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Rapid Learning Guide

Featuring:

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide


The contents of this iGrafx Rapid Learning Guide and the associated iGrafx software are the property of
Corel Corporation and its respective licensors, and are protected by copyright. Any reproduction in whole
or in part is strictly prohibited. For more complete copyright information about iGrafx FlowCharter,
iGrafx Process, iGrax Process for Six Sigma, and iGrafx Process for Enterprise Modeler, please refer to the
About iGrafx section in the Help menu of the software.
2007 Corel Corporation. All rights reserved. iGrafx, iGrafx FlowCharter, iGrafx Process, iGrafx Process
for Six Sigma, iGrafx Process for Enterprise Modeler, iGrafx IDEF0, and iGrafx Process Central are all
trademarks or registered trademarks of Corel Corporation and/or its subsidiaries in Canada, the U.S. and/
or other countries. Microsoft and Windows are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Adobe, Acrobat, and Reader are registered trademarks of
Adobe systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. Java and JavaScript are
trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Other product, font, and company names and logos may be
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Copyright 2005, Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
AIAG Tables 2, 3, and 4 from Chao, L.P., and Ishii, K., (2004), Challenges and Methods in the
Quantification of Design Errors and Solution Elements, Proceedings of the ASME International
Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2004, Anaheim, CA. IMECE2004-59190,
2004 ASME, used with permission by ASME.

Table of Contents
Getting Started with the iGrafx Rapid Learning Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Before You Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
How to Open and Create Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Placing and Connecting Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Selecting Shapes and Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Adding Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Numbering and Renumbering Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Modifying Case Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Adding Notes, Links, and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Aligning Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Adding Properties to Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Managing Process Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Creating a Lean Value Stream Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Entering Data on Value Stream Map Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Creating a BPMN Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Creating an OrgChart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Creating a Cause and Effect Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Specifying Page Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Printing a Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Publishing and Emailing a Document. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Publishing Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Web Publishing Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Saving a Document. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Sharing Information with Process Central . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Modeling and Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Describing Activity Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Describing the Simulation Environment Through Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Understanding the Modeling and Simulation Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Executing a Simulation and Analyzing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Viewing Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

Six Sigma Functionality in iGrafx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60


Process Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Fit Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
RapiDOE in iGrafx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Control Process Flow with RapiDOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Modify Process Parameters with RapiDOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Design and Run an Experiment with RapiDOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Log Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Export Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Publish to FMEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Shortcuts for Working with Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Shortcuts for Editing Diagram Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Shortcuts for Arranging Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Context Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Section 508 Accessibility Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Getting Started Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
About iGrafx Toolbars and Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
About iGrafx Diagram Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Simulation Modeling Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Process Efficiency Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

Getting Started with the iGrafx Rapid Learning Guide


This documentation is for iGrafx FlowCharter, iGrafx Process, iGrafx Process Central
client, iGrafx Process for Six Sigma, and iGrafx Process for Enterprise Modeler, a component
of iGrafx Enterprise Central. iGrafx Process Central Server Administrator, iGrafx IDEF0, iGrafx
Enterprise Central, and iGrafx API help are documented in separate help systems. For information on
product features, benefits, and uses, visit the products page on the iGrafx web site.
If you are new to iGrafx, you may want to start with the tutorials accessible from the Help menu and
the Welcome dialog box. The iGrafx Tutorials are part of the iGrafx Help system.
The iGrafx Help system contains

cautions,

tips, and

key concepts. Features that are only

. Click the Help menu to


available in Process and/or Process for Six Sigma are indicated by a
choose learning resources, including the iGrafx Help system, iGrafx tutorials, iGrafx sample files, and
the iGrafx web site. Visit the Resource Center and Support pages of the iGrafx web site at

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

www.igrafx.com for additional product resources, including quick tours, white papers, recorded
seminars, and consulting and training services.

In the iGrafx Help system, use the Options button on the help system toolbar for additional
navigation within the help system, such as turning search highlights on and off.

The sections on Modeling for Simulation and Running a Process Simulation are specifically for users
of Process and Process for Six Sigma. You must have a trial or full version of these products installed
to be able to use the features described.

As you use iGrafx, view the Status bar at the bottom of the application window for brief messages.
Passing the cursor over items in the window displays a ToolTip (a short description about the item).

iGrafx products contain standard Microsoft Windows functionality, such as OLE object linking
and the clipboard for cut, copy, and paste operations. You can also undo actions in the diagram. For
more information, search for these terms in the iGrafx Help system, accessible from the iGrafx Help
menu and most dialog boxes.
iGrafx requires an active license for all products. Please contact iGrafx to purchase an upgrade if you
want to use functionality not included in your licensed product.
For information on installing iGrafx and activating licenses, see the iGrafx 2007 Installation Guide
accessible from the install wizard, the root of the installation CD, and from Download
Documentation on the iGrafx Help menu.
System requirements are published in the release notes and under each products FAQ on the
products page on www.igrafx.com.

Before You Begin


As you work with iGrafx, it is beneficial to understand the concept of documents and diagrams. Note
that Process and Process for Six Sigma provide the ability to simulate a process (not FlowCharter).

Documents are files. A document is a container of diagrams. A new document includes one
diagram by default, and may contain any number of diagrams. You cannot simulate across files
unless processes are shared in Process Central.

Diagrams are an iGrafx component. You can collect and link multiple diagrams in one
document to keep related information in one place. iGrafx diagrams have no size limit.
Multiple diagrams or processes in a single file may create a hierarchical structure.See About
iGrafx Diagram Types on page 84.

Linked diagrams have a hierarchical structure. The lower-level diagram is a subprocess to one
or more higher-level processes. During simulation, transactions move from one linked diagram
to another.

Hierarchy of Processes

Add a subprocess to a diagram as described in Managing Process Diagrams on page 22, then view
diagram hierarchy as described below.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

To view a diagram hierarchy:


1 On the View menu, choose Explorer Bar to display the Explorer bar if it is not visible, and click
the Components tab at the bottom of the bar.

2 Choose Diagram Hierarchy in the drop-down list at the top of the bar.
Other views show all the components, diagrams sorted by departments each contains, and diagrams
containing links.

Before You Begin

How to Open and Create Files


Try using each of these ways to open or create new documents:

Entry point

Procedure

Creates or opens this kind of file

New command

On the File menu, point to New,


then choose a diagram type or
template.

Any diagram type or document


from a template

See About iGrafx Diagram Types on


page 84.
Welcome dialog box

Start iGrafx.

New document, new from


template, existing file, recent file

Open command

On the File menu, choose Open.

An existing file, such as a *.igx file

When you save your work after creating a new document or diagram, iGrafx saves the component as
part of a *.igx file to which you can add more diagrams. For more information on the differences
between documents and diagrams, see Before You Begin on page 5.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

Add a new diagram to a document


1 On the View menu, choose Explorer Bar to display the Explorer bar if it is not visible, and click
the Components tab (shown below). Make sure you are viewing all components.

2 Right-click a diagram folder (such as Processes shown above), point to New, and choose a
diagram type. iGrafx creates a new diagram folder for each type of diagram component of a
document.
3 In the New Component dialog box, type a new process name.
These new processes are not linked to the hierarchy. To link processes together and enable them to be
subprocesses, see Managing Process Diagrams on page 22.

Open an existing diagram within a document


In the iGrafx Explorer bar, double-click the diagram you want to open.

Convert an open diagram to another diagram type


On the Tools menu, point to Change Diagram Type and choose a new diagram type.

To print or copy the Explorer tree view, right-click inside the Explorer bar and choose Print Tree to
send the output to the printer, or choose Copy Tree to copy the contents to the clipboard.

How to Open and Create Files

Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart


A map, diagram, or flowchart is a graphical representation of a process. After you create a Process or
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) diagram, you can add behaviors to make it into a
model on which you can run simulation scenarios. See Modeling and Simulation on page 39.
A process diagram uses activities, directed connector lines, and departments to represent a process.
Lines entering activities are inputs to the activities, and lines exiting activities are outputs from the
activities. By default, a generator start point is indicated in the Start activity.

A simple process

In the following topics, each basic step provides a procedure for creating a diagram from a Process,
BPMN, Lean Value Stream Map, Layout, or Basic diagram type in iGrafx. To get started, see How to
Open and Create Files on page 7.
1 Placing and Connecting Shapes on page 9
2 Selecting Shapes and Lines on page 13
3 Adding Text on page 15
4 Numbering and Renumbering Shapes on page 17
5 Modifying Case Text on page 18
6 Adding Notes, Links, and Indicators on page 19
7 Aligning Objects on page 20
8 Adding Properties to Shapes on page 21

Placing and Connecting Shapes


See Placement Shortcuts for more placement options, such as how to automatically connect placed
shapes.
See Creating a Process Map in the iGrafx tutorials for more information about placing shapes.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

If a tool or a window is hidden, use the View menu to find it and show it in the application window.

Click a shape in the Toolbox toolbar (on the left side of the application window), then click and drag
in the diagram to place it with automatic connector lines.

You may also click and drag a shape from the Gallery (on the right side of the application window)
to the diagram space.

10

Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart

Use the Gallery to change colors, format text and lines, add shadows and 3D attributes, and change
fonts and line ends on selected diagram elements.

Move the cursor over a shape in the Toolbox toolbar or the Gallery to see its name. Right-click the
shape palette in the Gallery and choose Show Both for another view.
Although you may designate any shape to have any behavior, BPMN and Value Stream Map
diagrams use shapes with specific behaviors that may have some limitations.See Manage Shapes in
the Shape Library.

Copy the formatting of selected text, shapes, or lines to other objects in one step using the Format
Painter tool on the Standard toolbar.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

11

Placement Shortcuts

Task

Procedure

Place multiple
instances of one shape

1 On the Toolbox toolbar, double-click the shape you want to place, and
then click in the diagram space to place the shape.
2 Continue clicking to place additional shapes.
3 Click Finish to stop.

Automatically connect 1 Place a shape in the diagram space.


shapes while placing
2 Click outside the shape in the diagram space. The cursor changes to
indicate you are in placement mode.
3 Click and drag (hold down the left mouse button) from inside the
shape you just placed to place another instance of the same shape.
Automatically connect 1 Place a shape in the diagram space.
different shapes as you 2 While the shape is selected, click another shape in the Toolbox toolbar
place them in the
or Gallery.
diagram space
3 Click and drag from inside the shape you just placed to place the new
shape.
You can also place and connect graphics in a flowchart, but unlike shapes,
graphics serve as communication aids and are not intelligent. See Graphics
and Callout Lines in the iGrafx Help system.
Place a shape that
spans departments

Click the shape, then hold the Ctrl key while you click and drag the shape
by its handle across one or more departments.

Exclude a department
from a task

1 Double-click the activity shape that spans multiple departments.


2 In the Properties dialog box, click the Task page, then click the Step
tab.
3 Click the Exclude Depts button.
4 In the Exclude Departments dialog box, select a department name and
click the Yes button to move it to the Excluded list.

12

Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart

To draw unconnected lines, on the Tools menu, choose Options and click the Connector Lines tab,
then select the Allow Unconnected Lines check box.

Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:


Intelligent Shapes
Container Shapes
Connector Lines and Line Routing
Attach Graphics to Lines
Edit Connector Lines

Selecting Shapes and Lines


Try selecting an item by clicking it using the
difference in appearance.

Selected shape

tool on the Toolbox toolbar and notice the

Unselected shape

Try changing the default size of a shape by using its sizing handles or by adding elements, such as
text.

To move a placed shape in one step, hold the Alt key while you click and drag the shape.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

13

Selection Methods

Task

Procedure

Select an item

Click the object.

Select multiple items

1 If the cursor is not an arrow, click the

tool.

2 Click and hold on an empty portion of the diagram space, then drag
the cursor diagonally across the items to select. Position the cursor to
mark the first corner of the selection rectangle, hold down the mouse
button and drag the cursor diagonally across the items to completely
surround items to select.

Select all items in the


diagram

On the Edit menu, choose Select All


or
hold the Ctrl key and press A (Ctrl+A).

Add items to the


selection

Select the first shape, then press and hold the Shift key and select each item
you want to add.

Remove items from the Place the cursor directly over the item to remove from selection, press the
selection
Shift key, and click the mouse button.
Cancel selection of
items

Click an empty place in the diagram space.

Select diagram objects


by type

On the Edit menu, choose Select to precisely specify selected items in your
diagram. For example, you may want to change the format of all decision
shapes in a large diagram.

14

Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart

Adding Text
Text provides labels and information about your diagram. Shape numbers show the process sequence
in a flowchart, but do not necessarily indicate the flow of transactions when simulated.

Text in Shapes

Task

Procedure

Add text

Click the shape and type the text. If the shape doesnt grow to
accommodate text, press F8 to fit to text. The Fit to Text command is also
on the Arrange menu.

Resize text in a shape

Select the shape and, on the Format menu, choose Font to specify font
settings in the Format Text dialog box.

Set text margins inside Select the shape and, on the Format menu, choose Text Layout to specify
a shape
margin percentages in the Format Text Layout dialog box.

Text Areas
A text area creates a container that wraps text as you type. The text area you create outside a shape
maintains the same position regardless of other shapes around it.

Task
Create a text area

Procedure
1 Click the

tool on the Toolbox toolbar.

2 Click and drag the Text tool I-beam on the diagram from the top-left
to lower-right corner of the desired area, then type the text.
Just click the
Change default text
alignment

tool and start typing if you want a single line of text.

Select the text and, on the Format menu, choose Text Alignment.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

15

Task

Procedure

Attach a text area to a You can use this procedure to anchor text or graphics from other
shape
applications using the Copy and Paste commands. If the shape or line is
moved, the attached object moves with it.
1 Create a text area.
2 Click and hold the left mouse button on the red box inside the selected
text area.

3 Drag the anchor line to the anchoring shape.


4 Release the mouse button.
On the View menu, choose Hidden Lines command to hide or display the
anchor.
Detach a text area

Right-click the text block and choose Detach Text from Shape or Detach
Text from Line.

Display a gray dashed


border around a text
area

On the View menu, choose Hidden Lines.

Change the text area


border, color, line
style, or width

Click the text area and, on the Format menu, choose Line and Border.

Change the text area


fill pattern

Click the text area and, on the Format menu, choose Fill.

16

Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart

Numbering and Renumbering Shapes


Shape numbers do not necessarily indicate the flow of a process during simulation. You may choose to
use shape numbers to identify a shape.
Diagrams in a hierarchy have a parent shape that links to a subprocess. By default, the shape
numbers in a subdiagram (or subprocess) all start with the diagrams parent shape number. This
parent shape is in another diagram within the same document, and it links to the diagram. If a
diagram has multiple parent shapes, you can choose which shape to use as the parent for numbering
purposes.
Select a shape or shapes. If you are renumbering all shapes, ensure that all shapes are unselected.
Click

on the Toolbox toolbar or, on the Format menu, point to Numbering.

Choose a task below and follow the procedure.

Task

Procedure

Show or hide numbers on all shapes Choose Show All Shape Numbers or Hide All Shape Numbers.
Show or hide numbers on selected
shapes

Choose Show Shape Number or Hide Shape Number.

Renumber all shapes or selected


shapes automatically

Shape numbers must be displayed to use this procedure.


1 Choose Auto Renumber.
2 Use the Automatic Renumber dialog box to renumber
all shapes.

Renumber shapes manually

Shape numbers must be displayed to use this procedure.


1 Choose Manual Renumber.
2 In the Renumber dialog box, type the next number you
want displayed.
3 Click the shape in the diagram you want to renumber.

Set the default number format for


new shapes

1 Choose Default Number Format.


2 In the Shape Fields dialog box, click Format.
3 Use the Numbering Format dialog box to select a new
example number or enter your own numbering scheme.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

17

Task

Procedure

Change the number format for


existing shapes

1 Choose Number Format.


2 In the Shape Fields dialog box, click Format.
3 Use the Numbering Format dialog box to select a new
example number or enter your own numbering scheme.
4 Use the procedure above to set the default number
format for new shapes.

Indicate parent shape number on a


shape with multiple parent shapes

Parent shapes must have different numbering schemes. If you


need to change the number format, see the procedure above.
1 Choose Diagram Parent Shape.
2 Select a diagram parent shape number from the dropdown list.

Modifying Case Text


Case text appears as labels on the outputs of shapes with decision behavior. By default, the diamond
shape has a decision behavior specified, and when you draw the first line from a decision to another
activity, it is labeled No.

Right-click the case text on the diagram and choose another text option on the context menu to
change output text on an existing decision shape. You can also double-click the shape to change this
case text in the Outputs page of the Properties dialog box.
Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:
Define Activity Outputs
Attribute and Function Types
Decision Output Options

18

Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart

Adding Notes, Links, and Indicators


Indicators appear on a shape by default when it has notes, links, or properties assigned to it. You set
the display of all indicators for a diagram at a time.
Linking can establish a process hierarchy, such as when you create a subprocess that links two
diagrams in the Process dialog box Task page. or it can simply attach an object or file to a shape.
Choose the Links view in the iGrafx Explorer bar to see all document links.
Take a look at all the indicators and their settings, then try adding a note and changing its
appearance in the diagram using the procedures below.

Task

Procedure

Attach a note

Select the shape, press the F6 key, then type the text.

Add a link to iGrafx


objects and files

This procedure links shapes to other diagrams, files, Web pages, or files in
repositories.
1 Select the shape.
2 On the Insert menu, choose Link.
3 In the Add Link dialog box, choose the kind of link you want to create
and specify settings.

Add an OLE link

1 Select the shape.


2 On the Insert menu, choose OLE Object.
3 In the Insert Object dialog box, select Create from File, set the path to
the object, and select the Link box.
4 Select Display as Icon unless you want to display the contents of the
linked object.

Modify indicator
options

On the Format menu, choose Diagram and click the Indicators tab to hide
or change the appearance of indicators such as Note and Link icons.

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Aligning Objects
You can use this procedure to align shapes, text, or other diagram objects.
Turn off Snap to Grid on the Arrange menu before you try to align objects. The Snap to Grid
command toggles on and off.

1 Select the diagram objects. (See Selecting Shapes and Lines on page 13.)
2 On the Arrange menu, point to an alignment command and choose parameters within that
command. For example, you could point to Align and choose Middle to line up objects
horizontally by their middle points.
The last object selected has a different highlight to show that it is the object to which other
objects are aligned.
Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:
Arrange Objects Together
Grid Spacing, Rulers, and Guidelines
Format, Align, and Orient Text

20

Creating a Map, Diagram, or Flowchart

Adding Properties to Shapes


Properties turn a diagram into a model. Double-click a shape to view or modify its properties in the
Properties dialog box.

Properties can be set at the shape level, as described above, or at the diagram level. If you right-click
on a Lean value stream map and choose Value Stream Map Properties on the context menu to display
the Properties dialog box, you can see that you are setting diagram-level properties because the
diagram namenot the activity nameis included in the title bar of the dialog box.
Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:
Properties dialog box topics

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Managing Process Diagrams


Try these procedures on a sample file in your language directory at
C:\Program Files\iGrafx\Pro\12.0\Sample or on some of your own creations.

Task

Procedure

Create a subprocess

1 Double-click the parent shape.


2 In the Properties dialog box, select the Process page.
3 From the Activity Type drop-down list, choose Subprocess.
4 Click the New Process button and name a new component or choose
one from the drop-down list.
5 Click OK.

Display a subprocess

Press the Shift key, and double-click a subprocess shape.


or
Right-click the shape and choose the process name on the context menu.

Rename a process

1 In the Explorer bar, right-click the process to be renamed, and choose


Rename on the context menu.
2 Type a new name, and press the Enter key.

Copy a process within


a document

1 In the Explorer bar, right-click the process to be copied and click


Copy. The process is copied to the clipboard.
2 In the Explorer bar, right-click where you want to add the component
and choose Paste. The copied process appears in the Process list with a
new name, such as Process2.

Copy a process
between documents

1 In the Explorer bar, right-click the process to be copied and click


Copy. The process is copied to the clipboard.
2 On the File menu, point to Open and choose another iGrafx document.
3 In the opened document, right-click the component area in the
Explorer bar, and choose Paste on the context menu. The copied
process appears in the Process list. If the copied process has the same
name as an existing process in the file, iGrafx renames the new process.

Delete a process

22

In the Explorer bar, right-click the process you want to delete, and click
Delete.

Managing Process Diagrams

Creating a Lean Value Stream Map


Use the Lean Value Stream Map or Lean Extended Value Stream Map diagram type to create a value
stream map.
The Value Stream Map Properties dialog box sets time-related properties on the Setup tab. You can
choose to display graphical analysis objects, such as a Timeline and Work Balancing Graph on the
Timeline and Graph tabs.

Task

Procedure

Add shapes and flows

See Placing and Connecting Shapes on page 9. With automatic routing, the
line defaults to a push arrow with inventory attached.

Set value stream map


properties

1 On the Lean menu, choose Value Stream Map Properties.


2 On the Setup tab, specify Available Work Time and Takt Time.
When you change a factor of Takt time, other elements recalculate
automatically. Also, you can display a Takt Goal, which provides an
attainable production target.
3 Use the Graph tab and the Timeline tab to specify display of lines,
graphs, and named data in the map. You can also modify the labels
and units used in these map elements.

Import or export value On the Lean menu, choose an import or export command.
stream map data

Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:


Value Stream Map Procedures and Reference

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Entering Data on Value Stream Map Shapes


A custom data block displays values in the Lean Value Stream Map (VSM) diagram below each
process step. Custom data affects the entire document, but you can assign values at a step in the VSM
diagram and show or hide them. For more information, see the Custom Data topic in the iGrafx Help
system.
Some Lean data is calculated, indicated by gray background read-only fields in the Properties dialog
box. Accumulated values display in gray text.
By default, calculated values do not appear in the diagram, but you can override some defaults. See
Lean Data Display and Accumulation in the iGrafx Help system.

Lean data block as it


appears below the process
step in the Lean map

The Lean Data page of the Properties dialog box

Task

The Operators value


displays directly on the
process step with an icon.

Procedure

Enter shape data using 1 Double-click an activity shape and click the Lean Data page in the
predefined data fields
Properties dialog box.
2 Click a data element and enter the value and unit.
You cannot enter values in Calculated and Accumulated fields unless
you override them.

24

Creating a Lean Value Stream Map

Task

Procedure

Create or modify
custom Lean data

1 On the Tools menu, choose Setup Custom Data.


2 In the Custom Data dialog box, click the New button to add a new
data element, or select a data element to modify.
3 Expand the Lean Types drop-down list and select the type of data to
use for this data element. For example, if you want to capture the
percentage of defects at each process step, choose Defect %. The data
type is automatically set to percent.
4 Customize the display of data fields or use defaults.

Creating a BPMN Diagram


iGrafx BPMN diagrams:

represent pools with floating departments

support compliance with the BPMN standard with correct-by-construction warnings and
errors

can simulate

Floating departments represent pools in the BPMN template. Diagram compliance with the BPMN
standard is supported with correct by construction warnings and errors. iGrafx can simulate BPMN
diagrams.
View a sample BPMN diagram called BPMN.igx at C:\Program Files\iGrafx\Pro\12.0\Sample in
your language folder.

Task

Procedure

Convert a Process
diagram to a BPMN
diagram

On the Tools menu, point to Change Diagram Type and choose BPMN
Diagram. You cannot undo this command after you click Yes.

Add shapes and flows

See Placing and Connecting Shapes on page 9.


Event shapes change to start, intermediate, or end, depending on where
they are placed in the flow, to maintain compliance with BPMN rules.
Some events, called intermediate or border events, are attached to activity
boundaries when you model output exceptions.

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Task

Procedure

Connecting shapes
with connector lines

Use the:

Sequence flow line to define the flow of


transactions through the model.

Message flow lines to send information, not


transactions, between pools. This line style appears automatically
when you draw a line between pools.

Association lines for annotation and


compensation flow, which is not part of the sequence flow. This line
style appears automatically when you attach a graphic object to a
shape.

The default sequence flow line


indicates the default path
when conditions exist on the flow out of an activity or gateway.
Run the BPMN
checker

1 On the Model menu, choose Check.


2 In the Check dialog box, select the scope of errors to be checked. All
error messages appear in the Output Window at the bottom of the
iGrafx window.
3 Double-click an error message to highlight the source of the error in
the diagram.

26

Creating a BPMN Diagram

Example: Create an Exception Flow Using BPMN Events


1 Open a new BPMN diagram and place the Take customer call and Automatic log renege
shapes shown in the graphic below.
2 Double-click the Take customer call activity.
3 On the Properties dialog box - Outputs page, Exception tab, choose Timer and set properties.
4 Place the Log issue resolution shape and End event shape.

In this call center process, calls wait for a specific time before the caller hangs up, or reneges. The flow from Take
customer call to Automatic log renege is an exception flow.

Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:


BPMN Diagrams Procedures and Reference

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Creating an OrgChart

Open a new OrgChart diagram and use the OrgChart Builder (on the OrgChart menu) to add
an assistant, a manager, subordinates, or coworkers and to move roles in the diagram.

Use the ToolTips to help you learn the controls on the OrgChart Builder. If ToolTips are
turned off, on the View menu, choose Toolbars and select the Show ToolTips check box.

Double-click a shape and specify changes, such as custom data fields and the display of fields
and fonts, in the OrgChart Data Editor.

If the Builder and Data Editor are hidden, you can choose them from the OrgChart menu.
Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:
Organization Chart Procedures

28

Creating an OrgChart

Creating a Cause and Effect Diagram


Use iGrafx tools to create Cause and Effect diagrams for documenting the source of errors in a
process. Choose a default, Transactional, or Manufacturing Cause and Effect diagram template that
populates the diagram with a basic fishbone configuration of causes and effects.
You can add a Pareto chart from the Cause and Effect menu. The Pareto chart responds dynamically to
changes made in the Cause and Effect diagram or Explorer bar tree.

Pareto chart

In the Explorer bar - Cause and Effect tab, double-click cause text to edit it, or right-click to add or
delete a cause. You can also print or export a Cause and Effect diagram when you right-click in the
Explorer bar.

Specifying Page Setup


On the File menu, choose Page Setup and look through the options. iGrafx supports headers and
footers with custom fonts, images, and custom data. Watermarks display in addition to most
standard page setup options. You can apply the same settings to all components, or apply custom
settings to individual components of your document. Right-click a diagram name to copy or paste
page setup from one diagram to another.
For more information about page setup, see Page Layout in the iGrafx Help system.

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Printing a Diagram
Task

Procedure

Turn on page breaks

On the View menu, choose Page Breaks. iGrafx recommends previewing


diagrams with page breaks displayed.

Preview printing

On the File menu, choose Print Preview to view your diagram, size it
correctly, and print it all at the same time.

Print a diagram or
selected components

1 Display the diagram you want to print.


2 On the File menu, choose Print.
or
tool on the Standard toolbar.
Click the Print
3 In the Print dialog box, keep the default setting to print the entire
document, or select These Components under Print What and click
the Choose button to select document components in the Choose Print
Components dialog box.

Cancel printing

Press the Esc key.


or
In the Print dialog box, click the Cancel button.

Troubleshoot print
problems

Print from another application. The problem may not be isolated to


iGrafx.

Reboot the printer and the computer.

Verify that your printer driver is current and correct for your printer.
Visit your vendors website to download the most recent printer
driver.

30

Printing a Diagram

Publishing and Emailing a Document


Publishing documents is ideal for information exchange with individuals who do not have an iGrafx
application installed.
iGrafx works with any MAPI email system, including Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Mail, Microsoft
Exchange, and Lotus cc:Mail, so you can send documents as attachments with email messages.
You can output an iGrafx document as a web page (HTML, Java applet, or SVG), a Word document
(*.doc), a presentation (*.ppt), or a web project (Java applet).
Publish as Web Page is a one-shot, non-progressive task. Use the Publish Web Project feature for
documents you update and publish frequently.
In all of the publishing dialog boxes, if you check or clear a parent diagram, all of its children are
checked or cleared. You can override this by holding the Shift key when clicking an item.

Task

Procedure

Email an iGrafx file

On the File menu, choose Send to automatically open your email, address it,
and send it with the open document attached.

Publish a file as a web


page

On the File menu, point to Publish As and choose Web Page.

If you are publishing as HTML, you can save multiple-page


diagrams to a single HTML page by selecting the Save MultiplePage Diagrams to a Single HTML Page check box.

If you want to publish a single, overall composite view of a multiple


page diagram, make sure your diagram fits on one page or, on the
File menu, choose Page Setup and change the scaling to fit to 1 page
by 1 page on the Page tab.

Publish as a Word
document

On the File menu, point to Publish As and choose Word Document.

Publish as a
PowerPoint
presentation

On the File menu, point to Publish As and choose PowerPoint Presentation.


The titles for your slides correspond directly to the contents of the center
header in your Page Setup settings. To change this header, on the File
menu, choose Page Setup and click the Header tab. The Center Section tab
contains the slide heading.

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Task

Procedure

Publish as a web
project

On the Tools menu, choose Publish Web Project.

Update a web project


(republish)

1 On the Tools menu, choose Publish Web Project.

After you have created your initial set of published files, you can make
changes and then republish them. iGrafx remembers where you have stored
both the source and published files.
2 Specify which documents to publish. Leave document check boxes
selected if you have made enhancements or corrections to existing files.
3 Click Republish.

Publish as a PDF file

On the File menu, point to Publish As and choose PDF Document.


In the PDF file, you can navigate links published from your iGrafx
document.

Publishing Limitations
Some limitations apply when publishing iGrafx files in different formats.

Publish As Web Page (Java)/Publish Web Project


Java 1.3 or later is recommended for use with the web page publishing feature.

Hairline / 1pt dashed and dotted lines render as solid lines unless running Java 1.3 or later.

Applet Print functionality is only available when running Java 1.3 or later, or with the
Microsoft Virtual machine version 1.1.

Bitmap images containing more than 256 colors are dithered on publish.
Fill patterns change appearance when you zoom in (pattern scale is fixed).

32

Publishing and Emailing a Document

Publish Web Project

Linked iGrafx files are always published. Clearing a linked file from the project tree in the
source file does not remove it from the project if it is still being referenced by another file
selected for publishing as part of the web project.

Linked documents outside of the source folder are published purely as links and are not
managed or copied to the publishing folder.

After a project has been created, you can change the contents of the folders, but the source
folder and publishing folder cannot be changed.

Only one project can exist per source folder.

Modifications should not be made to files in the publishing folder. iGrafx recommends that
you copy files to a development folder if you plan to edit any of the output before deployment.

Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG)


SVG supports only one link per shape, and all SVG output utilizes the same HTML multi-link
mechanism as HTML output.
SVG does not support ToolTips.

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Web Publishing Reference


For procedures, see Publishing and Emailing a Document on page 31.

Publish as Web Page

Web Page Output Format

Description

HTML

The basic HTML files can be viewed in any web browser that
supports images, client-side image maps, and tables.
If the entire diagram does not display in the browser, on the File
menu, choose Page Setup, set page scaling to fit to 1 page, and
then republish.

Java Applet

A Java applet zooms and pans, displays shape notes as rich


formatted ToolTips, finds text within a diagram, and prints full
page.

SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics is a XML-based publishing format.

Publish as Web Project


An iGrafx web project is based on a collection of iGrafx files stored in a specified source folder.
iGrafx publishes the selected files to a publishing folder specified during project creation.
A web project has several benefits over one-shot web page publishing, such as:

34

Publishing and Emailing a Document

Web Project Feature

Benefits

Intelligent republishing

Files are published only if:

They have changed since the last time published.

A linked file has been removed since the last time published.

iGrafx previously generated a warning during publishing.

Files in the project have been changed or deleted outside of


iGrafx.

Preserved linking

File links are restored if components change in a linked document.

Tree view navigation

Synchronized navigation of links.

Links appear in tree.

Warnings are generated for problem diagrams or components.

Publishing folder directory structure mirrors source folder.

Protection against accidentally using reserved filenames.

Managed files

Web Project Limitations


Diagram output only supports Java applet format. Java 1.3 or later is recommended.
For other Java applet limitations, see Publishing Limitations on page 32.

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Saving a Document
iGrafx supports versions of its software two releases back. For example, you can save a document you
create in iGrafx 2007 as an iGrafx 2006 or iGrafx 2005 version document.

If you save your document to an older version, functionality added in later versions of the product
are lost. Use the Save As command on the File menu to save an *.igx file as an older version.

Automatic Recovery protects your work from an unexpected system or program failure by
automatically saving files every 10 minutes. To change the default autosave setting:
1 On the Tools menu, choose Options and click the General tab.
2 Select the Save Auto Recover info every check box and change the value in the Minutes text
box.

36

Saving a Document

Sharing Information with Process Central


You can install iGrafx Process Central as an option with a FlowCharter, Process, or Process for Six
Sigma license. Process Central stores documents in a central location for enhanced team-based,
collaborative process improvement efforts.
You must open a repository before you can access its contents. Contact your system administrator to
gain access privileges to repositories in your organization.
Unloading and loading a repository is a shortcut for detaching from a repository when you do not
need it and reattaching when you do. Unloading repositories can shorten start-up time, improve
server performance, and reduce the number of server connections.

Task

Procedure

Open a repository

On the ProcessCentral menu, choose Open Repository and use the wizard to log
in to a SQL-based or Oracle-based server.

Close a repository

In the iGrafx Explorer bar (Process Central tab), right-click a repository


and choose Close Repository.
Closing a repository detaches it and removes its icon from the repository
window iGrafx Explorer bar.

Unload a repository

In the iGrafx Explorer bar (Process Central tab), right-click a repository


icon and choose Unload Repository.
Unloading a repository disconnects it, but keeps the icon in the repository
window of the iGrafx Explorer bar for easy reloading so you can skip server
login when you want to reconnect to it.
To reconnect an unloaded repository, use the Load Repository command.

Load a repository

In the iGrafx Explorer bar, right-click an unloaded repository icon, and


click Load Repository.
Loading a repository reconnects an unloaded repository.

View the repository


window

Click the Process Central tab on the iGrafx Explorer bar or, on the
ProcessCentral menu, choose Show Window.

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Task

Procedure

Perform tasks on a
repository item

Do one of the following in the repository window:

Right-click the item and choose a command on the context menu.

Click an item and choose a command on the ProcessCentral menu.

Click an item and choose a command from the Process Central


toolbar. (For more information, see Process Central and Process
Central Queries Toolbars.)

Refresh the repository


window

On the ProcessCentral menu, choose Refresh Window.

Change display of
hierarchy and
approved items

On the ProcessCentral menu, choose Options.

38

Use the Refresh Window command for the latest view of the repository.
Other users changes may not appear until you use this command.

The Process Central Options dialog box contains options for viewing links
and marking approved items in the tree hierarchy.

Sharing Information with Process Central

Modeling and Simulation


You can model a process for simulation in iGrafx FlowCharter, Process or Process for Six Sigma,
but iGrafx Process or Process for Six Sigma is required for running a simulation.

A process diagram becomes a process model when it describes how each activity processes
transactions and identifies data types such as the resources needed to process the transactions. The
Properties dialog box provides the controls to set these behaviors. Models may consist of a single
diagram or chart within a document, or a collection of diagrams, each designed to fulfill a different
modeling need.
When you run a simulation on your model, each activity behaves according to its assigned properties.
The results of a simulation are recorded in a simulation report that helps you determine the impact of
each activity (as well as several other factors) on the overall cycle time and cost of the process.

Simulation Analysis
If you are unfamiliar with modeling and simulation concepts, see Simulation Modeling Concepts on page
85.
The methodology for analyzing a process with simulation includes these basic steps:
1 Identify goals, objectives, and scope of the project.
2 Gather data on the existing process through interviews and measurements.
3 Build a model of the current process that approximates process performance when simulated.
4 Perform simulation what-if analysis by making changes to the model and running simulations.
5 Present your results and recommendations for potential changes to the current process.
In the above methodology, building a model involves these basic activities:
1 Create the process diagram using departments, shapes, and connector lines. (See Placing and
Connecting Shapes on page 9.)
2 Describe the behavior of each activity. (See Describing Activity Behavior on page 40.)
3 Describe the simulation environment the process lives in through the Scenario. (See Describing the
Simulation Environment Through Scenarios on page 49.)
4 Execute a simulation and analyze the results in the Report. (See Executing a Simulation and
Analyzing Results on page 54 and Viewing Simulation Results on page 55.)

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Describing Activity Behavior


Most shapes represent activities and contain behavioral information. As a general rule, during
simulation a transaction enters the activity and visits each page of the Modeling category in the
Properties dialog box starting with Inputs and proceeding through the Last Simulation page.
The Process Guide (the Process page in the Guide category) provides quick entry of the most
frequently modeled data. Modeling category pages most commonly used are Inputs, Resources, Task,
and Outputs.

The Process Guide

1 Double-click a shape in a Process diagram and click Process in the Properties dialog box to see
simple shortcuts for setting the type of activity. (The BPMN diagram offers a similar BPMN
shortcut.)
2 Click the Details button on the Process or BPMN page to jump to properties pages for advanced
behavior definition.

40

Modeling and Simulation

Inputs Page: Describe how transactions are collected

The default is no collection. The most common forms of collection used in modeling are:

Collection
Type

Behavior

Batch

Collect multiple transactions in a basket and carry them through the process. The On
Completion tab of the Task page contains a command to Unbatch the transactions
and empty the basket.

Join

Merge multiple transactions together into a single transaction. Some data is merged,
including attributes.

Gate

Hold transactions at the gate until a condition is met and the gate is opened.

Group

Transactions can enter an activity individually, and they are tagged with a group
name.

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Introduce Transactions defines a point in the process where transactions are introduced.

None specifies that no transactions are generated here.

Using a Start Point names the start point where generators introduce transactions into the
activity.

Generate Here tells the simulator to generate a transaction when a condition occurs, such as
when an event happens or a period of time elapses.

Resources page: Identify resources required to do work

By default, iGrafx automatically creates and allocates a built-in resource named Worker to any newly
created department as soon as you add activities that acquire a resource. The default resource type for
a department is the first type allocated to it (first allocation listed on the Organizations tab). You can

42

Modeling and Simulation

create other non-worker resource types such as Labor or Equipment in the Scenario. (See Describing the
Simulation Environment Through Scenarios on page 49.)
The most important resource options are shown by default:

Worker or other named resource (Default worker is the default resource type).

How the resource is acquired. Usually the resource works for the activity.

Number of resources required to work on each transaction processed.

Click the
button for more dialog box options, and click the Add button to specify that more than
one type of resource is required for an activity. The Delete button removes a specified resource from
an activity.

Task page: Define the type of task the activity performs

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Click the Step tab to set behaviors such as type of task, duration, and special handling used by most
activities.

Task Type

Behavior

Work

Uses a resource to work on a transaction for the duration of the Task.


Reported as Work.

Process

Linked to a subprocess. During simulation, the transaction moves from this


activity to a start activity on another diagram (subprocess). The transaction
returns to this activity when it completes the subprocess. (For steps to create
and view a subprocess, see Managing Process Diagrams on page 22.)

Delay

Blocks the transaction for the duration of the Task. Delay tasks do not
usually use a resource.

If the activity is Work or Delay, the task has duration. Default duration is zero (0).

Duration Type

Behavior

Constant

The same (constant) duration value for all transactions.

Distributed

The duration value is a range with a minimum and maximum value. The
duration may be uniformly or normally distributed between the two
numbers:

Expression

44

Uniform specifies every number between the two numbers has an


equal probability of being used.

Normal specifies a bell curve distribution, which is centered between


the two numbers.

Equations can describe the duration of the activity. See Expressions in the
iGrafx Help system.

Modeling and Simulation

Value Class identifies the activity as value added, no value added, or business value added.

Value Class

Definition

VA

Value AddedThe resource is contributing to the creation or delivery of a


product or service. The customer is willing to pay for this work.

BVA

Business Value AddedThe resource is useful to the business but does not
contribute directly to the product or service. This work does not add value for
the customer.

NVA

No Value AddedThis work adds no value. Lean methodology refers to this


as muda.

On the View menu, choose Value Class to set and view activities by value class color.

Task Capacity, Schedule, and Overtime Behavior define limits to the number of transactions
processed and the processing time frame. These settings also describe activity behavior with regard to
the defined schedule.

Transaction Limit

Behavior

Limited Capacity

Limits the number of transactions that can be processed at one time.

Limited Schedule

Specifies whether the time frame of the activity is limited to a schedule.


Resource schedules still apply for any resources required for the activity.

Overtime
Behavior

Specifies how the activity behaves if resources go out of schedule.

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Use the On Completion tab to specify how transactions are handled when an activity completes.

Transaction
Handling

Behavior

None

No output behavior is defined.

Duplicate

Copies a transaction into multiple (Count) identical transactions.

Duplicate by
Member

Duplicates the transaction into a count equal to the number of members of


an attribute type.

Discard

Terminates the transaction. The transaction is not counted as complete in


the simulation report.

Unbatch

Undoes the Batch collection of transactions and removes each transaction


from the collection.

Message

The transaction generates a message that triggers an event. The event causes
the process to continue if the event was waiting for the message, or changes
the flow for exception handling.

Fault

The transaction throws an error if the event is part of a normal sequence


flow.

Cancel

The transaction cancels the business transaction that uses this activity.

Compensate

The transaction sets and performs compensation output tasks.

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Modeling and Simulation

Outputs page: Describe how transactions leave the activity

A transaction follows a directed connector line or lines out of an activity to the inputs of the next
activity. The Normal tab, used on most activities, defines how transactions follow lines. The
Exceptions tab specifies any special outputs.
These common choices on the Normal tab specify which paths a transaction follows to an activity:

Output Type

Behavior

All

Sends the transaction down all paths that leave the activity. If more than one
path exists, an implicit duplication occurs (iGrafx creates identical
transactions and sends them down each path).

Decision

Sends transactions down one of the paths specified, based on percentages or


expressions.

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Output Type

Behavior

Named Outputs

Sets automatically provided labels for output paths and defines a condition
under which a path is taken.

Available

Causes the shape to look ahead to the receiving shapes in each path and
holds transactions until input constraints on one of the receiving shapes are
satisfied. Transactions take only one of the paths.

These common choices on the Exceptions tab define conditions where the activity terminates early
and the path to take:

Exception Type

Behavior

None

No special exception occurs. This is the default.

Timer

Sets a time limit on performing the activity. Transactions follow the


exception path if the limit is reached. The Timer may be disabled at various
points in the execution of the activity.

Attributes page: Access to Transaction (local) and Scenario (global) location attributes
For information on building expressions, see Expressions in the iGrafx Help system.

Last Simulation page: View summary results for the activity from the last simulation
See Properties dialog box - Last Simulation page in the iGrafx Help system.

General page: View general data and Object ID information


See Properties dialog box - General page in the iGrafx Help system.

Links page: Set up non-Enterprise object links


See Properties dialog box - Links page in the iGrafx Help system.

Custom Data page: Collect statistics on shapes


See Properties dialog box - Custom Data page in the iGrafx Help system.
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Modeling and Simulation

Enterprise page: Define Risks and Measurements


You can specify risk and measurement properties for any shape in an iGrafx diagram. If you want to
refer to enterprise objects and templates, you must synchronize your Process Central repository with
an enterprise model in an Enterprise Central repository.
See Enterprise Objects Procedures and Reference in the online help system.
Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:
Input Collections
Activity Resource Requirements
Define Tasks
Define Activity Outputs
Attributes

Describing the Simulation Environment Through Scenarios


A scenario describes the simulation environment for a process. A simulation uses a single scenario
with one or more process diagrams. You can have several scenarios in one file for running what-if
simulations or variations of a process.
To view scenarios, click the View Scenario button on the Modeling toolbar.
or
On the File menu, choose Components and double-click the scenario or right-click and choose View.
Try double-clicking a data block to view and edit its settings.
The most important sections in the Scenario are Run Setup, Generators, Resources, and the Schedules
subsection under Calendars.

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Run Setup Section: Set simulation timing and how the results of simulation are placed in a report
Double-click the Run Setup section in the Scenario to display the run Setup dialog box. The most
important options are the Simulation Time tab and Initialization/Reports tab.
On the Simulation Time tab:

Control

Behavior

Simulation Start

Specifies when the simulation starts (default Weekday rather than a specific
date).

Simulation End

Specifies when simulation stops (default Transactions Complete). Most often


youll want to set a specific duration for simulation (Custom). To set a
custom end for simulation:
1 Choose Custom from the drop-down list.
2 Choose a duration time unit (for example, Hours).
3 Enter a duration (simulation end) value.

On the Initialization/Reports tab, specify how the simulation results are saved to the report (default
Create so results are replaced each time a simulation runs).

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Modeling and Simulation

Generators Section: Set up introduction of transactions into the process


Double-click the Generators section in the Scenario to display the Generators dialog box. During
simulation, generators introduce transactions into the process. The most important option is
Generator Type, which determines other data to specify. Common types are:

Generator Type

Behavior

Completion

Introduces one or more transactions into the process when the previous
transaction or transactions have completed processing. If you specify a
maximum, places one transaction or a group of transactions at a time in the
process until transactions reach the maximum count (default Max
Transactions: 1).

Demand

Introduces a transaction whenever the named resource (for example,


Worker) is available or not acquired in the department that has the Start
activity for this generator.

Interarrival

Specifies the duration of time between transactions arriving in the process.


You may start with a simple Constant or Distributed interarrival time.
Constant: The same (constant) time between transactions entering the
process.
Distributed: The time between transactions entering the process is a range
between two values.
Expression: The expression can use math functions such as ExponDist() for
exponential arrivals.

Timetable

Introduces transactions at specified intervals over a span of time. The table


may be repeated.
Click the Modify Timetable button to modify the timetable generator. On
the bar chart, the X-axis shows the time intervals and the overall time span,
and the Y-axis shows the number of transactions introduced during each
interval. Values of interest are:
Total Span: The total span of time covered by the timetable pattern given.
For example, 1d (1 day) indicates that every day the given pattern should
repeat.
Time Resolution: The smallest interval of time unit of time in the bar
chart.

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Resources: Create, modify, and manage resources used by the process


1 Double-click the Resources section in the Scenario to display the Define Resources dialog box.
2 Choose a task below and follow the procedure.

Task

Procedure

Add a resource type

1 On the Resource Types tab, click the Add button and choose Resource
Type.
2 Enter the name of the new resource type. (Do not use special
characters or spaces. The _ character is allowed.)
3 Choose Labor or Equipment for the Classification. Other has limited
use and is not recommended.

Modify a resource

1 On the Resource Types tab, select the resource.


2 Click the Properties tab. If the resource use is Pool, specify the Count
(number of that resource available to the process). On this tab, set the
Schedule (when resources are available and inactive), and Cost (the
hourly rate and/or hourly overtime rate for the resource), Overtime
and Availability for the resource.

Schedules: Specify spans of active or inactive time


iGrafx provides several built-in schedules. See Calendars in the iGrafx Help system.
Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:
Scenarios and the Scenario Window

52

Modeling and Simulation

Understanding the Modeling and Simulation Environment


When you run a simulation, iGrafx inputs the information you define through the Process and
Scenario windows, executes a simulation, and displays the results in the Report window.

iGrafx
Window

Purpose

Description

Process

Define, view, and edit process


diagrams

The default view is graphical. On the View menu,


choose Tabular change to tabular view.

Scenario

View scenarios and modify


scenario data

A scenario displays data describing the simulation


environment. The Scenario window displays a
section for each category of data in a scenario.

Report

View and edit statistical


results.

A Report window opens automatically after each


successful simulation run. Use the iGrafx Explorer
bar to reopen and display a Report window.

Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:


Simulation Results
Report Elements

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Executing a Simulation and Analyzing Results


This functionality is available in Process and Process for Six Sigma.

Process simulation requires a simulation scenario that describes the environment in which the
simulation runs. See Describing the Simulation Environment Through Scenarios on page 49.
After defining the scenario data, you are ready to run the simulation. Try running a simulation on the
sample file Order.igx located at C:\Program Files\iGrafx\Pro\12.0\Sample in your language folder.

Run mode runs the simulation for a specified amount of time or until all transactions are
processed.

Trace mode graphically shows the flow of transactions through a process diagram with
changing activity colors.

Task

Procedure

Run a simulation in
Run mode

On the Model toolbar, click the


tool
or
On the Model menu, point to Run and choose Start.

Run a simulation in
Trace mode

On the Model toolbar, click the


tool, and then click the
tool on
the Trace toolbar
or
On the Model menu, point to Run and choose Trace, then click the
tool on the Trace toolbar.
On the Control menu, choose commands to change trace colors and set or
remove pause points.
To leave Trace mode, on the Model toolbar, click the
or
On the Model menu, point to Run and choose Trace.

54

tool

Executing a Simulation and Analyzing Results

Viewing Simulation Results


You view statistical results of the latest simulation run in the Report window. For information about
the Report window, see Understanding the Modeling and Simulation Environment on page 53.

The Report Window

The default view of report elements is tables. Try changing a report element from a table to a graph:
1 Double-click the report element.
2 In the Edit Report Element dialog box, click the Format tab.
3 Choose Graph from the Display As drop-down list.
4 Click the Graph Style button, then choose a graph style.
Four of the Report tabs (Time, Cost, Resource, and Queue) contain sets of commonly used statistics
captured during simulation. You can copy and paste an existing report element or create a new report
element from the Report menu to appear on the blank Custom tab.
Try adding a report element (table or graph) to the Custom tab by copying and pasting an existing
report element, or creating a new report element using the Report menu. The Default button appears
near the Report tabs when you change any of the default report elements. Click the Default button to
reset report elements on the page to default settings.

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The categories of statistics in the Report window are:

Report Tab

Contents and Description

Time

Statistics that measure time during the simulation. Shows overall transaction times,
and times categorized by department, process, and activity.

Cost

Statistics about costs related to transactions, activities and resources.

Resources

Statistics related to resource utilization, resource time categorizations, and activity


and resource costs.

Queue

Statistics collected when transactions waited for processing at activities due to


resource, inputs collection, or other constraints.

Custom

May contain newly defined statistics, or statistics copied and pasted from any of the
other pages

The statistics on each report page are further organized according to these categories:

Statistics Type

Data

Transaction

Accumulated for each transaction that completes processing

Resource

Accumulated for each resource used in the process

Activity

Accumulated for each activity in the process

Monitor

Accumulated for each monitor defined in the process

Custom

Collected for each user-defined statistic

iGrafx categorizes basic statistics depending on whether they apply to transactions, resources, or
activities. See Process Simulation Statistics in the iGrafx Help system.

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Executing a Simulation and Analyzing Results

Report Results
iGrafx gathers basic statistics about process times, costs, resources, and waiting lines or queues. You
can create your own custom statistics. The basic statistics are categorized depending on whether they
apply to transactions, resources, or activities (see the table below).
For more information, see Process Simulation Statistics in the iGrafx Help system.

Transaction

Resource

Activity

Completion Count

Number of Workers (Count)

Cycle Time (Avg, Tot)

Cycle Time (Avg, Tot)

Utilization (Util. %)

Work Time (Avg, Tot)

Work Time (Avg, Tot)

Busy Time (Avg., Tot.)

Wait Time (Avg, Tot)

Wait Time (Avg, Tot)

Idle Time (Avg., Tot.)

Costs (VA, NVA, BVA)

Resource Wait Time (Avg,


Tot)

Out Of Service Time (OOS)

# Trans.Wait (Tavg, Tot, Max)

Blocked Time (Avg, Tot)

Inactive Time (Avg, Tot)

# Trans. at Activity (Tavg, Max)

Inactive Time (Avg, Tot)

Overtime (OT)

# Transactions

Service Time (Avg, Tot)

Costs (Tot, Stdev, OT, Busy)

Costs (VA, NVA, Labor,


Equip)
Place the cursor over a statistic heading in the report to view ToolTips that explain statistics in more
detail. ToolTips do not explain summarizations like Min, Max, Average, and Total.

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Common Default Report Statistics


The following tables describe the most common default report statistics.

Basic Transaction and Activity Time Statistics


Work Time

Time accumulated doing work (Task page duration)

Resource Wait Time

Time accumulated waiting to obtain a resource (Resources page)

Blocked Time

Time accumulated waiting in collection (Inputs page) and in delay


(Task page)

Inactive Time

Time accumulated waiting for a resource that is inactive or out of


schedule

Composite Transaction and Activity Time Statistics


Cycle Time

Blocked Time + Resource Wait Time + Inactive Time + Work Time

Service Time

Blocked Time + Resource Wait Time + Work Time

Wait Time

Blocked Time + Resource Wait Time + Inactive Time

Service Wait
Time

Blocked Time + Resource Wait Time

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Executing a Simulation and Analyzing Results

Basic Resource Time Statistics


Busy Time

Paid time the resource is acquired, such as Active and Working (Task
page Duration)

Idle Time

Paid time the resource is active and in schedule, but not busy

Out of Service

Paid or unpaid time the resource is scheduled to be active and also


unavailable

Inactive Time

Remaining time when the resource is not schedule to be available or


Out of Service

Further Reading in the iGrafx Help system:


ReportSimulation Results

Process Simulation Statistics Reference

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Six Sigma Functionality in iGrafx


Cause and effect diagramming, Pareto chart, FMEA export, and prioritization matrix tools are built
into iGrafx so you can easily capture and analyze data for managing error reduction in processes. In
addition, iGrafx Process for Six Sigma provides these tools to optimize your process:

Process Analyzer performs calculations for paths through a process for, an entire process, or for
all processes in a document such as would appear in a document with at least one subprocess.

Fit Data finds a supported random distribution that generates data similar to the measured
data you already have stored in your JMP or MINITAB statistical application.

RapiDOE (Design of Experiments) shortens the time it takes to conduct experiments within
your model to a fraction of what it would take in an operational environment.

iGrafx supports FMEA with export of cause and effect diagram data with error rollup capability to a
FMEA spreadsheet built into the application as a component of your iGrafx document. As a
document component, the FMEA is dynamically linked to the diagram so that changes you make in
one place appear in the other.
You can also export process diagram data to a prioritization matrix component of your document in
iGrafx.

Process Analyzer
This functionality is only available in Process for Six Sigma.

Calculations for paths or processes depend upon data supplied about activities in the process such as
task yield or number of defects a task generates.
The sequence for doing a process analysis is something like this:
1 Set up the analysis. This includes create a new analysis, editing or deleting analyses, and
importing and exporting analyses.
2 Run the analysis.
3 Use the Process Analyzer window to view the results.

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Six Sigma Functionality in iGrafx

Task

Procedure

Define a new analysis

1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose Analyses.


2 In the Analysis Manager dialog box, click the New button.
3 In the Analysis dialog box, type a name for your analysis, enter a brief
description, select a calculation, and select a variable.
4 Select a check box for one or more of the following analysis levels.
Choose:

Each path to calculate analysis at the path level.

Entire process to calculate analysis at the process level.

Entire document to calculate analysis at the document level


while considering process and subprocesses.

5 Specify how to handle undefined variables in a path and click OK.


Edit an existing
analysis

1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose Analyses.

Delete an existing
analysis

1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose Analyses.

2 In the Analysis Manager dialog box, select an analysis name and click
the Edit button.
2 In the Analysis Manager dialog box, select an analysis name and click
the Delete button.
The analysis is removed from the Analyses list.

Import an analysis

1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose Analyses.


2 In the Analysis Manager dialog box, click the Import button.
3 Use the Import Analyses dialog box to locate an analysis (*.xml) file
and click OK.
The import analysis appears in the Analyses list of the Analysis
Manager dialog box.

Export an analysis

1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose Analyses.


2 In the Analysis Manager dialog box, click the Export button.
3 Use the Export Analysis dialog box to locate the destination for the
analysis file.
4 Type the export file name and click OK.

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Task

Procedure

View the Process


Analyzer

1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose View Process Analyzer.


2 Double-click a Path or Department to display associated activities in
the right pane of the window.
Selecting a Path, Department, or Activity also highlights the
corresponding portion of the process map.

Add analysis data in


the Process Analyzer

In the Process Analyzer, click the appropriate cell in the right pane of the
window and enter data.
The left and right panes of the window display the analyses that you set up
earlier.

Fit Data
This functionality is only available in Process for Six Sigma.

iGrafx uses supported, external statistics applications such as JMP or MINITAB to do data fitting.
You can easily determine the expression you need to put into your process model using the Fit Data
feature.
Store measured data in your statistical application, then use Fit Data to find a supported random
distribution that generates data similar to the data you already have. You can make inferences from
graphs about which distribution fits best, and study the goodness-of-fit measure from the statistics
application that is displayed in the Fit data dialog box.
1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose Fit Data.
2 In the Choose Data dialog box, select a worksheet in the Open Worksheets list.
3 In the Available Columns list, select a column of data and click OK.
Do not choose a column containing non-numeric data or having fewer than five data points.
Columns containing negative data cannot be used in the Weibull and Exponential distributions.
4 In the Distributions dialog box, select the Plot check boxes for the distributions you want to
show on the graph.
The data is plotted in the lower window of the dialog box.
5 Click the distribution in the upper table that best fits your data. The expression appears under
the Copy button.
6 Click the Copy button and paste the expression into the desired expression for an activity, such
as the Duration field on the Task page in the Properties dialog box.
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Six Sigma Functionality in iGrafx

RapiDOE in iGrafx
Experiments with RapiDOE take a fraction of the time as the same experience in an operational
environment. You can conduct full factorial testing versus the common fractional factorial in an
operational environment since experiments in the simulator are free.
Be sure to place control points in your process to modify the metrics for experiment purposes. Your
model must be prepared for automated simulation before you conduct experiments with RapiDOE.
You can adjust the control points and measure the results of the process configuration in RapiDOE.
RapiDOE provides an automated method of changing process parameters or flow. Consider a fivefactor, two-level test with four replications (128 experiments) conducted in a few seconds or minutes
with RapiDOE, depending on your model. Without RapiDOE, you do not need to create control
points on your process, and you directly modify the factor whose impact you wish to study. However,
you would increase the time it takes to conduct an experiment and potentially introduce numerous
data entry errors
Within your process, the process flow and the process parameters can adjust behavior.

Changes to the process flow affect the paths that a transaction takes. For example, in a
manufacturing process, you may want to measure the effect on number of defects vs. cycle
time of a process that de-burrs every unit after a weld vs. a process that does not de-burr after
a weld.

Changes to the process parameters change how a process operates. For example, you may want
to measure the effect on order cycle time under different resource counts and order volumes. In
this case, you would modify the resource count as well as the interarrival time for the
transaction generator.

In both of these cases, you implement the control points and change them to represent different
values or behaviors. In iGrafx Process for Six Sigma, control points are implemented through the use
of decision shapes and scenario attributes.

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Control Process Flow with RapiDOE


This functionality is only available in Process for Six Sigma.

Controlling the flow through RapiDOE requires a five step setup:


1 Define the alternative paths within your process map.
2 Insert a decision shape between the alternative paths.
3 Define a custom type to enumerate the alternative paths.
4 Create a scenario attribute to control transaction flow.
5 Add the scenario attribute to the decision shape specifying which path should be taken during
the experiment

Step 1: Define Alternative Paths


Map paths and enter the modeling data for each task. Paths are parallel or, in some cases, one path
may be a subset of another path with some of the activities bypassed.
Although most processes define only two alternative paths, you can define any number of paths.

Step 2: Insert a Decision Shape


Insert a decision shape at the point where the alternative paths diverge. The outputs from the
decision shape lead to each of the alternative paths.

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Six Sigma Functionality in iGrafx

Step 3: Define a Custom Type


For procedures to define and delete an attribute type, see Attributes in the iGrafx Help system.
A type is used within an attribute to define its range of values. For nearly all cases using RapiDOE,
types are Sets of Members, but sometimes may be a Number type. A custom type for the scenario
attribute that controls the process flow identifies alternative paths by name on the process map and
through the RapiDOE dialog box.
For example, you create a type called Path with these values as members: North, South, East and
West. Four alternative paths from the decision shape label connectors as North, South, East and
West. In RapiDOE, when you select the associated scenario attribute as a factor, you can define the
possible experiment values as either North, South, East and West.

Step 4: Create a Scenario Attribute


RapiDOE uses only scenario attributes, which appear as S.name where name is assigned by the
user. They are available to all activities in all departments and all processes.
For procedures to create, modify, and delete an attribute, see Attributes in the iGrafx Help system.
Be sure to set the Location to Scenario.

Step 5: Add the Scenario Attribute to the Decision Shape


Steps 1 and 2 set up the process map from a visual perspective, and steps 3 and 4 set up the process
model from a metric perspective. Step 5 brings the map and model together.
1 Double-click the decision shape, click the Outputs page.
2 On the Normal tab, select the Case Text field you created earlier.
3 Click the Expression option and click the
4 In the Expression Builder, click the

button.

button.

5 Select an attribute, click the Scenario Location option, and click OK.
After completing these steps, you can select the attribute in the RapiDOE dialog and specify the
settings for a DOE.
RapiDOE offers full factorial testing versus the common fractional factorial in an operational
environment.

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Modify Process Parameters with RapiDOE


This functionality is only available in Process for Six Sigma.

In RapiDOE you can modify the values of certain process parameters. Some require additional setup
to your model while others modify standard model metrics.
Use RapiDOE to define the number of resources available in a particular resource, the rate at which
transactions enter your process, and attributes used to modify a model.

Process Parameter

Description

Resource allocations

RapiDOE automatically reads your models resource allocations and


enables them as experimentation factors through the RapiDOE dialog
box. No additional setup is required.

Generator
interarrival time

RapiDOE automatically reads your models generators and enables them


as experimentation factors through the RapiDOE dialog box. No
additional setup is required.

Activity-level metrics

Scenario attributes and custom types require setup.


You can see activity-level locations where attributes are used in the
Properties dialog box:
Inputs pageCollect Transactions at Input by Expression and by Count
Resource pageAcquisition count
Attribute pageDefine attributes
Task page (Step tab)Duration and Cost
Outputs pageFlow decision criteria

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Six Sigma Functionality in iGrafx

Design and Run an Experiment with RapiDOE


This functionality is only available in Process for Six Sigma.

1 On the Six Sigma menu, choose RapiDOE.


2 In Available Factors section of the RapiDOE page, expand a factor category and select the check
box next to at least two factors.
When you select a factor, columns appear that let you change the high and low values during
the experiment. You can also change the report header for the factor.
3 Skip to step 7 if you are conducting a 2-level test.
4 Click the Options button.click the General Factorial option, and click OK.
5 In the RapiDOE dialog box, enter the number of levels for the desired factors in the #Levels
column and a value for each level.
If an attribute has a type such as YesNo, you cannot enter more levels than the type has
members.
6 In the Responses section, select a check box next to the response category to display the list of
responses for that category.
7 Select the check box next to at least one response name to select the response.
Use the response column to customize the report header for the response.
8 Enter the number of replications for the experiment and click OK.
The factors and responses are exported to JMP (or MINITAB) to design the experiment set,
then iGrafx Process for Six Sigma automatically imports the experiments.
9 In the Run Experiment dialog box, click the Start button.
As the simulations run, calculated response values appear in the appropriate columns.
10 In the JMP Data Table Name dialog box, enter a worksheet name and click OK.
The data is exported to a JMP worksheet where you can conduct detailed statistical analysis on
the simulation results.

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Log Transactions
This functionality is available in Process and Process for Six Sigma.

Log Transactions gathers statistics on individual transactions that pass through the process.
Time-dependent statistics, like cycle times and queue lengths, can help you analyze how individual
transactions vary from the averages that the Report shows.
1 On the Model menu, point to Run and choose Log Transactions.
2 Use the Log Transactions wizard to produce a table of transaction data.

Export Report
This functionality is only available in Process for Six Sigma.

The Export Report feature exports selected report elements from a simulation run to an external
tab-delimited text file, Excel worksheet, or MINITAB worksheet. See MINITAB and JMP Data
Reference in the iGrafx Help system.
On the Six Sigma menu, choose Export Report.

Publish to FMEA
FMEA diagrams evaluate the potential for failures. Used mostly in manufacturing, they help identify
failure modes in machines or processes. See Creating a Cause and Effect Diagram on page 29.
To export a FMEA diagram:
1 On the Cause and Effect menu, choose Export FMEA Diagram.
2 Enter the name of the new FMEA diagram component or choose an existing FMEA to add
diagram data, then click OK.
You can modify cell data and formatting in the FMEA. However, any changes made in the diagram
must be exported to FMEA again to be reported.

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Six Sigma Functionality in iGrafx

Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus


This reference section provides tips on working with iGrafx tools, documents, and shapes. It includes
a function key map, shortcuts for working with files, editing objects, and arranging shapes, and a
context menu reference.
Many of the shortcuts for iGrafx commands are documented in the iGrafx menu. Shortcuts are
available on all iGrafx 2007 products unless otherwise noted.
You can access all iGrafx menu items using only the keyboard. Not all keyboard access sequences are
documented. Please see the iGrafx menu for additional commands not documented.
iGrafx is compliant with U.S. Section 508 for accessibility. See special keyboard access for U.S. Section
508 compliance in this section.
In this document, keyboard shortcuts can be key combinations such as Alt+F,A. In this case, you
would hold the Alt key down continuously while you type F and then type A.

Tips
Add custom buttons to toolbars with the Customize dialog box on the Tools menu.
Add styling to diagram objects with various commands on the Format menu. Dialog boxes change
dynamically, depending on the kind of object selected. Use the Format Diagram dialog box to make
diagram-wide changes to several diagram objects.

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Keyboard Shortcuts
Try using these shortcuts to perform functions you use repeatedly in iGrafx.

Navigating

Task

Shortcut

Enter menu navigation mode using only the keyboard

Press the Alt key

Move forward from one toolbar to another in menu navigation mode

Ctrl+Tab

Move backward from one toolbar to another in menu navigation mode

Ctrl+Shift, Tab

Go to the next diagram window

Tab, Page Down, N

Go to the previous diagram window

Shift+Tab, Page Up, P

Opening, Closing, and Saving Documents

Task

Shortcut

Open a document

Ctrl+O

Close the active document

Ctrl+W

Close all documents

Alt+F,L

Save the active document

Ctrl+S

Save the active document under a new name

Alt+F,A

Attaching Connector Lines

70

Hold the Ctrl key when you are placing a line near an attachment point with Snap to Grid
turned on to override automatic connection at an attachment point.

Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus

Editing Tabular View

In Tabular View, Ctrl+Enter creates a new row for an activity.

Editing Cause and Effect Diagrams

In the Cause and Effect tab of the Explorer bar, Ctrl+Enter adds a sibling to the selected
cause.

Editing Shapes and Text

Task

Shortcut

Edit text in a shape, department name area, or anywhere in a


diagram

Click to select and start typing

Set the font size, color, and orientation for diagram text

Ctrl+D

Show a shape number on a selected shape

Ctrl+3

Edit shape properties

Alt+Enter

Selecting Diagram Objects

Task

Shortcut

Select items in sequential order

Click to select the first item, then Shift+click on the last


item.

Remove an item from multiple


selected items

Shift+click

Select multiple non sequential items

Click to select the first item, then Ctrl+click to select each


subsequent item.

Remove an item from multiple non


sequential selected items

Ctrl+click

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Modifying Shape Size

Task

Shortcut

Make a shape
straddle departments

Hold the Ctrl key while you click and drag the edge of the shape to
stretch it.

Proportionally grow
or shrink a shape or
graphic

Hold the Shift key while you drag the shape or graphic by its handle.

Function Keys

Function Key

Operation

F1

Opens the iGrafx Help system

F2

Places text in edit mode. On a selected graphic, F2 runs


the Add Text command. On a shape with multiple text
areas, F2 selects a secondary text area.

F3

Sets view at 100% zoom

F4

Best Fit setting on Zoom Control

F5

Refresh

F6

Adds a note to a selected shape

F7

Checks spelling

F8

Resizes the shape to fit the text

F9

Opens the Manage Media dialog box to change the Shape


Palette

F10

Enables keyboard menu shortcuts

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Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus

Shortcuts for Working with Files


The following shortcuts are for commands available on the File menu and some of the toolbar menus.
See the File menu for a complete list of commands and shortcuts. The shortcut letter is underscored
in the menu.

Creating New Diagrams


When you create a new diagram using a keyboard shortcut, the key sequence always begins with
Alt+F,N. The last letter is mapped to the diagram. For example, Alt+F,N,P opens a new Process
diagram.
Ctrl+N is an alternative shortcut for opening a Basic diagram.

Publishing Documents
When you publish documents using a keyboard shortcut, the key sequence always begins with
Alt+F,I. The last letter is mapped to the output format. For example, Alt+F,I,W publishes the
current document as a web page.

Inserting Components Into the Document


When you insert components into a document using a keyboard shortcut, the key sequence always
begins with Alt+F,E. The last letter is mapped to the type of diagram component. For example,
Alt+F,E,P inserts a Process diagram component into the document.

Shortcuts for Editing Diagram Objects


When you edit diagram objects using a keyboard shortcut, the key sequence always begins with Ctrl.
The last letter is mapped to the edit command performed. For example, Ctrl+Z reverses the last
action or change and is the same as the Undo on the Edit menu.
See the Edit menu for a complete list of editing commands and shortcuts. The shortcut letter is
underscored in the menu.

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Shortcuts for Arranging Shapes


When you arrange shapes in a diagram using a keyboard shortcut, the key sequence always begins
with Ctrl+Shift. The last letter or number is mapped to the Arrange command. For example,
Ctrl+Shift+3 aligns shapes vertically on their left edge. This is the same as pointing to Align on the
Arrange menu and choosing Left.
The anchor is the last shape selected. If you have used a lasso (click and drag on the diagram) to select
multiple shapes and you want a different anchor, use Shift+click once to clear the selection, then use
Shift+click again to designate the last clicked shape as the anchor shape for aligning selected shapes.
See the Arrange menu for a complete list of commands and shortcuts. The shortcut letter is
underscored in the menu.

Context Menus
Context menus appear when you right-click on an object.

Report Context Menu


Appears when you right-click on a report element.

74

Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus

Shape Context Menu


Appears when you right-click on a shape.

This Context Menu Item...

Performs This Function...

Replace Shape

Opens the Replace Shape dialog box for selection of a new shape

Edit Text

Places the cursor within the shape text, ready for editing

Format

Opens the Format Shape dialog box for editing shape fill, line and
border, and shadow/3D properties

Font

Opens the Format Text dialog box for editing the shape text font

Fields

Opens the Shape Fields dialog box for adding, removing, or


modifying shape field properties

Text Layout

Opens the Format Text Layout dialog box for specifying shape
margins, formatting the selected text, and designating secondary
text areas

Connect Points

Opens the Edit Symbol dialog box for modifying connect points

Properties

Opens the Properties dialog box for modifying shape properties

Update Fields

Re-evaluates and refreshes shape field data inside and outside of the
shape

Line Context Menu


Appears when you right-click on a connector line.

This Context Menu Item...

Performs This Function...

Add Vertex

Places an X on the connector line you can position where you want
to add a vertex at which you can bend the line

Route Line

Uses existing vertices and connector points to create efficient


connector line routes between shapes

Format

Opens the Format Line dialog box for modifying line properties

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Graphic Context Menu


Appears when you right-click on a graphic.

This Context Menu Item...

Performs This Function...

Add Text

Places the cursor in or near the graphic, ready for placing text

Format

Opens the Format Graphic dialog box for editing fill, line and
border, and shape/3D properties

Font

Opens the Format Text dialog box for editing the graphic text font

Reshape

Opens the Reshape toolbar and adds handles for disproportionately


growing and shrinking the graphic or completely changing its form.

Attach

Attaches two objects together

Convert to Shape

Changes a graphic to a shape and adds it to the Shape Library

Properties

Opens the Properties dialog box

Update Fields

Re-evaluates and refreshes text fields related to a graphic

Phase Context Menu


Appears when you right-click a phase name area.

This Context Menu Item...

Performs This Function...

Select

Opens the Select dialog box for selecting and adding one
or more items

Zoom

Opens the Zoom dialog box for changing the zoom view

Format Diagram

Opens the Format Diagram dialog box for modifying


diagram properties

76

Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus

Explorer Bar - Components Tab Context Menu


Appears when you right-click in the Explorer bar.
The context menu is different when you display the Links view of the document. The context menu
in the Links view changes the display of document components. It also contains the option to print or
copy the tree view.

This Context Menu Item...

Performs This Function...

View

Displays the selected component in the diagram area

New

Adds a new diagram component

Properties

Displays diagram-level properties

Delete

Deletes the selected component

Rename

Renames the selected component

Print Tree

Prints the entire tree view of the Explorer window

Copy Tree

Copies the entire tree view of the Explorer window

Explorer Bar - Process Central Tab Context Menu


Appears when you right-click in the Process Central repository window.
Unload Repository speeds up iGrafx application start time without disconnecting Process Central
from the repository.

Explorer Bar - Cause and Effect Tab Context Menu


Appears when you right-click the cause and effect tree.

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Linked Object Context Menu


Appears when you right-click a linked object created using the OLE Object command on the Insert
menu.

This Context Menu Item...

Performs This Function...

Format

Opens the Format Graphic dialog box for modifying the


fill, line and border, and shadow/3D

Collapse

Displays the linked object as a compact icon

Attach

Attaches another object to the linked object

Linked Document Object

Opens the linked document for viewing or opens the


Convert dialog box for converting to another object type

Section 508 Accessibility Compliance


When you navigate through iGrafx or any Windows application, the tool with focus is highlighted.

The Open tool has focus.

Expand popup tools, such as the Zoom Tool, using arrow keys.

78

Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus

Keyboard Navigation

This keyboard
shortcut...

Performs this operation...

Alt

Enter navigation mode

Arrow keys

In navigation mode, move through menus or toolbar buttons

Enter

In navigation mode, select the highlighted item

Alt+Tab

Advance forward from one toolbar to another

Alt+Shift+Tab

Reverse navigate from one toolbar to another

Esc

Close a popup tool such as the Zoom tool or a context tool such as the
Connector Line tool on the Toolbox toolbar

Ctrl+Alt+F6

Advance from one of the docked windows like the Gallery or the Explorer
bar

Ctrl+Tab

In a docked window, navigates through tabs within that window (Fill,


Font, and Line in the Gallery)

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Diagramming Tasks
Press the Alt key to enter the navigation mode and navigate using Ctrl+Tab and arrow keys.

Task
Select objects

Procedure
1 In the Toolbox toolbar, navigate to the

tool and press Enter.

2 Use the arrow keys to navigate from object to object in the diagram.
Whichever object you select last is highlighted.
3 Press the spacebar to select or deselect objects while in this mode.
4 Press the Enter key or Esc key to cancel any selection mode.
Place shapes

1 In the Toolbox toolbar, navigate to the shape you want to place and press
the Enter key. A blue outline of the shape appears in the center of the
diagram.
2 Use the arrow keys to position it.
3 Press Enter to place the shape.

80

Tips, Shortcuts, and Context Menus

Task
Connect shapes
with lines

Procedure
1 In the Toolbox toolbar, navigate to the
tool, select a connector line,
and press the Enter key. An object in the diagram is highlighted.
2 Use the arrow keys to move to the shape where you want to start the
line, then press Enter to select it.
3 Press the arrow keys to view possible exit directions and press Enter to
select the direction you want.
4 Use the arrow keys to move to the destination shape, then press Enter to
select it.
5 Press the arrow keys to view possible entry directions into the destination
shape, and press Enter to select the direction. A line is drawn between
the source and destination shapes.
Graphics cannot be connected to or from objects with a connector line, but
they can be attached to connection lines. See Attaching Graphics to Lines in
the iGrafx Help system.

Draw graphics
(such as a square
or circle)

1 In the Draw toolbar, expand the Draw Tool menu and choose the
appropriate drawing tool. The cursor appears in the center of the
drawing area.
2 Using the arrow keys, position the cursor where you want to draw.

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

For a square, rounded square, rectangle, rounded rectangle, circle,


or ellipse, press the spacebar and hold it, then move the cursor
with the arrow keys. Release the spacebar when you are finished.
Press the Esc key to cancel.

For a polygon, curved polygon, polyline, or curved polyline,


choose each point by pressing the space bar. Press Enter to finish
the drawing.

81

Getting Started Appendix


This section contains conceptual discussions and reference information.

About iGrafx Toolbars and Menus


Toolbars contain icons that provide quick access to a set of related tools, such as tools for formatting
elements of the diagram on the Formatting toolbar.
Tool palettes offer a selection of colors or styles, such as the arrowhead styles on the Arrowheads tool
palette.
In many instances, commands on menus have corresponding tools on toolbars. Optional menus
appear depending on which diagram type you are using or iGrafx application you are running.

Many menu items are available when you right-click the object on which you want to use a
command.

Toolbars
Use these procedures with any toolbar.

Task

Procedure

View hidden toolbars

On the View menu, choose Toolbars and select the toolbar check box to
display it.

Create or customize
toolbars

1 On the View menu, choose Toolbars and click New.


2 Type a name for the new toolbar, and click OK.
3 Drag the tools you want from the Customize dialog box to your new
toolbar.

Display toolbar button 1 On the View menu, choose Toolbars and select the Show ToolTips check
names
box.
2 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.

82

Getting Started Appendix

Toolbox Toolbar
The Toolbox toolbar provides shortcuts to the tools you use most.

Tool

Description
Selects, moves, and resizes drawn elements. Also draws lines between shapes.
Opens the Departments toolbar with choices to add and edit departments.
Places shapes in a diagram and selects shape attributes and properties.
Click the arrow under the shapes to add or edit shapes in the Shape Library.

Connects shapes with connector lines. Click the arrow under the Connector Line tool to
open the Connector Line Toolbar.
Enters and changes text. Not required for adding text to a selected shape.
Shows, hides, formats, and renumbers shape numbers.
Opens the Zoom Toolbar.
Shows or hides the iGrafx Explorer Bar.

Menus
You can access all menu commands using the keyboard (see Keyboard Shortcuts on page 70).

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83

About iGrafx Diagram Types


iGrafx has predefined diagram types that are optimized for creating unique diagrams, charts, and
maps. Each diagram opens its related shape palette. All diagram types can be customized and saved
as a new template. See Default Templates in the iGrafx Help system.
You can simulate Process and BPMN diagrams only. Simulation features are not available in
FlowCharter.

Diagram Type

What You Can Do With It

Process Diagram

Map, model, and simulate a process using activity data and swimlanes
to show who is responsible for each task, and directed connector lines
to show the flow of the process. Process diagrams are recommended
for flowcharting.

BPMN Diagram

Map, model, and simulate a process with correct-by-construction and


real-time error checking features in compliance with the BPMN
standard.

OrgChart Diagram

Create organization charts.

Cause and Effect diagram

Analyze the source of errors in a process using the cause and effect
diagram, Pareto chart, and information exported from the diagram to
an FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) template.

Lean Value Stream Map

Draw a Lean value stream map (VSM) of your current process with
custom Lean data assigned to Lean activities. Display a variety of
graphs for analysis, such as the Takt time and Distance Line.

Extended Value Stream


Map

Draw a Lean extended VSM with data rollup from child processes into
parent shapes.

Basic Diagram

Perform simple diagramming and drawing.

Layout Diagram

Draw a Lean layout of your current operations physical floor layout.


You may also use the layout diagram to draw a spaghetti chart.

Pick Chart

Identify optimal choices and solutions using a four-quadrant pick


chart pre-populated with labels.

SIPOC Diagram

Look at and map processes between the roles of suppliers, inputs,


process, outputs, and customers in your process.

84

Getting Started Appendix

Simulation Modeling Concepts


Time and resources are the most commonly modeled characteristics of a process. Process models use
activities to represent steps in a process, and transactions to represent the flow of data or materials
through the process. Directed connector lines between activities represent the flow of transactions
and show the sequencing of the activities during simulation.

Activities process transactions.

In process modeling, you describe how activities process transactions by assigning properties to each
activity. For more information, see Describing Activity Behavior on page 40.
As transactions flow through a process, activities may transform them. For example, in an automobile
assembly process, input transactions to the Assemble Engine activity are the parts needed to assemble
the engine. The output of the activity is the assembled engine. The assembled engine may then serve
as an input transaction to an activity that assembles the auto.

Exception Flow
When an activity completes normally, the transaction moves to the next activity or activities along
one or more of the normal output paths, depending on decisions the activity makes or parallel work
opportunities that may exist.
Sometimes an activity may need to stop before finishing. For example, an activity may have a
deadline that it doesnt meet, so it is terminated and the transaction is escalated to a managers
attention. In this case, the activity is immediately stopped, the normal output path or paths are not

iGrafx 2007 Rapid Learning Guide

85

taken, and one exceptional path is taken instead. An output exception models this type of transaction
flow.

Exception flow model

Process Efficiency Factors


Activities may take time to process a transaction. Time costs money. You can measure and define the
length of time (duration) that each activity takes to process a transaction, and assign costs to activities
and the resources used at the activities in an iGrafx process model.

Resources
Activities may need resources to process transactions. A resource is a person, machine, or other asset
used to process a transaction. When multiple transactions are processed, activities can contend for
resources.
In your model, you can define what a resource represents and which resources are used by which
activities in the model. For each type of resource in your model, you can define the quantity of the
resource available, the resource behavior, and resource schedule.
Resources are managed and defined as individual resources, pools, or unlimited resources organized
under resource types.

Time
In a simulation, duration is usually measured as the time required for a transaction to move through
a process. These measurements, referred to as cycle time, typically include the time required for each
activity to process a transaction, and the time a transaction spends waiting in a queue to enter an
activity or waiting for a necessary resource to become available.
iGrafx can simulate a process to determine a range of cycle times. To improve cycle time, you can
make changes to your model and simulate again to determine the impact of your changes.
86

Getting Started Appendix

Cost
You can measure process or transaction cost in an iGrafx process model by assigning costs to activities
and resources. Activity cost is usually a fixed cost while resource cost can be fixed, per hour, per use,
or a combination of the three. During a simulation, costs are accumulated and reported by
transaction, by activity or group of activities (department/process/overall), and by resource.
Time and cost are closely related, and you may decide to trade one for the other. For example, you
could add resources to reduce processing time, but this may have the effect of increasing processing
cost. On the other hand, you could reduce resources to lower costs, but this may increase processing
time. With iGrafx, you can easily model these tradeoffs and determine their impacts.

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87

88

Getting Started Appendix

Index
A
activities
about
Align command
Analysis Manager dialog box
anchor
objects to a shape
anchored object
detaching
approved items
Arrange menu
Align
Fit to Text
attach
objects to a shape
text to a shape
attached object
detatching

85
20
60
16
16
38
20
15
16
16
16

B
border patterns
text area
BPMN
add shapes and flows
connector lines
converting to from Process
BPMN checker

Getting Started with iGrafx 2007

8
22
49
54
54
25
22
22
73
11
8
87
25
73

D
15
25
26
25
26

C
Change Diagram Type command
closing a diagram
color
in shapes
component

add
copy and paste
components
viewing
Control menu
Set Attribute
Trace colors
convert Process to BPMN
copy
a process
copy and paste a component
copy command
copy formatting
copying
Explorer bar
cost
about
custom data
in Lean diagram
cut command

8
36
17

department headers
add text
departments
excluding from tasks
diagram
add to a document
cause and effect
Pareto chart
diagram type
Basic
BPMN
Cause and Effect
convert
Layout
Lean Value Stream Map
OrgChart

15
12
8
29
84
84
84
8
84
84
84
89

Pick Chart
Process
SIPOC diagram
diagramming
basic steps
diagrams
as iGrafx components
closing
converting
emailing
placing shapes in
saving
about
document
existing diagram in
open
publishing
documents
as files

84
84
84

90

68
23

9
5
36
8
31
11
36
8
8
31
5

E
Edit menu
Copy
Cut
Find
Paste
Redo
Replace
Select
Select All
Undo
email a file
email diagram
exception flow
creating
example
Explorer bar
printing and copying
view
Explorer bar Cause and Effect tab

export report
exporting
VSM data

73
73
73
73
73
73
13
73
73
31
31
85
27
27
5, 7
8
10
29

F
File menu
Components
49
New diagram
7
Page Setup
31, 34
Print Preview
30
Publish As PDF Document
31
Publish As PowerPoint Presentation 31
Publish As Web Page
31
Publish As Word Document
31
Send
31
files
creating
7
opening
7
fill patterns
text area
15
find command
73
Fit Data
62
distributions
62
graphs
62
flow
transaction
85
font
changing
15
Format menu
diagram
19
Fill
17
Font
15
Numbering
17
Text Alignment
15
Text Layout
15
Format Painter
11
formatting
11

Getting Started with iGrafx 2007

G
Gallery
view

lines
9
10

help
4
3
15
16
5
5
31

I
icons in Help system
importing
VSM data
indicators
adding
changing appearance
hiding
Insert menu
OLE Object
Installation Guide access

13
12
13

link
to non-iGrafx files
link icon
links
adding
Log Transactions

H
quick
Help menu
Hidden Lines command
hide
anchor line
hierarchy
creating
viewing
HTML
publish as

drawing unconnected
placing unconnected
selecting

19
19
19
68

M
Model menu
Check
Run
Log Transactions
Start
move a shape

25
68
54
13

N
3
23
19
19
19
19
3

New diagram
File menu
note
adding
note icon
notes
adding
numbers on shapes

7
19
19
19
17

O
L
Lean data field
adding
Lean menu
Value Stream Map Properties
Getting Started with iGrafx 2007

25

objects
aligning
OLE Object

20
19

23
91

P
page breaks
show
Page Setup
paste command
pause points
PDF
PDF document
publish as
PDF downloads
PowerPoint presentation
publish as
print preview
printing
a diagram
canceling
Explorer bar
preview
selected components
troubleshooting
Process
modeling
environment
simulation environment
window
process
copy within a document
copying
between documents
deleting
hierarchy
renaming
Process Analyzer
Process Central
refreshing the repository window
repositories
closing
loading
unloading
repository window
tab in iGrafx Explorer bar
Unload Repository command
92

30
30
34
73
54
31
31
3
31
30
30
30
8
30
30
30

53
53
53
22
22
22
5
22
60
38
37
37
37
37
37
77

process diagrams
managing
Process Guide
ProcessCentral menu
Refresh Window
Show Window
product
benefits
features
uses
properties
adding
diagram-level
viewing
Properties dialog box
Process Guide
publish as

22
40
37
37
3
3
3
21
21
21
40
31

R
RapiDOE
add a scenario attribute to the decision shape
65
controlling process flow
64
designing and running an experiment 67
Modifying process parameters
66
redo command
73
replace command
73
Report
window
53
Report window
55
repository window
37
refreshing view
38
view approved items
38
view link hierarchy
38
resources
about
86

Getting Started with iGrafx 2007

S
saving
a diagram
Scenario
window
select
additional items
all items
an item
multiple items
objects by type
select all command
Select command
selecting
shapes or lines
selection
cancel
remove items from
shape
attach text
fill with color
shape data
customizing in Lean diagram
shape numbers
changing
default format
renumbering
showing
showing or hiding
shape text
margins
resize
shapes
add text
automatically connecting
entering data in Lean diagrams
moving
numbering
placing
placing in diagrams
placing multiple
selecting
Getting Started with iGrafx 2007

36
53
14
14
14
14
14
73
13
13
14
14
16
17
25
17
17
17
17
17
17
15
15
15
12
24
13
17
12
11
12
13

spanning departments
show
anchor line
Explorer bar
Gallery
Status bar
Toolbars
simulation
start
Six Sigma menu
Analyses
Export Report
Fit Data
View Process Analyzer
Snap to Grid
Status bar
view
status bar
subprocess
creating
displaying

12
16
10
10
10
10
54
60
68
62
60
20
10
4
22
22

T
tasks
excluding departments from
text
adding
adding to a diagram
aligning
changing alignment
fitting
in department headers
in shapes
layout
resize in shape
set margins in shape
text area
border
borders and fill patterns
color

12
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
15
16
93

creating
detaching
display border
fill pattern
line style

15
16
16
16
16

time
about
86
Toolbar
9
Toolbars
Toolbox
83
view
10
toolbars
82
creating
82
customizing
82
unhiding
82
viewing
82
Toolbox toolbar
9
defined
83
placing multiple instances of one shape
with
11
Tools menu
Change Diagram Type
8
Options
9, 36
Publish Web Project
31
ToolTips
4
trace colors
54
transactions
about
85
exception flow
85
transactions log
68
troubleshooting
printing
30

V
Value Class command
value stream map
entering shape data
setting properties
value stream map data
importing and exporting
View menu
Explorer Bar
Gallery
Hidden Lines
Page Breaks
Toolbar
Toolbars
Value Class

40
24
23
23
5, 7
9
15
30
9
82
40

W
web page
publish as
web project
publish as
windows
Process
Report
Scenario
Windows functionality
Word document
publish as

31
31
53
53
53
3
31

U
undo command
Unload Repository
user guides

94

73
77
3

Getting Started with iGrafx 2007