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Tee 4 7 ie sd SCT Lae AC a ae . AIEE—All India Engineering Tens CLT meetin iden cal Dail CTT) . cy FC ae ys ALOK MITTAL - JYOTI MITTAL i blag ble a ae bees 8) Copyright © 2002 New Age International (P) Ltd,, Publishers NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110 002 Offices at: Bangalore, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Lucknow and Mumbai ‘This book or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. ISBN : 81-224-1365-X Published by K.K. Gupta for New Age International (P) Ltd., 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110 02 and printed in India at Ramprintograph, New Delhi-110 051. ConTENTS Preface PART-A PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 1.__ Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity 1-37 I. Nuclear and Radiochemistry 1-33 Ill, Chemical Bonding 1-46 1V.__ Gaseous State 1-34 V. Solid State 1-23 VI. Solution and Colligative Properties 1-51 VII Colloids and Surface Chemistry 1-18 Vil, Chemical Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry 1-35 x. )xci¢ = X, Electrochemistry 1-44 XI. Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis 1-33 XU. Chemical Equilibrium 1-39 XI, Ionic Equilibrium - I (Electrolytes, Acid-Base Concept, Solubility Product) 1-27 XIV. _ Tonic Equilibrium - II (pH, Buffer Solution, Salt Hydrolysis & Indicators) 1-34 PART-B ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1. _ Introduction, Classification and Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 1-20 IL Isomerism Inorganic Molecules 1-21 {Il General Organic Chemistry and Reaction Mechanism 1-22 IV. Aliphatic and Alicyclic Hydrocarbons 1-48 V. Aliphatic Halogen Derivatives 1-32 VL Aliphatic Alcohols 1-31 VII. Aliphatic Ethers and Epoxides 1-10 VIII, Aliphatic Aldehydes and Ketons 1-34 IX. Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids & their Derivatives X. Aliphatic Nitrogen Containing Compounds XI. Aromatic Compounds XII, Purification and Analysis of Organic Compounds XIII. Natural and Synthetic Polymers XIV. The Molecule of Life XV. Chemistry of Biochemical Processes XVI Chemistry in Action PART-C INORGANIC CHEMISTRY I. Classification of Elements and Periodic Tables Il, Elements: Their Occurrence and Extraction Ill. Hydrogen and Its Compounds IV. Elements of Group 1 (Alkali Metals) V. Elements of Group 2 (Alkaline Earth Metals) VI. Elements of Group 13 (Boron Family) VII, Elements of Group 14 (Carbon Family) VII, __ Elements of Group 15 (Nitrogen Family) IX. Elements of Group 16 (Oxygen Family) X. Elements of Group 17 (Halogen) XI, Elements of Group 18 ( Noble Gases) Xl, d-and f- Block Elements (Transition and Inner Transition Elements) XII Co-ordination Compounds XIV. Analytical Chemistry Model Test Paper -1, II, III, IV and V Dedicated to Our Parents PARTA PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY cuarTeR | STRUCTURE OF ATOM AND I CHEMICAL PERIODICITY ‘Theory of Dalton (John Dalton in 1808): (i) Every matter is made up of small size particles called atom. Atom is indivisible and smallest constituent of any matter. Atoms belonging to one matter are identical and that of different matters may be different. (iv) Atom is the smallest part, which undergoes change during a chemical reaction, hence atom is convertible. Cathode Rays: Discovered by Julius Plucker (1858) and further studied by W. Hittorf (1869), W.Crookes (1879), Perrin (1895) and J.J. Thomson (1897). Ina glass discharge tube low pressure (10°? - 10“ mm of Hg) was kept and high potential (10,000 V) was applied across the metal electrodes, a faint greenish light was observed emerging from cathode. This light was called cathode rays. sn] Observation Interpretation ‘Cast shadow of the object placed in their path Travel in straight line Rotate small paddle wheel Consist of material particles having momentum 3. | Heat up thin metal filament Possess energy 4. | Deviate the path in electric and magnetic field Made up of negatively charged particles like a negatively charged particles 5. | Can penetrate thin metal foil ‘Constituent particles are fast moving and small in size 6. | Produce fluoroscence, ionize gases and produce ‘Charged material particles, possessing energy and x-rays (on striking metals like W, Cu etc.) momentum The Electron: Discovery : J.J. Thomson (1897) ‘Name Given By : G. Johnstone Stoney (1891) Lightest fundamental particles also called B-particles and represented as_,¢*. Charge z= 160210 = 10°? Coulomb or — 4.80298 = 10°" ¢, (Calculated by Millikan's oil drop experiment) e/m Value: — 1.758796 x 10! Coulomb/Kg or ~ 1.758796 x 10* Coulomb/g (Caleulated by J.J. Thomson) If an electric field of strength ‘E” and magnetic field of strength ‘H’ is applied perpendicular to each other on a charged particle of mass ‘m’ and charge ‘e’ then BE_v_e mth rH? Where, *v’ is the velocity of particle and ‘r’ is radius of circular path ascribed by particle. Mass: 9.1091 = 10°" Kg or 9.1091 x 107 g 0.000548 a.m.u. (mass of one mole of electron is 0.000548g or 0.55mg) ~1/1837 times mass of hydrogen atom This is also known as rest mass of electron. Al 2 Objective Chemistry For a moving particle of rest mass ‘m’ and velocity ‘v’, the mass viz, reduced mass is m ° “Two where ‘c’ is the velocity of light. Radius + about 10-5 cm order Density + about 2.7 x 10" gic.c. Anode Rays : Discovered by Goldstein (1896) Properties and their interpretation are almost similar to cathode rays. However, these are positively charged particles emerging out of anode in discharge tube. They are also called positive rays or canalrays. The nature of positive rays changes with the gas filled in discharge tube. When H, gas is filled the e/m value is obtained as maximum and anode rays are found made up of particles called protons. The Proton : One of the fundamental particles also called hydrogen nucleus and represented as H*, Charge ¥ + 1.60210 x 10- Coulomb or + 4.80298 x 10-'* e.s.u. (Calculated by Millikan’s oil drop experiment) elm Value: — + 9.57896 x 10? Coulomb/Kg or + 9.57896 « 10* Coulombig, (Calculated by J.J. Thomson) Mass + 1.67252 107” Kg or 1.67252 « 10™ g 1.00747 a.m.u. (mass of one inole of proton is 1.007478g or 1.0078) Volume: 1.5 «10 em’, Density + —_about 10" ge. Y + 2.671592 x 10" rad s* T (y is gyro magnetic ratio) The Neutron : James Chadwick (1932) by bombarding a-particles on Beryllium or Boron atom. A fundamental particle with no charge (that is why its discovery was late) and represented by ,n'. (Be? + Het ,C? + ,n! Charge =: Zero emValue : Zero Mass 1.675 x 107" Kg or 1.675 x 10% g 1.00866 a.m.u. (mass of one mole of proton is 1.00866g or 1.009g) Density = — about 10° g/c.c. ‘The Nucleus : Ruiherford (1911) by a-particle scattering experiment. Bombardment of high energy positively charged c.-particles was made on thin gold foil (0.0004mm thick- ness) and by keeping a hollow, hemispherical zinc sulphide screen on the back side. SN. Observation Interpretation 1. | Most ofthe a-particles penetrate the foil ‘A large vacant space is available in the atom undeflected {about 98%) 2. | A few axpantctes deflect at a large angle ‘A heavy mass is concentrated at the center of and very few rebound back atom and called nucleus. 3. | No attraction (rather repulsion) is experienced The nucleus should be positively charged. by a-partictes with nucleus Diameter of Nucleus = —10-- 10cm or 10 -10-m Diameter of Atom == ~—10*cm or 10m ‘Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity ALS Size of nucleus is about 104-10" times as compared to size of atom. Volume of Nucleus = 10cm? or 10“"m? Volume of Atom =~ 10cm’ or 10%? Volume of nucleus is about 10"? times as compared to volume of atom. Density of Nucleus 10" p/c.c. or 10" Kg/c.c. Units of size of nucleus is Fermi and ! Fermi = 10cm or 0m Radius of Nucleus (R)= Al? Where, A is atomic mass and R, is proportionality factor = 1.25 x 10°” to 1.50 x 10cm. ‘Nucleus is considered unstable and attributes radioactivity by emitting electro-magnetic radiations. Nucleus consists of protons and neutrons and the sum of number of neutrons and protons are called nucleons. Atomic Number (Z) : Mosley (1913) by bombarding high-speed electrons on different metal atoms and hacer x-rays were emitted. The frequency of x-rays were found related to atomic number according to lv = a(Z-b) whens v is frequency of emitted x-rays, Z is atomic number of atom under consideration and a & b are constants, Z = Number of protons present in a nucleus of an atom or its ion(s). Number of protons = Number of neutrons (for a neutral atom) Hence, atomic number of Cu, Cut and Cu" all are 29. Mass Number (A) : Mass number was obtained by correcting the atomic weight in atomic mass unit (am.u.) to nearest whole number. Mass number is also called number of nucleons. 1 am.u. = 1.660 = 10g or 1.660 x 10°” Kg, A=Number of protons + Number of Neutrons present in a nucleus of an atom or its ion(s).. A=Z +Number of Neutrons ‘A neutral atom (X) can be represented as ,X*. Atomic Weight : Atomic weight of an atom is a relative atomic weight. According to a modem concept, atomic weight of an element shows, how many times heavier is an atom of this element as compared to carbon-12 isotope. Isotopes : Atoms or ions having same stomic number (Z) i.e. same number of protons but different mass number (A) are called isotopes, CC? and ,C" are three isotopes of carbon. ,H!, |H? and ,H? are three isotopes of hydrogen (,H!" is the only isotope which has no neutron) Isobars: Atoms or ions having same mass number (A) but different atomic number (Z,) are called isobars. wht, K® and ,,Ca! are isobars, Isotones : Atoms or ions having same number of neutrons (A —Z value) are called isotones. ,H1, Het and ,Li® are isotones. Isoelectronic : Atoms or ions having same number of electrons are called isoelectronic. C+,N*, OF, F Na’, Mg™, AL, Sit* and P** all are isoelectronic to each other. Electro Magnetic Radiations : Electro-magneticradiations are waves possessing electrical as well as magnetic properties, ¢.g. radio waves, ultra violet, visible rays etc. They all travel with the speed of light (2.9979 10 mis or 1.86 * 10° mile/s). These waves are described by their wave length (A), amplitude (A> and frequency (¥) and do not deflect in electric or magnetic fields. Different electro-magnetic waves and their characteristics are summarized below: Radiation Range of Wavelength (A) Range of Frequency (sec—") Radio Wave 3x10" 0 3*10” 10%to 10" Micro Wave 610° to 3x10" 10"to 5* 10" Infra-Red 7600 to 6 * 10" 51010 3.95 « 10" Visible 3800 to 7600 3.95 * 10 to 7.9 x 10! Ulta Violet 150 t0 3800 7.9 * 10! to 2 x 10! x-Rays Vio 150 2% 10!t0 3 * 10" ‘yerays 1x10 tol 3 «10! t0 3 x 102 ‘Cosmic rays below 1 = 107 ‘Above 3 = 10" Quantum Theory of Electromagnetic Radiations (Max Planck 1905) : The emission or absorption of energy (E) by a body takes place in the form of small bundles or packets called quanta. Ex vorE=hv=he/A Where, h (Planck’s constant) = 6.6256 « 10° J-s or 6.6256 « 107 erg-s, Bohr’s Model of an Atom (Neil Bohr in 1913) : The postulates of Bohr’s theory are as follows: i Electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed orbits or shells of definite energy also called as energy levels. These orbits can be designated as K, L, M, N etc. and numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4 etc. While orbiting in a particular orbit, electrons neither lose nor gain any energy and require a fixed amount of energy to stay in a particular orbit. This is called quantization of energy. The jump of electron from one orbit to another is permissible, provided electron absorbs (jumping from lower orbit to higher orbit) or emits (jumping from higher orbit to lower orbit) energy in the form of electro magnetic radiations according to AE = hv. iv, The angular momentum (mvr) of the orbiting electron is also quantized (fixed) h mv = Where n is orbit number (1, 2, 3, 4 etc.) Bohr’s Atom for Uni Electronic Atoms/Ions : Neil Bohr successfully calculated radius of orbit, velocity of a moving electron and its energy for Hydrogen atom and hydrogen like ions (uni electronic ions) like H, He’, Be", B™, U" ete. If Atomic Number of Uni electronic Atom/lon = Z Orbit Position of Electron = = on Mass of Electron m (9.1 x 10" kg) Charge of Electron eC1.6 x 10- kg) Permittivity Constant of Medium k(9 x 10" N-m?-C) nh? Radius of Orbit(f) = a 2 a = 5.29x10"" x—meter -or 5.29x—A Zz Zz orrcn and ree UZ 2nkZe? ah Velocity of Moving Electron (v) = = 2I8x10°x2m/s or vec Zand vx In Structure of Atom and Chemical Periolcty ALS Itmay be noted that velocity is independent of mass of moving particle. encrak Energy of Electron (r) - ee = 18x10" 2 tom A general confusion may come in the mind of students that E or r ex (I/n'). hence E decreases with increase in the value of n and a higher orbit should have lower value of energy than a lower orbit. However, due o inclusion ofa negative sign in the above expression, itis not so. Because we know that ~40 is always greater than -50. The negative sign in the expression signifies attraction force taking place between electron and the mucteus. All above expressions are obtained by equating two forces acting on moving electron and counter balancing each other. These forces are KZe. Coulombic Attraction Force=~~ acting inwards (charge of nucleus is Ze) Centrifugal Foree =" acting outwards Electron Transition : Ifan electron jumps from n, th orbit to n,th orbit then change in energy (AE) is given by the following expression: 1 3] Joule (as AE=hv) 3 4). a) AE = 218% 10x Z?« ( nj v= aanxiorxz[ “ too v= 1.097« 10'xZ?x ($ he (as ¥ is wave number and viz., 1/A) The term 1,097 * 107 is called Rydberg’s constant R,. _ 2ntk*me* yen Hydrogen Spectrum : On supplying energy to hydrogen atoms the only electron present in the first orbit jumps to higher orbits (i.e. n,=1 to n,=2, 3, 4 etc.) When the excited electron retums back to lower orbits a characteristic radiation is observed in each case. Many such combinations are possible, which results into different series and are summarized below: From Energy Level | ToEnergyLavel | Name of Series Name of Radiation n,2 2i,e. 2, 3, 4 ete, Ultra Violet n,2 3ic.3, 4, 5 etc. Visible n,2 4i.e.4, 5, 6 etc. Infra Red (near) nz Si.e.5, 6, 7 ete. 1,2 6 i.e. 6,7, 8 ete. Infra Red (far) Al 6 Objective Chemistry it may be noted that: 1, Lyman series has one line less than Balmer series, Balmer series has one line less than Paschen series and so on. 2, From Lyman series to Pfuund series, wave length and intensity of radi wave number and energy of radiations decreases. 3. The last line in each series is obtained by n,=c and their wave lengths are 911.2 A, 3645 A, 8201.4 A, 1480.3 A and 22781.7 A respectively. 4. The wavelengths of first six visible lines obtained by Balmer series are 6562.8 A, 4861.3 A, 4350.5 A, 4101.7 A, 3970 A and 3888 A respectively. Limitations of Bohr Theory : ‘© Only applicable to unielectronic atonvions. © Does not explain Zeeman effect (splitting of spectra! lines in magnetic field) and Stark effect (splitting of spectral lines in electric field) @ The wave concept of electron contradicts Bohr’s theory. ‘© Unable to explain geometry and shape of molecules. © Provides a well-defined region (orbit) and also velocity for electron and concept of Heisenberg's un- certainty does not match with it. Bohr Sommerfield Theory : Sommerficld modified Bohr’s theory by describing orbit as elliptical, He re- tained the first orbit as such (spherical), however in second orbit one elliptical orbit. in third orbit two ellipt cal orbits etc. were added. 3 increases, while frequency, 1 Energy of Electron in the hydrogen atom= ~2.18 x 10 * (9 gF Geometry of ellipse (rk) Photo-Electric Effect : When radiations of sufficient energy falls on a metal surface, electrons are emitted and the phenomenon is called photo-electric effect. E=E, +4 mv or hv= hy, + Amv? Where, E (hv) is energy of incidented radiation, E, (hv, is the threshold energy i.e. energy requird to remove electron out of the nuclear attraction and ‘mv’ is the kinetic energy associated with the ejected electron. Crompton Effect : Describes the collision between x-ray photons and electrons. According to Crompton effect ** When x-ray photon hits an electron, the electron deflects at larger angle and attains less energy and shorter wave length than it had before collision.” The decrease in wavelength of electron is ‘Ak=(2h/me). sin? (72) Dual Nature of Electron (Louis de Broglie, 1923) : Every moving particle possesses particle as well as wave nature. Hence, for such a particle Einstein's energy (E=mc?) and Planck’s energy (F=hv) should be same, mc?= hv or me = h/A or p= h/A or A= h/p Here. 2 is wave length associated with the moving particle of momentum p. Asmvr = (nh/2n) Hence, 2nr= nh Hence, circumfrance of the orbit (2) is always integral multiple of wavelength. The experimental verifications of de Broglie's theory was ascertained by C.J. Davison and L.H. Germer after correlating the diffraction pattern of electron with diffraction pattern of x-rays. Ifan electron of charge ‘e’ is accelerated by a potential ‘V’, then the velocity of electron ‘v’ is given by: y-V (2e Vim) and A=hN@mv) or de: WV Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity AL 7 ‘The Uncertainty Principle (Heisenberg, 1926) : It is not possible to know the exact position and velocity (momentum) of the electron simultaneously and accurately. Ax.Ap > h/4x or hon (h is Planck’s constant) ‘Ax ~ Uncertainty in position x = Uncertainty in momentum Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom (Schrodinger, 1929): For a particle of mass m, total energy E and potential energy V. y is a wave function of the particle, which can be positive, negative or a complex number and V?is Laplacian operator. Quantum Numbers : To locate the position of electron in an atom four quantum numbers are suggested. These are four numerals and in combination constitute an exclusive set of quantum number for each electron of an atom. 1, Principal Quantum Number (n) Tells About : Shell or Orbit Position of Electron Distance of Electron from Nucleus Size of Atom Energy of Electron in the Orbit Maximum number of electrons accommodated in an orbit (2n?) n covers all positive integers from | to infinite. M1, 2, 3, 4,....8te. correspond to orbits K, L, M, N, 2, Azimuthal Quantum Number (1) Other Names: Secondary Quantum Number Subsidiary Quantum Number, Angular Momentum Quantum Number Orbital Shape Quantum Number Tells About: __Sub-Shell Position of Electron Shape of Sub-Shell ‘Sub Energy Level Related to Electron ‘The value of | is dependent upon value of n and lies between 0 to (n-1). 1=0, 1,2, 3, uct t0 (0-1). Total number of values for | in any nth orbit =n 1-0, 1, 2, 3 are related with s, p, d, f sub-shells Shapes of Sub-Shells: _s-Sub-shell : Spherical (derived from the word Sharp) p-Sub-shell ; Dumb-bell (derived from the word Principal) d-Sub-shell : Double Dumb-bell (derived from the word Diffuse) £-Sub-shell : Complex (derived from the word Fundamental) 3. Magnetic Quantum Number (m) (Lande, 1921) Other Names: Orbital Orientation Quantum Number Tells About: — Orbital Position of Electron Orientation of Orbital Sub-Sub Energy Level Related to Electron ‘The value of m is dependent upon value of I and lies between ~ 1 10 010 + 1 0, m= 0 only one value) 's Sub-shell possesses only one orbitals, viz. s-orbital —1, 0, + 1 (three values) p Sub-shell possesses three p-orbitals, viz. p,. p,. P, A (c. respectively. Ale Objective Chemisiry For 1 =2,m=~2,-1,0, + 1, +2 (five values) d Sub-shell possesses five d-orbitals, dy dy day 2,2 and d? 19? a ,-2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 (seven values) £Sub-shell possesses seven f-orbitals. 4. Spin Quantum Number (s) (Uhlenback & Goudset, 1925) Tells About : Spin of Electron in an Orbital There are only two values of s, + % and ~%, which correspond to clockwise and anti clockwise spins of electrons respectively. Some Important Points to Remember : All orbitals ofa particular sub-shell possess equal energy and called degenerate orbitals, © There are three degenerate orbitals in p sub-shell, p, p,, P, which correspond to m values= + 1,—1 and 0 respectively. ‘There are five degenerate orbitals in dsub-shell d,, d.,.d,,.d2,? and d, which correspond tom values =+2,+ 1,~ 1,2 and 0 respectively. ‘The total number of orbitals in each orbit or shell is n°. According to Bohr-Bury model, maximum capacity of each orbit is 2n’. ‘The capacity of each orbital is of 2 electrons. The sum of spin quantum number values (S) gives total number of unpaired electrons in an atom. Total Spin Multiplicity of an atom=2S + |. © The set of quantum number for any electron is represented by [n, 1, m, s] (in this order only.) Pauli’s Exclusion Principle ; ‘No two electrons of an atom can have all the four quantum numbers same’ or “Even if for two electrons values of n, | and m are same, values of s have tobe different’. nl Representation : Every sub-shell can be represented by nl* notation, where n is Principal quantura number, J is sub-shell position of electron and x is number of electrons present in that sub-shell. e.g. 3d‘=d sub-shell of 3rd orbit containing 4 electrons. ‘Aufbau Principle : ‘Aufoau’ is a German word, which means building up or construction. The filling of different sub-shells by electrons are according to increasing order of energy and follows (n+ 1) rule. The (n+1) rule states: 1, Electrons are filled in the increasing order of (n+1) value of each sub-shell. 2. Incase two sub-shells have same value of (n+1) then the sub-shell with lower value of n, out ofthese is considered of lower energy and filled prior to the other. For 1=3,m . eves ntiVaue} 1 12 13 |4]s5]6f]7] 8 Is 3s | 3p] 3d 4s | 4p] ad] af ss| sp] sd] se 6s | 6p| 6d 1s | 1p ‘Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity ALD Hence, increasing order of energies of different subshells are: Is <2s

XX Cation Atom Anion Radius of Its cation < Radius of atom < Radius of Its Anion Amongst different ions the order of radius is as follows (as number of protons are increasing): Radius of C+> N*> 0?> F> Ne> Na’> Mg*> AP> Si*> P* Ionization Potential or Ionization Energy (LP. or I.E.) : The energy required for removing an electron from the outermost orbit of an isolated, gaseous atom or ion. It is expressed as ki/mole, kCal/mole or eV. The energy required for successive removal of electron is called successive ionization potential. X—» X* + e (First ionization Potential, I,) X" 9 X* + € (Second ionization Potential, 1,) XX + &- (Third ionization Potential, I.) x" > Xe*+ & (ath ionization Potential, 1.) 1,<1, p> d> f. €. Electronic Configuration: An atom or ion with completely filled or completely half filled orbitals possess stable configurations and high I.P. Electron Affinity (E.A.) : The energy released, when an electron is added in the outermost orbit of an isolated, gaseous atom or ion. It is also expressed as kl/mole, kCal/mole or eV. ‘The energy released during successive addition of electron is called successive electron affinities, Xt+e 9X (First Electron Affinity, E,) Xote XE (Second Electron Affinity, E,) x +e > XP (Third Electron Affinity, E,) AL 12 Objective Chemisty xm +e —>X™ (nth Electron Affinity, E,) E>E>E, E, Factors Influencing Electron Affinity : a. Atomic or Ionic Radius : E.A. increases with increase in size of atom or ion. Hence, down the group EA. decreases and actoss the period E.A. increases. b. Nuclear Charge : As the nuclear charge increases E.A. also increases. ¢. Electronic Configuration : An atom or ion with completely filled or completely half filled orbitals possess stable configurations and low E.A. Exceptions in Electron Affinity : i, Electron affinity of Be, Mg, N, P and inert gases etc. are zero or extremely low. E.A. of the elements of IInd period (except Li and Be) are less than the elements of their own group in Ilrd period. This is because of their small size due to which the elecirons already present repulse the incoming electron. Electronegativity : The tendency of a covalently bonded atom in the molecule to attract the shared pair of electron is called clectronegativity. Down the Group : Decreases er the nuclear charge of the atom morc is the electronegativity. Across the Period (Left to Right) : Increases Fluorine is the most electronegative element of the periodic table. Measurement of Electronegativity: 1. a. Pauling Scale: E,,_)= Experimental E,, ,—[VE,_.)* Eg X,—Xq = KE,» [k (a constant) = 0.208] Here, E,_y,~ Bond energy of A—B obtained experimentally Eun Bond energy of A—A molecule Eq_»,= Bond energy of B—B molecule X, & X, = Electronegativities of A and B respectively b. Millikan Seale: X, ist lonization Potential + IInd lonization Potential)/2 Xun — Xa) = 2.78 (X,4 Kyo) Xu, & Xq = Millikan’s electronegativities for A & B X,q & Xpq = Pauiling’s electronegativities for A & B Memory Based Questions DALTON'S THEORY According fo Dalton’s atomic theory, an atom can? (a) Posttively charged particles (b) Negatively charged particles (c) Neutral particles (a) Becreated {b) Be destroyed (d) None of these (c) Neither be created nor destroyed Cathode rays have 7 [CPMT 1962] (d) None {a) Mass only 2. According to Dalton's atomic theory, an atom? (0) Charge only (a) Gan be further subdivided (©) Nomass and charge (b) Cannot be subdivided (d)_ Mass and charge both (c) Contains neutrons, protons and electrons: Cathode rays are ? [Z..PM.E.R 1987] (d) None ® sloctromagnatc waves TRON stream of a-particles THE ELEC! (©) stream of electrons 3. Cathode rays are made up of ?/Aligarh 1963] (@) stream of positrons ‘Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity 6. 10. 1. 12. 13, 14. 15. 16. 17. Cathode rays are deflected by 2{CPMT 1982] (a) Anelectric field only (b) A magnetic field only (c)_ Neither electric nor magnetic field ()_Both electric and magnetic field In the discharge tube, emissionof cathode rays requires ? (a) Low potential and low pressure (b) Low potential and high pressure (©) High potential and high pressure (d) High potential and low pressure The ratio of e/m for a cathode ray? (a) Has the smallest value when the dis- charge tube is filled with H, (b) Is constant (C)_ Varies witn the atomic number of gas in the discharge tube (d)_ Varies with the atomic number of an ele- ment forming the cathode in the discharge tube. ‘The mass of one mole of electron i (a) 91x10%g ——(b} 0.55 mg (c) 91x10%g ——_(d) 1.008mg Mass of an electron is? (a) 91%10%g — (b) 91x 108g (©) 91x10%q — (d) 9.x 10g ‘The charge on an electron is? (@) 48x10%esu (bo) 48x10es.u (c) 48x 10%e5u — (d) None An electron is identical wit [Delhi PMT 1982, MADT Bihar 1980) (a) An a-tay particle (b) A Bray particles (c)_ A hydrogen ion (d)_ None of these Density of the olectron is calculatod as 7 (a) 2.17% 10" giec (b) 4.38 x 10” glee (c) 2.17% 10% glee _(d) None ‘The charge to mass ratio (e/m) of an electron was determined by ? (a) Goldstein (b) Rutherford (c)_ Thomson (d) Chadwick ‘Which of the following is false in case of an electron? (a) Itis a particle (b) thas wave property (©) It gives out energy while moving in orbits (d)_Its motionis effected by a magnetic field Compared to mass of lightest nucieus the mass of an electron is only? [CBSE1991] (a) 1/80 (b) 1/360 (©) 1/1800 (6) 1/1000 The number of electrons in an atom of an element is equal to its? [BHU 1979} 18. 19. 20, 2. 22, 24, AL 13 (a) Atomic weight — (b) Atomic number () Equivalent wieght (d) Electron affinity THE PROTON ‘The nature of anode rays depend upon: [CPMT 1987] (@) Nature of residual gas (0) Nature of electrode (©) Nature of discharge tube (@ all What is wrong about anode rays ? (@) Their e/m ratio is constant (0) Fhey are deflected by electrical and magnetic field (¢) They are produced by ionisation of molecules of the residual gas (a) Their e/m ratio depends on nature of residual gas, ‘Anode rays were discovered by ? [Delhi PMT 1985} (b) J. Stoney {d) J.J. Thomson {a) Goldstein (c) Rutherford The mass of proton is 7 (a) 1.672 x 10% gm (©) 1.672 x 10 gm (e) 1.672 x 10% gm (d) 1.672 x 10* gm Which is correct statement about proton ? [GPMT 1979, MPPMT 1985, NCERT 1985) fa) Proton is nucleus of deuterium {b) Proton is ionized hydrogen molecule (¢) Proton is ionized hydrogen atom (@) Proton is a-particle Proton is ? INCERT 1976, CPMT 1971] (@) Anionized hydrogen molecule (0) Ana-ray partcle (©) A fundamental particle (@) Nucleus of heavy hydrogen Penetration power of praton is : ICPMT 1982, BHU 1985] (a) Greater than electron (b) Less than electron (©) Greater than neutron (d) None THE NEUTRON The discovery of neutron became very late because? ICPMT 1987] (@) Neutrons are present in nucious (b) Neutrons are fundamental particles (c) Neutrons are chargeless @ atl The mass of a neutron is of the order of 7 IMLNR 1988) Ad 2. 30. at 92. 14 (a) 10° Kg (b) 10Kg (©) 10**kg (@) 107"Kg ‘The credit of discovering neutron goes to? [MPPMT 1992] (a) Rutherford (0) Langmuir (©) Chadwick (@) Austen Mass of the neutron is 7 (a) Same as proton . (©) Very much less than that of proton (c)_ Slightly less than that of a proton (@)_ Slightly more than that of proton Mass of neutron is times the mass of electron: (a) 1840 (b) 1480 (c) 2000 (@) None Neutron possesses? (a) Positive charge _(b) No charge (c) Negative charge (4) All are correct When beryllium is bombarded with alpha particles (Chadwick's experiment) extremely penetrating radiations, which cannnot be deflected by electrical or magnetic field are Given out. These are : [CPMT 1983] (a) Abeam of protons (b) Alpha rays. (©) Abeam of neutrons {d) Abeam of neutrons and protons THE NUCLEUS Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment eventually led to the conclusion that: IIT 1986) (a) Mass and energy are related () Electrons occupy space around the nucleus (c) Neutrons are buried deep in the nucleus (d) The point of impact with matter can be precisely determined. In Rutherfords experiment most of the a- particles were (a) Passed undetlected (b) Defected (c) Thrown back — (d) Absorbed ‘When atoms of the gold sheetare bombarded bya beamof a-particles, only a few a-particies get defected where as most ofthem go straight undeflected. This is because IMNR 1978, NCERT 1980] (a) the force of attraction on a-particles by the oppositely charged electron is not sufficient. {b) the nucleus occupies much smatier volume as compared to the volume of atom. Objective Chemistry (©) the force of repulsion on fast moving a- Particles is very small (@) the neutrons in the nucleus do not have any effect on a-particlos. 35. Discovery of the nucleus of an atom was due to the experiment carried out by : [CPMT 1963] {a) Bohr (b) Mosley () Rutherford (d) Thomson 36. Rutherford’s model of the atom could not hold good because ? (a) It did not account for the stability of the atom (©) The atom did not have a nucleus and electrons (6) It did not account for the attraction between the proton and the electron (d) Thoro is actually no space between the nucleus and the electron 87. The volume of nuclaus is about ? (a) 10° times that of an atom (b) 10°” times that of an atom (©) 10° times that of an atom {d) 10° times that of an atom 38, The size of nucleus is measured in? [EAMCET 1988} (@) amu. (©) Angstrom (©) Fermi (d) Cm 38. Experimental evidence for the existence of the atomic nucleus comes from: [CBSE 1989] (a) Milikan's oil drop experiment (b) Atomic emission sy (c) The magnetic bending of cathode rays (d) Alpha scattoring by a thin metal foil 40. One Fermi unit is equal to? (a) 10cm (b) 10% em {e) 10+cm (2) 104 cm ATOMIC NUMBER AND ATOMIC WEIGHT 41. X-rays are produced when a stream of electrons in an X-ray tube? (a) Hits the glass wall of the tube (b) Strikes metal target (c) Pass through a strong magnetic field (¢) None ‘42, Which of the following is a whole number ? IMPPMT 1986] (a) Atomic weight (>) Atomic radii {c) Equivalent weight {d) Atomic number 43. The number of neutrons in tritium nucleus is: {[Dethi PMT 1982} Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity 47. 51. (a) 1 (o) 2 (©) 3 (4 Many elements have non-integral atomic masses because : HT 1984) (a) They have isotopes (b) Their isotopes have non-integral masses (c) Their isotopes have diferent masses (d) The constituents, neutrons, protons and electrons, combine to give fractional masses: ‘Atom ofan slement shall contain equal number of (a) Protons and neutions (b) Protons and electrons (c) Neutrons and electrons (2) Alithe above ‘Though the three fundamental particles are present in almost all elements, one element does not possess (a) Proton (b) Electron () Neutron (d) Nucleons The atoms ,C” and ,C* will differ in their (a) Position in the periodic table (b) Chemical properties (c) Number of orbital electrons ()_ Number of neutrons in the nucteus Davisson and Germers experiment showed that : (a) P-particles are electrons (b) Electrons come from the nucleus (e) Electrons show wave nature (d)_ None of the above How many molecules are present in one gm of hydrogen? (a) 6.023 10% (b} 3.0125 x 102 (©) 623x102 (d) 3.015 x 10% Neutrons are not present in the nuclei of : (a) Chlorine (b) Deuterium (©) Hydrogen (d) Oxygen ca-particle is identical with : (a) Protium nucteus (b) Deuterium nuctous (c). Positron (@) Helium nucleus Wfthe mass number of an element is W and its atomic number is N, then: [CPMT 1989} (a) Number of ¢*=W-N (b) Number of H'= (c) Number of .n''= W—N (d)_ Number of .n' = N ‘Smallest part of an lament which exists as ‘olomont is ? [EAMECT 1963} 55, (@) © 56. 57. 58. 61. Al 15 (@) May be different (b) Are different (6) All are alike (@)_ Have different properties. ‘According to Thomson's experiment the radius of circular path r, is related to the charge e, mass m velocity v of the electron in the magnetic field H and is given by m my @rg oe a mH ©" {d), Fea according to Thomson's method is given by v ) v () PH v a 2-2 mn PRE 8) in” FH ISOTOPES, ISOBARS AND ISOTONES Which of the following property is different for neutral atoms of the two isotopes of the same element? (@) Atomic weight (0) Atomic number (c)_ No. of protons. (@)_No. of neutrons ‘sotopes differ in : (a) The number of protons (0) The valency number (©) The chemical activity (@)_ The number of neutrons teotopes of sume olemorts have sams number [BHU 1984] 5 Protons (b) Neutrons (c) Deutrons. (a) None The following statement (s) is (are) incorrect for the hydrogen atom : (a) It exists only in two isotopic forms (0) Its electronic configuration is 1s° (¢)_Ithas no neutron in its nucteus (d) tis the smallest atom ‘The postulate that all the atoms of an element are exactly alike was proved incorrect by the discovery of : (a) Isobars (0) X-ray and radioactivity (©) Isotopes (2) Allotropy Moder basis (standard) of atomic weight is : IMP PET 1989} Al 62. 63. 64. 65. 67. 68. 16 {a) Isotopes H' = 1.000 (0) Ordinary oxygen = 16.000 (c) Isotope O'*= 16.000 (a) Isotope GC? = 12.000 The present atomic weight scale is ? [EAMCET 1988} fa) ce (b) OF () Ht (8) o» The atomic nucleus is composed of : [MADT 1980; Delhi PMT 1982, 85; CPMT 1973, 74, 78, 83, 84) (a) Neutrons (b) Electrons + Protons (c) Protons + neutrons (8) Electrons + Protons + Neutrons The introduction of a neutron into the nucteus of an atom would lead to a change in {a) the number of electrons (b) the chemical nature of the atom (c)_ Its atomic number (@) its atomic weight ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS AND PLANCK'S THEORY Light, a well known form of energy, is treated 8 a frm of mater, by saying that & consists w (a) Protons or bundles of energy (b) Electrons or a wave like matter (c) Neutrons, since electrically neutral (@)_ None Which of the following statemenis concerning light is false? (a) itis a form of energy (0) it cannot be deftected by a magnet (c)_ it consists of photons of same energy (d)_ it is part of electromagnetic spectrum ‘The relation between energy of aradiation and its frequency was given by ? (a) de - Broglie (b) Einstein (c) Planck (@) Bohr Which one of the following statements is correct 7 (a) All electromagnetic radiations do not possess the same velocity (b) Matter waves are associated with electrical and magnetic fields (c) Matter waves and electromagnetic radiations are alike (a) The velocity of matter wave is generally less than that of light Aquantum of energy is (@) afixed quantity (0) directly proportional to the radiation 70. m1. 72, 73, 74, 75. 76. 19. at. Objective Chemistry (c)_ inversely proportional to the wavelength of the radiation (0) directly proportional to the velocity of the radiation. Allltypes of electromagnetic radiation possess some (a) Eneroy (b) Velocity (c)_ Frequency (@) Wavelength Which of the following is not electromagnetic in nature? (a) Infrared rays (b) X-rays (c) Cathode rays (¢) rays Wavelength of radiowaves is (a) microwaves (c)_ 4p (0) 4s>30 () 4<9d (@) 4¢<3p How many electrons in an atom with atomic number 105 can have (n+) =8 (a) 30 () 17 (©) 15 (d) unpredictable In hydrogen atom, which of the following is not correct ? (a) 1s<2p () 2p =2s (©) 2p>2s (@) 2p<3s ‘The n+ 1 value for the 3p energy level is ? (a) 4 )7 () 3 1 and | values of an orbitals “A” are 3 and 2 and of another orbital “B* are 5 and 0. The energy of ? (@) Bis more than A (b) Ais more than B (c) Aand B are of same energy (@) None Electronic configuration 1s* 2s*p* astp'd? 4s* violates (a) Paul's exclusion principle (b) Aufbau principle (c) Hund’s rule (@) Uncertainty principle 388. 390. 391. 392. 393. 394, 995. 396. 397. 398. Objective Chemistry Electronic configuration 1s? 2s? 2p,? 2p,? violates (a) Paul's exclusion principle (6) Aufbau principle (c) Hund's rule (d)_ Uncertainty principle Which of the following electronic configuration does not follow the Pauls exclusion principle? (a) 1s*2s%2p* (b) 18225*2p tas? (c) 15%2pt (d) 18°28*2p'3s* ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION Which of the following represents an alkaline earth metal: INCERT 1983] fa) 1s?2s' |b) 1s? 2s? 2p (c) 1s? 2s? 2p*3s? (d) 15? 2s? 2p* 3s? 3p? Electronic configuration of tritium is ? (a) 1s? (b) 1s*28° {c) 1s'2s' (d) None The element with electronic configuration 1s? 28? 2p* 3s” would be? [CPMT 1986] (a) Ametal {b) A non-metal (e) Aninertgas —(d) Ametalloid Aparticular element has the configuration 1s? 28? 2p*. In its chemical reactions it is moet likely 10? (a) Gain one electron {b) Lose one electron (cj Lose three electrons (a) Gain three electrons Atomic number of an element with maximum number of unpaired 3p-electrons, is : (a) 13 (b) 14 (o) 15 17 The number of vacant orbitals in the atom with atomic number 14 is : (a) 2 (b) 4 () 6 (6 Inchrorrium atom (2=24) is in its ground state, the total number of orbitals populated by one or more electrons Is 7 (a) 18 (b) 16 (c) 20 (9) 14 ‘Atom X forms X* with electronic configuration ‘5d"° 6s*. The atom X is : (a) Pb (b) Tl {c) Po (d) Bi For any atom other than hydrogen atom the number of electrons in the inner ‘Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity 399. 400. 401. 402. 403. 404. 405. 406. 407. (a) 4 (3 (c) 2 (a) 18 In lanthanum (Z = 57), the 57th electron enters into: {a) 6p orbital (b) 5d-orbital (c) 6s-orbital (d) 4f-orbital Indicate which electronic configuration amongst the following correctly represent SULPHUR atom ? [BIT 1989] (a) 182s? 2p 3s? Sp? Sa? (b) 18°28? 2p 3s? 3p? 4s (0) 18*2s? 2p" 3s? p* 4s" 4p! (d)_ 1s#2s? 2p* 3s* apt ‘The valence orbital configuration of an element with atomic number 23 is : [Andhra B.Tech. 1978} (a) 3d (b) 3d? 4s? (c) 3d 4s' 4p! (d) 3 4s* 4p! The ground state electronic configuration of the element which is isoelectronic with HO? (a) 18? 26? 2p* 3s? 3p (b) 188 2s? apt {c) 1s? 2s? pt ast (d) 1s? 2st 2pt as? 3p? Elements upto atomic number 103 have been synthesized and studied. Ifa newly discovered element is found to have an atomic number 106, its electronic configuration will be : [AIMS 1960] (a) [Rn] 51" 6d* 73° - {b) [Ro] 5" 6dt 73? 7p* {c)_ [Ro] Sf 6d® 75° (d) [Rn] St 6d° 7s" ‘The atomic number of element in whose atom the last 5 electrons enter in 3d-subshell, is : (a) 26 (b) 22 (©) 25 () 28 Valence shell electronic configuration of an element with atomic number 50, is : (a) Ss*p* (b) 6s* (c) 4s*p® (d) 5s*p? ‘Valence shell electronic configuration of the atom of an element is 5s*p’. Its atomicnumber shouldbe : (a) 36 (b) 54 (©) 72 ©) 48 Which out of the following configurations is incorrect 7 408. 409. ato. au. 412. 413, Al 33 (2) 18% 2s? 2p,2 2p,22p,° (b) 18* 28#2p,'2p," (©) 18*28°2p,'25,' 2p," (d)_19* 2s? 2p* s* ap* ad* 4s ‘The correct electronic configuration of ,,Pd is (a) 1s*2st2p'as'ap'ad'"4s"4p*4d'Ss? (b) 1s°2s*2p'as'3d"4s%4pt4d'? (©) 1s*2s*2ptas*ap'ad'*4st4p'4a'6s! (@)_1s°2st2p'3s'Sp'ad"™4s*4p*4d°Ss*5p° ‘Which of the following electronic configuration ig that of a transition element: [NCEAT 1983} (a) 18° 28°pt 3s’p'd 4s%p* (b) 19? 2s%pt 3s'p'd'” 4s%p" (6) 18° 25%p* Ssiptc? 4o? (d)_ to? 2688 3s'p® As? Which of the following is not correct for electron istribution in the ground state :[ANMS 1982] wom OOOO xe OO®OOOO eam OODOOOO a nm OOOOO® The orbital diagram in which aufbau principle (HT 1988} ht oi) fit An element with atomic number 14 has valence shell electron configuration fa) 3s*p* (b) 2s%p° {c) Ss%p* (d) 4s? Electronic contiguration of, H" Is ? ICPMT 1985} (a) -18° (b) 18° (c) 18? (d) 1s*2s' AL 34 414, 415, 416. aq. 418, 419, 420. 421. 422, 4923. 424, 425. 426, Which of the following electronic configuration is not possible ? (a) 2p* ‘(b) 2a¢ () as" (a) af? The most common oxidation number of an element is -2. The number of electrons in its cuter most orbit is ? (a) 2 (b) 6 (©) 4 (7 For which element is the last electron placed in the third (a = 3) quantum shell ? (a) Kr (b) Zn () Cu (¢) Ca An atom has 2 K, 8L, 11M, 2N electrons, the total number of s-electrons will be : (a) 6 (b) 8 (©) 10 (d) 4 How many electrons in ,.K have n= 3; |= 0: (a 1 (b) 2 (c) 4 (a 3 The atomic number of Cris 24. The number of electrons present in 3d shell of the metal is : (a) 5 (b) 4 ©) 6 (a3 The electronic configuration 1s*2s*2p°3s"3p* or an element has the valence ? (a) -1 (b) +3 (c) +4 (@) -3 The number of electrons present in the outermost shell of a halogen atom is ? (@ 7 (0) 6 (o) 5 {d) 10 ‘The atomic number of an element is 17. The number of orbitals containing electron pairs in the valence shell is ? @) 8 (b) 2 @) 3 @6 Aneutral atom of an element has 2K, 8L, 11M and 2N electrons. Total number of electrons present in p-subshell is ? (a) 12 (b) 14 () 10 qe Number of electrons in the outermost orbit of the element of atomic number 15 is? [CPMT 1966} @7 (&) 5 (©) 3 @6 ‘The number of vacant orbitals ot element with Z=14is? fa) 6 (b) 8 (©) 2 (@) 10 ‘The total number of unpaired electrons in d- orbital of an unexcited atom of an element of atomic number 29 is ? ICPMT 1984) 427. 428, 429. 430. 431. 432. 433. 434, Objective Chemistry fa) 0 (b) 1 (©) 2 5 How many electrons with |= 2 will be there in an atom having atomic number 23 ? (a) 2 (b) 3 ©) 4 5 ‘An atom has 2 electrons in K shell, 8 electrons in L shell and 6 electrons in M shell. The number of s-electrons present in that element is: ICPMT 1989) (a) 6 (b) 5 (ce) 7 (@ 10 In which of the following all the electrons are paired? (a) atom with atomic number 22 (b) nitride ion {c) atom with configuration 3s* Sp* (d) Inall. ‘The number of electrons in the M shell of the element with atomic number 24 is [Andhra B.Tech. 1982] (a) 24 (b) 12 (c) 13 () 8 IF in tho atom of an element all 3d-oloctrons except three are paired, the atomic number of the element should be (@) 27 (b) 23 (©) 41 (@) 45 The atom of the element having atomic number 14 should have : [AMU 1984] (a) One unpaired electron (b) Two unpaired electrons (c) Three unpaired electrons (@) Four unpaired electrons. How many unpaired electrons are there in Ni: {UT 1981) (2) 0 (b) 2 () 4 (a) 8 The atomic number of the element having ‘maximum number of unpaired 3p electrons is: (a) 15 (b) 10 (©) 12 8 ‘The number of unpaired electrons in Mn* is? @) 3 (b) & «4 @1 ORBITAL ‘The number spherical nodes in 3p orbitals are: (CBSE 1988] (a) one (b) throo (c)_none (a) two ‘Which of the following orbital does not have angular node ? (@) 28 (b) 2p (©) 3p (@ 3d Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity 438, Which orbital notation does not have spherical node (a) ; 1= 0 ) 0 (c) o (d) 439, Orbitals possessing the same energy are called ? (a) Hybrid orbitals (b) Vatoncy orbitals (c) D-orbitals (d) Degenerate orbitals 440. Ad-orbitalin an atom in presence of magnetic field is? (a) Soven fold degenerate (b) Three fold degenerate (c) Five fold degenerate (d)_Non degenerate 441, Which of the following statements is correct? (a) An orbital describes the path of an elec- tron in an atom (b) An orbital is a region in space where the electron is located (c) An orbital is a function which gives the probability of nding an electron ina given region (d) None of these 442. The s orbitals of any atom are (a) independent of angles (b) dependent on sind (c) dependent on cos 6 (@) dependent on sin 6 cos 6 443. The d-orbital whose four lobes lie along the axis is: (a) d, ) 4, (©) da @@ 444. A completely filled d-orbital (cd) is : IMLNR 1987] (a) Spherically symmetrical (b) Has octahedral symmetry (©) Has tetrahedral symmetry (d) Depends on the atom PERIODICITY : ATOMIC AND IONIC SIZE 445. ‘The size of the atom decreases trom? (a) CatoBa (b) LitoB (©) Oto Na (6) Kto Cs 446. Which element would forman ion whose radius is larger than that of its atom ? fa) ui (b) Zn () Na i) cl 447. Which of the following is the smallest in size? {NT 1988) (a) Na* (b) OF (© F& (3) Nav 448. The smallest ion among the following is (MADT Bihar 1982) 450. 451. 452. 453, 454, 455. 456. 457. 458. 459. AL 35 (a) Nav (b) Mgr (c) Ale (a) Sir Which of the following represents elements in order of increasing atomic size : [Andhra MBBS 1980] (a) 1, 8, Cl (b) Na, Mg, C (©) CN,O (6) Li, Na, kK Atomic radii of Flourine and Neon in Angstrom units are given by [LLT. 1987] (a) 0.72, 1.60 (b) 1.60, 1.60 (©) 0.72, 0.72 (d) none of these. Which of the ions has the largest ionic radius [Pb. PET. 1986} (a) Be (b) Mg (c) Ca® (@) se ‘The correct arrangement of ,P andN in order of increasing radii : fa) O 123 pm (b) = 123 pm (c) < 123 pm (d) 128/2 pm ‘Which one of the following elements has the largest crystallographic radius? @) cl (1 (©) He @) F Which electronic configuration represents the largest atom ? (a) 1s?28* (b) 18%2s%2p" (c) 182s" (6) 18%28%2p* Size of the ionic charge is in the order ? (a) Nat> Mg*> Gi" > Si* (0) Nav> Mg > Sit > Cr (¢) Grr> Si > Mgt > Nav (@)_ Gir> Nar > Mg > Si ‘An element has the following ionization energy 300 kJ, E, = 620 kJ, E, = 4300 kJ, E, = 6000 kw. The clement most probably could be with the following electronic configuration in its outermost shell : fa) ne? np? (b) ns? (c) ns*npt (@) (n= 1) d®nst The electronegativity of the following elements increases in the order [ALT 1987} a) ©, (b) NSi,C,P ©) (d) PSiN.C Amongst the following electronic configurations which one will have highest electron aftinity ? [Pb JET 1988] aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. ‘Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity 521. 522. (a) (ec) 523. 524, 525. 526. 527. 528, If uncertainty in position of an electron is zero, the uncertainty in its momentum would be ICPMT 1988; BHU 1992) (a) Zero (b) > hv4x (c) h/4n. if Ax = 0, 4p will be inifnite, is exclusion principle is violated in option is both the electrons have simitar spin. Hund's rule is also violated here because electrons have been paired up and stil one P — orbital is empty. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Al 4 Objective Chemistry With the help of half life period of a substance it’s stability can be predicted e.g. U* (t,,—4.5 * 10° years) is more stable than Po?" (t,, = 1.64 x 10 seconds). ‘A long lived radioactive element ‘A’ can break into a series of radio active elements, on standing. After some time the rate at which daughter elements are formed becomes equal to the rate of decay of ‘A* and this state is known as radioactive equilibrium state. a pkec jegration constants of A and B respectively. Ay Ay are di Hence, NE Nz Here, N, and N, are number of disintegrated atoms of A and B, while T, and T, are their average lives respectively. Radioactivity Units: Number of disintegrations emitted by a radioactive substance is called radioactivity, viz, also called activity. The activity is inversely proportional to half life period. Activity = A.N. Basic Unit of Radioactivity is Curie (Ci), which is equal to the activity of one gm radium. SI Unit of Radioactivity is Becquerel (Bq) 1 Becquerel disintegration per second 1 Curie (Ci) .7 x 10° disintegration per second = 3.7 x 10" Bq 1 milli Ci .7 x 10? disintegration per second = 3.7 107 Bq 1pci .7 x 10° disintegration per second = 3.7 x 10* Bq 1 Rutherford — 10° disintegration per second =10°Bq Artificial Transmutation of Elements : The bombardment of high speed particls like o-particles, B-parti- cles, neutrons, protons, deutrons etc. on the nucleus of any atom causes artificial disintegration and the ele- ment converts into new element(s), This process is called artifical transmutation. The first artificial transmu- tation was observed by Rutherford in 1919, when N-14 was bombarded by helium particle to get O-17. (NY + Het > 0" +H! In general artificial transmutation can be expressed by following nuclear reaction Target Nuclide + Bombardment Particle -» New Nuclide + Ejected Particle It can also be expressed as : ‘Target Nuclide (Bombardment Particle, Ejected Particle) New Nuclide. It is important to note that on the basis of bombardment particle and ejected particle an idea about new nuclide can be obtained. However, while dealing with nuclear reactions care should be taken and sum of atomic numbers and mass numbers of L.H.S. should be equal to atomic numbers and mass numbers of R.H.S, respectively. Some of the examples of artificial transmutations are as follows: {Be + He! > C" +! or Be’(a,n),C? (a, n) Type APT + gt ,Mg?? + Ht or ,AP"(n, p) Mg” (. p) Type PI + Hl > S44 oa! or Pp.) ,,S (p.m) Type slit} HP Li7+ or Lif (d, p) Li? (p)Type > Be’+y > Bel +n! or — ,Be*(y,n) ,Be* (yn) Type Artificial or Induced Radioactivity : Some times the new nuclide formed during artificial transmutation itself is radioactive, such type of phenomenon was first observed by Irene Curie and her husband F. Joliot in 1934 and is called induced radioactivity. It has been observed that the radioactive product nuclide generally ‘emit positron (,,¢"). Some of the typical examples of induced radioactivity are as follows : APT Het, gH!) ,P®) PSP? +e? Me™ (Het, sa!) SPS? ,AP +e" Nuclear and Radiochemistry Al 5 BM (Het gn!) NP: NP CP +e? Artificial Elements : Artificial transmutation technique is widely used for synthesising new elements. Mostly trasuranic elements like naptunium, Curium, Californium etc. are prepared by this procese. 5U+E C9 5°CE + 4qa! 0 SEU ty nl 93)Np+,.e! By Put} He 5eCmtyn Nuclear Fission (Hahn & Strassmann, 1939) : The process of converting heavier nuclei into number of fragments of lighter nuclide by bombarding slow neutrons is called nuclear fission. During a fission process each heavy nucleus releases neutrons, which are capable enough to further fragment it into smaller nuclei and neutrons and in this way a chain reaction is set up. In each step release of high amount of energy due to mass defect takes place, the total energy liberated in this way can be used for constructive (nuclear reactor) as well as destructive (nuclear bomb) purposes. It has been found that amount of energy release during fission of | gm of U-235 is equivalent to that released during burning of 20,000 Kg of coal. During a fission process, the selection of amount of fissionable material plays an important role, the minimum amount of the fissionable material which can continue the chain reaction is called critical mass, if the mass is more or less than critical ‘mass it is called super critical and sub critical masses respectively. ‘The reactions occurring during nuclear fission are as follows : Bal + Ke + 3 ont U2? + gt > [,,U%]—} > Cs! RB + 2p! Ly .Xel+,,Sr°+2n! Nuclear Reactor : In nuclear reactors, fission process is carried out in controlled manner and energy re- leased during the process is converted into electrical energy, which is subsequently used in constructive purposes. It consists of following parts: Nuclear fuel : The rods or pallets of enrich U-235 in the form of U,0,. Control rods : Rods of cadmium or boron, which can control the absorbing neutrons by raising or lowering. Moderator : Heavy water (D,0), which can slow down the speed of neutrons. Coolant ; Heavy water (D,0) is also used as coolant as it is circulated in the reactor core to absorb some amount of heat. Shield : To prevent loss of heat generated during fission, heavy steel or dome of concrete is used as shield. In India four nuclear reactors have been set up, each at Tarapur, Kota, Narora and Kalpakkam. Atom Bomb : in aiomic or nuclear bomb, fission process is carried out in uncontrolled manner and energy released during the process is used for destructive purposes. In atom bomb two picces of fissionable material like U-235 or Pu-239 each with sub critical mass is taken, one piece of fissionable material (generally U-235) is used as target which initiate the process and liberated neutron now attacks the other piece (Pu-239) acting as wedge and in this way a chain reaction proceeds. Breeder Reactors : The role of breeder reactor is to convert or enrich non-fissionable material (also called fertile mclide) which is available more abundantly, into fissionable material (also called fissile nucleide). As we know, naturally occurring uranium contains a large quantity of U-238 which is non-fissionable and fissionable material U-235 is only about 0.7% in it. Similarly Th-232 is also available but non-fissionable . Hence it was found necessary to convert these isotopes into fissionable nuclei like U-235, U-233, Pu-239 etc. with the help of breeder reactor using neutron bombardment technique. p+ gal > ,U™ > Np +0? apt > Pum? + je? (non-fissionable) (fissionable) All 6 Objective Chemistry Nuclear Fusion : The process of converting lighter nuclei into heavier nuclide is called nuclear fusion, The fusion also causes release of high amount of energy due to mass defect. However, fusion reactions require high amount of temperature (> 10* K) in order to overcome the inter nuclear repulsions taking place between the nuclei, hence fusion reactions are also called thermonuclear reactions. One of the thermonucleartests was, carried out by India recently in 1998. The applications of nuclear fusion are as follows : Solar Energy : It has been now well established that Sun like other stars contains hydrogen in larger quantity. The energy provided by Sun is the result of fusion reactions taking place between the nuclei of hydrogen, (HEH Pe pty iH +H! —> He +y sHe?+ He? —> He!+2,H'+y Hydrogen Bomb : Another application of nuclear fusion reaction is hydrogen bomb in which deuterium (14-2) and tritium (H-3) are fused. Due to very small half life and instability tritium is generated in-situ by bombarding ncutron on Li-6. Following are the reactions taking place in a hydrogen bomb : jLit + n' > we + Het +4,78 MeV jH’ +H? Het+ 2 n+ 17.6 Mev [HP HP He + jn! 3.3 Mev (H+ HP > Het+ jn! +11 Mev. Hence about 36 MeV energy is liberated per fusion reaction, which is less than energy liberated in per fission reaction, which is about 200 MeV, yet H-bomb is more powerful than atomic bomb. This is due to the fact that mass per atom of deuterium and tritium is smaller than uranium and no restriction of critical mass is there for fusion material, Age of Minerals and Rocks : As the final product of every radioactive disintegration series is lead, hence on the basis of ratio of amount of U-238 (t, = 4.5 * 10° years) and Pb-206 (both members of 2n +2 disintegration series) the age of rock can be calculated, considering the fact that the entire amount of lead present today is a result of radioactive disintegration of U-238. On the basis of this age of earth is calculated about 5 * 10” years. Carbon Dating : The age of archeological objects like dead animals, wood pieces, dead plants ete. is caleu- lated on the basis of carbon dating technique, as developed by Willard Libby. In this technique itis considered that due to bombardment of cosmic rays nitrogen isotope converts into C-14 (t,-5770 years). Living plants or animals absorb C-14 in the form of CO, and after their death they are unable to assimilate C-14. The C-14 have tendency to decay like ,C'*—» N!*+_,e. Hence by counting number of B-particles emitting per minute from a sample the life of the sample can be easily calculated. Tracer Technique : By adding a radioactive isotope in a reactant its movement can be studied by observing different parts, this technique is called tracer or tagging technique. The technique has wide applications like in medical diagnostics for the deterction of thyroid disorder and brain tumour, in agriculture to study phosphorous uptake of plants, in chemistry to ascertain kinetics of a reaction and solubility of a substance. Cancer Therapy : With the help of y-rays emitted by a radioactive substance, the cancerous cells can easily be destroyed. Isotope Uses Na-24 _Diagnose of restricted circulation of blood Co-60 Curing Cancer (Co-60 considered better than Ra) Au-198 Curing Cancer 1131 Curing thyroid and tumour growth P32 Diagnose of cancer, curing of leukaemia, for temperature control in blood diseases Nuclear and Radiochemistry AM 7 Hazards of Nuclear Radiations : Radioactive radiations wreck havoc on the living beings causing patho- logical damages like skin cancer, carnioma, breast cancer, leukaemia etc. which eventually leads to death or create genetic damages by effecting chromosomes of reproductive cells and causing gene mutations and blood abnormalities ete. Instrumentation and Techniques Used in Radioactivity : Detection of Radioactivity : Electron Microscope. Activity measurements of radioactive material : Iilson Cloud Chamber, G.M. (Geiger Muller) Counter ‘and Scintillation Counter (rate of nuclear disintegration is measured by counting the number of particles Separation of Isotopes : Gas diffusion technique, thermal diffusion, distillation, ultra centrifuge. electro- ‘magnetic separation, exchange reaction and laser spectra. Identifying nuclear isomers : Mass spectroscope (particles having different value of e/m are separated). Accelerating Sub-atomic Particles : Linear Accelerator (A big device which is about 2 miles long, used for charging the sub atomic particles to high speed and energy), Cyclotron and synchroton. These devices are used during artificial transmutation to accelerate the bombarding projectile, Memory Based Questions ISOTOPES, ISOBARS ETC. 7. The distance between nucleons in atomic nu- 1. Atoms with the same atomic number and dit- claus is of the order of (1 Fermi = 10" cm)? ferent mass numbers are called? {a) 2 Fermi (b) 25 Fermi (a) isobars. (©) isomers (c) 100 Fermi (d) 40 Fermi (c) isotones (@) isotopes 8. Density of nuclear matter is? 2. Which of the following properties are difforent {a) 10% Kg/ce (b} 10" Kg/cc for neutral atoms of the isotopes of the same {c) 10 Kg/ec (d) 10" g/cc ‘element? [EAMCET 1987} 9. The binding energy per nucleon is? (a) Mass () Atomic number (a) Largest for high mass numbers. (c) General chemical reaction (b) Largest for tow mass numbers. (@) Number of electrons (©) Largest for intermediate mass numbers. 3. Observed atomic mass of hydrogen nucleus (d) Almost the same for all mass numbers. is .... the sum of the masses of nucleons «10. The binding energy per nucleon for all the nu- present in it? clei is approximately equal to? (a) less than (b) equal to (a) 1 Mev (b) 8 Mev (c) greater than (@) halt (c) 16 Mev (d) -8 Mev 4. Atoms of different elements having the same ‘11. A correct expression for the conversion of number of neutrons are known as? mass into energy 6? (a) Isobars (0) Isomers (a) E=me (b) m= Ect (©). lootones (2) Isotopes = fim . 5. If A'is the mass number and’E"is the alomic een vei () mecim number, then isotones are atoms with 7 12. Formation of nucleus from its nucleons is ac- (a) same ‘A’ and different ‘E companied by? (b) same ‘A-E’ but different ‘E" {a) Decrease in mass (c)_ same ‘E’ but different ‘A’ (b) Increase in mass (0) cifferent‘A’ and different 'E* {c)_ No change in mass (d) A decrease or increase or no changa in NUCLEAR STABILITY, BINDING ENERGY mass 6. One atomic unit is equal to? 13. The difference between the total mass of the (@) 1.492 x 10° ergs particles present and the real mass of an atom (b) 1.492 x 10 args is called? {c) 1.492 x 10-” ergs (a) Mass (b) Energy (¢) None (©) Mass defect (d) Binding energy aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. All 55. 56. 87. 60. 61. 63. 10 () gamma rays (d)_ none of the above When passing through a magnetc field, the greatest deflection is experienced by (a) a- rays (b] {h- rays (c) y-rays (d) Protons Neutrino can be detected during the emission of? (a) u- rays (c) Protons (a) X-rays A radioactive clement’ emits one alpha and two beta particles and product "Y' is formed °X’ andY' will have the same ? (a)_ physical properties (b) chemical properties {c) mass number (d) none of these An isotope of ‘parent’ is produced when its nuclous loses ? [CPMT 1987, (a) One a-particle (b) One fb-particle (c) One « -and two [ -patticles (d) One [)-and two a -particles Whenever the parent nucleus emits a fi-parti- cle, the daughter element is shifted in the pe- riodic table? INCERT 1984) (a) One place to the right (b) One place to the left {c) Two places to the right (d) Two places to the left DISINTEGRATION SERIES 4n - seriesis .......series ? (a) Actinium (b) Neptunium (c) Thorium (d) Uranium The end product of dn series is? [MLNB 1983) (@) pp (©) 2’pp ©) pp (3) pp Radioactive series to which Ra belongs is? (a) 4nseries (b) 4n+3series (©) 4n+2seres — (d) 4n+ 1 series Neptunium series is ? (a) 4n41 (b) 4n (c) 4n43 (a) 4n42 Which of the following is artificial radioactive series? (a) 4net (b) 4ne2 () 4n (d) 4ne3 In the Neptunium series, all the elements. {a) have long half lives {b) are found in nature (c)_ are transuranic (d) allof these (b) {- particle 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75, 76. 71. Objective Chemistry The end product of a particular radioactive decay series is Bi**. Which of the following nucle is likely to belong to this series? (a) ,,U%" (b) ,,U™® ©) ,U™ (d) Th? To what stable isotope would ,,.Lr“*” decay? (@) eb () Bi ©) Pb (d) Pb Least branching is found in which of the foi- lowing radioactive series? (a) 4ne2 (b) 4n (©) ana (4) ner Uranium series is also called....seties? fa) 4n (b) 4net (©) ania (a) 4n3 Radium - 220 belongs 10 .... series? (@) Actinium (b) Nepturium (©) Thorium (@) Uranium Ra-226 belongs to disintegration series? @) 4n (0) dn +1 (©) 4ns2 (a) 4n+3 ‘The end product of (4n+3) series is? (@) 261 ©) 2p () Epp ) Bpp Actinium disintegration series starts with A and ends at Z. Aand Z are? (a) ,,The, Pb (@) ,,U", Poe (b) U™, Po (0) Ac”. Bi RATE LAW OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY Radioactive decay is a reaction of? [MP PMT 1989) (a) First order (b) Second order (6) Third order (d) Zero order The decay of a radioactive element follows fist order kinetics. Thus ? (a) Hall life period decay constant. (b) The rate of decay is independent of tem- perature. {c) The rate can be altered by changing chemical conditions, (4) The element will be completely trans- formed into a new element after expiry of two hall life periods. The rate of radioactive disintegration with time? a) Increases, (b) Decreases {¢) Is constant (d) May increase The relation between half life (T) and aecay constant is ? (a) T =0.693 x decay constant (o) /decay constant constan/k, where kis aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. All 135. 136. 137. 138, 139. 140. 141, 142. 143. 14 Ue and Th? are? (a) isotopes (b) isobars (©) tsotones (9) isomers Two nuclides are said to be isodiapharic if they have same difference between the number of neutrons and the number of protons. Which of the following is a diapheric pair? (a) .B". Na (b) ,,Ar®, Cat? (c) C0" (a) Cl, ,,CP The atomic mass and atomic number of lead are 208 and 82. The atomic mass and atomic number of bismuth are 209 and 83. The Neu- tron/Proton ratio in an atom? (a) Is higher in lead than in bismuth (b)_ Is lower in lead than in bismuth (c) Is equal in both lead and bismuth (d) None BINDING ENERGY Binding energy per nucleon of G-12 ts 7.6855 Mev tts total binding energy should be nearly? (a) 46 Mev (b) 92 MeV (c) 69 Mev (6) 136 MeV Given :- Mass of U - 235 = 235.124; Mass of Ba- 144 = 143,934; Mass of Kr - 90 = 89.974; Mass of neutron = 1.009. All masses are in ‘amu. In the fission process given by the reac- tion? U4 nt Bal + , Kr + 2(.0") eneray released is ... Mev (a) 100 (b) 200 (©) 150 (9) 25 It mass defect is 0.03038 a.m.u., binding en- ergy willbe .... MeV? (a) 28.29 (b) 32.54 (©) 136 (6) 208 The total mass of 6 protons and 6 neutrons is 12.095652 amu, if 1 amu = 931.4 MeV, what is the binding energy per nucleon for the G-12 nucleus? (a) 8.91 MeV (b) 7.42 Mev () 8.1 Mev (0) 685 Mev The loss of mass in the following nuclear re- action HP +H? = |Het is 0.03 amu. The amount of onorgy roloased is ? (a) 2.793 Mev (b) 27.93 Mev {c) 279.3Mev (6) 2793 Mev In the process of conversion of hydrogen into helium, the loss of mass is 0.7%. The energy obtained, when one Kg. of hydrogen is con verted into helium, will be .... Joules: (a) 63x 10" (b) 12.6 x 10% (c) 3.15x10% (d) 63x 10% 144, 145, 146, 147, 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153, Objective Chemistry What is the Q value for the reaction He? + -n! > HY + He Nuciidic masses are He? = 3.01603 u, H” 3.01605 u, ,n'=1.00867u, ,H'=1.00783u ju=932 MeV] (a) 0.00082 Mev (b) 0.076 Mev (c) 0.76 Mov (d) 0.082 Mev lf mass of a hydrogen atom = 1.00783 a.m.u., mass of a neutron = 1.00866 am.u. and that of a deuterium atom = 2.01410 am.u, then binding eneray of neutron in deuterium atom is.-..MeV? (a) 0 (b) 1.16 (c) 2.207 (d) none of these Ifthe total mass of neutrons, protons and elec trons in a Li’ atom be 7.06039 amu and the mass of the atom be 7.01822 amu, thon tho binding energy of the atom is ? (a) 40 Mev (b) 39.27 MeV (c) 80 MeV (d) 7 Mev, NUCLEAR STABILITY Unstable nucleus is ? @ 1B (©) 39g (©) sy 8) 80 ‘The nuclide which would decay wth a posi- tron emission among the following is ? (a) Ye () 28 (©) yF (a) ZMg Which of the following is unstablo 7 i) gePb™ (ii) HP Gil) ,.K® a) (i) & (b) (ii) only (c) (ii) only (d) all of them Which of the following particles cannot exist? fa) er (b) 0. © &N () FH Which of the following atoms has only one sta- ble nuclei? fa) Ca (b) Rh (c) ..Sn (9) Kt All nuclides exhibit radioactivity when the atomic number exceeds? (a) 80 (b) 83 {c) 90 (a) 92 GROUP DISPLACEMENT LAW Which of the following does not take place by a - decay? fa) ,,U3 Th (b) Th? > Ra (0) Ra’ > An (d) BP? >, Po? aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. All 209. 210. 211. 212. 213, 214. 215. 216, 217. 218. 18 The rate constant for a certain reaction is 9 x 10°° min’. What is the half life in hours? (a) ~ 11.5 hrs (b) - 115 hrs (c) ~ 128 hrs (0) ~ 12.8hrs A certain radioactive nuclide has a half of 8 days. In how many half lives will the initial ac- tivity be reduced to a little more than 3% of the inital activity? (a) 6 (o) 4 ) 5 (d) 7 Racioactivity ofa radioactive element remains 1/10 of the original radioactivity after 2.303 seconds. The half-life period is?[CPMT 1985] (a) 2.303 (b) 0.2303 (c) 0.0893 (6) 0.693 A sample of radioactive element with half ife period of one year weighs 100 mg. After two years, the weight of the remaining element in mg is? [OUAT 1989) {a) 50 (b) 25 (c) 125 (d) 6.25 ‘Apioce of ancient wooden structure shows an activity of C-14 of 3.9 disintegration per minute per gram of carbon, if half-life of C-14 is S568 years and the activity of C14 in living wood is 15.6 disintegrations per minute per gram then the age of the structure is ? (a) 8352 years (b) 2784 years (c) 13920 years (d) 11136 years A piece of wood recovered in an excavation has 33.33% as much C-14 as ordinary wood has today. Age of the woods... years. (Half- life of C-14 is 5770 years)? (a) 8218 (b) 7548 (c) 11215 (d) 9145 Halt life period of a radioactive element is 100 sec. If at a certain instant of time 1.5 gms of the radioactive element are present, then five minutes back the amount was? {a) 4.59ms {b) 9 gms (©) 12gms (¢) 1875 gms The activity of a sample drops to 1/32 of its initial value in 8 hours. Hal life is? (a) 2hrs. (b) 1.6 hrs. (©) 0.5 hrs. (d) none of these The half life of a radioactive isotope is 1.5 hrs. If its initial mass is 32g the mass of it remains undecayed after 6 hrs is? (a) 32g (b) 169 (c) 49 (d) 29 A subsiance is kept for two hours and three- fourth disintegrates during this period. The half life of the substance is? {CPMT 1984, MPPMT 1989) 219, 220. 221. 226, Objective Chemistry (a) 2 hours (o) 1 hour (c) 30 minutes (@) 4 hours A certain nuclide has a half life period of 30 minutes. If a sample containing 600 atoms is allowed to decay for 90 minutes, how many atoms will remain? (a) 200 atoms (b) 450 atoms (c) 75 atoms (4) 150 atoms Ita certain radioactive element disintegrates for an interval of time equal to its mean life, the percentage that has disintegrated is? (a) 36.8% (0) 63.2% {e) 50% (a) 75% Initial mass of a radioactive element is 409. How many grams of it would be left after 24 years if its hatt-lite period is 8 years? IMPPMT 1985) (a) 2 ) 5 (©) 10 (d) 20 A certain nuclide has a halt-ife of 25 minutes. fone starts with 100g oft, how much of it will remain at the end of 100 minutes? [Demi PMT 1982, fa) 1.09 (©) 4.09 (0) 6.259 (a) 12.50 Half life of a certain radioactive element is 3 hours. Amount which will be left 9 hours from now is one gm, then amount which was present ‘hours before should be? (a) 329m (b) 16 om. (©) 649m (d) 128gm 10 g of a radioactive substance is reduced 10 1.25 gaffer 15 days.lts 1 Kg mass will reduce to 500 g in how many days? (a) 500 (0) 125 (©) 25 (@) § A radioactive decay sequence aA—t,a Bsc has the stable end product C and the half lives T, and T, respectively. T, = 16T,. If an experiment is started with one mole of A, then attartime T,..the ratio of A to B in the decaying nuclide mixture is? (a) 1:8 (b) 1:16 () 16:1 (d) 8:4 A sample of radioactive substance gave 630 ‘counts par minute and 610 counts per minute at times differing by one hour. What is the half life of the element? 18.06 ©) jegieaq/e10) a ©) gieaoeiy nue aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. All 285. 286. 287. 289, 290. 291, 292. 22 (a) 2g () 19 (c) 05g (a) 0.259 The decay constant of a radioactive element is 3x10 min“. Its half-life is? IMP PMT 1993) (a) 231% 105min (bd) 2.31 x 10% min (C) 231% 10°min (4) 2.31% 107 min In the nuclear reaction $°U + 2’Pb, the number of « and B-particles lost would be? [Korala CEE 1999, (a) 8.4 (b) 6,2 (7.4 (@ 4,3 A certain radio active isotope has a hall life of 50 days. Fraction of the material left behind atter 100 days will be? [MAT (Bihar) 1994, (a) 90% (b) 75% (c) 125% (a) 25% According to nuclear reaction, sBe+sHe— PC +in the mass number of Be atomis? [BHU 1994] (a) 4 (b) 8 () 6 (9 Transuranium elements are those which are? [BHU 1994, (a) heavier than uranium (©) lighter than uranium (c) of lower atomic no. than uranium (0) of same atomic no. as uranium The missing particle in the reaction BF'Es + SHe + $Md+ — is? (BHU 1994) (a) Doutron {b) Proton (c) Neutron (6) frparticle(s) Graphite is used in nuclear reactors? IAFMc 1994, DCE 1994) (a) asatubricant — (b) asa fuel (©) for lining the inside of the reactor as an insulator (4) for reducing the velocity of neutrons ‘Complete the following nuclear reaction 38Mn (n, 7)? [SM Dhanbad 1994 (a) Mn () Scr (©) Mn (a) Scr Cyclotion is not capable of accelerating? [Bihar MDAT 1994) (a) Neutrons (b) Protons (c) Deutrons (9) a-particles A radioactive substance disintegrates to V16 th of its original mass in 160 days. Then its halflife period is [Haryana CET 1994] 293. 295. 297. 298. 299. 300. 301. Objective Chemistry (a) 30days (b) 40 days (©) 50 days (d) 60 days ‘The hatf-life period ot a racioactive element is 30 min. One sixteenth of the original quantity of the element will remain unchanged after? [CPMT 1983; MP PMT 1994] (a) One hour (b) Sixteen hours, (©) Four hours (6) Two hours In a radioactive decay, an emitted electron comes trom? [CBSE PMT 1994; CPMT 1994) (a) the nuclous of atom (0) the orbit with principal quantum number 1 (C) the inner orbital of the atom (d)_ the outermost orbit of the atom India has the world’s largest deposits of thotiumin the form of? [CBSE PMT 1994] (@) tute (b) magnesite (©) ignite (d) monazito Which of the folowing statements is wrong? [AIMS 1994; Haryana PMT 1994) (a) P*is used in the treatment of leukernia (b) I is used in the treatement of thyroid gland cancer (¢) Co can't be used for treatment of can- cer (d) Excessive use of radio active elements is responsible for cancerous growth BPO %Pb + 3He From the above nuclear reaction, previct the position of polonium in the periodic table (lead belongs to group IV A)? [Aims 1994) (a) WA () vB () iB (@) VIA C0" is radioactive because of its? [Alms 1994 {a) atomic number {b) high proton to neutron ratio {c) high neutron to proton ratio (d) high electron to neutron ratio The isotope used inthe treatment of cancer is {DPMT 1994) (a) Ue (b) Pb {c) Coe (¢) Pom The hali-lfe period of a radioactive material can be determined with the help of? [DPMT 1994 (a) Wilson Cloud Chamber (0) Geiger Muller counter (c) Mass spectrometer {d)_any of the above can bo used. ‘The emission of f-rays produces? [DPMT 1994, (@) Isomer (b) tsotone (@) Isotope (d) Isobar Nuclear and Radiochemistry 302. 303. 308. 305. 308. 307. 308, 309. The radioactive nucleus ,N'? decays to ,C'? through the emission of? {OCE 1994] {a) positrons: (b) neutrons (c) protons (4) electrons if the amount of radioactive substance is in- creased three times, the number of atoms cis- integrated per gram per unit time would be (Pb. CET 1994] (a) double (b) remain one third (c) triple (2) not change Which of the following isotopes occurs in na- ture? [IPMER 1994) (a) U> (b) U (c) Us (d) Ue" Which of the following is an (n, p) reaction? [BHU 1995] fa) Ch + HI > co" (b) NY +H! 0% (0) AP? +n" > Mg? +H" (0) UE + n> XO"? + SI +3 of After the emission of one a-particle followed by one {}-particle from the atom of 33°X,, the ‘number of neutrons in the atom will be? (CBSE PMT 1995} fa) 144 (b) 143 (c) 142 (9) 148 The radioactive decay of §2X by a f-emission produces an unstable nucleus which sponta- neously emits a neutron. The final product is? [MLNR 1995) (a) 8X (o) Sy tc) 8Z (d) Ww Hall life of Radioactive elementis 100 yrs. The time in which it disintegrates 50% of its mass will be? (MP PMT 1995] (a) 50 yrs. (b) 200 yrs. {c) 100 yrs. (9) 25 yrs. The radioactive decay of 23*U to 2°Pb in- volves the loss of? [CBSE PMT 1988; BHU 1991, 95; Pb. CET 1995] 310. (a) 2a and 2p particles (b) 6c and 8) particles (c) 8a and 26 particles (d) 8a and 68 particles An isotope ,A* undergoes a series of m alpha particles and nbeta particles disintegration to form a stable isotope of , ,,B. The value of m and nare respectively? [MPPET 1995} (a) 688 (b) 84 10 (c) 588 (d) 8&6 311. 312. 313, 314, 315, 316. 317. 318. 319. 320. 321, A 23 A radioactive substance has t,.. 60 minutes. Aiter 3 hrs, what percentage of radioactivity will remain? [BHU 1995) (a) 50% (b) 175% (Cc) 25% (d) 12.5% Aiter emission of one «-particle followed by one f-patticle from 2X, the number of neu- trons in the atom will be? [CBSE 1995: MLNR 1993} (a) 142 (0) 146 (o) 144 (a) 143 The radioactive decay of ,,X" by a f-emission produces an unstable nucleus which sponta- neously emits a neutron. The final product is? IMLNR 1995} (2) x (©) 3" (©) 42° () wr In torms of energy 1 amu is equal to? (MPPET/PMT 1998] (a) 100) (b) 931.5 MeV (©) 931.5 keal (2) 10 ergs Uranium ultimately decays into a stable iso- tope of? [MPPET 1995] (a) Radium {b) Carbon (c) Lead (d) Neptunium A substance used as a moderator in nuclear reaction is? IMPPET 1995] (a) Cd (®) U-235 (©) Pb (@) Heavy water ‘The average life period radioactive element is tho reciprocal of its? (MPPET 1995, (a) Halflife period (b) Disintegration constant (c) Number of atoms present at any time (d)_ Membter of neutrons Position has mass equalto [BHU 1995] (a) electron (0) wparticle (c) Proton (d) Deutron Nit Het > .X' +H, the nucleus X is? (LNA 1995] (a) N-16 (0) N-17 () 0-16 (@) 0-17 The introduction of a neutron into the nuctear composition of an atom would lead to a change in? [MLNR 1995] {a) the number of electrons: (b) the chemical nature of the atom (0) its atomic number (0)_ its atomic weight Isotopes of elements were discovered by? [AFMC 1995] (a) Soddy (0) Curie (e) Chadwick () Thomson All 322. 323. 324. 325, 326. 327. 328. 329. 330. 24 The number of electrons in the nucleus of C~ 1218? [AFM 1995} (a) 6 (b) 12 fc) 17 (0 The composition of triium is? [Manipal PMT 1995) fa) 1 electron. 1 proton. 1 neutron (b) 1 electron, 2 protons, 1 neutron (c) 1 electron, 1 proton. 2 neutrons. (d) 1 electron. 1 proton, 3 neutrons Which of the following statement is false? (Manipal PMT 1995] {a} In chlorine gas, the ratio of ®Cl and “Clis 1:3 (b)_ Hydrogen bomb is based on the principle of nuclear fusion (©) The atom bomb is based on the principle of nuciear fission (d) The penetrating power of proton is less than that of olectron The element formed by the emission of one a~ particle from ,,U" willbe? [CPMT 1995] @ su (b) Th” (©) BU (dq) ,gTh™ ‘The halt-life of a radioactive element is X. The amount of the substance left alter 2 X time is? [CPMT 1995; 1 3 @ 3 wo 1 1 ©) & dg C-14hasa halt-lle of 5760 years. 100 mg of a sample containing C - 14s reduced to 25mg in? [BHU 1995) (a) 11520 years (b) 2680 years (c) 1440 years. (d) 17280 years #Al is a stable isotope Al is expected to disintegrate by? UT 1996) (a) a-emission (b) permission (c)_positron emission (d) proton emission Which of the following is used to bombard , AF” t0 give ,,P* and aneutron? (EAMCET 1996) (a) proton (b) «particle (©) epartele (@) deutron During a [i-decay, the mass of the atomic nu- cleus? (MP CEE 1996 (a) decreases by one unit (©) increases by one unit {c) decreases by two units (d) remains unaffected 331. 332. 333. 334. 335. 336. 337. 338. 339, 340, 341, Ovective Chemistry Radioactive iodine is being used to diagnose the disease of? IMP CEE 19961 {a) bones (b) kidneys (©) bloodcancer (a) thyroid The halt-life of “C is about? (MP CEE 1996) (a) 12.3 years (©) 9730 years (©) 4.5% 10% years (d) 2.52 x 10° years in nuclear reaction SNe tHe 3X4 H. the term SX represents? {BHU 1996; MP CEE 1996, @) Yo ©) Fo () 35N id) SN In a nuclear reactor, the function of moderator is? (Bihar CEE 1996} (a) to slow down the speed of neutron (b) to increase the speed of neutron {c) to produce more neutrons {d)_to stop the nuclear reaction. Which of the foltowing is used as moderator in nuclear reactors? [AFMC1995] (a) 0,0 (b) H,0 (c) Alum (d) Any of them Which o/ the following is used as control rod? [AFM 1996) (a) Cadmium rod (b) Graphite rod (c)_ Boron (4) Both (a) and (c) Which metal aprons are worn by radiographer to protect him from radiation? [AFMC 1996] (a) Mercury Coated Apron (0) Lead Apron (c) Copper Apron (a) Aluminised Apron Halt-ife period of the metal is 20 days. How much fraction of metal remains after 80 days? [BHU 1996) @ 1 (b) 1/16 (c) 4 (d) 18 What is the half ife of a radioactive substance if 87.5% of any given amount of the substance disintegrates in 40 minutes? (Haryana CEET 1996} (@) 10 min (b) 20 min (©) 160 min (d) 13 min 20 sec 1.0 g of a radioactive isotope was found to re- duce to 125 mg after 24 hours. The halt-life of the isotope is? IMP CEE 1996] (@) 8 hours (b) 24 hours (©) Ghours (d) 4 hours 33? Th isthe starting material of decay of chain series. This series of successive decays ter- Nuclear and Radiochemistry 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347. 348. 349, 350. minates at 22°Pb The number of u and |} par- ticles emitted in this process is? [Pb. CET 1996) (a) Gu and 4p) {b} 4 and 6) (c) 10x and és (d) Ge and 10}5, In the nuclear reaction 7Li+ }H > 2 $He , the mass loss is nearly 0.02 amu. Hence the en- ergy released (in units of million kcal/mol) in the process is approx? _[/AS Prelim 1996} (a) 400 {b) 200 {c) 100 () 50 What is the binding energy in ,B" nucleus if its mass defect is 0.08181 a.m.u.? [oPMr 1996, (a) 1.2 x 10+ ergs/nucteus (bo) 8.2 x 10+ ergs/nucleus (c) 10.2 x 10+ ergs/nucieus (d) 1.9 x 10-4 ergs/nucteus In a uranium mineral, the atomic ratio N.sud/Neu so iS Nearly equal to one. The age {in years) of the mineral is nearly (given that the half-life of U-238 is 4.5 x 10° years)? [AS Prelim 1996] (a) 3.0x10° (b) 45x10" (©) 30x10" (©) 45x 10° The half-life of a radioactive nuclide ‘x’ is 24 hours. The time required for 12.5% of the origi- nal X to remain is? [Pb CET 1996| fa)’ 1 day (b) 2 days (c) Sdays (0) 4 cays One microgram of radioactive sodium, , Na” with halfife of 15 hours was injected into a living system for a bio-assay. How long will i take for the radioactivity to fall to 25% of the initial value? {CBSE PMT 1996] (a) 22.5 hours (b) 30 hours (c) 60 hours (¢) 3.75 hours ‘The end product of (4n + 2) radioactive cisin- tegration series is ? IMPPET 1997, fa) ,Po* (b) ,Pb™ (c) Pb” (0) Pb" What is ‘x’ in the nuclear reaction : (NS 4 HE OFX? [ANMS 1983; MPPET 1997) (a) Ht (b) gt () + (a) The radio-active isotope whi mate the age of ancient geological formula- tion is? [CPMT 1983, 85 MPPET 1997) (a) Poe? (b) OF (©) Fe® (a) c¥ The basis for carbon-14 dating method is that tho? {CBSE PMT 19971 951. 352. 353. 354. 358. 356. 357. 358. 359. All 25 (a) Carbon-14 fraction is the same in all ob- jects. (0) Carbon-14 is highly unstable and is read- ity lost from the objects (©) Theratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12in cur atmosphere has always been constant. (d)_ Living tissue will notabsorb carbon-14 but will absorb carbon-12 from their sources of carbon. Which isnot emitted by radioactive substance? IAIIMS 1997: AFMC 19971 (a) a-rays (b) B-rays (©) Positron (d) Proton Positron is? [AIMS 1997: AFMC 19971 (a) Electron with positive charge (b) Helium nucieus {e) Anucleus with two protons {d) Arnucleus with one neutron and one pro- ton Which is correct statement? [DPMT 1997) (a) Isotopes are always radioactive. (b) a-rays are always negatively charged (c) p-rays are always negatively charged (d) rays can be deflected in amagnotic fica. Which of the following is a man made element? (KCET 1997] (a) c-14 (b) Np fu () Ra x#5y1,z—1w In the above sequence of reactions, the ele- ments which are isotopes of each other are? [IPMER 1997) (a) X andy (b) X and Z (©) Xandw (d) None of these Which of the following isotope of uranium is the most radioactive? [AFMC 1997] (a) 235 (b) 236 (©) 237 (6) 238 Which does nottake place by a-disintegration? (mp PMT 1997] (a) gU,U% (bd) Th? > Ra (0) Ra? Rn (d) ,,BF > ,.Po?? A radioactive sample has half lile of 1500 years. A sealed tube containing 1g of a sam- ple will contain....g of the sample after 3000 years. The missing figure is? (MLNR 1994; Pb, PMT 1997) (a) 19 (b) 05g (c) 0.259 (d) Og Thorium disintegration series is known as? [Pb CET 1997) {b) (4n + 3) series (6) (4n +1) series (2) (4n +2) series (c) 4nserios All 360. 361. 362. 363. 364, 365. 366. 367. 368. 369. 26 #8U +n 32U fission product + Neutron $3.20 x 10° The energy released when 1g of 25U under- goes fission is? (CBSE PMT 19971 (a) 1275x 10k) (b) 18.60% 10°) (c) 8.21 x 10° kd (d) 6.55 x 10% ks Energy released in the nuclear fusion reac- tion 2H+ 3H —>$He+ In is Atomic mass of fH =2.104; }H =3.016; 3He. = 4.003; 3 = 1.009 (all in a.m.u.)? [Bihar MDAT 1997; AIIMS 1997] (@) 1680Mev (b) 5005 {c) 4x 10° KCal (d) 8.30 6V Halt life of radioactive substance is 60 min. During 3 hrs, the fraction of total no. of atoms, that have decayed would be? [CPMT 1997] (a) 12.5% (b) 87.5% (c) 8.5% (6) 25% Which one of the following notations shows the product incorrectly? [MPCEE 1998] (a). Cm (a, 2n) ,,Bk*? (b) BP (a, n) NE (c) ,N“ (np) Cc (A), Si®* (d, 0) ,,P* In radioactive decay which one of the follow- ing moves the fastest? (MPCEE 1998] (a) «particle (©) p-pancie (ce) y-Rays (a) Positron ‘What is X in the following nuclear reaction? N+ tH F04'x’ IMP CEE 1998) (a) (o) 2 (©) 4 (dy Which element is the end product of most of the natural radioactive series? IMP PMT 1998} (a) Pb (b) Sn ©) c (6) Bi Which leaves no track on Wilson cloud cham- ber? [AFMC 1988; Haryana CEET 1998) (a) Electrons: (b) Protons (©) a-Particles (4) Neutrons The following nuclear transmutation Na’ + ,H' > Mg? + .n belongs to? {Haryana CEET 1998) (a) (np) Type (b) (pn) Type {c) (a, n) Type (d) (¢, p) Type The pairs of .,U5 and ,,U2; and ,C"" and Cc" are respectively? (BIT, Ranchi 1998) 370. 371. 372. 373. 374, 375. 376. 377. Otyective Chemistry (a) isotopes and isotones () Isotopes and isobars (6) Isotopes and isotopes (@) Isobars and isotopes Which type of radiation is not emitted by ra- dium? [Po. CET 1986] (a) a-rays (b) [trays (ce) y-rays (d) X-rays The number of «~ and [particles emitted in nucloar reaction ,,Th"-»,,Bi"” are respec- tively? [MLNR 1992; MP PMT 1993; AFME 1998) (a) 41 (b) 3,7 (c) 8.1 (d) 4, Number of neutrons in a parent nucleus X, which gives ,N"* after two successive [} emis- sions, would be? (CBSE PMT 1998] fa) 6 (b) 7 () 8 (9 Radius of the nucleus is related to the mass number A by? [Pb. PMT 1998; EAMCET 1998] (@) R=R,A? (b) R=R,A (©) R=R,AP (0) R=R,A ‘The end product of (4n + 2) disintegration so fiesis? [Pb PMT 1998; MP CEE 1998) (a) ,,Pb™* (b) ,.Pb™ (©) 4,Pb°* (d) ,,Pb* Which one of the following statements is in- correct? IMP CEE 1998] (a) Mass defect is related with binding energy (b) Meson was discovered by Yukawa (ce) The size of the nucleus is of the order of 10°? to 10% cm (d) Magnetic quantum number is a measure of orbital angular momentum of the elec- tron ‘The activity of a radioactive nuclide (X'™) is 6.023 Curie al a certain time ‘T. If ts disinte- gration constant is 3.7 x 10 sec, the mass of X after t sec is? [EAMCET 1998} fa) 10°9 (b) 10g (©) 10g () 10° The haltlife period of a radioactive elementis 140 days. After 560 days, one gram of the el- ement will be reduced to? [UT 1986; CPMT 1989; EAMCET 1992; MPPET 1997 MP PMT 1998] 4 1 @ 39 ) 49 1 i © 39 769 aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Alt 187. 193. 194, 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 202. 203. 204, 208. 30 QU’+ HY > Bet +y eC"? + Hot > , Sct +H Na? + Het > JARS + gn! t,,= 1600 years 0.693, = J = 0.3465 por year T = 1000 years a a A —t = 18x—log,3 log, 9 Be a log, 22. = 2109, 3 0S, 3 = 209, or 5° = (3% ae 9 a, = 6520 a, = 1690 Jog, 252° _ 0.693 ir 71% zea = 0-693 per minutes 0.693 ~ 19-2 per minute 693 Total half lives taken =3 Total time = 1600 x 3 = 4800 years (3) - 2) = 2 ie. two half lives will b 2) 7 (409 })%=2 be. two halt ives will be used. Total time = 22 x 2= 44 years ( 3} _ {04107 3 2) 10) *™ jog Total time = 1590 x 15,847 years 1304 ni (o-t8e)- de Bo = 85 8 16) > 16 he Total time = 4 x 1 = 4 months x=4 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212, 213, 214, 215. Objective Chemistry a__ 2303 afd 15 152.303, 3 2.303 a/100 = 30 minutes Activity for 1g of sample = 60 counts per minute (8) Total time = 6 x 2 = 12 hours or 128.33 hr. ( of y _(003a9)_ 1 2 ay 333 Sie.5 half lives. 1 = EB tog Pe = 3.9 dis/s 2.803 x 5568, 156 aes Fa = 2x 5568 = 11136 years 0.693 = 3770 2303 100 = pegs “9778 335 = 9145 years 0.693 1s 0.693 as 2.303. Bo. 00 300 15 aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. CHAPTER Il CHEMICAL BONDING The force, which holds two atoms together in a molecule is called a chemical bond and the phenomenon is known as chemical bonding. ‘The fundamental cause of formation of a chemical bond is the general tendency of every atom to attain noble gas configuration by redistribution (transfer, sharing or donation) of valence electrons (electrons present in the outer most orbit) [Electronic theory of valency, Kossel and Lewis (1916), Langmuir (1919)]. Electrovalent or Ionic Bond : Conditions for electrovalent bond formati There should be an atom A having 1, 2 or 3 electrons in its outer most orbi |. There should be an atom B having 7, 6 or 5 electrons in its outer most orbit. iii, The difference in the electronegativities of A and B should be 2.0 or more. ‘Atom A loses its electron and form a cation A > A* +e" Atom B accepts electron and form an anion B + e"—> Br An electrostatic force of attraction takes place between A* and B A‘ +B’ A’B or AB An ionic bond is formed between element having low ionization potential and element having high electron affinity and these elements are held together by electrostatic force of attraction in the form of their respective ions. The energy requirement for the formation of an ionic compound (e.g. NaCI) is as follows : ‘Na(s) —> Na(g) (energy required is sublimation energy, + S) Nag) —> Na'te (energy required is ionization energy, + 1) “CKg) —> Cig) (energy required is dissociation energy, + 4D) Clg) te —> cr (energy released is electron affinity, ~ E) Nat+ Cl —> NaCl(s) (energy released is lattice energy, ~ L) ‘The above process is called Born Haber cycle and total heat of formation of NaC! for the reaction Na(s) + 4ACI,(g) > NaCl(s) is AH = (S+1+ '4D-E-L) ‘Amongst all these energies electron affinity and lattice energy are exothermic, while others endothermic. An ionic bond will be more stable if the amount of liberated energy i.e. - E and L is high. The lattice energy will be high if force of attraction between cation and anion is high, hence, cation and anion should be smaller in size and should have high charge on them. Hence, the order of increasing lattice energy is LiF > LiCl > LiBr > Lil or LiF > NaF > KF> RbF > CsF Properties of ionic compounds : (a) crystalline solids at room temperature, (b) hard and britle, (c) good conductor of electricity and heat in aqueous and molien state (not in solid state), (d) high cohesive energy, high melting and boiling points, (e) exhibit good solubility in polar solvents or solvents of high dielectric constant, poor solubility in non-polar solvents or solvents with low dielectric constant, (f) undergo fast ionic reaction, (g) ionizable in aqueous or molten state, (h) do not show isomerism as electrovalent bond is non- directional, (i) possess negative vopour pressure. Covalent Bond : Conditions for covalent bondir i. There should be an atom A having 5, 6 or 7 electrons in its outer most orbit. There should be an atom B having 5, 6 or 7 electron in its outer most orbit, iii. The difference in the electronegativities of A and B should be less or zero. iv, Atoms A and B share their outer most orbit electrons and form covalent bond. Sharing of | electron of aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Structure of Atom and Chemical Periodicity 273. 274. 275. 276. 278. 283. 285. 289, 291. 295. 296, 299. 300. 301, 304. ~1 charge means, the neutral atom will contain 19 electrons and 19 protons. ‘The weights of the element is multiple of 16, hence its atomic weight will be 16. Hfatomic weight of O is 100, i.e. approximately 6 times to its original atomic weight, then atomic weight of G will be approximately 6 x 12572275 12x20 a. Goeax107 9 b 5x 28g ©. 50g d 01g Hence 10 atoms of C will have lowest weight. a. 4gm b 2x18g c. 25g a 2x44g Hence 2 moles of CO, will be heaviest As number of electrons = Number of protons + 1 Hence itis an anion. Isotopes never contain equal number of neutrons Isobars are always two different atoms, hence their chemical properties can never be same. Number of neutrons of X = 76 32 = 44 Hence Z for Y = 78 — 44 = 34 Number of neutrons in Br = 80 ~ 35 = 45 Hence, the answer is either 'b' or ‘c’. Now, ‘c) can not be the answer, otherwise the atomic masses of the isotopes will be 35 + 45 = 80 and 35 + 47 =82 and atomic mass of element = 81 In caso of ’t’ option, atomic masses of isotopes will be 35 + 44 =79 and 35 +46 = 81 and atomic mass of the element = 80 1st Isotope (Z + 2) has % =x Henes (Z- 1) has % = 100~x (Z+2)x + (Z-1)(100— 100 x = 93.33% Cosmic rays has maximum frequency and we know Eav c 3x10° ¥" Toox10" “250™ 6.64 x10 x2 10" 1.610% 1 Ey de Eas, Hence == z E =0830eV 4000 De 2 H: does not contain any electron 305. 306. 308. ait. 312, 313, 314, rant = 0.053 xn? nm For atom A circumference For atom B circumference Let velocity of electron for atom A =v Hence, velocity of electron for atom B= vi2. (Because electron is in 1st orbit of atom A and 2nd ortit of atom B) Hence Time Taken = ©! or thn 2m, vi2_ 4 Oa" v8 z 2.18 x 10x = ms Hence for H atom, the velocity of electron in its ground state = 2,18 x 10° m/s Velocity of light (c) is 3x 10° m/s Hence velocity of H For primitive state n E, =~13.58 eV Alter absorbing minimum energy, electron will jump ton =2 and E, zu a 3.395 Hence energy required = ~3.395 ~ (~13.58) = 10.185 Eapork = Kax ek Similarty, Ey-Ee= oe 3k E_-E,- E,-E,_ 398 27 E,-—, 4°55 AE a Z?, Amongst all the given option Li? has maximum atomic number (3). Hence AE will be maximum in case of Li?*. We also know that AE a a Hence A will be minimum for this transition, Al 317. 318. 319. 320. 321. 322. 323. 324, 925. 926. 54 From Sth quantum level following 10 transitions. will occur (5 + 1,5» 2,53,534,4—>1, 442,433,3-91,3> 21) In above 10 transitions, transition taking place in Balmer series ie 2nd level will fallin visible region and there are three such transition (92,442,342) he _ 66x10 x3x10° 6 a9) 2000x1077 * seats 42% 1.6x 10 =672x 10) 1 Bin? = (0.9-6.7) x 10" 1a gi” = 10x 10° 16x 10d ormv?= 32x 10d mv? = 9.1.x 10°" x 3.2 x 10° ekg (mass of electron = 9.1 x 10" Kg) = 2.912 x 1045 nh 66x10" = 1.226 x10 m or 0.1226A h nh emer” t= Tamer 7" - (66x10 2x 91x10" x 16x10 (1x 10" F Since mass of particles fixed, will reduce to halt. We know, m, 327. 328. 329. 330. 331. 333. 336. 338. 342. Objective Chemisty As K.E. of both the particles is same. The question is similar to above. 2a mha2ar; he (n=) 4=2x3.14x0529A-3.3A 1 4a. (velocity is same) va (as Ais same) _ 8.6x1077 =e ix 10 200x310" om = 66x10 1x66 or 10°%A, _ DY _ 6.6 «10 x 50 1077 e) 3x10® = 11x 10kg ms" =10™m V1 2A, =, (given) or Feats V, = 4.65 KV Ax.Ap > h/2n IFAxis more, Ap will be less n=§,1=3 means 5t subshell. The m value for both the electrons Is same and s values are +¥/2 and - 72 Hence, both the electrons are paired or the subshell has more than 7 electron, For Z = 16, 1s*, 2s*, 2p', 3s*, 3p* Hence total p electrons = 6 + 4= 10 ‘The electronic configuration of the atomis 15*, Each of these subshells ‘of m= 0, Hence total number of electrons with m= 0 and s = +1/2 will be 6. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. AL 48 681. The number of electrons in {,,K“}" is (AMC 1999} (a) 20 (©) 40 () 18 @) 19 682. 683. 684. 686. 687. 688, Which of the following set of quanturn num- bers belong to highest energy? [CPMT 1999) @ 5= +92 (b) n=3,1=0,m=0, s= +42 © ,M=1, $= +42 (6) n=3, 122, m=1,s= +92 The ratio of specific charge of a proton and an eeparticle is: [CPMT 1984, MP CEE 1999] (@) 2:1 () 1:2 (1:4 (1:1 ‘The correct ground state electronic configura- tion of chromium atom is : UT 1989; CPMT 1999) @ nae ©) ANS 4st () ASa4e® a) [A 4st The number of unpaired electrons in an atom of atomic number 24 (in ground state) is [PD. CET 1999] (@) 3 (o) 4 © § @e Principal, azimuthal and magnetic quantum numbers are respectively related to IANIMS 1999) (@) size, orientation and shape (b) size, shape and orientation (c) shape, size and orientation (0) None of these The electrons, identified by quantum numbers nand|,() n=4,!=1(i)n=4, f= 0 (il) n= 3, 122 (iv) n=3, I= 1 can be placed in order of increasing energy, from the lowest to highest, as: Ur 1999 @ M<< Ui) 2'Po (CPMT 1988) (a) 0 wt (©) 2 3 A radioactive element with mass number 234 and atomic number 90 emits certain number of alpha and beta particles and is converted into an element with mass number 206 and atomic number 82. No.of alpha particles emit- tedis? (a) 5 (b) 6 ) 7 @) 8 ‘The fi - decay of Na willproduce anisotope of? (a) Na (b) Ne (©) Mg (@) any of these What is the symbol for the nucleus remaining after $3Ca undergoes -emission? (MLN 1987) mS fa) ca (b) (9) gse Ina series of threo integration sequence starting with 22°Ra , tho successive particles dare a B particle, a (particle and an a-particle. The resutting product is an isotope of? (a) ,U (bo) Th (©) Po @ Ra In the radioactive change : ,,Pa™* —> ,Ra™* Number of beta particles omitted is 7 (a) one (b) two (©) four (¢) none The isotope ,,U° decays in a number of steps to an isotope of lead ,.Pb*”. The group of par- ticles emitted in this process will be? {MPPMT 1967] (a) 4a, 7) (b) 6a, 4 (©) 7a, 4B (@) 10a, 8p The number of a and fi particies emitted when a radicactive element ,,E” changes into ,,G?” will be respectively? (a) 5,4 (b) 2,3 (©) 3,2 © 41 An element with atomic number 84 and mass number 218 loses one a and two (particles in three successive stages. The resulting ele- ment will have mass number and atomic number respectively as? [CPMT 1989} 163. 164, 165. 166, 167. 168. 169. AM 15 (a) 210, 81 (b) 218,95 (©) 214,84 (6) 218,84 Atomic weight of Th is 232 and its atomic number is 90. The number of a-particles and B:particles which will be lost so that an iso- tope of lead (atomic weight 208 and atomic numbor 82) ic producodie? — [CPMT 1989) (a) 4a + 6B (b) 6a + 4f (©) 8a+2p (d) 100 + 2p A radioactive substance emits two alpha and two beta particles. The mass number and atomic number of the product nucleus will ce- crease by ? (a) 4 and 2 respectively (o) 8 and 4 respectively (c) Band 2 respectively (¢) 8 and 6 respectively An element with atomic number 84 and mass number 218 loses one «and two fi particles in three successive stages. The resultant element will have mass number and atomic number respectively as? fa) 218,81 (b) 218, 95 (e) 214,84 (6) 218, 84 If ,,U® nucleus emits an alpha particle, the remaining nucleus will have: [BHU 1985] (a) 119 neutrons and 119 protons (b) 144 neutrons and 90 protons (c) 117 neutrons and 117 protons (d)_ 146 neutrons and 2 protons 33"Th , a member of Ill group loses one a-par- ticle, The newly formed element belongs to? {a) Ist group (6) IM group (c) group (6) Zero group uPOH? > ,Pb™ + Het From the above nuclear reaction, predict the position of poloniumin the periodic table (Lead belongs to 4th A group)? (a) 2nd A. (b) 4thB () 6the (d) 6thA Group displacement law states that the emis- sionof a or 8 particles results in the formation of a daughter element occupying a position in the periodic table, either to left or right of that of the parent element. Which of the following altematives gives the correct position of the daughter element? (On emission of « particieOn emission of (3 particle ‘1 group to the right 1 group to the lett 1 group to tho left 1 group to the right a) 2 groups to the right {b) 2 groups to the right {e) 2 groups to the left (@) 2 groups to the left aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Nuclear and Raiochemistry 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347, 348. 349, 350. minates at 23°Pb The number of « and |} par- ticles emitted in this process is? [Pb. CET 1996} (a) 6u and 4p (b) 4u and 6 (c) 104 and 65 (6) Gu and 10/1 In the nuclear reaction {Lit }H + 2 He . the mass loss is nearly 0.02 amu. Hence the en- ergy released (in units of million kcal/mol) in the process is approx? —_[/AS Prelim 1996} (a) 400 (b) 200 (c) 100 (®) 50 What is the binding energy in ,B" nucleus if its mass defect is 0.08181 a. [CMT 1996) (a) 1.2.x 10+ ergsinucteus (b) 8.2 x 10~ ergsinucteus (c) 10.2 x 10* ergs/nucieus (d) 1.9 x 10+ ergs/nuctous In a uranium mineral, the atomic ratio Nucod Np se iS Nearly equal to one. The age {in years) of the mineral is nearly (given that the half-life of U-238 is 4.5 x 10" years)? [IAS Prelim 1996) (a) 3.0.x 10" (b) 45 x 10° (©) 3.010" (6) 45x 10° The halt-lfe of a radioactive nuclide ‘X' is 24 hours. The time required for 12.5% of the origi- nal X to remain is? [Pb CET 1996] (a) 1 day (b) 2days (©) 3 days (0) 4days ‘One microgram of radioactive sodium, ,,Na** with halflife of 15 hours was injected into a living system for a bio-assay. How long will it take for the radioactivity to fall to 25% of the initial value? [CBSE PMT 1996} (a) 22.5 hours (b) 30 hours (6) 60 hours (0) 3.75 hours The end product of (4n + 2) radioactive disin- tegration series is 7 (MPPET 1997) (a) ,Pb™ (b) Pom (c) Pb" (@) Po What is °X’in the nuclear reaction : (NY + Ht 08 +907 {AlIMS 1983; MPPET 1997| {a) HY (b) gn" () 7 (0) 2° The radio-active isotope which is used to esti- mate the age of ancient geological formula- tion is? ICPMT 1983, 85 MPPET 1997] (a) Poe (b) OF () Fe® (®) ce ‘The basis tor carbon-14 dating method is that the? [CBSE PMT 1997] 351, 352. 353, 354, 355. 356. 357. 359. All 25 (a) Carbon-14 fraction is the sama in all ob- jects. (b) Carbon-14is highly unstable and is read- ily lost from the objects. (c) The ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 in our atmosphere has always been constant (a) Living tissue wil not absorb carbon-14 but will absorb carbon-12 trom their sources of carbon. Which isnotemiltedby radioactive subsiance? IAMS 1997: AFMC 1997) (a) w-rays (b) (rays: {c) Positron (a) Proton Positron is? [ANMS 1997; AFMC 1997) (a) Electron with positive charge (b) Helium nucteus (c) Anucleus with two protons (@) Annucleus with one neutron and one pro- ton Which is correct statement? [DPMT 19971 (a) Isotopes are always radioactive. {b) a-rays are always negatively charged (c) p-rays are always negatively charged (d)_y-rays can be deflected in a magnetic tie. Which of the following is a man made element? [KCET 1997) fa) C-14 (b) Np feu (a) Ra 49-4, 2-Fw In the above sequence of reactions, the ele- ‘ments which are isotopes of each other are? [IPMER 1997, (a) Xand¥ (b) X and Z {c) XandW (d) None of these Which of the following isotope of uranium is the most radioactive? “[AFMG 1997) a) 235 (b) 236 (c) 237 (d) 238 ‘Which does not take place by a-disintegration? IMP PMT 1997) (a) .,U%>,U™ ——(b) Th”? >» ,,Ra”* (6) Rat > An (d) ,,BP + Po? ‘A radioactive sample has half life of 1500 years. A sealed tube containing 19 of a sam- ple will contain....g of the sample after 3000 years. The missing figure is? [MLNR 1994; Pb, PMT 1997) fa) 19 (b) 059 (©) 0.259 (¢) 0g Thorium disintegration sories ie known as? (Pb. CET 19971 (b) (4n + 3) series (@) (n+ 1) series (a) (4n +2) series (c) 4nserios aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Chemical Bonding 151, 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. (b) LP. RL, PQ and RQ (©) PL, RL, PQ and RQ, (d) LPL, P,Q and RQ Which one of the following compounds has an electrovalent linkage? [Delhi PMT 1984) (a) CH, (&) MgCl, (c) SiCl, () BF, Which of the following is an ionic compound? (a) SO, (b) 1C1 © KI (@) CHCl, Which of the following compound has electrovalent linkage? [CPMT 1980, 83, 84) (a) CH,Ct {b) NaCl (c) CH, (@ Cl, In which of the following solvents should KCI be soluble at 25°C? (Dis the dielectric constant value) (a) C,H, (0 =0) (b) (CH,), CO (O = 2) (c) CH,OH (D = 32) (d) CCI, (0 =0) COVALENT BONDING The maximum number of covalent bonds by which the two atoms can be bonded to each other is? (a) Four (b) Two. (c) Three (d) no fixed number In a double bond connecting two atoms there is a sharing of? INCERT 1975, CPMT 1981, 83} (a) 2 electrons (b) 4 electréns (€) 1 electrons (8) 6 electrons ‘When two pairs of electrons are shared, bond is? (@) Single covaient bond (b) Double covalent bond (c) Dative bond (d) Triple bond A certain element M forms two oxides. The number of moles of oxygen atoms combining with one mole of atoms in each of the two oxides is 1 and 2. Which of the following represents the empirical formula of the oxides? {a) MO, MO, (b) MO,, M,O, (c) MO,,M,0, (6) MO,, MO, ‘The electronic configuration of four elements are given in brackets? L (1s?, 2s*, 2p"), M (is? 2s? 2p) Q (18%, 2s? 2p* 3s!) R (1s, 28? 2p?) All 19 The element that would most readily form a diatomic molecule is? INCERT 1983] (ay Q (b) M () R (dL 160. Number of shared electrons in between carbon-carbon atoms in ethylene molecule? [MADT Bihar 1983] fa) 2 (b) 4 () 6 3 161, Which of the following combinations is most likely to form predominately the covalent bonds? (a) Sodium and hydrogen (b) Magnesium and oxygen (c) Bromine and fluorine (d) Caesium and fluorine 162. Which of the following compound is covalent? {UT 1980) (a) H, (b) Cas (e) KCI (d) Nas 163. Among the alkaline earth metals the element forming predominantly covalent compound is? IMLNR 1986] (a) Be (b) Mg (©) Sr (@) Calcium 164. Which of the following substance nas covalent bonding? [UMC AMU Aligarh 1985] (a) Germanium () Sodium chloride (c) Solid neon (4) Copper 165. Amongst the following, covalent bonding is found in? (a) Sodium chloride (b) Magnesium chloride (c) Water (d) Brass 166. Which of the following species possess giant ‘net work covalent structure? (a) SiO, (b) solid CO, () ice (4) NaCl 167. which have a giant covalent structure? (a) Diamond (©) si, () sic, (6) co, CO-ORDINATE AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF BONDING 168. How many covalent co-ordinate bonds are there in Fe,Cl,? (@) 2 (©) 3 ©) 4 (a) 6 169. The types of bonds present in CuSO, 5H,O are only? INT 1963} {a) Electrovaient and covalent (b) Electrovatent, covalent and co-ordinate covalent