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Chapter 8

Miscellaneous utilities

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

CivilFEM Theory Manual


Chapter 8 Table of Contents
8.1

8.2

8.3

Structures cost and weight ........................................................................ 1


8.1.1

Cost .......................................................................................... 1

8.1.2

Weight....................................................................................... 1

Influence lines ............................................................................................ 3


8.2.1

Range and restrictions .............................................................. 3

8.2.2

Opening and closing influence lines ......................................... 3

8.2.3

Assemblies ............................................................................... 3

8.2.4

Examples .................................................................................. 4

Solid to shell ............................................................................................ 23


8.3.1

Introduction ............................................................................. 23

8.3.2

Initial data ............................................................................... 23

8.3.3

Calculation of the shells thicknesses ..................................... 24

8.3.4

Calculation of the stress tensor ............................................... 26

8.3.5

Calculation of forces and moments ......................................... 26

8.3.6

Results on the dummy shell elements .................................... 27

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.1 Structures cost and weight

8.1

Structures cost and weight

8.1.1

Cost

Using the cost per unit volume of the CivilFEM materials defined in the structure, the
cost of each of the elements that compose the structure is computed.
The cost, this way obtained, is an approximation to the real cost of the structure,
since it does not take into account particular details or the final exact geometry of
complex structures. Nevertheless, it is of great use in optimization analyses, in which
the broad global cost of the structure must be minimized
The cost of each element is computed as follows:
Volumetric elements (SOLID): The volume of the element is multiplied by the
cost per unit volume of its material.
Linear elements (BEAM, LINK): The cost of the cross sections is calculated
from the values of the different materials that compose it and its discretization
into tessella and plates, taking into account the gross section formulation, not
the effective section. The total cost of the element will be the arithmetic media
of the costs of each cross section (one for each end), multiplied by its length.
Shell elements: As for linear elements, the cost of each end (shell vertex) is
computed, adding the cost of the reinforcement amount for concrete vertices,
and the mean value is used for the whole element.
Shear and torsional reinforcement (beams and shells) is not considered in the cost
calculation.
The cost can be obtained detailed for each material (~COSTLST command) or can
be used as a variable in the analysis (~COST command).
The elements meshed using a generic ANSYS material will not be considered for the
cost calculation.

8.1.2

Weight

It is sometimes necessary to know the weight of the structure, which can be obtained
in two ways:
From the geometry of the structure and the densities of the materials used.
Once solved, adding the reactions on the supports.
The second method can lead to misunderstanding errors when coupling equations
between nodes are used, rotated supports, etc.
The first method can be directly applied using the ~WEIGHT command. The
procedure followed for its calculation is the same as the one described for the cost
computation, but using the specific weight of the material instead of its cost per unit
volume.

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8-1

Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

The elements meshed using a generic ANSYS material will not be considered for the
weight calculation by this first method.

8-2

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

8.2

Influence lines

8.2.1

Range and restrictions

It is possible to obtain influence lines in 2D and 3D beam structures in which the


model is meshed using BEAM188 and BEAM189 elements.
For a given 3D structure, up to 36 different influence lines can be obtained, result of
combining any of the six target forces and moments (FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, MZ) with
six possible actions (FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, MZ). For 2D structures the number of
possible influence lines is nine (FX, FY, MZ) vs (FZ, MY, MZ).
The definition of the elements orientation must be done using the third node K.
It is important to point out that both the target forces and moments as the actions are
always referred to the nodal coordinate systems.
To obtain the influence line, CivilFEM uses the reciprocity theorem in the MllerBreislau formulation, so it is needed temporally to alter the structure.
Because of its nature, the influence line cannot be calculated for other nodes than for
those connected to two, and only two, nodes.

8.2.2

Opening and closing influence lines

As stated before, the structure must be altered temporally in order to obtain the
influence line. This means that degrees of freedom may be released, beams may be
unconnected, etc.
CivilFEM will alter the structure when the influence line is created (opening influence
line, ~ILOPEN command) and will allow to restore it to its initial geometry and
conditions either immediately after it has been calculated or some time after
(~ILCLOSE command), in order to allow to postprocess the results of the influence
line.

8.2.3

Assemblies

When an influence line is created, the following assemblies are created:


CFInfLine%ILID%POSITIVE
CFInfLine%ILID%NEGATIVE
Where %LID% is the number of the created influence line.
These assemblies contain nodes and elements for which a load (force, moment or
pressure) which acts on them has a positive or negative effect on the target force or
moment.
It is important to notice that pressures on beam elements will act perpendicular to
them, with a direction which depends on the element axis (and therefore the location
of the I, J, K nodes) so it is advisable to pay attention to its definition, in relation with
the nodal coordinate system.

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8-3

Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

8.2.4

Examples

8.2.4.1

Description

In order to facilitate the handling of influence lines five examples have been
prepared. These are included hereafter with sketches of the structure and log files:
-

Example 1
It is a continuous horizontal beam with five spans. The influence lines for the
bending moment and shear force at a point in the middle of the span are
obtained.
The action is a vertical force FY.
This example, as the following one, is very simple and allows having a first
contact with this utility.

Example 2
In the same structure as the previous example the influence lines for the
bending moment and shear force at a point located on a support are obtained.
The action is maintained as a vertical load FY.

Example 3
The structure is now a plane built-in circular arch. Influence lines for shear and
axial forces are obtained at an intermediate non centred point.
The action is a force perpendicular to the arch.
The interest of this example is basically the handling of nodal coordinate
systems.

Example 4
Over a plane frame a certain surface load may act or not, in the way shown in
the corresponding sketch.
The aim is to obtain the distribution that creates the maximum negative
bending moment at a point.
In this example nodal coordinate systems are used again. Now they must be
coordinated with the element coordinate system.
Once the influence line has been obtained, the assembly which contains the
elements that generate the negative bending moment on the node is loaded,
and the structure is solved.
In this example tolerances are also used (NEGTOL). It is recommended to
practice this example given different values to this field.

Example 5
This last example works with a three dimensional structure, located on a
plane, on which the loads act perpendicular to the plane in the Z direction.

8-4

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

The aim is now to obtain the influence line of the torsional moment.

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

8.2.4.2

Example 1. Five spans continuous beam

Sketches

8-6

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

LOG
!
! Example 1: Influence Lines - 5 spans continuous beam
!
Target: First span middle point
FINISH
~CFCLEAR,,1
/TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Continuous beam (I)'
~CODESEL,EC3,EC2
~UNITS,SI

! Set European codes


! Set International System units

/PREP7
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION

! Element type
ET,1,BEAM188,,,2
! Material: EC3-Steel
~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360
! Beams section
~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16
! IPE 500 (H shaped)
~SECMDF,1,ROTATE,,,90 ! IPE 500 rotation
~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1
! Solid Modeling
TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1
K,1
K,2,2
K,3,4
K,4,8
K,5,12
K,6,16
K,7,20
K,100, 100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point
! Boundary Conditions I: Articulated Supports
DK,1,ux,0 $ DK,1,uy,0
DK,3,ux,0 $ DK,3,uy,0
DK,4,ux,0 $ DK,4,uy,0
DK,5,ux,0 $ DK,5,uy,0
DK,6,ux,0 $ DK,6,uy,0
DK,7,ux,0 $ DK,7,uy,0
L,1,2 ! Line 1
L,2,3 !
2
L,3,4 !
3
L,4,5 !
4
L,5,6 !
5
L,6,7 !
6
! Meshing
ESIZE,0.5
LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1
LMESH,ALL

! Element size

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

! Boundary conditions II: Plane structure


D,ALL,UZ,0
D,ALL,ROTX,0
D,ALL,ROTY,0
NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION

! Target node
nn=NODE(kx(2),ky(2),0)
! Bending moment I.L.
----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MZ,FY,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,10
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE
! Shear force I.L.
----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,FY,FY,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,10
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE

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CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

8.2.4.3

Example 2. Five spans continuous beam

Sketches

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

LOG
!
! Example 2: Influence Lines - 5 spans continuous beam
!
Target point: Support
FINISH
~CFCLEAR,,1
/TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Continuous beam (II)'
~CODESEL,EC3,EC2
~UNITS,SI

! Set European codes


! Set International System units

/PREP7
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION

! Element types
ET,1,BEAM188,,,2
! Material: EC3-Steel
~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360
! Beams section
~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16
! IPE 500 (H shaped)
~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1
! Solid Modeling
TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1
K,1
K,2,2
K,3,4
K,4,8
K,5,12
K,6,16
K,7,20
K,100, 100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point
! Boundary Conditions I: Articulate Supports
DK,1,ux,0 $ DK,1,uy,0
DK,3,ux,0 $ DK,3,uy,0
DK,4,ux,0 $ DK,4,uy,0
DK,5,ux,0 $ DK,5,uy,0
DK,6,ux,0 $ DK,6,uy,0
DK,7,ux,0 $ DK,7,uy,0
L,1,2 ! Line 1
L,2,3 !
2
L,3,4 !
3
L,4,5 !
4
L,5,6 !
5
L,6,7 !
6
! Meshing
ESIZE,0.5
LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1
LMESH,ALL

! Element size

! Boundary conditions II: Plane structure

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CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

D,ALL,UZ,0
D,ALL,ROTX,0
D,ALL,ROTY,0
NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION

! Target node
nn=NODE(kx(3),ky(3),0)
! Bending moment I.L.
----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MZ,FY,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,10
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE
! Shear force I.L.
----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,FY,FY,nn,,,,1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/POST1
/DSCA,ALL,10
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

8.2.4.4

Example 3. Built-in circular arch

Sketches

8-12

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

LOG
!
! Example 3: Influence Lines - Built-in circular arch
!
FINISH
~CFCLEAR,,1
/TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Arch'
~CODESEL,EC3,EC2
~UNITS,SI

! Set European codes


! Set International System units

/PREP7
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION

! Element types
ET,1,BEAM188,,,2
! Material: EC3-Steel
~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360
! Beams section
~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16
! IPE 500 (H shaped)
~SECMDF,1,ROTATE,,,90 ! IPE 500 rotation (I shaped)
~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1
! Solid Modeling
TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1
*AFUN,DEG
! Using degrees
K, 1, 6*COS(150),6*SIN(150)
K, 2, 6*COS(120),6*SIN(120)
K, 3, 6*COS( 30),6*SIN( 30)
K,100, 0, 0
! BEAM188 K-Orientation point
*AFUN,RAD
! Using radians
LARC,1,2,3,6.0001
LARC,2,3,1,6.0001
! Boundary conditions I; Built-in arch ends.
DK,1,ALL,0
DK,3,ALL,0
! Meshing
ESIZE,0.5
! Element size
LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1
LMESH,ALL
! Boundary conditions II: Plane structure
D,ALL,UZ,0
D,ALL,ROTX,0
D,ALL,ROTY,0
NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL
! Rotating nodes
CSYS,2
! Cylindrical system
NROT,ALL
! X-> Radial Y->Tangential

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

CSYS,0
!
!
!

! Default cartesian system

=========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION

! Target node
nn=NODE(kx(2),ky(2),0)
! Bending moment I.L.
---------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MZ,FX,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,-1
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE
! Shear force I.L.
----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,6,FX,FX,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,-1
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE
! Axial force I.L.
----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,7,FY,FX,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,-1
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE

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8.2 Influence lines

8.2.4.5

Example 4. Three legs frame

Sketches

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

LOG
!
! Example 4: Influence Lines - 3 legs frame
!
FINISH
~CFCLEAR,,1
/TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Frame'
~CODESEL,EC3,EC2
~UNITS,SI

! Set European codes


! Set International System units

/PREP7
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION

! Element types
ET,1,BEAM188,,,2
! Material: EC3-Steel
~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360
! Beams section
~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16
~SECMDF,1,ROTATE,,,90

8-16

! IPE 500 (H shaped)


! IPE 500 rotation (I shaped)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1
! Solid Modeling
TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1
K,1
K,2,0,5
K,4,6,2
K,5,6,7
K,3,(KX(2)+KX(5))/2,(KY(2)+KY(5))/2
K,6,12,0
K,100, 100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point (Lines 2 and 3)
K,101,-100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point (Lines 1 and 4)
! Boundary Conditions
DK,1,ux,0 $ DK,1,uy,0
DK,4,ux,0 $ DK,4,uy,0
DK,6,ux,0 $ DK,6,uy,0
L,1,2 ! Line 1
L,2,3 !
2
L,3,5 !
3
L,4,5 !
4
L,5,6 !
5

I: Articulated Supports
$ DK,1,rotz,0
$ DK,4,rotz,0
$ DK,6,rotz,0

! Meshing with different orientations


ESIZE,1
! Element size
LSEL,S,LINE,,2,3
LSEL,A,LINE,,5
LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1
LMESH,ALL
LSEL,A,LINE,,1,4,3
LATT,ALL,10,,1,,101,,1
LMESH,ALL
! Boundary conditions II: Plane frame
D,ALL,UZ,0
D,ALL,ROTX,0
D,ALL,ROTY,0
NSEL,ALL
! Target node
nn=NODE(kx(3),ky(3),0)
! Node rotation
LSEL,S,LINE,,1
LSEL,A,LINE,,4
NSLL,S,0
NMODIF,ALL,,,,90,0,0

! Vertical supports

LSEL,S,LINE,,2,3
! Lintel
NSLL,S,0
NSEL,A,NODE,,nn
Angle1=ATAN( (KY(5)-KY(2))/(KX(5)-KX(2)) )*180/3.14159265 ! lintel slope
NMODIF,ALL,,,,Angle1,0,0
LSEL,S,LINE,,5
! Leaning support
NSLL,S,0
Angle2=ATAN2(KY(5)-KY(6), KX(5)-KX(6))*180/3.14159265
NMODIF,ALL,,,,Angle2,0,0
NSEL,ALL

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

! support slope

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

!
! =========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION
!
~ILOPEN,10,MZ,FY,nn,,,,1,0.001,0.001
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,2
PLDISP,2
RSYS,SOLU
/GRAPHICS,FULL
PLNSOL,U,Y
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 3: STRUCTURE CALCULATION

! Structure Loading
CMSEL,S,CFInfLine10_NEGATIVE
SFBEAM,ALL,1,PRES,100000
ESEL,ALL
NSEL,ALL

! Component for negative moment in lintel

! Structure calculation
/SOLU
SOLVE
! Bending moments plotting
/POST1
ETABLE,MF_D,SMISC,2
ETABLE,MF_F,SMISC,15
PLLS,MF_D,MF_F

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8.2 Influence lines

8.2.4.6

Example 5. 3D Plane structure

Sketches

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

LOG
!
! Example 5: Influence Lines - 3D plane structure
!
FINISH
~CFCLEAR,,1
/TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Frame'
~CODESEL,EC3,EC2
~UNITS,SI

! Set European codes


! Set International System units

/PREP7
!
!
!

=========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION

! Element types
ET,1,BEAM188,,,2
! Material: EC3-Steel
~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360
! Beams section
~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16
! IPE 500 (I shaped)
~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1
! Solid Modeling
TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1
! K-Points
K, 1,-4, 8
K, 2, 4, 8
K, 3, 0, 0
K, 4, 0,14
K, 5, 0, 8
K, 6, 0, 4
K,100,100,100
! X axis beams
L, 1, 5 $ L, 5, 2
! Y axis beams
L, 3, 6 $ L, 6, 5 $ L, 5, 4
! Boundary Conditions: Built-in Supports
KSEL,S,KP,,1,4
DK,ALL,ALL,0
KSEL,ALL
! Meshing
ESIZE,0.25
LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1
LMESH,ALL
NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL
!
!

8-20

! Element size

=========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.2 Influence lines

!
! Target node
nn=NODE(kx(6),ky(6),0)
! Torsional moment I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MY,FZ,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/VUP,ALL,Z
/VIEW,1,0,1
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE
! Shear force I.L.
----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,FY,FY,nn,,,,1
/POST1
! Creating Influence Line Graphics
/DSCA,ALL,10
PLDISP,2
/PREP7
! Closing the Influence Line
~ILCLOSE

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8-21

8.3 Solid to shell

8.3

Solid to shell

8.3.1

Introduction

In finite element analyses it is usual to model reinforced concrete or prestressed


concrete structures, using 3D solid elements, which give as results stresses at the
nodes of the elements.
Nevertheless, codes and standards, in the majority of the cases and countries, make
use of forces and moments for the calculations, either for shell or beam elements.
CivilFEM has a utility (SOLID SECTION) that allows to integrate the stresses
obtained on a model that can be assumed as prismatic, to turn them into beams
forces and moments.
The aim of the present utility is to obtain, in structures made up of 3D solid elements
and that can be assumed as a laminar structure, the forces and moments needed to
apply a code or standard based on these values.

8.3.2

Initial data

It is necessary to define the following types of data:


Structure (complete or a part of it), which is already defined by the 3D solid
elements.
Necessary information for the definition of the shell elements.
The structure to be analyzed is the data required first. It must be defined by two
components:
Nodes of a surface (outer or inner) of the structure.
All the elements of the part of the structure.
The following figure shows these requirements.

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

External nodes

Structural 3D brick elements

Nodes and elements components

Apart from this, to define the reinforced concrete shells, it is necessary to define the
cover that will be used and the material for the reinforcement.
From this information, CivilFEM creates a new component with dummy SHELL181
elements, at the mid-surface of the 3D structure that will be the base to obtain the
needed results. These elements will also be used for the results.
The dummy shell elements have materials and shell properties assigned, which
CivilFEM creates from the material of the solid structure and the thicknesses. The
created material will add no mass to the structure so it does not interfere in inertial or
transient analyses.
The new shell elements are defined on nodes created independently from the
existent model. These nodes have all their degrees of freedom constrained.
Moreover, this utility generates the following components:
CF_SD2SH_NODES_#: generated nodes component of dummy shells group number
#.
CF_SD2SH_ELEMENTS _#: generated elements component of dummy shells group
number #.

8.3.3

Calculation of the shells thicknesses

From the gravity center of the surfaces of the outer elements, CivilFEM casts
perpendicular rays, perpendicular to this surface, which intersect the different

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CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.3 Solid to shell

elements of the structure (hexahedra, tetrahedra or pyramids) at two of their faces


(entry and exit) shown as points 1 and 2 in the following figure.

If the ray is not perpendicular to the outer surface, CivilFEM will correct the rays
direction so that its vector is the mean value of the perpendicular vectors to the entry
and exit surfaces. But if the ray exits through a lateral surface, instead of the opposite
face, the direction of the ray will be parallel to this lateral face.
Instead of using this perpendicular direction to define the integration planes, a local
coordinate system can be used. In this case, the ray will follow the direction of the Z
axis of the local coordinate system and will also orientate the element axis of the
dummy shells parallel to this coordinate system. If the direction of the Z axis is 5
away from the mean value of the entry and exit vectors, CivilFEM will show it in the
errors file CF_SD2SH.ERR and a warning will be issued with the number of the
elements on which this warning is present.
In this process, the thickness d of the structure is obtained for each analyzed section.
This value can be rounded according to a certain tolerance given in each case or to a
certain value. If a constant thickness is set by the optional command argument TH
and the obtained thickness is different, CivilFEM will show it in the errors file
CF_SD2SH.ERR and a warning will be issued with the number of the elements on
which this warning is present.
If any dummy shell element cannot be generated, CivilFEM will show it in the errors
file CF_SD2SH.ERR writing the outer solid element number which its outer face is
used to generate the shell element.

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

8.3.4

Calculation of the stress tensor

During the procedure to obtain the thicknesses of the shell elements, each casted ray
defines calculation points in space (entry and exit points of each solid element). The
calculation of the stress tensor in each of these points is done by interpolation from
the nodes of the faces.
A group of stress tensors

G
i

is obtained:

G
i

xy

xz

yx

yz

zx

zy

i = 1, n

Where n is the number of elements faces the ray went through.

8.3.5

Calculation of forces and moments

8.3.5.1

Axial forces

The axial force in the X direction can be calculated as


n 1

Tx

xi

dt
i 1

xi 1

di

di

, t = thickness direction

Where di are the distances of the calculation points to the center of the dummy shell
element.
In the same way, for the Y direction:
n 1

Ty

yi

i 1

8.3.5.2

yi 1

di

di

Bending moments

The bending moment is the static moment of the stresses function from an axis at the
center of the section:

Mx =

. dt

My =

. dt

Where is the distance of each point to the center. To calculate the moments, the
following formulation has been used:

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CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

8.3 Solid to shell

n 1

Mx
i

di

xi 1

di

di

di

yi 1

di

di

di

n 1

My
i

di

8.3.5.3

di
2

di
2

1
2

1
2

2 di

xi

xi 1

di

di

di

yi

yi 1

di

di

di

di

di

2 di
3

Shear forces

Defined by the integration of the

xy

and

yz

stresses:

n 1

Nx

zx

zxi

dt

i 1
n 1

Ny

8.3.5.4

zy

zx i 1

zyi

dt

zy i 1

i 1

di

di

di

di

di

di

Sliding shear force

It is obtained from the following expression:


n 1

Txy

8.3.5.5

xy

xyi

dt

xy i 1

i 1

Torsional moment

It is obtained from the following expression:


n 1

Mxy

xyi 1
i

8.3.6

di

di

di

di
1

di
2

1
2

xyi

xyi 1

di

di

di

2 di
1

di

Results on the dummy shell elements

The dummy shell elements can be postprocessed in the same way as any other
element of the structure. Nevertheless it must be taken into account that their nodes
have no stresses or movement results.
Since these elements have forces and moments as results, it is possible to perform
code checking on them. Data from the code check will be stored in the results file to
be postprocessed as in any other shell element.
To be able to apply reinforcement to the structure, CivilFEM needs to know the
directions of the reinforcements on the shell elements, so these must be oriented so
that their axes have the direction of the reinforcement bars. This orientation must be

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

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Chapter 8 Miscellaneous utilities

defined after the dummy shell elements have been created if they have not been
oriented by the command argument.

8.3.7

Remesh

In order to increase the accurancy of the method, it is possible to remesh the exterior
elements of the dummy shell group. The remesh level varies between 1 and 3, where
3 is the finer remesh. For the finer level, the exterior elements are divided into 26 or
29 depending on triangular or quadrangular shape in such a way the number of
calculation points are increased and their location is closer to the boundary. So,
boundary behavior is captured with a higher accurancy.

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CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.