its maximal ideal. The field / is called the residue field of .
Resolutions.
137
([71], [189]).
(See Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves, Covering projections and
Fundamental group for the definitions of such terms).
The equivalence between (ii) and (iii) can be described in the following way:
Let : be a topological covering; then 1 ( , ) acts transitively on
1 (), so we get a homomorphism from 1 ( , ) to whose image is a transitive
subgroup of . Conversely, let (1 ( , ), ) such that its image is a transitive subgroup of ; consider the topological covering space given by the following
subgroup of 1 ( , ):
= { 1 ( , ) ()(1) = 1}.
See Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves for another Riemanns existence theorem.
RiemannRoch theorem.
Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves. ([8], [35], [69], [73],
[93], [101], [102], [107], [129] [189], [195], [196], [246]). A Riemann surface is a complex
manifold of (complex) dimension 1. An algebraic curve is an algebraic variety of dimension 1 (see Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions,
morphisms and rational maps).
From the topological viewpoint, a compact Riemann surface is a topological torus with
holes, for some unique 0, since it is an orientable, compact, real manifold of real
dimension 2 (see [184] for instance). The number is called the genus of the Riemann
surface.
Observe that for any holomorphic line bundle on a compact Riemann surface we
have that (, O()) = 0 for 2; to prove this, for instance we can apply the abstract
de Rhams theorem (see Sheaves) to the exact sequence
0 O() () 0,1 () 0,
where () is the sheaf of the sections of , , () is the sheaf of the (, )forms with values in and the map O() () is given by the inclusion.
A divisor on a compact Riemann surface is a finite formal sum
=1,...,
Let be a holomorphic line bundle on a compact Riemann surface . Any meromorphic section of gives a divisor on : the linear combination of the set of the zeroes
of with coefficients their multiplicities as zeroes minus the linear combination of the
set of the poles of with coefficients their multiplicities as poles. We define deg() to
be the degree of any divisor whose associated line bundle is (see Bundles, fibre )
or, equivalently, to be the degree of the divisor given by any meromorphic section of .
139
Riemanns existence theorem. The image of a compact Riemann surface by an embedding in a projective space is an algebraic curve.
(See also Chows theorem and Remmerts proper mapping theorem).
Therefore, we can embed every compact Riemann surface in a projective space (by
Theorem 4) and the image is an algebraic curve. Vice versa we can associate to
i.e., if and only if there is a 21 , i.e., a linear system of degree 2 and projective dimension 1 (see Linear systems).
,
2
If we have the equality 0 (O()) 1 = 2 , then we are in one of the following cases:
(i) is the trivial bundle;
(ii) = ;
(iii) X is hyperelliptic and the linear system given by is a 21 .
Hence, by Cliffords theorem, we can say that the Cliffords index of , when 0 (O()) >
0 and 1 (O()) > 0, is a measure of how special is; precisely it is greater than or equal
to 0 and it is equal to 0 only in special cases.
We want now to investigate the map .
141
we have
= deg 0 (O()) .
1
+1
if
if
0 ,
,
if
if
0 ,
.
1
+1
The points that do not have the general behaviour are called Weierstrass points (see
Weierstrass points).
Castelnuovos theorem. Let be a nondegenerate smooth projective algebraic curve
in of genus and degree (see Degree of an algebraic subset). Let be the
integer part of 1
and = 1 ( 1). Then
1
( 1)
( 1)
+ .
2
Now let us consider algebraic curves over algebraic closed fields. The notion of genus
of a Riemann surface is replaced by the ones of geometric genus and arithmetic
genus (see Genus, arithmetic, geometric, real, virtual ). We have:
Proposition. Let be a smooth complete algebraic curve over an algebraic closed field.
Then () = () = 1 (, O ).
We will call this number simply genus of .
142  Saturation
For smooth complete algebraic curves over an algebraic closed field, the theory is
very similar to the one of Riemann surfaces. Precisely, by replacing holomorphic line
bundles with algebraic line bundles and holomorphic maps with morphisms in the
RiemannRoch theorem, in Cliffords Theorem, and in the corollaries, remarks, propositions. and definitions above from 1 to 8, we get the analogous statements for any
smooth complete curve over an algebraic closed field.
As to the Hurwitz formula we have the following theorem (see Varieties, algebraic ,
Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps for
the definition of rational functions field):
Hurwitz formula. Let and be two smooth complete algebraic curves over an algebraic closed field of characteristic 0 and let and be their respective genera.
Let : be a finite morphism such that () is a separable field extension of
(), where () and () are the rational functions fields respectively of and .
We define deg() to be the degree of () as field extension of (). Then
2 2 = deg()(2 2) + ( () 1),
See also Genus, arithmetic, geometric, real, virtual , Jacobians of compact Riemann surfaces.
S
Saturation.
Schemes
143
Schemes.
[107].
([12], [64], [95], [107], [129], [228]). We strictly follow the exposition in
() = { prime ideal of , };
where
denotes the localization of in (see Localization, quotient ring, quotient field);
section means that () for any ;
locally quotient of elements of means that, for all , there is a
neighborhood of in and 1 , 2 such that for each
and 2 .
( ) =
1
2
The spectrum of is the pair ((), O() ). Sometimes we use the notation
() to denote the spectrum.
144  Schemes
Definition.
A ringed space (, O ) is a topological space with a sheaf of rings O . We say
that it is a locally ringed space if the stalk of the sheaf in every point is a local
ring (see Local).
A morphism of ringed spaces from a ringed space (, O ) to a ringed space
(, O ) is given by a continuous map : and a morphism of sheaves
O O (see Direct and inverse image sheaves for the definition of O ).
A morphism of locally ringed spaces is a morphism of ringed spaces such that
the maps induced on the stalks are local homomorphisms of local rings (i.e.,
homomorphisms such that the inverse image of the maximal ideal of the second
ring is the maximal ideal of the first ring).
Proposition.
(i) Let be a commutative ring with unity and let ((), O) be its spectrum. Then
(a) for every (), the subset {} in () is closed if and only if is
maximal;
(b) for every (), the closure of the subset {} is ();
(c) O for every ();
(d) O(()) = .
In particular, the spectrum of a ring is a locally ringed space.
(ii) Let and be two commutative rings with unity. A homomorphism of rings
induces a morphism of locally ringed spaces
((), O() ) ((), O() ).
Schemes
145
sure of the zero ideal is all ([1 , . . . , ]), and so it is called the generic point of
([1 , . . . , ]).
Definition. Let = 0 be a graded commutative ring with unity.
We define () to be the set
endowed with the following topology: the closed subsets are the () for homogeneous ideal of , where
() := { () }.
Let O() (O for short) be the sheaf of rings on () defined in the following
way: for any open subset of () let
O() = { : ()  section, locally quotient of elements of },
where
() is the set of the elements of degree 0 in the localization 1 where =
{  homogeneous, };
section means () () for all ;
locally quotient of two elements of means that, for all , there
exists a neighborhood of in and there exist 1 , 2 homogeneous
with (1 ) = (2 ) such that for all
in ( ) and 2 .
( ) =
1
2
146  Schemes
dimension over (scheme): in fact, the closed points of ([0 , . . . , ]) correspond to the points of the projective space of dimension over .
Let be an algebraically closed field. One can associate to any algebraic variety
over (see Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions,
morphisms and rational maps) a scheme () over such that is homeomorphic
to the subset of the closed points of () and the sheaf of the regular functions on is
obtained by restricting the structure sheaf O() to the subset of closed points identified
with . The definition of is as follows:
define () to be the set of the nonempty irreducible closed subsets of ;
define () to be the set of the nonempty irreducible closed subsets of for any
closed subset of ; endow () with the topology such that a subset of () is
closed if and only if it is equal to () for some closed subset of ;
define : () to be () := {} for all ; let O be the sheaf of regular
functions on .
One can prove that () with the sheaf (O ) is a scheme with the properties we want.
Moreover, we can prove that the map is a full faithful functor (see Categories) from
the category of algebraic varieties over to the category of schemes over .
Definition. We say that a scheme is irreducible (respectively connected) if and only
if the corresponding topological space is irreducible (respectively connected).
Let be a scheme and let O be its structure sheaf. We say that is reduced if O() has
no nilpotent elements for any open subset of . This is equivalent to the condition
that the stalk O has no nilpotent elements for any .
We say that is integral if O() is an integral domain for any open subset of ; one
can prove that this holds if and only if is reduced and irreducible.
We say that is locally Noetherian if it can be covered by open affine subsets ( )
with Noetherian rings.
We say that is Noetherian if if it can be covered by a finite number of open affine
subsets ( ) with Noetherian rings.
Let : be a morphism of schemes. We say that is respectively
locally of finite type,
of finite type,
finite,
if there exists an open affine covering {( )} of such that, respectively,
there exists an open affine covering of 1 (( )), {( , )} with , finitely
generated algebra,
Schemes
147
Definition.
Let 1 and 2 be two schemes over another scheme . The fibred product of 1
and 2 over , denoted by 1 2 , is a scheme with morphisms : 1 2
for = 1, 2 such that, if : are the given morphisms, we have 1 1 = 2 2
and, given another scheme over and morphisms : for = 1, 2 such
that 1 1 = 2 2 , there exists a unique morphism : 1 2 such that
= for = 1, 2. We can prove that the fibred product exists and that it is
unique up to isomorphisms.
We can prove that the properties of separatedness and properness for schemes, the
definitions of which may sound a bit strange, correspond respectively to the Hausdorff property and to the usual notion of properness through the functor from the category of the schemes of finite type over to the category of complex analytic spaces
(see G.A.G.A.).
Theorem. The image of the map described above from the category of algebraic varieties over an algebraically closed field to the category of schemes over is the set of
the quasiprojective integral schemes and the image of the set the projective algebraic
varieties is the set of the projective integral schemes.
The conjugate partition is the partition of whose Young diagram is obtained from
the Young diagram of by interchanging rows and columns.
Schur functors
149
(b)
2
8
1
6 1
4
Fig. 16. (a) The Young diagram of (3, 2, 2, 1), conjugate of (4, 3, 1); (b) a tableau on (4, 3, 1).
() : ) ,
where stands for image and () is the sign of the permutation . The are
called Schur representations.
In particular, denotes the symmetric product of , and (1,...,1) denotes the alternating product. We can prove that is isomorphic to
(
() : ) .
1<
,, ,
as ()representation, where ,, is the number of ways in which the Young diagram of can be obtained from the Young diagram of by a strict expansion.
Now we want to describe the irreducible representations of (the group of permutations on elements).
Let , and let = ( 1 , . . . , ) be a partition of . As before, number the boxes of
the Young diagram of with the numbers 1, . . . , from left to right beginning from the
151
top row. Let be the subgroup of given by the permutations preserving the rows
and let be the subgroup of given by the permutations preserving the columns.
We define
:= () ,
,
where is the group algebra associated to (i.e., the algebra whose underlying
vector space is , endowed with the product = ). Let
= .
Scrolls. A scroll is a projective bundle (i.e., a bundle whose fibres are projective
spaces) embedded into a projective space in such a way that the fibres are projective
subspaces of .
Scrolls, rational normal .
any .
Let , , 0 , . . . , {0} with
0 and
= + 1.
=0,...,
Let , for = 0, . . . , , be complementary subspaces and be (nondegenerate) rational normal curves in (see Rational normal curves); let : 0 ,
for = 1, . . . , , be isomorphisms. Define
0 ,..., = 0 , 1 (), . . . , (),
0 = {[0 0 : 01 1 0 : : 1 0 : 0 : : 0]},
......
= {[0 : 0 : 0 : 01 1 : : 1 ].
Segre classes.
()() = 1 + 1 () + 2 ()2 +
()() ()() = 1.
where
is the Poincar duality (see Singular homology and cohomology);
is the projection () and is the map induced by in homology;
= O() (1), i.e., is the line bundle on () whose restriction to ( ) (
fibre on ) is O(1) for all (i.e., is the dual of the tautological bundle; see
Tautological (or universal) bundle).
The Segre classes can be defined also for cones and subvarieties, see [72], [74].
Segre embedding.
([0 : : ], [0 : : ]) [ : : ],
Serre correspondence
153
minantal variety (see Determinantal varieties), since it is the zero locus of the determinants of the (2 2)submatrices of the matrix (, ), .
A coordinatefree way to describe the Segre map , is the following: Let be a vector
space over of dimension + 1 and be a vector space over of dimension + 1;
the map , is the map
() () ( ),
(, )
([01 : : 11 ], . . . , [0 : : ]) [ : 11 : ],
where {0, . . . , } for = 1, . . . , (the point on the right is the point whose coordinates are all the products 11 , where {0, . . . , } for = 1, . . . , ).
Semicontinuity theorem.
Serre correspondence.
such that () () for every and is locally a fraction, that is, for all
, there exists a neighborhood of in and homogeneous elements ,
of the same degree such that, for all , we have and ( ) = .
The functor F is called sheafification.
F := 0 (, F()).
It is not true that for any finitely generated graded module we have that
F , it is only true that F and are isomorphic from a certain degree on.
We say that two graded modules are equivalent if they are isomorphic from a certain
degree on. We say that a graded module is quasifinitely generated if it is equivalent
to a finitely generated graded module. The functors F , F F induce an
equivalence of categories between the following categories:
the category of the graded quasifinitely generated modules modulo the equivalence above, where = [0 , . . . , ];
the category of coherent sheaves of O modules.
See [107, Chapter II, 5 and Example 5.9] for more general statements.
Serre duality.
Sheafify.
Sheaves.
([34], [84], [93], [103], [107], [119], [146], [152], [223], [228], [234]).
Sheaves
155
=
.
(c) if , then
Thus a presheaf of Abelian groups is a controvariant functor from the category of the
open subsets of with the inclusion maps to the category of Abelian groups.
Obviously we can consider also presheaves with values in an other category, say C,
i.e., such that F() is an object of C for any open subset of (for instance presheaves
of modules over some ring).
For any open subsets and of with and any F(), we often denote
() by  .
For any open subset of , the group F() is often denoted also by (, F). Its elements are called sections of F over . The elements of F() are called global sections.
lim
F()
(see Limits, direct and inverse ). We denote the map from F() to F by .
Let
F = F .
{
{
{ : F , , neighborhood of , and
{
{
F() s.t. () = ()
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
156  Sheaves
following sheaf:
{ : F  () F , continuous}.
If F is a sheaf, then F = F .
Examples.
Let be a topological space and let be an Abelian group. Endow with the
discrete topology.
We define a sheaf (or simply ) on in the following way: For any open
subset , let () be the group of the continuous functions from to and
let the restriction maps be the usual restriction maps. We call a constant
sheaf. For instance, we can take = , , . . . .
, , () , , ()
for any open subset . We should write respectively
when the manifold is not clear from the context.
Let be a complex manifold. We define the sheaf O, the sheaf , and for any
holomorphic bundle on , the sheaf O() in the following way:
O() is the group of the holomorphic functions from to ;
() is the group of the holomorphic forms on ;
O()() is the group of the (holomorphic) sections of on ;
for any open subset . We should write respectively O , , O() when the manifold is not clear from the context.
If is an algebraic variety, O denotes the sheaf of the regular functions (see Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms
and rational maps). If is an (algebraic) vector bundle on , we denote by O()
the sheaf on associating to any open subset of the group of the sections of
on .
A subsheaf of a sheaf F is a sheaf G such that, for any open subset of , G() is a
subgroup of F() and the restriction maps of G are induced by the ones of F.
Sheaves
157
for any open subset of such that, if and are open subsets with and
is the restriction map of F and is the restriction map of G, the diagram
F()
F ()
/ G()
/ G()
.
1
F1 F F+1
(1 )
( )
(F1 ) (F ) (F+1 )
158  Sheaves
For any subsheaf G of a sheaf F, we define the quotient sheaf F/G to be the sheaf
associated to the presheaf F()/G(); so we get an exact sequence 0 G
F F/G 0. Obviously we can define the quotient sheaf only for sheaves with
values in categories where the quotient is defined.
Cohomology
Let be a topological space. Let F be a sheaf on and U = { } be an open covering
of . For any 0, let
C (U, F ) =
Let
(0 , . . . , ) s.t.
0 , . . . , and 0 = 0
F(0 ).
=0,...,+1
(U, F) =
+1 ,
C (U, F ) C (V, F ),
(0 ,..., )0 ,..., ((0 ),...,( ) 
)0 ,...,
One can show that this map does not depend on ; therefore we can define the ech
cohomology of F to be
(, F) := lim (U, F)
U
(see Limits, direct and inverse ); sometimes it is denoted simply by (, F).
Remark. 0 (U, F) = F() for any U open covering of .
Sheaves
159
for all .
(U, F) (, F)
Proposition. Let
0FGH0
Definition. We say that a sheaf F on a topological space is acyclic if, for any 1,
we have (, F) = 0.
Abstract De Rhams theorem. Let
0 F A 0 A 1 A 0
(, F)
(, A ) (, A+1 )
(, A1 ) (, A )
Definition. We say that a sheaf F on a topological space is fine if, for any open subset
of and any locally finite open covering { } of , there exist maps : F( )
F() such that
(1) if F( ), then () has support in , that is, ( ()) = 0 for any ;
(2) ( ) = for any F().
160  Sheaves
One can prove that ech cohomology of constant sheaves and singular cohomology
(see Singular homology and cohomology) coincide on manifolds (see [234, Chapter 6]).
Another cohomology is the socalled derived functor cohomology. Let be a topological space; we define the cohomology functors (, ) to be the classical right derived functors of the global section functor (, ) from the category of sheaves of
Abelian groups on to the category of Abelian groups (see Derived categories and
derived functors):
For any sheaf of Abelian groups F, take an injective resolution I (we can prove that
it exists), i.e, a complex of injective sheaves I0 I1 with a morphism F I0
such that
0 F I0 I1
is an exact sequence (we say that a sheaf N is injective if (, N) is an exact functor);
define (, F) to be the cohomology in of the complex (, I ).
For any exact sequence of sheaves on a topological space
there is a long exact sequence
0 F G H 0,
(, F) (, G) (, H) +1 (, F) .
ech cohomology and derived functor cohomology generally coincide (but on pathological spaces they an be different). In particular we have the following theorems.
Theorem . (See [107, Example 4.11 and Theorem 3.5, Chapter III)]).
(a) Let F be a sheaf (of Abelian groups) on a topological space . Let U = { } be an
open covering of acyclic for the derived functor cohomology, that is, such that
(1 , F ) = 0 for all 1, for all and for all 1 , . . . , , where
1
denotes the derived functor cohomology. Then
(U, F) (, F)
for all .
(b) Let F be a quasicoherent sheaf on a Noetherian affine scheme (see Coherent
sheaves and Schemes). Then the derived functor cohomology (, F) is zero
for all 1.
Serres theorem. (See [223, part 46]) Let F be a coherent sheaf on an affine algebraic
variety. Then the ech cohomolgy (, F) is zero for all 1.
Thus affine open subsets of an algebraic variety give an acyclic open covering both for
ech cohomology of coherent sheaves (by Serres Theorem) and derived cohomology
of coherent sheaves (by Theorem , part (b)). Thus, by part (a) of Theorem and by
Sheaves
161
Lerays Theorem, the two cohomologies coincide for coherent sheaves on algebraic
varieties.
Furthermore, derived cohomology and ech cohomology coincide on paracompact
topological spaces (see [84, Theorem. 5.10.1, p. 228, Example 7.2.1, p. 263]):
Sheaves of O Modules
O () F()
/ F()
/ F()
commutes (where the vertical maps are the maps induced by the restriction maps).
We say that a sheaf of O modules is free if it is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies
of O . The number of the copies is called the rank.
We say that a sheaf of O modules is locally free of finite rank if there is an open
covering { } of and there exist such that F is isomorphic to (O  ) . If
is connected all the are equal.
We say that a sheaf of O modules is invertible if it is locally free of rank 1.
Let F and G be sheaves of O modules.
Define the tensor product F O G (or simply F G) to be the sheaf associated to the
presheaf
F() O () G()
Siegel halfspace.
I, () = { O ()  = 0}.
H = { ( , ) = , () > 0},
where () > 0 means that the imaginary part of is positive definite. It is the moduli space of polarized Abelian varieties of fixed type with symplectic basis. See Tori,
complex  and Abelian varieties.
Siegels theorem.
([228], [232]).
Proposition. Every stable vector bundle (see Stable sheaves) on a compact Khler
manifold is simple.
Singular homology and cohomology. ([33], [91], [112], [183], [215], [234],
[247]). Throughout the item, will denote a commutative ring with unity.
163
Homology
For any , let {1 , . . . , } be the canonical basis of and let 0 be the zero element
of . We define to be 0 , . . . , , i.e., the simplex spanned by 0 , . . . , . Thus 0 is
a point, 1 is a segment, 2 a triangle and so on.
Let be a topological space. A (singular) simplex in is a continuous map :
. We define
(, ) = {
simplex in
Thus (, ) is the set of the finite formal linear combinations of the simplexes in
with coefficients in . It is called the set of the chains in with coefficients in .
We define : 1 to be the affine map sending to for any {0, . . . , 1}
and to +1 for any {, . . . , 1}, so sending 1 onto the face of spanned by
0 , . . . , , . . . , .
For any 1, we define the border operator
: (, ) 1 (, )
Lemma. +1 = 0.
Thus
+1
+1 (, ) (, ) 1 (, )
is a complex; we denote it by ( (, ), ). We define the singular homology module of of degree with coefficients in , which we denote by (, ), to be the
homology of the complex ( (, ), ) in (, ), i.e.,
(, ) :=
.
+1
The elements of are called cycles, the elements of +1 are called borders. Two cycles are said homologous if their difference is a border. The rank
of (, ) is denoted by (, ) or by (, ) (Betti numbers).
Remark. If is a topological space with pathconnected components, then
0 (, ) .
: (, ) 1 (, )
(, ) =
+1
() =
for every singular simplex (we should write , since there is one such map for
every , but we omit the subscript for simplicity).
Remark. If : and : are two continuous maps, then
( ) = .
165
+1 (, )
(, )
(, )
1
,
+1 (, )
1 (, )
(, )
where the maps are the maps induced by the border maps .
Couple exact sequence. Let be a topological space and let . Then there is an
exact sequence
(, ) (, ) (, , ) 1 (, ) ,
where the first map is induced by the inclusion of into and the second is induced
(,)
by the projection (, ) (,) .
Triple exact sequence. Let be a topological space and let . Then there is
an exact sequence
(, , ) (, , ) (, , ) 1 (, , ) ,
(,)
(,)
(,)
(,)
(,)
(,)
Excision theorem. Let be a topological space and let . Let be a closed subset
included in the interior part of . Then
( , , ) (, , )
MayerVietoris theorem. Let be a topological space and let 1 and 2 be two open
subsets such that = 1 2 . Let 1 : 1 , 2 : 2 , 1 : 1 2 1 ,
2 : 1 2 2 be the inclusions.
Then there is an exact sequence
(1 , ) (2 , )
(, )
(1 2 , )
1 (1 2 , ) ,
where
is the map ( (1 )(), (2 )());
is the map (, ) (1 )() + (2 )();
and, if a cycle in is homologous to 1 + 2 with ( , ) for = 1, 2,
then ([])
:= [1 ] (we can prove that, given , we can always find 1 and 2 as
above).
1 = {   = 1}.
(, ) = (, );
moreover,
1 (, ) 1 (, )/(1 ())
0 (, ) (, ) (1 ()) 0,
where 1 () : 1 (1 , ) 1 (, ).
Orientation
Let be a manifold of dimension . Here, a manifold will not be considered necessarily connected. By the Excision Theorem we can easily prove that
(, , ) =
( ) = ( )
: (, , ) (, , )
167
if is orientable,
if is not orientable,
( , ) = {
if is even and 0 2,
otherwise.
0
if > ,
{
{
{
{
if = 0 or = if odd,
( , ) = {
{
/2
if
1 < and is odd,
{
{
if 1 < and is even,
{ 2
where 2 is {  2 = 0}.
Let be the topological torus with holes (i.e., the topological space obtained by attaching to a bouquet of 2 circles, 1 , . . . , 2 , a 4agon with the law
1
1 , +1 , 1
1 , +1 , . . . ). We have
0
if > 2,
{
{
( , ) = {
if = 0 or = 2,
{ 2
if
= 1.
{
Let be the nonorientable compact surface obtained by attaching to a bouquet of
circles 1 ,. . . , a 2agon with the law 1 , 1 , 2 , 2 , . . . . We can see easily that 1 is
2 and 2 is the Kleins bottle. We have
{
{
{
{
( , ) = {
{
{
{
{
2
/2 1
if
if
if
if
> 2,
= 0,
= 2,
= 1.
(, ) = ( (, ), );
: (, ) +1 (, )
( )() = (+1 )
+1
1 (, ) (, ) +1 (, ) +2 (, )
is a complex. We define the singular cohomology module of of degree with coefficients in , which we denote by (, ), to be the cohomology of such a complex
in (, ), i.e.,
(, ) =
.
1
The elements of are called cocycles, the elements of 1 are called coborders. The rank of (, ) is denoted by (, ).
Definition. Let : be a continuous map between two topological spaces. We
can define
: (, ) (, )
() =
169
(, )
1 (, )
(, )
) (
) ( +1
) ,
1 (, )
+1 (, )
(, )
where denotes (, ) and the maps are induced by the coborder maps .
Couple exact sequence. Let be a topological space and let . There is an exact
sequence
(, , ) (, ) (, ) +1 (, , ) ,
(,)
where the first map is induced by the inclusion ( (,) ) (, ) and the second
(,)
where the first map is induced by the injection ( (,) ) ( (,) ) and the second
(,)
(,)
MayerVietoris theorem. Let be a topological space and let 1 and 2 be two open
subsets such that = 1 2 . Let 1 : 1 , 2 : 2 , 1 : 1 2 1 ,
2 : 1 2 2 be the inclusions.
Then there is an exact sequence
(, ) (1 , ) (2 , ) (1 2 , )
+1 (, ) ,
for every .
If is a PID and 1 (, , ) and (, , ) are finitely generated, then
(, ) 1 ,
for every , where is the free part of (, ) and 1 is the torsion part of
1 (, ).
Definition. Let be a topological space. For every , , we define the cup product to
be the map
(, ) (, ) + (, ),
(, ) ,
The cup product in (, ) is bilinear, associative and has the identity element (the
0cochain sending every point in to 1).
( ) = () ()
for any (, ), (, ).
( ) = + (1)
171
Definition. Let be a topological space. We define the cap product to be the map
(, ) + (, ) (, ),
(, ) ,
where
:= ( )
Remark.
(1) For any (, ), (, ), + (, ),
( ) = ( )().
( ) = (1) [( ) ( )].
Thus the cap product induces a product, called again cap product,
(, ) + (, ) (, ) .
for any + (, ), (, ).
In the relative case, for topological space and subset of , we have maps
(, , ) (, , ) + (, , ),
(, , ) + (, , ) (, ),
(, ) + (, , ) (, , ).
The following theorem describes the homology and the cohomology of the product of
two topological spaces.
Knneth formula. Let be a PID. Let and be two topological spaces. There is an
exact sequence (see Tor, TOR for the definition of 1 )
0 += (, ) (, ) ( , )
+=1 1 ( (, ), (, )) 0
+=+1 1 ( (, ), (, )) 0 .
Universal coefficient theorem. For any topological space (and commutative ring
with unity), there is an exact sequence
0 (, ) (, ) 1 (1 (, ), ) 0 .
lim
, compact
(, , )
: (, ) (, ),
(, ) = (, )
173
(, ) =
(, )
(, )
Moreover, the cup product in (, ) corresponds to the wedge product in
and to the intersection of cycles in (, ) through the Poincar duality, i.e.,
(1 (1 ) 1 (2 )) = 1 2
(, ) =
lim
open subset
(, ).
(, ) (, , ) .
Corollary.
(i) Let be a compact submanifold in . Then, for any ,
(, ) 1 ( , ).
(ii) If is a compact submanifold in with dimension 1 and connected components, then has + 1 connected components.
(iii) If is a nonorientable compact manifold of dimension 1, then it cannot be
embedded in .
(, ) (, , ) .
Lefschetz fixed points theorem. Let be a field and let be a compact oriented
manifold. Let : be a continuous map. We have
= (1) (),
174  Singularities
where is the diagonal in , is the graph of , is the intersection number
(see Intersection of cycles) and is the trace.
Singularities.
Smooth.
Snake lemma.
/ 1
1
1
/ 2
/ 2
2
2
/ 3
/ 3
/0
be a commutative diagram of Abelian groups (or of modules for some ring ). If the
rows are exact, then there is an exact sequence
(1 ) (2 ) (3 ) (1 ) (2 ) (3 ).
Moreover, if 1 is injective, then the map (1 ) (2 ) is injective; if 2 is surjective, then the map (2 ) (3 ) is surjective.
Spaces, analytic .
Definition.
An analytic space is a locally ringed space (, O ) (see Spaces, ringed ) such
that, for any , there exist an open neighborhood of , natural numbers
, and holomorphic functions 1 , . . . , on such that
(, O  )
( , O/(1 , . . . , )),
Spaces, ringed .
Spectral sequences
175
Spectral sequences. ([32], [41], [62], [84], [93], [116], [180]). A spectral sequence
is a sequence { , } of bigraded groups
= , ,
i.e.,
for any , , .
: , +,+1
( ) = +1 ,
( : , +,+1 )
,+1
( :
= +1
,
+,+1
= 0 1 +1 = 0,
:= /+1 .
A filtered complex
= 0 1 +1 = 0
0 = + ,
,
1 = + ( ),
,
= (+ ( )).
Precisely, is the spectral sequence defined in the following way: for any , , ,
, :=
{ +  + ++1 }
.
(+1 + 1 ) + +1 +
with differentials
: , +1, ,
: , ,+1
= + : +1 .
= ,+= , ,
= ,+= , .
By the theorem above, there are two spectral sequences and associated to
endowed respectively with the two filtrations and . We have:
,
2 ( (, )),
( (, )).
Spin groups. ([47], [76], [167]). Let () be the group of the orthogonal real
matrices with determinant 1. Its fundamental group is
1 (()) = {
/2
if
if
= 2,
3.
Spin groups
177
2
1
Thus there is a double covering space of (), which is universal if 3 (see Covering projections); it is denoted by ().
To describe it and to define a group structure on it, we must define Clifford algebras.
Definition. Let be a vector space over or over and endow with the bilinear product defined by
(1 ) (1 ) = 1 1 .
We will omit the symbol in the sequel. With such a product, is a ring. Let
be a non degenerate bilinear symmetric form on . Let
Cliff (, ) = 0 /,
Definition. Let
the map
: (, ) (, ),
()
vector bundle on .
Stable sheaves. ([83], [146], [182], [199], [207], [239]). Let (, ) be a compact Kh
ler manifold of dimension and let be the Khler form. Let F be a coherent sheaf on
(see Hermitian and Khlerian metrics, Sheaves and Coherent sheaves). The
determinant bundle of F, denoted by F, is defined in the following way: let
0 E E 1 E 0 F  0
be a resolution of F with E locally free coherent sheaves and small open subset
of ; let be the bundle corresponding to E . We define
F = =0,..., ( )(1) .
If F is also torsionfree and its rank is , then we can give the following equivalent
definition: F := ( F) .
We define the first Chern class of F by
1 (F) = 1 ( F)
deg(F) = 1 (F) 1 .
(F) = deg(F)/(F).
According to Takemotos definition, we say that F is semistable if, for every coherent
subsheaf F with 0 < (F ), we have
(F ) (F).
Star operator
179
If we have also that, for every coherent subsheaf F with 0 < (F ) < (F),
(F ) < (F),
There are other definitions of stability. Giesekers one is the following. Let be a
smooth projective algebraic variety over and let be an ample line bundle on .
Let F be a torsionfree coherent sheaf on . Let
(F()) =
(1) (, F O( ))
.
(F)
We say that F is Gieseker stable (respectively Gieseker semistable) if, for every
coherent subsheaf F of F with 0 < (F ) < (F), there exist 0 such that
(F ()) < (F()),
for any 0 .
We can prove that Takemoto stability implies Gieseker stability, which implies
Gieseker semistability, which implies Takemoto semistability, where 1 ().
Any (Takemoto or Gieseker) stable bundle is simple; see Simple bundles.
Star operator. ([44], [90], [93], [135], [250]). Let (, ) be a riemannian manifold
of dimension and let () denote the set of the forms on . We define the
star operator
: () ()
If (, ) is a Hermitian complex manifold of dimension (see Hermitian and Khlerian metrics), the star operator is defined on complex forms by extending the star
operator defined above, by linearity in some books, by linearity in other books.
Stein factorization.
([107], [241]).
Theorem. (analytic version); (see [241]). Let : be a proper surjective morphism of reduced complex analytic spaces (see Spaces, analytic ). Then there exists
a reduced complex analytic space , a surjective morphism : such that the
fibres consist of a finite number of points and a surjective morphism with connected
fibres : such that
= .
Surfaces, algebraic . ([18], [22], [25], [65], [93], [107], [253]). In the sequel the
word surface will denote a smooth projective algebraic variety of dimension 2 over .
We will denote the projective space by .
where () is the sheaf of the sections of , , () is the sheaf of the (, )forms with values in and the map O() () is given by inclusion.
So, if we denote by (O()) the Euler characteristic of O(), i.e., the number
=0,..., (1) (O()), we have that, in this case (i.e., in the case of surfaces),
(O()) = 0 (O()) 1 (O()) + 2 (O()),
Surfaces, algebraic 
181
Index theorem. Let be a surface. The intersection form is negative definite on a subspace of codimension 1 in 1,1 (, ), precisely is negative definite on the subspace of
the primitive forms (see Lefschetz decomposition and Hard Lefschetz theorem for
the definition of primitive).
RiemannRoch theorem for surfaces. Let be a holomorphic line bundle on a surface . We have:
(O()) = (O ) +
,
2
Noethers theorem. Let be a surface. We denote by () the th Chern class of the
holomorphic tangent bundle 1,0 and we denote by 1 ()2 the cup product 1 ()1 ().
We have
1
( + ())
(O ) =
12
or, in other words,
1
( ()2 + 2 ()) ,
(O ) =
12 1
where by 1 ()2 and 2 (), we mean them evaluated in [].
The two formulas are equivalent because 1 ( ) = 1 (1,0 ) and, by the GaussBonnet
Hopf theorem (see GaussBonnetHopf theorem) 2 (1,0 ) = ().
===
1
==2
==
.
=
/ 2
1
182  Surfaces, algebraic In other words, a birational map between surfaces is given by a sequence of blowingups followed by a sequence of blowingdowns.
Definition. We say that a surface is minimal if there does not exist another surface
and a blowingup . A minimal model for a surface is a minimal surface birational to .
We recall that if is a compact complex manifold of dimension , we define
() = 1,0 () (irregularity);
() = 0 (O(
)) for any (plurigenera);
,0
() = () = 1 () (geometric genus).
One can prove that they are birational invariants. With the notation above, we have
(O ) = 0 (O ) 1 (O ) + 2 (O )
(Please note that in some works the term ruled means geometrically ruled.)
() = 0,
2 = 8(() + 1),
() = 0 2.
2 () = 2 .
Surfaces, algebraic 
183
where O1 is the trivial bundle on 1 and O1 () is the th power of the hyperplane
bundle on 1 ; see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves (we are making a slight
abuse of the notation: O1 () generally denotes the sheaf of the holomorphic sections
of the th power of the hyperplane bundle, but sometimes, as here, it denotes just the
th power of the hyperplane bundle).
Remark. The Hirzebruch surfaces are exactly the surfaces that are geometrically ruled
on 1 . In fact, by the GrothendieckSegre theorem (see GrothendieckSegre theorem) and by the NoetherEnriques theorem, we have that a surface that is geometrically ruled on 1 is equal to ( 1 2 ) = (( 1 1
2 ) O1 ) for some 1 and 2
1
1
holomorphic line bundles on and (( 1 2 ) O1 ) = (O1 () O1 ) for some
. Obviously we can suppose .
We can prove that for all = 0 the surface is the unique 1 bundle on 1 with an
irreducible curve with = and that the blowup of 2 in a point is 1 . We can
also prove that 1 can be obtained from by a blowingup followed by a blowingdown.
Let be a fibre of (O1 () OP1 ) and be the image of the section given by the zero
section of O1 () and by the section 1 of OP1 . Let , be the image of by the map
(+) associated to the linear system  +  (see Bundles fibre ). We can prove
that it is a surface in +2+1 of degree +2, which is the minimal achievable degree for
a surface in +2+1 (see Minimal degree). The surfaces , are the rational normal
scrolls of dimension 2 (see Scrolls, rational normal ).
Proposition 2. Every nondegenerate surface of minimal degree in , i.e., every nondegenerate surface of degree 1 in , is either a rational normal scroll or the
Veronese surface in 5 , i.e., the image of 2 embedded in 5 by O2 (2) (see Veronese
embedding).
Another example of rational surfaces are Del Pezzo surfaces. Let 6. Let 1 , . . . ,
be distinct points in 2 in general position (i.e., no 3 of them are collinear, and no
6 of them lie on a conic). Let : 2 be the blowingup of 2 in 1 , . . . , . Then
defines an embedding : 9 , whose image has degree 9 and is called a
Del Pezzo surface.
If = 6, () is a smooth cubic in 3 ; if = 5, () is a complete intersection of two
quadrics in 4 .
One can show that () contains only a finite number of lines, precisely the images
under of
(a) the exceptional curves;
(b) the strict transforms of the lines for = ;
184  Surfaces, algebraic (c) the strict transforms of the conics through 5 of the .
In the case = 6 we have exactly 27 lines.
Theorem.
(i) The minimal ruled surfaces on 1 are isomorphic either to the Hirzebruch surfaces
or to 2 .
(ii) The minimal ruled surfaces on a Riemann surface of genus 1 are the geometrically ruled ones and the minimal model is not unique.
Theorem. The nonruled surfaces have a unique minimal model (up to isomorphisms).
(Observe that the third statement follows trivially from the first two and Noethers theorem.)
Enriques theorem. A surface is ruled if and only if 12 () = 0.
As we have already said, the most important tool to classify surfaces is Kodaira dimension.
Enriques theorem and Proposition 1 tell us that () = if and only if is ruled.
Definition. We say that a surface is hyperelliptic or bielliptic if it is equal to
( )/,
where and are elliptic curves and is a finite group of translations of acting on
in such a way that / = 1 .
Definition. Let be a smooth curve. An elliptic surface with base is a surface such
that there exists a surjective morphism such that the generic fibre is an elliptic
(irreducible) curve.
Surfaces, algebraic 
185
= /,
,
12 () 3 2 (),
()
1 2
() + 2,
2 1
Bombieri and Mumford extended the classification of surfaces to arbitrary algebraically closed fields (see [25]). The classification in the case where the characteristic
is different from 2, 3 is analogous to the one over the complex numbers.
Symmetric polynomials ([76], [164], [178], [181], [236], [238]). Let . Let
[1 , . . . , ]; we say that is symmetric if it is invariant for the action of the
symmetric group (in other words, if interchanging any of the variables does not
modify the polynomial).
We will denote by [1 , . . . , ] the set of the symmetric polynomials in 1 , . . . ,
with coefficients in .
Let (1 , . . . , ) be the sum of the squarefree monomials of degree in 1 , . . . ,
(squarefree means not divisible by the square of a variable). The polynomials are
symmetric and they are called elementary symmetric polynomials.
For example,
0 (1 , . . . , ) = 1;
1 (1 , . . . , ) = 1 + + ;
2 (1 , . . . , ) = 1< .
Observe that (1 , . . . , ) = 0 for any + 1.
The elementary symmetric polynomials can be defined also by the following formula:
=1,..., (1 + ) = (1 , . . . , ) .
1
= ( , . . . , ) .
1 1
(1) (1 , . . . , ) = 0
(1) = 0
{1, . . . , },
1.
Surfaces, algebraic 
187
The first follows from the second definition of taking = 1/ . The second follows
from the second definitions of and :
1 = =1,..., (1 ) =1,...,
1
1
= ( (1) (1 , . . . , ) )( (1 , . . . , ) ).
1
.
( .
.
1
1
.
.
.
12
.
.
.
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. ).
.
.
+ (1 , . . . , )
,
(1 , . . . , )
where = ( 1, 2, . . . , 0). The are symmetric polynomials and they are called
Schur polynomials.
For example: let = 3 and consider = (1, 1, 0), which we write (1, 1) (in general the
zeroes at the end of a partition are omitted); we have
(1,1) =
32 22 (3 2 ) 12 32 (3 1 ) + 22 12 (2 1 )
= 1 2 + 1 3 + 2 3 .
> ( )
188  Syzygies
Theorem. The Schur polynomials are a basis of [1 , . . . , ] as module.
The following formulas express the Schur polynomials in terms of elementary symmetric polynomials and in terms of complete symmetric polynomials.
1 +1
2
.
.
1 +1
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
),
.
.
.
.
),
.
.
where = (1 , . . . , ) is the conjugate of , i.e., is the number of the boxes of the th
column of the Young diagram of (in other words, the Young diagram of is obtained
from the Young diagram of by interchanging rows and columns).
LittlewoodRichardson rule. For any = ( 1 , . . . , ) with and 1
and for any = (1 , . . . , ) with and 1 , we have
= ,, ,
where ,, is the number of the ways the Young diagram of can be expanded to the
Young diagram of by a strict expansion, where
a = (1 , . . . , )expansion of the Young diagram of is a Young diagram obtained from the Young diagram of by adding 1 boxes not two in the same column, then 2 boxes not two in the same column, and so on;
a expansion is called strict if the following condition hold: put a 1 in each of the
1 boxes, a 2 in each of the 2 boxes, and so on; form a list reading the numbers
in the boxes, reading from right to left and beginning from the top row; we must
have that for every with 1 1 + + , and for every with 1 1,
in the first entries of the list, the number of the s is greater than or equal to the
number of the ( + 1)s.
See Schur functors.
Syzygies
189
=1,...,
Given a projective algebraic variety, one can study the syzygies among generators of
the ideal of the variety and then the syzygies among these syzygies, and so on. In
particular, one can study the degree of such syzygies. A definition which is often used
is the following one; it is due to Green and Lazarsfeld (see [88], [89], [170]):
Let be a smooth complex projective algebraic variety of dimension and let
be a holomorphic line bundle on defining an embedding : , where
= (0 (, ) ) (see Bundles, fibre ). Set = 0 (O()), the homogeneous coordinate ring of the projective space , and consider the graded module
= 0 (, O( )). Let
1 0 0
be a minimal graded free resolution of (see Minimal free resolutions). For any
, we say that the line bundle satisfies Property if the two following conditions hold:
0 = ,
= ( 1)
for
1 ,
where the second condition means that is the direct sum of some copies of ( 1).
Observe that the kernel of the map is the ideal of () (take the cohomology of
the exact sequence 0 I () () O () O () () 0, where I () is the ideal
sheaf ()).
Thus, satisfies Property 0 if and only if is normally generated, satisfies Property 1 if and only if it satisfies Property 0 and the ideal of () is generated by
quadrics, and satisfies Property 2 if and only if it satisfies Property 1 and the
syzygies among these quadrics are linear, and so on.
See also Groebner bases, Hilbert syzygy theorem.
T
Tautological (or universal) bundle.
([93], [188]).
Let be a vector space of dimension and let < . The tautological (or universal bundle) on the Grassmannian of subspaces in , (, ) (see Grassmannians), is the bundle whose fibre on (, ) is the subspace . In
particular the tautological bundle on the projective space () is the line bundle
whose fibre on is the line ; it is the dual of the hyperplane bundle (see Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves).
(, )
/
Tor, TOR. ([41], [62], [93], [116]). Let be a commutative ring with unity. Let be
an module. Let
1 0 0
1 0 0.
Tor, TOR
We define
One can prove that if
191
(, ) := ( ).
1 0 0
1 0 0,
then (, ) is equal to ( ). Moreover, one can demonstrate that the module (, ) does not depend on the choice of the resolutions. Sometimes we
will omit the superscript in (, ).
Proposition.
(1) (, ) (, ).
(2) For any short exact sequence of modules
we have an exact sequence:
0 0,
2 (, ) 2 (, ) 2 (, )
1 (, ) 1 (, ) 1 (, )
0.
(3) Let be an module. It is flat (see Flat (module, morphism)) if and only if
(, ) = 0 for every module and for every 1 and this is true if and
only if 1 (, ) = 0 for every module .
(4) Free implies flat and also projective implies flat (see Injective and projective modules).
(5) If = , or more generally is a principal ideal domain, then is flat if and only
if it is torsionfree.
More synthetically, we can define (, ) to be the th classical left derived functor
of the right exact functor (see Derived categories and derived functors).
Let (, O ) be a ringed space (see Spaces, ringed ). Let F be a sheaf of O modules
on (see Sheaves). We define TORO (F, ) to be the left derived functor of F O .
Proposition. If F is locally free, then TOR (F, G) = 0 for all > 0 and for all G sheaf
of O modules.
O
Observe that the Proposition above can deduced from properties (a) and (d) of EXT
and the fact that, if F is locally free, then HOM(F , ) = F (see , EXT ).
Torellis theorem. See Jacobians of compact Riemann surfaces for Torellis theorem on Riemann surfaces. More generally we say that a theorem is of the Torelli
kind if it states the injectivity of a map associating a certain kind of varieties to another kind of varieties.
Tori, complex  and Abelian varieties. ([93], [139], [163], [165], [166], [193]).
We follow mainly the exposition in [165].
A complex torus of dimension is defined to be the quotient of a complex vector
space of dimension by a lattice of maximal rank in (we say that is a lattice
of maximal rank in if there exists a basis of over , { 1 , . . . , 2 }, such that =
1 + + 2 ):
= /.
Example. Let = , = 1 + 2 with 1 , 2 indipendent over . The quotient
= / is a complex torus of dimension 1; see Figure 20.
A complex Abelian variety is defined to be a complex torus embeddable into a projective space.
Remark. Let 1 = 1 / 1 and 2 = 2 / 2 be complex tori. Let : 1 2 be a
holomorphic map such that (0) = 0. Then is a group homomorphism and there is
a unique linear map : 1 2 sending 1 into 2 and inducing .
193
One can easily prove that any holomorphic line bundle on a complex vector space is
trivial; thus, if = / is a complex torus, : is the projection and is a
holomorphic line bundle on , then is trivial. Therefore for any and for any
there is an isomorphism from ( ) onto ( )+ given by an element of ,
we call , . The , , , are called factors of automorphy of and satisfy
the following relation:
,+ , = +,
(6)
, , .
On the other hand, given a set {, }, such that , for any and , they
are holomorphic functions in and they satisfy (6), one can define a holomorphic line
bundle on as follows:
= ( )/ ,
Remark . There is a bijection between the set T of the Hermitian forms on a complex
vector space and the set E of the real valued alternating forms on such that
(, ) = (, ) for any , .
The bijection can be described as follows. Send T to := (), where
denotes the imaginary part, and, conversely, send E to the form defined by
(, ) = (, ) + (, ) for any , .
Theorem (AppellHumbert). Let = / be a complex torus. There is a canonical
isomorphism of exact sequences
1
/ (, 1 )
/ 0 ()
/ ()
/ ()
/ ()
/ ()
/0
/0
where
1 is the group {   = 1};
() = { : Hermitian s.t. (, ) };
(), : 1 ,
};
() = {(, )
( + ) = ()()(,) ,
the map (, 1 ) P() is the map (0, );
the map () () is the map (, ) ;
the map () () is the following map: let (, ) (); define
, = ()(,)+ 2 (,)
for , ; they satisfy (6), and thus they define a holomorphic line bundle
on , which we call (, ); we associate to (, ) the line bundle (, ).
(, )
,
{ (, ) () }
(, ) (, 1 ),
2()
where we identify with 0 (), and, for any , the map : is defined
to be the map + . We define () = .
Let = / be a complex torus. Let (). One can prove that there is a symplectic basis B of , that is, there exist for = 1, . . . , with 1 2   and a basis
B of such that is expressed in the basis B by the matrix
(
),
0
195
() = =1,..., (/ )2 ,
{ ( ) 1 +
(O()) = {
{ 0
otherwise,
is an isogeny and that there is a line bundle on such that = 1 1 ; the polarization with an index on given by is called dual polarization (with index) (see
[166]).
0
),
0
Toric varieties
197
1, . . . , ; one can prove that {1 , . . . , } is a complex basis of ; the matrix expressing { 1 , . . . , 2 } in function of {1 , . . . , } is of the form = (, ) for some
( , ). We can prove that H .
Conversely, an element H determines a polarized Abelian variety with polarization of type (1 , . . . , ) with a symplectic basis: the torus = /(, )2 , with the
0
polarization whose imaginary part is expressed by the matrix ( 0 ) in the basis of the lattice given by the columns of the matrix (, ) (the imaginary part of the
polarization determines the whole polarization by Remark ).
) (2 2, ) such that
0
0
) 2 (
)(
) 2 ,
0
0
0
0
).
)=(
)(
)(
0
0
More generally, we can define an Abelian variety over an algebraic closed field
to be a complete algebraic variety which is also a group and such that the group
operation and the map associating to any element its inverse are morphisms.
We can prove that the group operation, which is usually called a sum, is necessarily
Abelian. Many properties we have seen for complex Abelian varieties also hold for
Abelian varieties over . We refer to [163] and [193].
See also Albanese varieties, Elliptic Riemann surfaces, elliptic curves Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and Picard groups, Jacobians of compact Riemann surfaces, Jacobians, Weil and Griffiths intermediate .
Sometimes (but not in this book) the term complex torus is used also to denote ( )
for some , where is {0}.
Toric varieties.
([52], [56], [67], [70], [78], [141], [205], [206]). A (complex) toric variety is an algebraic variety over such that there is an action of the group ( ) on
for some and such an action has a dense orbit.
A normal toric variety can be constructed as follows.
We can prove that the semigroup is finitely generated (Gordons Lemma). Let
1 , . . . , be a set of generators of the semigroup .
The affine toric variety associated to can be defined in the following way. Consider [ ], the algebra generated by for all with the property
= + ,
[ ] = [1 , . . . , ]/,
(1 )1 ( ) (1 )1 ( )
= .
=1,...,
=1,...,
Define to be the zero locus in of the ideal ; in the language of the schemes (see
Schemes)
= ([ ]) = ([1 , . . . , ]/).
The set of the closed points of correspond to the set of the maximal ideals of [ ],
([ ]), and there is a bijection from ([ ]) to ( , ) (the set of the
semigroup homomorphisms from to ) defined by
where () := () for all .
Toric varieties
199
Then
[ ] [ ]
The toric variety () associated to the fan is obtained by considering the union
of for and gluing them by identifying the images of in and .
One can prove that in this way we obtain a normal toric variety of dimension and
every normal toric variety is equal to () for some finite fan (see [141, 1.2, Theorem 6]).
The action of ( ) is the following: identify ( ) with (, ); identify every
closed point of with a semigroup homomorphism . Let (, );
is the semigroup homomorphism such that ()() = ()().
Example. Let be the following fan: 1 = 1 , 2 , 2 = 1 , 2 (see Figure 21).
Then 1 = 1 , 2 , 2 = 1 , 2 and 1 2 = 1 , 1 , 2 .
Thus [1 ] = [1 , 2 ] and 1 = 2 , [2 ] = [1 , 2 ] and 2 = 2 ; finally,
[1 2 ] = [1 , 2 , 1 ]/1 1 = 1 and then 1 2 = . Therefore () =
1 .
Theorem. Let be a rational strongly convex polyhedral cone in . Then is
smooth if and only if is generated by a part of a basis of . If is smooth, then
= ( ) where = .
Notation. For every fan , let  be .
1 (()) / ,
where 1 denotes the first fundamental group (see Fundamental group). In particular, if contains a cone of dimension , then () is simply connected. Moreover, for
any cone in ,
( , ) ( ),
where denotes the singular cohomology (see Singular homology and cohomology).
Theorem. Let be a finite fan. The set of the Weil divisors (see Divisors) in () that
are invariant for the action of ( ) is
edges of
(()),
/
/ {( ) invar. Cdivisors}
/ {( ) invar. Wdivisors}
/ (()) = {Cdivisors}/
/ {Wdivisors}/
/0
/0
whose rows are exact, the vertical maps are injective and is defined by () =
{ = 0} and where Cdivisors stands for Cartier divisors, Wdivisors stands for
Weil divisors, stands for linear equivalence and (()) is the Picard group of
() (see Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and Picard
groups). In particular
((())) ( edges in ) .
 () = ()(),
Toric varieties
201
Theorem. Let be a ( ) invariant Cartier divisor on (). Let O() be the sheaf of
the sections of the bundle associated to (see Divisors).
If () is compact, then is ample if and only if is strictly upper convex (i.e., for
all , the graph of on the complementary of is strictly under the graph of ()).
Moreover,
0 ((), O()) = , on  .
More generally, for all 0,
where , := {   () < ()} and the at the second member denotes the
singular relative cohomology.
Now we are describing a way to construct toric varieties from convex polytopes.
A subset of is said to be a rational polytope if it is the convex hull of a finite set
of points of . Let be an dimensional rational polytope in .
For every face of , let be the cone defined by
= {  () () and }.
We can easily prove that the cones , for varying among the faces of , form a fan .
We define the toric variety associated to to be ( ).
Finally we sketch another approach to toric varieties (see [78]).
:= {[ : : ]  ( ) }
:= {(+1 , . . . , +1 )  = (1 , . . . , ) ( ) , +1 }
(the closure in ).
Obviously is the closure of the orbit of [1 : : 1] under the action of ( ) on 1
given by the formula
1
[1 : : ] = [ 1 : : ]
Proposition. Let be a projective toric variety in 1 such that the action of the torus
( ) extends to the whole 1 . Let 1 be the dimension of the minimal projective
space in 1 containing . Then there exists a subset of containing exactly
The link between this approach and the first description we have given of normal toric
varieties is the following:
let = {1 , . . . , } a finite subset of ; let be the semigroup generated by the
elements (, 1) for ; we can prove that = [ ]; besides we can prove
that, if is a finitely generated semigroup of +1 containing 0, then [] is an
affine toric variety and it is normal if and only if is the intersection of the convex hull
of and the Abelian group generated by .
The theory of toric varieties has been developed more generally over algebraically
closed fields, see [141] and [206].
Transcendence degree. ([12], [62], [164], [256]). Let be a field and let be a
subfield of . A subset {1 , . . . , } of is said to be algebraically independent over
if there doesnt exist a nonzero polynomial in variables with coefficients in such
that (1 , . . . , ) = 0. The transcendence degree of over is the largest cardinality
of a subset of algebraically independent over .
Theorem. If is an integral domain and a finitely generated algebra for some field
, then the dimension of is the transcendence degree over of the quotient field
of .
See Dimension, Localization, quotient ring, quotient field, Siegels theorem.
Transcendental. The word transcendental in algebraic geometry means concerning complex analysis.
U
Unirational, Lroth problem. ([10], [48], [107], [132], [228], [254]) We say that
an algebraic variety of dimension over a field is unirational if there exists a dominant rational map (see Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and
rational functions, morphisms and rational maps for the definition of dominant). The
Lroth problem can be formulated as follows: is any unirational variety rational?
(see Rational varieties).
If the dimension of is 1, the answer is yes for any field (Lroths theorem).
If the dimension of is 2, the answer is yes if = (Castelnuovos theorem).
Vanishing theorems
203
In higher dimension, the answer is no, also over : the first counterexamples were
given by Iskovskikh and Manin, Artin and Mumford, and Clemens and Griffiths. In
particular, a smooth cubic threefold in 4 is unirational but not rational, see [48].
Universal bundle.
V
Vanishing theorems.
([4], [66], [93], [98], [107], [138], [149], [169], [173], [174],
[231], [243]). (See Bundles, fibre , Positive, Dimension, Canonical bundle,
canonical sheaf and Sheaves for the definitions of nef, big, ample, positive, dimension, canonical bundle, cohomology of sheaves.)
Grothendiecks theorem. Let F be a sheaf of Abelian groups on a Noetherian topological space of dimension (we say that a topological space is Noetherian if for every
chain of closed subset 1 2 , there exists such that = +1 = ). Then
(, F) = 0
for > ,
for + > .
for > 0 .
for + + .
(, ( )) = 0
for + > + ( ) .
Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational functions, morphisms and rational maps. ([73], [104], [107], [140], [159], [228]).
() = { [1 , . . . , ] () = 0 }
For any ideal in a ring , we define the radical ideal of , which we denote by , as
follows:
:= {  {0} s.t. }.
Theorem.
(1) For any subset of [1 , . . . , ], we have that () = (), where is the ideal
generated by .
(2) If 1 2 [1 , . . . , ], then (1 ) (2 ).
(3) If is a collection of ideals in [1 , . . . , ], then ( ) = ( ), so the intersection of algebraic sets is an algebraic set.
(4) () () = () for any , ideals in [1 , . . . , ], so the finite union of algebraic sets is an algebraic set.
(5) If 1 2 , then (1 ) (2 ).
(6) (1 2 ) = (1 ) (2 ) for any 1 , 2 .
(7) (()) for any [1 , . . . , ].
(8) (()) for any , more precisely (()) = (the closure of for the
Zariski topology).
(9) () is a radical ideal for any .
Varieties, algebraic 
205
(10) (Hilbert basis theorem) If is a Noetherian ring, then [1 , . . . , ] is Noetherian; in particular for any field , [1 , . . . , ] is Noetherian, thus any ideal of
[1 , . . . , ] is finitely generated.
(11) (Hilberts Nullstellensatz) Let be an algebraically closed field. For any ideal in
[1 , . . . , ] we have:
(()) = ;
therefore, if () = 0, then = [1 , . . . , ] and then = [1 , . . . , ].
In particular there is a bijection between the set of the algebraic subsets of and
the set of the radical ideals of [1 , . . . , ].
(12) An algebraic subset of is irreducible in the Zariski topology (see Irreducible
topological space) if and only if () is prime.
Let be the projective space over . For any subset of homogeneous elements of
[0 , . . . , ], we denote the zero locus of by (), i.e.,
() = {  () = 0 }.
The spaces and and more generally 1 with the Zariski topology
are Noetherian topological spaces, so that the proposition above can be applied to
them with the Zariski topology, and so every algebraic set can be expressed as a finite
union of irreducible closed subsets (i.e., varieties), each not contained in another.
If is an algebraic set in , then we define the affine coordinate ring () to be
[1 , . . . , ]/().
207
Theorem.
(a) If is an affine algebraic variety in , we have
O() = () (which is a domain since () is prime);
() is the quotient field of ();
for any , the stalk O, is the localization of () with respect to (),
where () is the ideal in () given by the elements that are 0 in (see
Localization, quotient ring, quotient field). Thus O, is a Noetherian (see
Noetherian, Artinian) local domain. The map is a bijection between the points of and the maximal ideals of ().
Theorem. Two algebraic varieties (over ) are birational equivalent if and only if their
rational functions fields are isomorphic as algebras.
See Regular rings, smooth points, singular points, Zariski tangent space, differential forms, tangent bundle, normal bundle, Schemes, Primary ideals, primary
decompositions, embedded ideals, G.A.G.A., Hironakas decomposition of birational maps, Unirational, Lroth problem.
([93], [103], [121]). We say that a subset of is an analytic variety if locally it is the zero locus of a finite number holo
Veronese embedding.
, : ,
[0 : : ] [ : : ]I ,
Web.
209
Theorem.
(i) Let , 0 , . . . , {0}. Then the weighted projective spaces (0 , . . . , ) and
(0 , . . . , ) are isomorphic.
(ii) Let 0 , . . . , {0} with greatest common divisor equal to 1. For any = 0, . . . , ,
let
= (0 , . . . , 1 , +1 , . . . , );
= (0 , . . . , 1 , +1 , . . . , );
where stands for greatest common divisor and stands for least common
multiple. Then (0 , . . . , ) and (0 /0 , . . . , / ) are isomorphic.
(iii) For any 0 , . . . , {0}, the weighted projective space (0 , . . . , ) is a normal
projective algebraic variety (see Normal).
2 = ( 1)( ),
Weierstrass points. ([8], [69], [93], [101], [189]). By the geometric RiemannRoch
theorem (see Riemann surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves), for a general divisor of degree on a compact Riemann surface of genus 1, we have
0 (O()) = {
1
+1
if 0 ,
if .
0 (O()) = {
1
+1
if 0 ,
if .
The points that have not this behaviour are called Weierstrass points.
Remark. By using the RiemannRoch theorem one can easily prove that, for every
, the cardinality of is (in fact 0 (O()) = + 1 for every 2 1 and
0 (O(0)) = 1).
211
Weierstrass preparation theorem and Weierstrass division theorem. ([93], [121], [151]).
for some 1, , holomorphic functions such that (0) = 0 and (0) = 0 for
all .
where are holomorphic functions such that (0) = 0 for all . Then, in a neighborhood of 0, the function can be written as
= + ,
Corollary: Weak Nullstellensatz. Let and be holomorphic maps from a neighborhood of 0 in to . Let be irreducible (in the ring of the holomorphic functions defined in some neighborhood of 0) and let vanish on the zero locus of . Then =
for some holomorphic function on a neighborhood of 0.
See Hilberts Nullstellensatz.
Z
Zariskis main theorem. ([107], [241], [255]). There are several statements that
are called Zariskis main theorem. We report the versions of Zariskis main theorem in
[107] and [241] respectively.
Theorem. Let and be Noetherian integral schemes (see Schemes). Suppose that
is normal, that is, all the stalks of the structure sheaf are integrally closed domains
(see Normal, Integrally closed). Let : be a birational projective morphism. Then 1 () is connected for any .
Theorem. Let and be reduced irreducible complex analytic spaces (see Spaces,
analytic ) and suppose is normal (reduced means that all the stalks of the structure sheaf have no nilpotent elements and normal that they are integrally closed domains; irreducible means that the underlying topological space is irreducible; see Irreducible topological space). Let : be a proper surjective morphism with
finite fibres and suppose there is an open subset of such that 1 () is a point for
all . Then is an isomorphism.
= {(1 , . . . , )
=1,...,
()( ) = 0 for = 1, . . . , }
(observe that the partial derivatives and the differential of a polynomial can be defined
in an obvious way over any field by applying the usual rules for derivatives).
We can prove that the differential at gives an isomorphism from /2 to ,
so the Zariski tangent space , is isomorphic to . In particular for any quasiprojective algebraic variety the Zariski tangent space at is isomorphic to the
tangent space at of any of its affine neighborhoods. If is a projective variety contained in (with homogeneous coordinates 0 , . . . , ), the closure in of the tangent space at of { = 0} does not depend on , for such that = 0, and it too is
often called the tangent space of at .
Zariski topology
213
Let be an algebraic variety over . We say that a function associating to every point
Furthermore, consider the set of the pairs (, ) where is an open subset of and
is a regular differential form on . We say that (, ) and ( , ) are equivalent if
= on . A rational differential form on is an equivalence class of a pair.
Theorem. If is smooth, the sheaf is a locally free sheaf.
Thus, if is smooth, for any , the sheaf determines a vector bundle. The bundle determined by 1 is called cotangent bundle. Obviously the bundle determined by
is the wedge product of the cotangent bundle. The dual of the cotangent bundle
is called tangent bundle; we denote it by ; its fibre in every point is the
Zariski tangent space at .
Moreover, if is a smooth variety and a smooth closed subvariety, we define the
normal bundle , to in to be the quotient of the restriction of to by :
 =  / .
Zariski topology. See Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular and rational
functions, morphisms and rational maps.
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List of terms
Abelian varieties. Tori, complex  and
Abelian varieties
Adjunction formula.
Albanese varieties.
Algebras.
Algebraic groups.
Almost complex manifolds, holomorphic maps,
holomorphic tangent bundles.
Ample and very ample. Bundles, fibre  or
Divisors.
Anticanonical. Fano varieties
Arithmetically CohenMacaulay or
arithmetically Gorenstein.
CohenMacaulay, Gorenstein,
(arithmetically ,)
Artinian. Noetherian, Artinian
CalabiYau manifolds.
Canonical bundle, canonical sheaf.
Cap product. Singular homology and
cohomology
CartanSerre theorems.
CastelnuovoEnriques Criterion. Surfaces,
algebraic 
CastelnuovoEnriques theorem. Surfaces,
algebraic 
CastelnuovoDe Franchis theorem.
Surfaces, algebraic 
Categories.
Chern classes.
Chows group. Equivalence, algebraic,
rational, linear , Chow, NeronSeveri and
Picard groups
Chows theorem.
Effective. Divisors
Elliptic Riemann surfaces, elliptic curves.
Elliptic surfaces. Surfaces, algebraic 
Embedded components. Primary ideals,
primary decompositions, embedded
ideals
Embedding.
Enriques surfaces. Surfaces, algebraic 
Equivalence, algebraic, rational, linear , Chow,
NeronSeveri and Picard groups.
Euler sequence.
Exact sequences.
Exponential sequence.
Ext, EXT.
Fano varieties.
Fibred product.
Five Lemma.
Flag varieties.
Flat (module, morphism).
Flexes.
FubiniStudy metric.
Functors. Categories
Fundamental group.
G.A.G.A.
GaussBonnetHopf theorem.
General type, of . Kodaira dimension (or
Kodaira number)
Genus, arithmetic, geometric, real, virtual .
Geometric invariant theory (G.I.T.).
Globally generated. Bundles, fibre 
Gorenstein. CohenMacaulay, Gorenstein,
(arithmetically ,)
Grassmannians.
Grauerts semicontinuity theorem.
Groebner bases.
Grothendieck group.
GrothendieckSegre theorem.
Grothendiecks vanishing theorem.
Vanishing theorems
Group algebra.
Hartogs theorem.
Hartshornes conjecture.
HartshorneSerre theorem (correspondence).
Hermitian and Khlerian metrics.
Hilbert Basis theorem.
Hilberts Nullstellensatz.
Hilbert function and Hilbert polynomial.
Hilbert schemes. Moduli spaces
Hilbert syzygy theorem.
Hironakas decomposition of birational maps.
Hirzebruch surfaces. Surfaces, algebraic 
HirzebruchRiemannRoch theorem.
Hodge theory.
Holomorphic. Almost complex manifolds,
holomorphic maps, holomorphic tangent
bundles
Homogeneous bundles.
Homogeneous ideals.
Homogeneous varieties.
Homology, Singular . Singular homology
and cohomology
Homology of a complex. Complexes.
Horrocks Criterion.
HorrocksMumford bundle.
Horrocks theorem.
Horseshoe lemma.
Hurwitzs theorem. Riemann surfaces
(compact ) and algebraic curves
Hypercohomology of a complex of sheaves.
Hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces. Riemann
surfaces (compact ) and algebraic curves
Hyperelliptic or bielliptic surfaces. Surfaces,
algebraic 
Hyperplane bundles, twisting sheaves.
Injective and projective modules.
Injective and projective resolutions.
Integrally closed.
Intersection of cycles.
Inverse image sheaf. Direct and inverse
image sheaves
Irreducible topological space.
Irregularity.
Jacobians of compact Riemann surfaces.
Jacobians, Weil and Griffiths intermediate .
Jumping lines and splitting type of a vector
bundle on .
Manifolds.
Mapping cone lemma.
Minimal set of generators.
Minimal free resolutions.
Minimal degree.
Modules.
Moduli spaces.
Monoidal transformations.
Morphisms. Varieties, algebraic , Zariski
topology, regular and rational functions,
morphisms and rational maps
Multiplicity of a curve in a surface at a point.
Multiplicity of intersection. Intersection of
cycles
229
Spin groups.
Splitting type of a vector bundle. Jumping
lines and splitting type of a vector bundle
on
Stable sheaves.
Star operator.
Stein factorization.
Subcanonical.
Surfaces, algebraic .
Symmetric polynomials
Syzygies.
Tautological (or universal) bundle.
Tor, TOR.
Torellis theorem.
Tori, complex  and Abelian varieties.
Toric varieties.
Transcendence degree.
Transcendental.
Unirational, Lroth problem.
Universal bundle. Tautological (or universal)
bundle
Vanishing theorems.
Varieties, algebraic , Zariski topology, regular
and rational functions, morphisms and
rational maps.
Varieties and subvarieties, analytic .
Veronese embedding.
Web.
Weighted projective spaces.
Weierstrass points.
Weierstrass form of cubic curves.
Weierstrass preparation theorem and
Weierstrass division theorem.
Zariskis main theorem.
Zariski tangent space, differential forms,
tangent bundle, normal bundle.
Zariski topology. Varieties, algebraic ,
Zariski topology, regular and rational
functions, morphisms and rational maps