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Chapter 2 Canada and the First World War Vocabulary

Imperialism:
The policy of one nation acquiring controlling or dominating another country or
regions
Militarism:
A Nations policy of training, equipping and maintaining armed forces ready for war
Triple Alliance:
The alliance of Germany, Austria -Hungary and Italy
Triple Entente:
The alliance of France, Britain and Russia
Nationalism:
Devotion to and support of ones culture and nation, sometimes resulting in the
promotion of independence
War Measures Act:
An act that gives the federal government emergency powers during wartime
including the right to take away people without charges
Enemy Aliens:
A national living in a country that is at war with his or hers country
Internment Camps:
A government -run camp where people who considered a threat are taken away
No Mans Land:
The area between the trenches of two opposing forces
Western Front:
The area of fighting in Western Europe during WW1, characterized by trench warfare
and inconclusive battles with heavy casualties on both sides

War of Attrition:
A military strategy based on draining the enemys soldiers and resources before
yours is drained, usually involving great losses on both sides
Battle of Ypres:
In 1915, a battle between Germany and France/Canada was made and neither of
them won but Germany used chlorine gas and 6000 people were killed and
wounded, the battle only lasted a month
Battle of Somme:
In 1916, the allies attacked Germany trenches but the attack failed because:

The Allies shelled the Germans trenches for days but failed because it did
not create damage to the defenses or barbed wire around their trenches
The tactic of the allies was unsuccessful because the tactic was to send many
men to the open field but were shot down by German machine guns

The battle lasted for 5 months, both sides suffered heavy losses; there were more
than 1.25 casualties.
Battle of Vimy Ridge:
In 1914, Germany took control of Vimy Ridge and the French and the British tried to
take over the ridge for two years. In late 1916 the Canadian troops were chosen to
make a tactic to take over it, the tactic was ready and the artillery bombed German
positions for a month, later they made a tunnel secretly to move troops closer to the
ridge, in 1917 the troops were in position and they took over the ridge. There were
only 10,500 casualties.
Passchendaele:
Byng (the governor general of creating the Vimy Ridge tactic) was promoted,
replacing General Arthur Currie. In 1917, Byng was ordered to take over
Passchendaele in Belgium. In earlier battles, the shells had created massive craters,
after the battle of taking over Passchendaele, there were 200,000 casualties in each
side, the allies only gained 7 or 8 kilometers and the Germans soon captured it
again
Convoy:
A group of ships travelling together protected by an armed force
Victory Bonds:
Bonds issued by the Canadian government to support the war effort

Honor Rationing:
A civilian effort to consume less and conserve supplies on the home front
Propaganda:
Information, usually produced by governments, presented in such a way as to
inspire and spread particular beliefs or opinions
Conscription:
Forced enlistment in the armed forces of all fit men of certain ages
Khaki Election:
The name given to the 1917 federal election because of Bordens efforts to win the
military vote
Military Service Act:
A 1917 act that made conscription compulsory for all Canadian men between the
ages of 20 and 45 calling up the younger men first
Military Voters Act:
An act that allowed men and women serving overseas to vote
Wartime Elections Act:
An act that gave the vote Canadian women related to servicemen, but cancelled the
vote for conscientious objectors and immigrants from enemy countries
Hundred Days Campaign:
The final battle against the Central Powers on the Western Front, from August 8 to
November 11, 1918
Paris Peace Conference:
A meeting in Paris in 1919 to discuss the terms of a peace agreement after WW1
Treaty of Versailles:
One of the treaties that ended WW1; it imposed strict permissions on Germany
War Guit Clause:
An article in the Treaty of Versailles that made Germany responsible for WW1
Habeas Corpus:

The right of an arrested person brought before a judge or other official to decide
whether the detention is lawful

Schlieffen Plan:
Germanys plan to attack on two sides; Russia in the east and France in the west in
6 weeks
Union Government:
The union government formed by conservatives and some liberals and
independents that governed Canada from 1917 to 1920
Sam Hughs:
He was the Canadian Minister of Soldiers and defense during the war
Robert Borden:
Canadas prime minister from 1911 to 1920
Arthur Currie:
A Former relator from victoria and former general of the Canadian army
Billy Bishop:
Canadian First World War flying ace, officially credited with 72 victories, making him
the top Canadian ace of the war
Ross Rifle:
The Ross rifle was a straight-pull bolt action .303 inch-caliber rifle produced in
Canada from 1903 until 1918