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學中文 第 11 課 II. 江河湖海 Jiānghé húhǎi: Rivers and Lakes 聽說/听说 Tīng-Shuō: Listening & Speaking 1. 省市 Shěngshì: Provinces and Cities China consists of many provinces (which are called 省 shěng), the administrative level of which is similar to the “states” (which is called 州 zhōu in Chinese) of the United States. 省 shěng province 州 zhōu prefecture (of [pre-modern] China); state (of U.S.) Here are two Chinese provinces that are familiar to many Americans: Sichuan Province (“four rivers”) Sìchuān shěng 四川省 廣東省/⼴广东省 Guǎngdōng shěng http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/四川 Guangdong Province http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/⼴广东 What do you know about 四川 Sìchuān and 廣東/⼴广东 Guǎngdōng? A: ________________________________________________ (1) 廣東省在南方,四川省也在南方。 ⼴广东省在南⽅方,四川省也在南⽅方。 Guǎngdōng shěng zài nánfāng Sìchuān shěng yě zài nánfāng. Guangdong Province in the south. So is Sichuan Province. (2) 廣東人是南方人,四川人也是南方人。 ⼴广东⼈人是南⽅方⼈人,四川⼈人也是南⽅方⼈人。 Guǎngdōngrén shì nánfāngrén ma? Sìchuānrén ne? Is a person from Guangdong from the south? How about a person from Sichuan? (3) 孫中山是廣東人。鄧小平是四川人。 孙中⼭山是⼴广东⼈人。邓小平是四川⼈人。 Sūn Zhōngshān shì Guǎngdōng rén. Dèng Xiǎopíng shì Sìchuān rén. Sun Yat-sen was from the Guangdong Province. Deng Xiaoping was from the Sichuan Province. M. Chu, 25 學中文 第 11 課 Some of the American states are well known to Chinese. For example: New York State Niǔyuē zhōu 紐約州/纽约州 加州 Jiāzhōu California 德州 Dézhōu Texas 密西根州 Mìxīgēn zhōu Michigan And, based on someone’s native place, or where the person was born, you may provide information such as these: 樂樂是加州人。馬文是德州人。 乐乐是加州⼈人。马⽂文是德州人。 Lèlè shì Jiāzhōu rén. Mǎ Wén shì Dézhōu rén. (4) Lele is from California. Ma Wen is from Texas. 馬文的媽媽是密西根人。他爸爸是紐約人。 马⽂文的妈妈是密西根⼈人。他爸爸是纽约⼈人。 Mǎ Wén de māma shì Mìxīgēn rén. Tā bàba shì Niǔyuē rén. (5) (Ma Wen’s mom is from Michigan. His dad is from New York. If none of the state above is the one from where you or your close friends and family are from, what are they? A: _________________________________________________________. Now, let us learn about China’s cities and towns. First, the terms for “city” city; town chéngshì 城市 Here are some of the internationally known cities: 北京 Běijīng Beijing; Peking 南京 Nánjīng Nanjing 西安 Xī'ān Xi’an 上海 Shànghǎi Shanghai 台北 Táiběi Taipei 哈爾濱/哈尔滨 Hā'ěrbīn Harbin M. Chu, 26 學中文 第 11 課 Enlarge the image of the following map or go to the link. Can you locate these six cities on the map? http://www.china-mike.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/china-chinese-cities-map.jpg Did you find any other city on the map that you know or have heard of before? A: __________________________________________________________________ 2. ⽅方⾔言 Fāngyán: Dialect; regional languages Chinese language, both written and oral, is called 中文. When we say, “我們學中文/我们学中⽂文。 Wǒmen xué Zhōngwén” we mean that we are studying Chinese, both the written and oral aspects of the language. As we know very well now, Chinese is not a phonetic language. Chinese people use characters— rather than alphabet letters—to communicate in writing and to record their spoken words. The language spoken by the great majority of Chinese is also called by one of the following: 漢語/汉语 Hànyǔ 普通話/普通话 pǔtōnghuà Mandarin Chinese; language of the Han people common language; Mandarin While there is one written script that the majority of Chinese people use in writing, there are many regional spoken languages in addition to the common spoken language, Hànyǔ. 方言 fāngyán regional language; local language; dialect Some of the regional languages are used in a big region and others are used in some smaller areas. While the language difference in the United States is generally characterized as different “accents”, Chinese regional languages could be very different from each other and from the official language, Mandarin, and mutually illegible. Let us learn some terms related to the regional languages.In broad terms, Chinese regional languages may be broadly categorized as the language used in the southern half or northern half of the land: 南方話/南⽅方话 nánfānghuà southern speech; southern dialects 北方話/北⽅方话 běifānghuà northern speech; northern dialects M. Chu, 27 學中文 第 11 課 In more details, Chinese regional languages may be categorized as the language used in a specific area, be it a province or a city (or a part of one or the other). Here are some of the most common ones: 北京話/北京话 Běijīnghuà Beijing Speech 四川話/四川话 Sìchuānhuà Sichuan dialect 台灣話/台湾话 Táiwānhuà Taiwanese 廣東話/⼴广东话 Guǎngdōnghuà Cantonese; Guangdong dialect 山東話/⼭山东话 Shāndōnghuà Shandong dialect 上海話/上海话 Shànghǎihuà Shanghainese (language); Shanghai dialect 姚明是上海人。他會說上海話。 姚明是上海⼈人。他会说上海话。 Yáo Míng shì Shànghǎi rén. Tā huìshuō Shànghǎi huà. Yao Ming is from Shanghai. He knows how to speak Shanghai dialect. 成龍是香港⼈人。他會說廣東話。 成龙是香港⼈人。他会说⼴广东话。 Chéng Lóng shì Xiānggǎng rén. Tā huìshuō Guǎngdōnghuà. Cheng Long [Jackie Chan] is from Hong Kong. He knows how to speak Cantonese. 文章是西安人。他會說西安話。 ⽂文章是西安⼈人。他会说西安话。 Wén Zhāng shì Xī'ān rén. Tā huìshuō Xī'ān huà. Wen Zhang is from Xi’an. He knows how to speak the Xi’an dialect. 上海話和廣東話是南方話。西安話是北方話。 上海话和⼴广东话是南⽅方话。西安话是北⽅方话。 Shànghǎi huà hé Guǎngdōnghuà shì nánfānghuà. Xī'ān huà shì běifānghuà. Both Shanghai dialect and Cantonese are southern dialects. The Xi’an dialect is a northern dialect. 我不知道他們會不會說其他的⽅方⾔言。 我不知道他们会不会说其他的⽅方⾔言。 Wǒ bùzhīdào tāmen huìbuhuì shuō qítā de fāngyán. (I don’t know whether or not they know how to speak other dialects.) 我知道他們都會說普通話。 我知道他们都会说普通话。 Wǒ zhīdào tāmen dou huì shuō Pǔtōnghuà. (I know that all of them are able to speak the standard langauge, Mandarin.) 會/会 huì able M. Chu, 28 學中文 第 11 課 3. 景點/景点 Jǐngdiǎn: Scenic spots Chinese has many interesting places. The most famous among them is probably this place: 長城/长城 Chángchéng The Great Wall http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/greatwall/Chinamap.GIF http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTR2Xfm9KhU4kDhd6GAJ9da82tftimHngZ6Mszpz8y18CLKr7p0 http://i.huffpost.com/gadgets/slideshows/3692/slide_3692_52390_large.jpg A common Chinese saying goes something like this: 不上長城非好漢。 [非 fēi: 不是] 不上长城非好汉。 Bú shàng Chángchéng fēi hǎohàn. (A man is not a true man without climbing up to the Great Wall.) Another place many people like to visit is this: 黃山/黄⼭山 Huángshān Yellow Mountains; Mount Huangshan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huangshan M. Chu, 29 學中文 第 11 課 Famous scenes of Huángshān include the following: 迎客松 yíngkèsōng 日出 rìchū 雲海/云海 yúnhǎi Guest-greeting pines Sunrise Sea of clouds Here are some of the other interesting and beautiful spots: 西湖 Xīhú 桂林 Guìlín 長江/长江 Chángjiāng West Lake Guilin Changjiang (Yangtze River) 馬文去過長城和黃山。樂樂都沒去過。 马⽂文去过长城和黄⼭山。乐乐都没去过。 Mǎ Wén qùguò Chángchéng hé Huáng Shān. Lèlè dōu méiqùguo. Ma Wen has been to the Great Wall, and to Huangshan. Lele has been to neither place. 長城在中國的北部。黃山在東南部。 长城在中国的北部。黄⼭山在东南部。 Chángchéng zài Zhōngguó de běibù. Huáng Shān zài dōngnánbù. The Great Wall is in the northern part of China. Huangshan is in its Southeastern part. 黃山的日出很有名,可是馬文只喜歡那兒的雲海。 黄⼭山的日出很有名,可是马⽂文只喜欢那⼉儿的云海。 Huáng Shān de rìchū hěn yǒumíng, kěshì Mǎ Wén zhǐ xǐhuān nàr de yúnhǎi. The Sunrise at Huangshan is very famous, but Ma Wen only likes the Sea of Clouds there. 我聽我們老師說桂林美極了。我到了中國一定去。 我听我们老师说桂林美极了。我到了中国⼀一定去。 Wǒ tīng wǒmen lǎoshī shuō Guìlín měijíle. Wǒ dàole Zhōngguó yídìng qù. I heard from our teacher that Guilin is extremely beautiful. I’ll certainly go there when I get to China. 馬文聽說西湖也很漂亮。他也想去。 马⽂文听说西湖也很漂亮。他也想去。 Mǎ Wén tīngshuō Xī Hú yě hěn piàoliàng. Tā yě xiǎng qù. Ma Wen heard that the West Lake is beautiful. He also wanted to go there. 漂亮 piàoliàng M. Chu, 30 beautiful 學中文 第 11 課 讀寫/读写 Dú-Xiě: Reading and Writing Note: 甲骨文 jiǎgǔwén: Oracal-bone Script, 17th to 11th Centuries BCE 金文 jīnwén: Bronze-carving Script, 11th to 3rd Century BCE 大篆 dàzhuàn: Majuscule Seal script, 8th-3rd Century BCE 小篆 xiǎozhuàn: Refined Seal Script, 3rd Century BCE to 1st Century CE 1. 江河湖海洋漢/江河湖海洋汉 Water bodies are important geographic landmarks of China. Here are some of the most common ones. 江 jiāng: river 2) 河 hé: river 3) 湖 hú: lake 4) 海 hǎi: sea 1) The four characters of different types of water bodies above all belong to the phono-semantic group. The meaning component of these characters is 水 (氵) “water”, written on the left side. The right-side component 工 gōng, 可 kě , 胡 hú, and 每 měi respectively) approximates the character’s pronunciation. The 湖–胡 pair still have identical pronunciation in modern Mandarin. The following chart shows close relatedness in ancient pronunciation between 江, 河, and 海 and their phonetic components 工, 可, 每: 江 工 高本漢/⾼高本汉 reconstruction kŭŋ kuŋ 李方桂 reconstruction kruŋ kuŋ 河 可 高本漢/⾼高本汉 reconstruction g'ɑ k'ɑ 李方桂 reconstruction gar kharx 海 每 高本漢/⾼高本汉 reconstruction xməәg məәg 李方桂 reconstruction hməәgx məәgx Source of information: http://www.eastling.org/OC/oldage.aspx Putting the four words/characters 江、河、湖、海 together, we have: Rivers and lakes; all corners of the jiānghé húhǎi 江河湖海 country China’s two major rivers are: 長江/长江 Cháng Jiāng Chang Jiang; Yangtze River 黃河/黄河 Huáng Hé Yellow River *More on the character 黃/黄 later. M. Chu, 31 學中文 第 11 課 The blue lines of the following map highlight these two rivers: the 黃河/黄河 to the north and the 長江/ 长江 to the south. http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRwy37dlRuRjGQobyAKhBgYG6JfROXAYXmZ_dgDALBkk5dhBpjkKw In addition to the terms 南方 and 北方 that divide China into North and South, another set of terms for the “south-north” partition uses 長江/长江 Cháng Jiāng (Chang Jiang; the “Long River”; the Yangtze River) as the dividing line. 長江/长江 Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in China. The areas to either side may include, unscientifically, different sizes. Refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiangnan for further details. http://www.yangtzeriver.org/image/map/yzmap01.jpg 江南 Jiāngnán 江北 Jiāngběi south; south of Chang Jiang; the southern part of China north; north of Chang Jiang; the northern part of China 有很多人喜歡住在中國的江南。 有很多⼈人喜欢住在中国的江南。 Yǒu hěnduōrén xǐhuān zhù zài Zhōngguó de Jiāngnán. Many people like to live in the area south of Chang Jiang. There are also many 湖 hú (lakes) in China. The two provinces surrounding China’s biggest lake 洞庭湖 Dòngtíng (Dongting Lake; Lake Dongting) are known to many: 湖南 Húnán Hú 湖北 Húběi 我們這兒有兩個湖南飯館。 我们这⼉儿有两个湖南饭馆。 Wǒmen zhèr yǒu liǎngge Húnán fànguǎn. Here at our place, we have two Hunan restaurants. M. Chu, 32 Hunan Province (to the south of the Dongting Lake) Hubei Province (to the north of the Dongting Lake) 學中文 第 11 課 It was believed that there were four seas surrounding China. 四海 sìhai The Four Seas However, the term “四海” does not have a completely clear identity. On the contemporary Chinese map, we can find 東海/东海 to the eastern boarder of China and 南海 to the southern boarder of China. East China Sea Dōnghǎi 東海/东海 南海 Nánhǎi South China Sea If there were a “西海” and a “北海” located to the west and north of China, the 四海 picture would have been complete. However, we are not able to conveniently locate these two clear water bodies. Let’s take a look at the following maps may and pay attention to the location of Bohai and the Qinghai. East Sea; South Sea, & Bohai Sea Qinghai Lake Qinghai Province 東海/东海、南海、渤海 Dōnghǎi, Nánhǎi, Bó Hǎi 青海湖 Qīnghǎi Hú 青海省 Qīnghǎi Shěng http://geog.hkbu.edu.hk/china/Water /Wtr-sea/china-Sea0.jpg http://img.lvyou114.com/MapPh oto/200610711299.jpg http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/青海 青海 Qīnghǎi 渤海 Bó Hǎi Qinghai (name of a province); Qinghai (name of a lake) Bohai Sea Would “渤海 Bóhǎi (Bohai Sea)” that we see on the Chinese map and that has a similar pronunciation be the old “北海”? And, would “青海湖 Qīnghǎi Hú (Qinghai Lake)”, a salt-water lake in 青海 Qīnghǎi province that is toward the west side (and possibly the ancient west border) of China, be the old “西海”? In any case, with or without a satisfactory explanation, the word “四海” carries the meaning of “the whole world” or “the whole country”. 這是青海(湖)。/这是青海(湖)。 青海漂亮嗎?/青海漂亮吗? 青海是湖還是海?/青海是湖还是还? 青海為什麼叫青海?/青海为什么叫青海? M. Chu, 33 學中文 第 11 課 The etymological logic should be clear to understand the extended meaning for 四海: s the whole world sìhai 四海 By extention, we have this expression: 很四海 hěn sìhai being generous and loyal to one’s friends; to have many friends This type of metaphoric extension of some common terms and their symbolic meanings are important for our understanding both the linguistic meaning and culture significance of the Chinese language. For example, the concept of “universal brotherhood” is expressed in the following expression: 四海之內皆兄弟 sìhǎi zhī nèi jiē xiōngdì This expression is broadly known to Chinese. Translated into English, it means, “Within the four seas all men are brothers.” If you are interested in Chinese literature, you may find it interesting to know that All Men Are Brothers is the English title used by Pearl Buck (1892-1973; the 1938 winner of the The Nobel Prize in Literature) for her translation of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Chinese novel 水滸傳/⽔水浒传 Shuǐhǔ zhuàn. 海內 hǎinèi 海外 hǎiwài within the (four) seas; throughout the country; the world overseas; abroad Mountains and rivers are also quite often used as representatives of the land, the country, and sovereignty, the defense of which is the responsibility of political leaders. Some sample words and phrases here: 山河 shānhé general topography; territory of a country 河山 héshān rivers and mountains; land; territory 江山 jiāngshān rivers and mountains; land; state power 江山美人 jiāngshānměirén the throne and the beauty We have also learned that 山東/⼭山东 and 山西 are the names of two provinces that are located to the two different sides, east and west, of a mountain. Similarly, many other provinces and cities are named according to their relative location to a water body. Among them, besides 湖南 and 湖北 that we have just learned, are the following: 河南 Hénán 河北 Héběi 海南 Hǎinán M. Chu, 34 Henan Province (to the south of the Yellow River Hebei Province (to the north of the Yellow River) Hainan Province (to the south of the South China Sea) 學中文 第 11 課 And, of course, one of the most famous cities: Shànghǎi 上海 5) Shanghai City (the place to go up to the sea) 洋 yáng: ocean This is a semantic-phonetic combination with 氵 (sāndiǎnshuǐ 三點水/三点⽔水: “three-dot water“) representing its meaning category and 羊 (pronounced yáng in modern Mandarin) representing its pronunciation. Here are the two biggest 洋 in the world: 太平洋 Tàipíng Yáng Pacific Ocean 大西洋 Dàxī Yáng Atlantic Ocean 大西洋 is between the American and Asian Continents. It is interesting to note and 太平洋 is at the same time (1) on the east side of 亞洲 Yàzhōu (Asia) and the west side of 美洲 Měizhōu (the Americas), and (2) between the American and Asian Continents if we take the “global” perspective as we view the world on a globe. http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/oceans/ atlanticocean.htm http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/太平洋 太平 tàipíng peace and tranquility 和平 hépíng peace Here are a couple if two-syllable words formed by using 海 and/or 洋: ocean hǎiyáng 海洋 洋人 6) yángrén foreigner; non-Chinese; “people from [the other side of] the ocean” 漢/汉 hàn: The Han River, Han people; fellow 漢/汉 is the name of a river, but is also the name of a dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE) and an ethnic group. The great majority (> 95%) of Chinese are members of this ethnic group. 漢語/汉语 is the language of this group and it is the common language of the majority of Chinese people. The character 漢 is a semanticphonetic combination, with 氵 represents the meaning as related to “water” and (that might have approximated the “-an” sound). The character may originally refer to a river or a place near water. M. Chu, 35 學中文 第 11 課 漢人/汉⼈人 Hànrén The Han ethnic group; a Han person 漢語/汉语 Hànyǔ 漢字/汉字 Hànzì Mandarin Chinese; language of the Han people Chinese character 漢子/汉⼦子 hànzi man; fellow 好漢/好汉 hǎohàn good fellow; hero; brave man 男子漢/男⼦子汉 nánzǐhàn a real man 門外漢/门外汉 ménwàihàn layman 漢字是漢人的文字,也是大多數中國人用的文字。 汉字是汉⼈人的⽂文字,也是⼤大多数中国⼈人用的⽂文字。 Hànzì shì hànrén de wénzì, yě shì dàduōshù Zhōngguórén yòng de wénzì. The Han characters are the written language of the Han people and it is also the written language used by the great majority of Chinese people. 我們學說漢語也學寫漢字。 我们学说汉语也学写汉字。 Wǒmen xué shuō Hànyǔ, yě xué xiě Hànzì. We know how to speak Mandarin Chinese and also know how to write Chinese characters. 小心!“漢字”和“漢子”的意思很不同! 小⼼心!“汉字”和“汉⼦子”的意思很不同! Xiǎoxīn! “Hànzì” hé “hànzi” de yìsi hěn bùtōng. Watch out! The meanings of “漢字/汉字 Hànzì” and “漢子/汉⼦子 hànzi” are very different. 好漢做事好漢當。 [做事: to do something; 當/当: to accept; to take the responsibility] 好汉做事好汉当。 Hǎohàn zuòshì hǎohàn dāng. A true man has the courage to accept the consequences of his own actions. 2. 胡每黃京成城 /胡每黄京成城 The phonetic components of the character 江河湖海—工、可、胡、每—are also commonly used independent characters by themselves. We have learned about the characters 工 and 可. Now, let us learn more about the other the characters 胡 and 每, which are versatile semantic units in their own right. 7) 胡 hú: the Hu tribe; foreign; reckless The character 胡, meaning “cow wattle” according to 說文解字/说⽂文解字 Shuōwén jiězì, is a semanticcphonetic combination that consists of the meaning component 月 (flesh) and the phonetic component 古 M. Chu, 36 學中文 第 11 課 (pronounced gǔ in modern Mandarin). The meaning is reasonably extended to “beard”. Later a component ⾽髟 biāo (“long hair”) is added to form the character 鬍 and the character 胡 is left for the meanings of “the Hu people, the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China in ancient times” and “foreign”, and expended to the meaning of “reckless”. It is not difficult to find some arrogant racism here. 胡來/胡来 húlái behave recklessly; cause mischief 胡說/胡说 húshuō talk nonsense 胡話/胡话 húhuà ravings 胡言 húyán ravings; talk nonsense 你胡說!他明明是工人,你怎麼說他是校長? 你胡说!他明明是⼯工⼈人,你怎么说他是校长? Nǐ húshuō! Tā míngmíng shì gōngren, nǐ zěnme shuō tā shì xiàozhǎng? You are talking nonsense! Clearly he is a worker, how come you are saying that he is the principal/president? 你別胡思亂想了。不會有問題的。 你别胡思乱想了。不会有问题的。 Nǐ bié húsīluànxiǎng le. Búhuì yǒu wèntí de. Don’t let your imagination gone wild. There won’t be any problem. 這個房間太亂了。 这个房间太乱了。 Zhèige fángjiān tài luàn le. This room is too messy. 8) 胡思亂想/胡思乱想 húsīluànxiǎng fantasize; think wild thoughts 亂/乱 luàn messy; disorderly; in a confused state of mind 每 měi: every (甲骨文) (金文) (大篆) ( 小篆) The graphs may be understood by some to be a woman with well-groomed hair, a symbol of beauty. The current meaning, “each” or “every”, is a later extension. Others have understood the character as a meaning-phonetic combination, the top component 屮, which was changed to as shown in current kǎishū script, provides the original meaning component for the growing of grass, while 母 component gave the sound approximation to the character. From that source, the current meaning has been extended. In either case, the logic of the meaning extension is not clear. The mnemonic, “everyone has a mother,” may be helpful for remembering the form-meaning connection of the characters. M. Chu, 37 學中文 第 11 課 每人 měirén everybody; each person 每天 měitiān everyday; every day 每日 měirì daily 每年 měinián yearly 每個/每个 měigè every 我不每天吃早飯。 我不每天吃早饭。 Wǒ bù měitiān chī zǎofàn. I don’t eat breakfast everyday. 他們三個人,每人每年在中國住兩個星期。 他们三个⼈人,每⼈人每年在中国住两个星期。 Tāmen sāngerén měirén měinián zài zhù liǎnggè xīngqī. Each of the three of them lives in China for two weeks each year. 他們學校的每個宿舍都有中國來的學生。 他们学校的每个宿舍都有中国来的学⽣生。 Tāmen xuéxiào de měige sùshè dōu yǒu Zhōngguó lái de xuéshēng. Each of the dorms at their school has students coming from China. 9) 黃/黄 huáng: yellow (甲骨文) (金文) (大篆) (小篆) The ancient scripts of 甲骨文 and 金文 illustrate a person with some sort of ornament around the waist. This character may share the same origin of the character 璜 (huáng), an ancient ceremonial jade pendant. The character 黃/黄 has very broad usage. It is one of the five prime colors (紅黃藍白黑/红黄蓝白⿊黑 hóng huáng lán bái hēi) and it is the color of the earth. 黃/黄 also covers a wide range of color shades, from bright yellow to dark brown. In the contemporary Chinese language use, 黃/黄 does not connote “cowardliness” but 黃色/黄⾊色 huángsè (“yellow color”) alludes to “obscene” when used as modifiers for books, magazines, jokes, etc. 黃河 (Huánghé, “Yellow River’) is the name of the second longest river in China. The region surrounding the 黃河 has been identified as the cradle of Chinese civilization. The Asian race is sometimes referred to as the “yellow race” (黃種人/黄种⼈人 huángzhǒngrén). Additionally, one of the legendary rulers that many Chinese acknowledge as their ancestor is 黃帝/黄帝 (huángdì, the Yellow Emperor). 黃河/黄河 Huáng Hé Yellow River 黃海/黄海 Huáng Hǎi Yellow Sea 黃山/黄⼭山 Huáng Shān Huangshan (Mountain) M. Chu, 38 學中文 10) 黃土/黄⼟土 huángtǔ loess 黃豆/黄⾖豆 huángdòu soybean 黃牛/黄⽜牛 huángniú ox; cattle; scalper of tickets 黃色小說/黄⾊色小说 huángsè xiǎoshuō pornographic fiction 京 jīng: capital (of a country); tower (甲骨文) (金文) (大篆) The ancient graphs depict a tower, a tall building. 11) 第 11 課 (小篆) 北京 Běijīng Beijing; the northern capital 南京 Nánjīng Nanjing; the southern capital 東京/东京 Dōngjīng Tokyo; the eastern capital 京都 jīngdū capital of a country; Kyoto 成 chéng: succeed; success; accomplished (甲骨文) (金文) (大篆) (小篆) The ancient graphs might be used to indicate getting something done by using a tool. 成果 chéngguǒ achievement; positive outcome 成人 chéngrén adult 成年人 chéngniánrén adult person 成家 chéngjiā get married; form a family 成名 chéngmíng 成功 chénggōng become famous; make a name for oneself succeed; success 一成 yīchéng ten percent 他成名了,可是還沒成家。 他成名了,可是还没成家。 Tā chéngmíng le, kěshì hái méi chéngjiā. He is already famous but he is not yet married. M. Chu, 39 學中文 第 11 課 這是她努力工作的成果。 这是她努⼒力⼯工作的成果。 Zhè shì tā nǔlì gōngzuò de chéngguǒ. (This is the fruition of her hard work.) 他們想得第一名可是沒有成功。 他们想得第⼀一名可是没有成功。 Tāmen xiǎng dé dì-yī míng kěshì méiyǒu chénggōng. They wanted to win the first place but did not succeed. 12) 城 chéng: city wall; city The character is a semantic-phonetic combination with 土 (“earth”; “land”) representing its meaning category and 成 (pronounced chéng in modern Mandarin, identical to 城) representing its pronunciation. Original, the word meant for the “walls that protect the city” and later developed to mean “city” as well. 京城 jīngchéng capital of a country 北京城 Běijīng Chéng The city of Beijing 城外 chéngwài outside of a city; suburb 城中心 chéng zhōngxī central area of a city 長城/长城 Chángchéng The Great Wall 長城/长城 Chángchéng was originally a group of fortifications built about 2500 years ago to defend China from the invading northern tribes. Following the orders of Qin Shi Huang Di (The First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty) and through years of hard labor, costing countless lives and materials, the older fortifications were connected and extended, and acquiring the name 萬里長城/万里长城 Wànlǐ Chángchéng (“The Long Wall of Ten Thousand Li” [1 里 li (Chinese mile) = 0.5km = 0.3107mile]). 長城/长城 Chángchéng is the longest manmade structure of the world. Furthermore, with its 15-30 feet thickness and up to 25 feet height, it is gigantic enough to be seen flying within Earth’s Orbit. For more details, read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/greatwall/Allabout.html and others. 萬里長城/万里长城 Wànlǐ Chángchéng The Great Wall [literally: the tenthousand li Long Wall] We have learned the character 都. So far, we have used the character mainly for the meaning “all” and its associated modern Mandarin pronunciation “dōu”. That is actually a borrowed usage of the earlier meaning of 都. That earlier meaning of 都 is “city” and its modern Mandarin pronunciation is “dū”. In this lesson, we are learning the names of a few China’s cities, or 都市 dūshì. M. Chu, 40 學中文 第 11 課 都市 dūshì city; metropolis 都城 dūchéng 城市 chéngshì capital (of a nation—earlier usage; of a province—newer usage) city; town 國都/国都 guódū national capital 京都 Jīngdū Kyoto 北京是中國的國都,東京是日本的國都。 北京是中国的国都,东京是日本的国都。 Běijīng shì Zhōngguó de guódū, Dōngjīng shì Rìběn de guódū. Beijign is the capital of China; Tokyo is the capital of Japan. 北京和東京都是大都市。 北京和东京都是⼤大都市。 Běijīng hé Dōngjīng dōu shì dàdūshì. Both Beijing and Tokyo are big cities. 日本的京都是一個很美的都市。 日本的京都是⼀一个很美的都市。 Rìběn de Jīngdū shì yīgè hěn měi de dūshì. (Kyoto of Japan is a very beautiful city.) 可可說大都市都不好,人都太多。 可可说⼤大都市都不好,⼈人都太多。 Kěkě shuō dàdūshì dōu bù hǎo, rén dōu tài duō. Keke says that none of the big cities are good. All of them have too many people. 樂樂喜歡大都市。她說大都市裡有很多有意思的地方。 乐乐喜欢⼤大都市。她说⼤大都市里有很多有意思的地⽅方。 Lèlè xǐhuan dàdūshì. Tā shuō dàdūshì lǐ yǒu hěnduō yǒuyìsi de dìfang. Lele likes big cities. She says that in a big cities one may find many interesting places. M. Chu, 41 學中文 第 11 課 3. [每]的用法: The functions of 每 We have learned that reduplicated measure words [MM], such as 天天 and 個個/个个, carry the meaning of “every”. The word 每 we are learning in this lesson, most commonly, is used as a modifier/adjective and given the meaning in English as “each”. Therefore, we may say that the grammatical function of [每 + measure word] ([每 M]) is similar to that of [MM]. However, we should also note the difference between the two. Each has its primary role. [MM] emphasizes consistency. 我天天喝咖啡。 Wǒ tiāntiān hē kāfēi. I drink coffee everyday. 我們天天學漢字。 我们天天学汉字。 Wǒmen tiāntiān xué Hànzì. We learn characters everyday. 這些李子,個個好吃。 这些李子,个个好吃。 Zhèixiē lǐzi, gègè hǎochī. Every one of these plums is tasty. 他們人人有書包。 他们人人有书包。 Tāmen rénrén yǒu shūbāo. Every one of them has a bookbag. [每 M] emphasizes even distribution or unit value. 我每天喝兩杯咖啡。 我每天喝两杯咖啡。 Wǒ měitiān hē liǎngbēi kāfēi. I drink two cups of coffee each day. 我們每天學六、七個漢字。 我们每天学六、七个汉字。 Wǒmen měitiān xué liù-qī gè Hànzì. We learn six or seven characters each day. 這些李子,每個五毛錢。 这些李子,每个五毛钱。 Zhèxiē lǐzi, měi gè wǔmáo qián. These plums are fifty cents each. M. Chu, 42 學中文 第 11 課 他們每人有一個書包。 他们每人有一个书包。 Tāmen měirén yǒu yígè shū bāo. Each of them has one bookbag. Role switch: When we make one to play the role of the other, we need to give the “actor” a prop—the word 都. When [每 M] is used to play the role of [MM] to emphasize consistency, 都 is added: 我每天都喝咖啡。 Wǒ měitiān dōu hē kāfēi. I drink coffee everyday day. 我們每天都學漢字。 我们每天都学汉字。 Wǒmen měitiān dōu xué Hànzì. We learn characters everyday. 這些李子,每個都好吃。 这些李子,每个都好吃。 Zhèixiē lǐzi, měigè dōu hǎochī. Every one of the plums is tasty. When [MM] is used to play the role of [每 M] to emphasize distribution amount, 都 is added: 我天天都喝兩杯咖啡。 我天天都喝两杯咖啡。 Wǒ tiāntiān dōu hē liǎngbēi kāfēi. I drink two cups of coffee each day. 我們天天都學六、七個漢字。 我们天天都学六、七个汉字。 Wǒmen tiāntiān dōu xué liù-qī gè Hànzì. We learn six or seven characters each day. Note: When negated, , the meanings of [不 MM] and [不每 M] become the same—as no “consistency” or “even distribution” is involved 她不天天吃水果。 Tā bù tiāntiān chī shuǐguǒ. She does not eat fruit everyday. 她不每天吃水果。 Tā bù měitiān chī shuǐguǒ. She does not eat fruit everyday. M. Chu, 43 學中文 第 11 課 4. [都]的用法: The functions of 都 [further details]: We have learned the word 都 and its most common functions for the meaing of “all” or “both”. We will discuss in some details about these and other functions of the word. 1. Emphasizing shared qualities 都 (translated as “both” or “all”) emphasizes shared characteristics among two or more parties. We have learned about the general function of 都 and we are exploring some more details. 我們是學生。 我们是学⽣生。 Wǒmen shì xuéshēng. We are students. 我們都是學生。 我们都是学⽣生。 Wǒmen dōu shì xuéshēng. We are both/all students. Both/All of us are students. 2. Emphasizing the shared quality of subjects Most commonly, 都 is used to emphasize shared characteristics among the subjects. 上海人和廣東人都是南方人。 上海⼈人和⼴广东⼈人都是南⽅方⼈人。 Shànghǎirén hé Guǎngdōngrén dōu shì nánfāngrén. People from Shanghai and people from Guangdong are both southerners. 北京和東京都是京城。 北京和东京都是京城。 Běijīng hé Dōngjīng dōu shì jīngchéng. Both Beijing and Tokyo are national capitals.) 3. Emphasizing the shared quality of objects/topics 都 may also be used with objects. One way to use 都 to emphasize shared characteristics among the objects, is to move the objects to the beginning position of the sentence, before the subject and the verb, while the word 都 is positioned after the subject. The objects of the verb become the “topic” of the statement. The end result is a topical sentence, which is more common in Chinese than in English. 北京和南京他都去過。 北京和南京他都去过。 Běijīng hé Nánjīng tā dōu qù guò. He has been to both Shanghai and Beijing. M. Chu, 44 學中文 第 11 課 北京和南京他們都去過。 北京和南京他们都去过。 Běijīng hé Nánjīng tāmen dōu qù guò. They have been to both Shanghai and Beijing. Yes, the word 都 here is to emphasize the shared qualities of the objects. If this nature of commonality is to be emphasized in the subjects as well as the objects, additional elements should be added. For example: 北京和南京他們大家都去過。 北京和南京他们⼤大家都去过。 Běijīng hé Nánjīng tāmen dàjiā dōu qù guò. All of them have been to both Shanghai and Beijing. 4. To indicate “plurality” of the subject and/or the object/topic. As we know, Chinese nouns are, as a rule, not marked by “numbers” and they appear to be the same in singular and plural. Because of this, the word 都 helps to indicate the plural status of the nouns. 他哥哥都很會唱歌。 他哥哥都很会唱歌。 Tā gēge dōu hěn huì chànggē. His brothers all sing very well. 5. Using with an interrogative word to emphasize the idea of “all” or “none” 在中國,哪兒都有很多人。 在中国,哪⼉儿都有很多⼈人。 Zài Zhōngguó, nǎr dōu yǒu hěnduō rén. In China, there are lots of people everywhere. 法國的什麼地方他都沒去過。 法国的什么地⽅方他都没去过。 Fǎguó de shénme dìfāng tā dōu méiqùguò. He has not been to any place in France. Note 1: In this [interrogative word + 都] structure, the word 都 may be replaced by 也 to carry the same meaning. Note 2: Negative form of 都: We have learned that 都 is a form of emphasis. Therefore, the positive 都 is “both” or “all”, the negetive 都 is “not all”. Again, nagative expression comes before the item it negates. The [都 + negative... ] may be conveniently translated as “neither” or “none”. However, when 都 is not negated, that is when 都 it not preceeded by a negative form, the subjects or topics are in the same situation—positive or negative. M. Chu, 45 學中文 第 11 課 繁簡對照/繁简对照 Fán-jiǎn duìzhào: Character Simplification Notes on Character Simplification: 1. 符號代替/符号代替 (fúhào dàitì) method of simplification was adopted in the simplification process of the following characters. It was to replace certain complex components of a traditional character with a simpler existing character or component, or with a particularly created symbol. A number of different complex components have been simplified to “又” in the simplified character (such as 歡 to 欢, 樹 to 树, and 對 to 对, etc.—as well as the one we have in this section: 漢 2. is simplified to 汉 用異體字/用异体字 (yòng yìtǐzì) method is adopted in the simplification process of the following character. This method is basically to use a variant way of writing a character in fewer strokes. The stroke reduction may have happened by connecting adjacent strokes or eliminating some (sometimes, the variant form does not involve stroke reduction). This change is slight and casual and sometimes not considered as part of the simplification process. As a result, in some character font system, the traditional character version is represented by the variant character used in the simplified character version (mistakenly, ignorantly, or politically). Furthermore, as we have learned before, the difference between the forms in the traditional and simplified character system may be the result of a standardization process (took place in Taiwan, started in the 1970s) in the traditional character system. While the character used in the simplified character system remain to be the same, commonly used version, the character used in the traditional character system has been changed. For more details, see http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/國字標準字體 and www.edu.tw/files/site_content/M0001/biau/f12.html. 黃 has a variant 黄 in the simplified character system 胡 has a variant 胡 in the simplified character system 湖 has a variant 湖 in the simplified character system 3. Stroke order variants Different stroke orders are followed in the traditional and simplified character systems when writing the following characters. This is mostly the consequence of the same standardization process discussed above (#2). 每 海 These two characters have identical appearance in the traditional and simplified character systems. However, the last strokes have reversed orders. While the last three strokes are “dot”, “dot” and “horizontal” in the traditional character system, the last strokes in the simplified character systems go in the sequence as “dot”, “horizontal” and “dot”. This difference is illustrated in the following “筆畫結構/笔画结构 Bǐhuà jiégòu: Character Strokes and Structures” section. M. Chu, 46 學中文 第 11 課 練習/练习 Liànxí: Exercises 1. 筆畫結構/笔画结构 Bǐhuà jiégòu: Character Strokes and Structures Traditional Characters: Trace and write to become familiar with the structure of characters 江河 湖海 jiāng: river 江南: South of Yangtze hé: river hú: lake 大湖: big lakes 河北: Hebei Province hǎi: sea 上海: Shanghai 洋漢 胡每 yáng: ocean 海洋: ocean hàn: Han river/people 漢人/汉⼈人: Han people hú: foreign; reckless 胡說/胡说: talk nonsense měi: every 每天: each day 黃京成城 huáng: yellow jīng: capital chéng: complete chéng: city; city wall 黃河/黄河:Yellow River 北京: Beijing 成功: succeed; success 城市: city M. Chu, 47 學中文 第 11 課 練習/练习 Liànxí: Exercises 1. 筆畫結構/笔画结构 Bǐhuà jiégòu: Character Strokes and Structures Simplified Characters: Trace and write to become familiar with the structure of characters 江河湖海 jiāng: river 江南: South of Yangtze hé: river hú: lake 大湖: big lakes 河北: Hebei Province hǎi: sea 上海: Shanghai 洋汉胡 每 yáng: ocean 海洋: ocean hàn: Han river/people 漢人/汉⼈人: Han people hú: foreign; reckless 胡說/胡说: talk nonsense měi: every 每天: each day 黄 京成城 huáng:: yellow jīng: capital chéng: complete chéng: city; city wall 黃河/黄河: Yellow River 北京: Beijing 成功: succeed; success 城市: city M. Chu, 48 學中文 第 11 課 2. 詞義對應/词义对应 Cí yì duìyìng: Matching words with meaning (1) Write the Chinese equivalent of the following in characters Yangtze River: __________________ Yellow River _______________ South of Chang Jiang: __________________ North of Chang Jiang _______________ the throne & the beauty: ________________ rivers & mountains; state power _____________ big lake; Great Lakes: ________________ West Lake: _____________ East Sea: ________________ South Sea _____________ Shanghai: ________________ overseas: _____________ ocean: ________________ foreigner: _____________ Atlantic Ocean: ________________ Pacific Ocean: _____________ Chinese characters: ________________ fellow; man_____________ good fellow; hero: ________________ talk nonsense:_____________ each person: ________________ everyday: _____________ Beijing: ________________ Tokyo: _____________ success; succeed: ________________ positive outcome: _____________ city; town ________________ city; metropolis _____________ national capital: ________________ regional language: _____________ M. Chu, 49 學中文 第 11 課 3. 拼圖遊戲/拼图游戏 Pīntú Yóuxì: Jigsaw Puzzle Game 中國省份/中国省份 Zhōngguó Shěngfèn: China’s Provinces Try your hand on this game to get familiar with China’s provinces: http://www.4399.com/flash/34729_3.htm?1024 4. 地名練習/地名练习 Dìmíng Liànxí: Geo-Term Exercise Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_(China) Write the name of these numbered provinces (省 shěng) on the map in Chinese characters: <1> # 12 山東 __________ <5> #10 湖北 __________ <9> #4 青海 __________ <2> # 7 山西 <3> # 8 __________ <6> #17 湖南 __________ 河北 __________ <7> # 18 江西 __________ <4> # 11 河南 __________ 四川 <8> #9 __________ <10> #20 海南 __________ Try the following ones also (which you may know only one of the characters), if you wish: <11> #14 江蘇 ____________ <15> #6 陝西 ____________ <12> #19 浙江 ____________ <13> #1 黑龍江 ____________ <16> #21 廣東 ____________ M. Chu, 50 <14> #23 台灣 ____________ 學中文 5. 用詞練習/用词练习 Yòngcí Liànxí: Word Use Exercise Write sentences using particular expressions (1) Use [每 M + # ] to express unit value This school has three semesters each year. 這個學校每學年有三個學期。 _____________________________________________________________________ Plums are twenty-cents each and apples (蘋果/苹果 píngguǒ) are ninety-cents each. 李子每個兩毛錢,蘋果每個九毛錢。 _____________________________________________________________________ (2) Use [每 M 都 ] to express consistency or recurrence She goes to Japan every year. 他每年都去日本。 _____________________________________________________________________ Does every Chinese speak Mandarin? 每個中國人都說漢語嗎? _____________________________________________________________________ (3) Use [都 ] to translate the following statements: Not all my classmates are Americans. 我的同學不都是美國人。 _____________________________________________________________________ Both Yangtzi River and Yellow River are China’s big rivers. 長江和黃河都是中國的大河。 _____________________________________________________________________ Chinese like to go to both the Great Wall and the West Lake. 萬里長城和西湖,中國人都很喜歡去。 _____________________________________________________________________ Today, she doesn’t doesn’t feel like going anywhere. 今天她哪兒都不想去。 _____________________________________________________________________ M. Chu, 51 第 11 課