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Chapter 3

Materials

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

CivilFEM Theory Manual


Chapter 3 Table of Contents
3.1

Introduction ................................................................................................ 1

3.2

General Properties..................................................................................... 3

3.3

Specific Material Properties ....................................................................... 7

3.4

3.3.1

Structural Steel ......................................................................... 7

3.3.2

Concrete ................................................................................. 16

3.3.3

Reinforcement Steel ............................................................... 22

3.3.4

Prestessing Steel .................................................................... 23

3.3.5

Soils ........................................................................................ 24

3.3.6

Rocks ...................................................................................... 27

Specific Code Properties ......................................................................... 31


3.4.1

Eurocode 3 (Structural Steel).................................................. 31

3.4.2

Spanish EA code (Structural Steel) ........................................ 31

3.4.3

LRFD (Structural Steel)........................................................... 32

3.4.4

BS5950-1985 (Structural Steel) .............................................. 32

3.4.5

BS5950-2000 (Structural Steel) .............................................. 32

3.4.6

GB50017 (Structural Steel) ..................................................... 33

3.4.7

Eurocode 2 (Concrete)............................................................ 33

3.4.8

Eurocode 2 (Reinforcement Steel) .......................................... 38

3.4.9

Eurocode 2 (Prestressing steel) .............................................. 41

3.4.10

ACI (Concrete) ........................................................................ 44

3.4.11

ACI (Reinforcement steel)....................................................... 47

3.4.12

ACI (Prestressing steel) .......................................................... 49

3.4.13

CEB-FIP (Concrete) ................................................................ 51

3.4.14

CEB-FIP (reinforcement steel) ................................................ 56

3.4.15

EHE (Concrete) ...................................................................... 58

3.4.16

EHE (Reinforcement Steel)..................................................... 63

3.4.17

EHE (Prestressing steel)......................................................... 66

3.4.18

BS8110 (Concrete) ................................................................. 70

3.4.19

BS8110 (Reinforcement steel) ................................................ 74

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.5

3.4.20

GB50010 (Concrete) ............................................................... 76

3.4.21

GB50010 (Reinforcement steel) ............................................. 80

3.4.22

AS3600 ................................................................................... 83

3.4.23

NBR6118 (Concrete) .............................................................. 83

3.4.24

NBR6118 (Reinforcement Steel) ............................................ 85

3.4.25

Indian Standard 456 (Concrete) .............................................. 88

3.4.26

Indian Standard 456 (Reinforcement Steel) ............................ 90

3.4.27

Russian Code SP-52-101 (C

52-101) (Concrete) ................ 92

3.4.28

Russian Code SP-52-101 (C

52-101) (Reinforcement Steel)96

3.4.29

ITER Structural Design Code for Buildings ............................. 98

FLAC3D Properties.................................................................................. 99
3.5.1

FLAC3D material properties for soil and rock elements .......... 99

3.5.2

FLAC3D material properties for structural elements ............. 104

3.6

Active Properties.................................................................................... 109

3.7

Material Properties Dependence ........................................................... 111


3.7.1

External Data ........................................................................ 111

3.7.2

General Properties ................................................................ 111

3.7.3

Structural Steel Specific Properties ...................................... 112

3.7.4

Concrete Specific Properties ................................................ 112

3.7.5

Soil Specific Properties ......................................................... 112

3.7.6

Rock Specific Properties ....................................................... 113

3.7.7

Specific Code Properties ...................................................... 115

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.1 Introduction

3.1

Introduction

Material properties considered by CivilFEM include ANSYS standard properties, as


well as other properties necessary for CivilFEM specific calculations, such as
properties related to codes: characteristic strengths, yield strengths, reduction
coefficients, etc.
When defining a material within CivilFEM, ANSYS standard properties are
automatically defined, assigning to ANSYS materials the same numbering as
CivilFEM materials. Thus, it is not recommended to directly modify ANSYS' material
properties, to avoid unexpected behaviors between ANSYS and CivilFEM databases.
CivilFEM materials have four different kinds of properties:
General properties : Common properties for all kinds of materials
Material properties : Reserved for steels, concretes, etc.
Code properties

: Related to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3, ACI, CEB-FIP, etc.

Active properties

: Obtained for the actual active time

FLAC3D properties : Properties to be applied when exporting the model to FLAC3D


General properties are common to all CivilFEM kinds of materials and contain data
identifying the materials (number, reference, type), mechanical properties being
transferred to ANSYS materials, as well as costs and the activation times of each
material.
Specific material properties are always available for a particular material, regardles of
the code under which the material was defined.
Specific code properties contain exclusive material data for each code.
Active material properties depend on the age of the material, and are calculated for
the active time (see section 3.6 for more information).
FLAC3D properties are divided in two groups:
Terrain properties:

Soils (type 5)
Rocks (type 6)

Structural properties:

Structural steel (type 1)


Concrete (type 2)
Reinforcing steel (type 3)
Prestressing steel (type 4)

These properties will be used to define the constitutive models and the structural
element properties in the exporting process to FLAC3D.
CivilFEM material definition (see ~CFMP command) is achieved by selecting one of
the materials included in its libraries. The following types of materials can be defined
in the current version:
-

Structural steels

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-1

Chapter 3 Materials

Concretes

Reinforcing steels

Prestressing steels

Soils

Rocks

Once the material is defined, the material is labeled with a reference which relates it
to the chosen library material. The user can modify all those properties that are not
associated to the library. In order to modify the data associated to a library reference,
one should make the material lose that reference and become User Def.
The following labels characterize the type of datum regarding the possibility of
changes made by the user:
LIBR:

Data associated to a library reference. In ordert to modify a property with


this label, the material should first become User Def.

LOCK:

Blocked data. The will in no way be allowed to modify them.

MODF:

Data may be modified by the user.

On the other hand, there are several dependencies in the materials data which are
automatically updated. Therefore, the user must take into account these
dependencies when modifying those related properties (see chapter 3.7 for further
details).

3-2

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.2 General Properties

3.2

General Properties

General properties are those properties common to all kinds of materials (concrete,
structural steel and reinforcing steel). These properties have the labels and values
described hereafter:
Umat

Material number defined by the user.

(MODF)

Ref8

Reference.

(LOCK)

Name

User material name.

(MODF)

Type
(LOCK)

Material type defined by the user.


0 = Generic Material.
1 = Structural steel
2 = Concrete
3 = Reinforcing steel
4 = Prestressing steel
5 = Soils
6 = Rocks

TAct

Material activation time

(MODF)

TDeact

Material deactivation time

(MODF)

Ex
(LOCK)
(MODF)
(LIBR)

Modulus of elasticity of the material.


If Type=0

User Defined (generic material).

If Type =1 or 2 Its value depends on the active code. It equals ExLn


(this label is defined later on).
If Type =5 or 6 Its value depends on the material. It is equal to ExCal.
Otherwise

NUxy
(LIBR)

Automatically defined from the material's library.

Poisson's modulus. Depends on the active code and the material type
(0 Nuxy < 0.5).
Eurocode 3

(Structural steel)

NUxy = 0.3

Art 3.2.5

EA

(Structural steel)

NUxy = 0.3

Art 3.1.9

LRFD

(Structural steel)

NUxy = 0.3
BS 5950

(Structural steel)

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Chapter 3 Materials

NUxy = 0.3

Art 3.1.2

GB50017

(Structural steel)

NUxy = 0.3
Eurocode 2

(Concrete)

NUxy = 0.2

Art 3.1.2.5.3

Eurocode 2

(Reinforcing steel)

NUxy = 0.3

Art 3.1.2

Eurocode 2

(Prestressing steel)

NUxy = 0.3
ACI

(Concrete)

NUxy = 0.2

Art 116R-45

ACI

(Reinforcing steel)

NUxy = 0.3

Art 116R-45

ACI

(Prestressing steel)

NUxy = 0.3
CEB-FIP

(Concrete)

NUxy = 0.2

Art 2.1.4.3

CEB-FIP

(Reinforcing steel)

NUxy = 0.3

Art 2.1.4.3

EHE

(Concrete)

NUxy = 0.2

Art 39.9

EHE

(Reinforcing steel)

NUxy = 0.3

Art 39.9

EHE

(Prestessing steel)

NUxy = 0.3
BS 8110

(Concrete)

NUxy = 0.2

Art 2.4.2.4

BS 8110

(Reinforcing steel)

NUxy = 0.3
GB50010

(Concrete)

NUxy = 0.2
GB50010

(Reinforcing steel)

NUxy = 0.3
If Type = 5 or 6 then its value depends on NuxyCal one.
Gxy

3-4

Shear modulus. It is calculated using the following formula:

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.2 General Properties

(MODF)

Gxy
ALP
(MODF)

Ex
2 1 NUxy

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Its initial value depends on the


active code:
Eurocode 3

(Structural steel)

ALP = 1.2E-5 (C-1)

Art 3.2.5

EA

(Structural steel)
-1

ALP = 1.2E-5 (C )

Art 3.1.10

LRFD

(Structural steel)
-1

ALP = 1.2E-5 (C )
BS 5950

(Structural steel)
-1

ALP = 1.2E-5 (C )

Art 3.1.2

GB50017

(Structural steel)

ALP = 1.2E-5 (C-1)

Art 3.4.3

Eurocode 2

(Concrete)

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)

Art 3.1.2.5.4

Eurocode 2

(Reinforcing steel)

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)

Art 3.2.3

Eurocode 2

(Prestressing steel)

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)

Art 3.2.3

ACI

(Concrete)

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)


ACI

(Reinforcing steel)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ))
ACI

(Prestressing steel)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ))
CEB-FIP

(Concrete)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )

Art 2.1.8.3

CEB-FIP

(Reinforcing steel)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )

Art 2.2.5.4

EHE

(Concrete)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )

Art 39.10

EHE

(Reinforcing steel)

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)

Art 39.10

EHE

(Prestressing steel)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

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Chapter 3 Materials

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)


BS 8110

(Concrete)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )

Part 2: 7.5

BS 8110

(Reinforcing steel)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )
GB50010

(Concrete)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )

Part 2: 7.5

GB50010

(Reinforcing steel)
-1

ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )
SOILS
ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)
ROCKS
ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1)
RHO

Density value of the material.

(MODF)

GAM

RHO = GAM/g
If Type= 0, 1, 2, 3

RHO is free

If Type =5 or 6

RHO = RHOcal

Specific weight of the material.

(MODF)

DAMP
(MODF)

GAM = RHO*g
If Type= 0, 1, 2, 3

GAM is free

If Type =5 or 6

GAM = GAMcal

Damping of the material.


For transient analyses: K matrix multiplier ( ) for damping.
For spectral analyses: critical damping ratio.

VCost
(MODF)

MCost

Cost per volume unit.


Vcost = Mcost*RHO = Wcost*GAM
Cost per mass unit.

(MODF)

WCost
(MODF)

3-6

Mcost = Vcost/RHO = Wcost*g


Cost per weight unit.
Wcost = Vcost/GAM = Mcost/g

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

3.3

Specific Material Properties

3.3.1

Structural Steel

Command ~CFMP, defines all material properties for structural steel, including those
properties that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific structural
steel material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter:
3.3.1.1
NThk

Thickness table and dependent properties


Refers to the range number for the different material's thickness.

(LIBR)

Thik

NThk

Thik

Thickness table.

(NThk)
(LIBR)

ExLn
(LIBR)

Modulus of elasticity for linear analysis. ExLn


depends on the active code:

0. The initial value

Eurocode 3
ExLn = 21E4 MPa

Art. 3.2.5

EA
ExLn = 2.1E6 kp/cm2

Art. 3.1.9

LRFD
ExLn = 29000 ksi
BS 5950
ExLn = 205 kN/mm2

Art 3.1.2

GB50017
ExLn = 206 kN/mm2
3.3.1.2
KPLA
(MODF)

PLRAT

Art 3.4.3

Plastic behavior in ANSYS


Refers to the type of behavior.
0

Elastic (default value)

Bilinear Kinematic

Bilinear Isotropic

Multilinear Kinematic Hardening

Multilinear Isotropic

Drucker-Prager

Elastic/Plastic modulus ratio. This ratio is by default equal to 10000.

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-7

Chapter 3 Materials

(MODF)

PLThk

PLRAT

Thickness used to define the plastic behavior.

(MODF)

3.3.1.3

PLThk

Stress strain diagram for structural analysis

TSASSD

Type of stress-strain diagram. Each different type of stress-strain


diagrams available depends on the code for which the material was
defined. Apart from available diagrams supported by the codes, it is
possible to define new ones by selecting the User defined option.

NPSASSD

Number of diagram points.

SAEPS

Strain values corresponding to a point of the diagram.

SASGM

Stress values corresponding to a point of the diagram.

3.3.1.3.1

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to Eurocode 3

The available stress-strain diagrams for Eurocode 3 are:


TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

SAEPS(1)*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

SAEPS(2)*ExLn

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression

3-8

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 5.2.1.4 and
are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

-fy / ExLn

SAEPS (3) =

fy / ExLn

SAEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values have also been taken conforming to article Art. 5.2.1.4 and are the
following:
SASGM (1) =

-fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

-fy

SASGM (3) =

fy

SASGM (4) =

fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn

3.3.1.3.2

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the Spanish EA code

The different stress-strain diagrams according to EA code are:


TSASSD= 0 User defined
TSASSD= 1 Elastic
TSASSD= 2 Bilinear
Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

SAEPS(1)*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

SAEPS(2)*ExLn

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-9

Chapter 3 Materials

A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

-SIGe / ExLn

SAEPS (3) =

SIGe / ExLn

SAEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

- SIGe +(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

- SIGe

SASGM (3) =

SIGe

SASGM (4) =

SIGe + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn

3.3.1.3.3

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to LRFD

The available stress-strain diagrams for LRFD are:


TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

SAEPS(1)*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

SAEPS(2)*ExLn

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

3-10

-1.0E-2

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

SAEPS (2) =

-fy / ExLn

SAEPS (3) =

fy / ExLn

SAEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

-fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

-fy

SASGM (3) =

fy

SASGM (4) =

fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn

3.3.1.3.4

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to BS 5950

The available stress-strain diagrams for BS 5950 are:


TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

SAEPS(1)*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

SAEPS(2)*ExLn

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

-fy / ExLn

SAEPS (3) =

fy / ExLn

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-11

Chapter 3 Materials

SAEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

-fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

-fy

SASGM (3) =

Fy

SASGM (4) =

fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn

3.3.1.3.5

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to GB50017

The available stress-strain diagrams for GB50017 are:


TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SASGM (1) =

SAEPS(1)*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

SAEPS(2)*ExLn

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2) =

-fy / ExLn

SAEPS (3) =

fy / ExLn

SAEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:

3-12

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

SASGM (1) =

-fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn

SASGM (2) =

-fy

SASGM (3) =

Fy

SASGM (4) =

fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn

3.3.1.4

Stress-strain diagram for section analysis

SDEPS

Strain values corresponding to a point of the diagram.

SDSGM

Stress values corresponding to a point of the diagram.

TSDSSD

Type of stress-strain diagram. The different type of stress-strain


diagrams available depend on the code for which the material was
defined. Apart from available diagrams supported by codes, it is
possible to define new ones by selecting the User defined option.

NPSDSSD

Number of diagram points.

3.3.1.4.1

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to Eurocode 3

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available according to Eurocode 3 are:


TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 5.2.1.4 and
are the following:
SDEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SDEPS (2) =

-fy / ExLn / GAMM0

SDEPS (3) =

fy / ExLn / GAMM0

SDEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SDSGM (1) =

(-fy+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMM0

SDSGM (2) =

-fy / GAMM0

SDSGM (3) =

fy / GAMM0

SDSGM (4) =

(fy + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMM0

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-13

Chapter 3 Materials

3.3.1.4.2

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the spanish EA code

The different stress-strain diagrams according to the EA code are:


TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1)


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SDEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SDEPS (2) =

-SIGe / ExLn / GAMa

SDEPS (3) =

SIGe / ExLn / GAMa

SDEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SDSGM (1) =

(- SIGe +(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMa

SDSGM (2) =

- SIGe / GAMa

SDSGM (3) =

SIGe / GAMa

SDSGM (4) =

(SIGe + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMa

3.3.1.4.3

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the LRFD code

The different stress-strain diagrams according to LRFD code are:


TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1)


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SDEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SDEPS (2) =

-fy / ExLn

SDEPS (3) =

fy / ExLn

SDEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

3-14

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

Stress values are the following:


SDSGM (1) =

(-fy+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn)

SDSGM (2) =

-fy

SDSGM (3) =

fy

SDSGM (4) =

(fy + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn)

3.3.1.4.4

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the BS5950 code

The different stress-strain diagrams according to the BS5950 code are:


TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1)


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SDEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SDEPS (2) =

-ROy / ExLn

SDEPS (3) =

ROy / ExLn

SDEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SDSGM (1) =

(-fy+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn)

SDSGM (2) =

-ROy

SDSGM (3) =

ROy

SDSGM (4) =

(fy + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn)

3.3.1.4.5

Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the GB50017 code

The different stress-strain diagrams according to the GB50017 code are:


TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1)


The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-15

Chapter 3 Materials

A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SDEPS (1) =

-1.0E-2

SDEPS (2) =

-f / ExLn

SDEPS (3) =

f / ExLn

SDEPS (4) =

1.0E-2

Stress values are the following:


SDSGM (1) =

-f+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn)

SDSGM (2) =

-f

SDSGM (3) =

SDSGM (4) =

f + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn)

3.3.1.5
EPSmax
(MODF)

Strain limits for steel-concrete composite sections design


Maximum permisible strain in tension at any point of the section
(Point A in the pivot diagram).
Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression
EPSmax = 0.010 (default value)
If EPSmax = 0 then there is no limit

EPSmin
(MODF)

Maximum permisible strain in compression at any point of the


section (Point B in the pivot diagram).
Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression
EPSmin = -0.010 (default value)
If EPSmin = 0 then there is no limit

3.3.2

Concrete

Command ~CFMP, defines all concrete material properties including those properties
required for an ANSYS analysis.
Note: CivilFEM does not contain the material data conforming to the Australian Standard
AS3600. If this code is activated, the selected material (concrete or reinforcement steel) will
be filled out with the same parameters as the ACI-318 code requires.

Specific concrete material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter:


3.3.2.1

Time dependent properties

NAge
(MODF)

Number of material age points defined. This value must be between


0 and 50. A different stress-strain diagram is defined for each of the
age points defined.

Age(NAge)

Age tables, in days (Age

3-16

0).

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

(MODF)

MatAge

Material age. It will be calculated using the following formula:

(LOCK)

MatAge = ActTime - TmAct

The initial values of Nage and Age depend on the active code under which the
material is defined.
Eurocode 2:
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

ACI-318:
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

EHE:
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

CEB-FIP:
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

BS8110
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

GB50010:
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-17

Chapter 3 Materials

NBR6118:
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

IS456:
NAge = 20
Age =

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days

SP52101:
NAge = 20
Age =

3.3.2.2
TpEx
(MODF)

1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800,
3000, 6000, 10000 days
Linear structural analysis properties
Type of elastic modulus used. The different types, admited by CivilFEM
are the following:
1: Tangent modulus of elasticity
2: Initial modulus of elasticity
3: Secant modulus of elasticity
4: Design modulus of elasticity
5: Reduced modulus of elasticity

ExLn
(LIBR)

Modulus of elasticity for linear analysis. The different options for the
elastic modulus will vary depending on the active code. These are the
types of modulus available for each one of the codes:
Eurocode 2
TpEx = 1

ExLn = Ec

TpEx = 3

ExLn = Ecm (by default)

TpEx = 4

ExLn = Ecd

ACI
TpEx = 1

ExLn = Ec (by default)

CEB-FIP
TpEx = 1

ExLn = Eci

TpEx = 3

ExLn = Eci

TpEx = 5

ExLn = Ec (by default)

EHE

3-18

TpEx = 1

ExLn = Eci

TpEx = 2

ExLn = E0

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

TpEx = 3

ExLn = Ej (by default)

BS8110
TpEx = 1

ExLn = Ec (by default)

GB50010
TpEx = 1

ExLn = Ec (by default)

NBR6118
TpEx = 1

ExLn = Ei

TpEx = 3

ExLn = Ecs (by default)

IS456
TpEx = 1

ExLn = Ec (by default)

SP52101
TpEx = 2
3.3.2.3
EPSmin
(LIBR)

ExLn = Eb (by default)

Strain limits for section's design


Maximum admissible strain in compression at any point of the section
(Point B of the pivots diagram).
Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression
Eurocode 2
EPSmin = -0.0035
If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit is:
EPSmin = -(2.6+35[(90-fck)/100]4) 10-3 (with fck in MPa).
ACI
EPSmin = -0.0030
CEB-FIP
For this code, the maximum admissible strains depend on the selected
stress-strain diagram. The initial values taken as the Maximum
admissible strain in compression at any point of the section are the
following:
If TSDSSD = 0 then EPSmin = -0.0035
If TSDSSD = 1 then EPSmin = -EPScuB
If TSDSSD = 2 then EPSmin = -EPScuU
EHE
EPSmin = -0.0035
If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit is:
EPSmin = -(2.6+14.4[(100-fck)/100]4) 10-3 (with fck in MPa).
BS8110

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-19

Chapter 3 Materials

EPSmin = -0.0035
GB50010
EPSmin = - EPScu
NBR6118
EPSmin = -0.0035
IS456
EPSmin = -0.0035
SP52101
EPSmin = EPSb2
EPSint
(LIBR)

Maximum permisible strain in compression at interior points of the


section (Point C of the pivot diagram).
Sign criterion:+ Tension, - Compression
Eurocode 2
EPSint = -0.0020
If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit is:
EPSint = -(2.0+0.085(fck-50)0.53) 10-3 (with fck in MPa).
ACI
EPSint = 0 (there is no limit).
CEB-FIP
For this code, the maximum admissible strains depend on the selected
stress-strain diagram. The initial values taken as the Maximum
admissible strain in compression at any point of the section are the
following:
If TSDSSD = 0 then EPSmin = -0.0020
If TSDSSD = 1 then EPSmin = -EPScuC
If TSDSSD = 2 then EPSmin = 0 (there is no limit).
EHE
EPSint = -0.0020
If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit will then be:
EPSint = -(2.0+0.085(fck-50)0.5) 10-3 (with fck in MPa).
BS8110
EPSint = 0 (there is no limit).
GB50010
EPSint = EPS0
NBR6118
EPSint = -0.0020

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CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

IS456
EPSint = -0.0020
SP52101
EPSint = EPSb0
PCLevel
(LIBR)

This value referes to the vertical distance in the section between the
most compressed fiber and Point C of the pivot diagram.
PCLevel = 3/7

3.3.2.4

Shrinkage and creep

NApt

Number of load application ages defined.

(MODF)

Apt(NApt)

Load application age tables, in days (Apt

0).

(MODF)

KCREEP

Creep method

(MODF)

KSHRINK

No creep.

Step by step.

Shrinkage method.

(MODF)

AGECOEFF

No shrinkage.

By temperatures.

Aging coefficient (by default 0.8).

(MODF)

CREEPCF(NAge,NApt) Creep coefficient.


(MODF)

EPSSHRNK(NAge)

Shrinkage strain

(MODF)

KCRCOD
(MODF)

Calculation method selected for the definition of shrinkage


strains and creep coefficients curves.
0

User defined

Eurocode 2 Model (default value)

CEB Model

ACI Model

EHE Model

Each calculation method has its own parameters:


EC2:
RH

Relative humidity (%). Default value = 60%.

(MODF)

Fictitious thickness in milimeters. Default value = 600mm.

(MODF)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-21

Chapter 3 Materials

CEB:
RH

Relative humidity (%). Default value = 60%.

(MODF)

Fictitious thickness in milimeters. Default value = 600mm.

(MODF)

EHE:
RH

Relative humidity (%). Default value = 60%.

(MODF)

Fictitious thickness in milimeters. Default value = 600mm.

(MODF)

ACI:
PSI

Creep factor. Default value = 0.60.

(MODF)

Creep age (days). Default value = 10 days.

(MODF)

NUU

Ultimate (in time) creep coefficient. Default value = 2.35.

(MODF)

ALPHA

Shrinkage factor. Default value = 1.0.

(MODF)

Shrinkage age. Default value = 55 days.

(MODF)

EPSSLU

Ultimate (in time) shrinkage strain. Def. value = -78010-6.

(MODF)

3.3.3

Reinforcement Steel

The ~CFMP command defines all reinforcement steel material properties including
those properties that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific
reinforcement steel material properties supported by CivilFEM are described
hereafter:
3.3.3.1
EPSmax
(MODF)

Strain limits used for concrete sections checking and design


Refers to the maximum admissible strain in tension at any point of the
section (Point A in the pivot diagram).
Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression
The initial value depends on the active code:
Eurocode 2
EPSmax = 0.010 (Art. 4.3.1.2 and Art. 4.2.2.3.2)
ACI
EPSmax = 0 (there is no limit).
CEB-FIP

3-22

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

EPSmax = 0.010
EHE
EPSmax = 0.010
BS8110
EPSmax = 0
GB50010
EPSmax = 0.010
NBR6118
EPSmax = 0.010
IS456
EPSmax = 0
SP52101
EPSmax = 0.025

3.3.4

Prestessing Steel

The ~CFMP command defines all the prestressing steel material properties, including
those properties that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific
prestessing steel material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter:
3.3.4.1
MU
(MODF)

Data for calculating prestressing losses


Friction coefficient between the tendons and their casing (by default
MU=0.20)

(MODF)

Unintentional angular displacement per unit lenght (by default K=


0.01m-1)

Anchorage slip (by default a= 0.006m)

(MODF)

EPSsr

Concrete skrinkage strain (by default = 0.0004)

(MODF)

PHI

Concrete creep strain (by default = 2.00)

(MODF)

3.3.4.2
EPSmax
(MODF)

Strain limits used for concrete sections checking and design


Indicates the maximum admissible strain in tension at any point of the
section (Point A of the pivot diagram).
Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression
EPSmax 0, if EPSmax=0, there is no limit
The initial value depends on the active code:
Eurocode 2

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-23

Chapter 3 Materials

EPSmax = 0.010
EHE
EPSmax = 0.010
ACI
EPSmax = 0.00

3.3.5

Soils

The ~CFMP command defines all soil material properties including the properties
necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific soil material properties
supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter:
TpEx
(MODF)

Type of elasticity modulus used in structural analysis:


1: Use static elasticity modulus (default)
2: Use dynamic modulus

ExCal

Elasticity modulus used in structural analysis:

(LOCK)

TpNUxy
(MODF)

Type of Poisson coefficient used in structural analysis:


1: Use static Poissons ratio
2: Use dynamic Poissons ratio

NUxycal

Poisson coefficient used in structural analysis:

(LOCK)

TpRHO
(MODF)

Type of density used in structural analysis:


1: Use bulk density (default)
2: Use submerged density

RHOcal

Density used in structural analysis:

(LOCK)

KPLA
(MDF)

Behavior type:
0: Elastic
1: Drucker-Prager
2: Mohr-Coulomb for plane strain models

ExSt

Static elasticity modulus

(MODF)

NUxySt

Static Poisson modulus

(MODF)

Vp

P waves velocity

(MODF)

Vs

S waves velocity

(MODF)

Exd

Dynamic elasticity modulus

(MODF)

3-24

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

NUxyd

Dynamic Poisson modulus

(MODF)

GAMd

Dry specific weight

(MODF)

GAMs

Solid specific weight:

(LOCK)

GAMsat
(LOCK)

GAMsub

GAMs = GAMd/(1-n)
Saturated specific weight:
GAMsat = (GAMs + GAMw*e) / (1+e) = GAMs*(1-n)+ GAMw*n
Submerged specific weight:

(LOCK)

GAMap

GAMsub = GAMsat - GAMw


Apparent specific weight:

(LOCK)

GAMw

GAMap = GAMd*(1+W)
Water specific weight

(MODF)

RHOd

Dry density

(MODF)

RHOs

RHOd = GAMd/g
Solid density

(LOCK)

RHOsat

RHOs = GAMs/g
Saturated density

(LOCK)

RHOsub

RHOsat = GAMsat/g
Submerged density

(LOCK)

RHOap

RHOsub = GAMsub/g
Apparent density

(LOCK)

RHOrel

RHOap = GAMap/g
Relative density (by default 0.5)

(MODF)

Porosity (1 > n 0)

(MODF)

Void ratio

(LOCK)

e = n/(1-n)
Moisture content.

(MODF)

Sw
(LOCK)

D10
(MODF)

D30
(MODF)

Saturation degree
Sw = W*GAMs / (e*GAMw) = W*GAMd / (n*GAMw)
Diameter that allows more than 10% of material to pass through (In
millimeters).
Diameter that allows more than 30% of material to pass through (In
millimeters).

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-25

Chapter 3 Materials

D60
(MODF)

Diameter that allows more than 60% of material to pass through (In
millimeters).

Ccurv

Curvature coefficient

(LOCK)

Cunif

Ccurv = D302/(D60*D10)
Uniformity coefficient

(LOCK)

SPT

Cunif = D60/D10
Standard penetration test. SPT 0

(MODF)

CPT

Cone penetration test. CPT 0

(MODF)

qu

Resistance to simple compression. qu 0

(MODF)

Em

Oedometric modulus. Em 0

(MODF)

qa

Maximum admissible load.

(MODF)

wl

Liquid limit percentage

(MODF)

wp

Plastic limit percentage

(MODF)

Ip

Plasticity index [%]: Ip = wl - wp

(LOCK)

PHIMCeff

Angle of effective internal friction for Mohr-Coulomb (in degrees).

(MODF)

cMCeff

90 > PHIMCeff 0
Effective Cohesion. ceff 0

(MODF)

PHIDPeff

Angle of effective internal friction for Drucker-Prager.

(MODF)

cDPeff

90 > PHIDPeff 0
Effective Cohesion for Drucker-Prager. cDPeff 0

(MODF)

DELeff

Angle of dilation. 90 > DELeff 0

(MODF)

K0

Earth pressure coefficient at rest. K0 0

(MODF)

Ka

Active earth pressure coefficient. Ka 0

(MODF)

Kp

Passive earth pressure coefficient. Kp 0

(MODF)

Kac
(MODF)

Kpc

Cohesion complementary component of active earth pressure.


Kac 0
Cohesion complementary component of passive earth pressure.

(MODF)

3-26

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

Kpc 0
RuSI
(MODF)

Susceptibility to pore pressure:


0: Not susceptible
1: Susceptible

Ru

Coefficient for pore pressure after consolidation.

(MODF)

kx

X Permeability. Kx 0

(MODF)

ky

Y Permeability. Ky 0

(MODF)

kz

Z Permeability. Kz 0

(MODF)

cv

Consolidation coefficient. cv 0

(MODF)

Skempton law's coefficient. A 0

(MODF)

Skempton law's coefficient. 1 B 0

(MODF)

BET

Skempton law's coefficient.

(MODF)

3.3.6

Rocks

The ~CFMP command defines all rock material properties including those properties
that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific rock material properties
supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter:
RType

Type

(MODF)

RSubType

Subtype

(MODF)

RClass

Class

(MODF)

RockName

Name

(MODF)

TpEx
(MODF)

Type of elasticity modulus used in structural analysis:


1: Use static elasticity modulus (default)
2: Use dynamic modulus

Excal

Elasticity modulus used in structural analysis

(LOCK)

TpNUxy
(MODF)

Type of Poissons ratio coefficient used in structural analysis:


1: Use static Poissons ratio
2: Use dynamic Poissons ratio

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-27

Chapter 3 Materials

NUxycal

Poissons ratio used in structural analysis

(LOCK)

TpRHO
(MODF)

Type of density used in structural analysis:


1: Use bulk density (default)
2: Use submerged density

RHOcal

Density used in structural analysis

(LOCK)

KPLA
(MODF)

Behavior type:
0: Elastic
1: Drucker-Prager
2: Mohr-Coulomb for plane strain models

ExSt

Static elasticity modulus

(MODF)

NUxySt

Static Poisson modulus

(MODF)

Vp

P waves velocity

(MODF)

Vs

S waves velocity

(MODF)

Exd

Dynamic elasticity modulus

(MODF)

NUxyd

Dynamic Poisson modulus

(MODF)

qu

Resistance to simple compression. qu 0

(MODF)

GAMd

Dry specific weight

(MODF)

GAMs
(LOCK)

GAMsat
(LOCK)

GAMsub
(LOCK)

GAMap
(LOCK)

GAMw

Solid specific weight


GAMs = GAMd/(1-n)
Saturated specific weight
GAMsat = (GAMs + GAMw*e) / (1+e)
Submerged specific weight
GAMsub = GAMsat - GAMw
Apparent specific weight
GAMap = GAMd*(1+W)
Water specific weight

(MODF)

RHOd
(LOCK)

RHOs

3-28

Dry density
RHOd = GAMd/g
Solid density

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.3 Specific Material Properties

(LOCK)

RHOsat
(LOCK)

RHOsub
(LOCK)

RHOap
(LOCK)

RHOrel

RHOs = GAMs/g
Saturated density
RHOsat = GAMsat/g
Submerged density
RHOsub = GAMsub/g
Apparent density
RHOap = GAMap/g
Relative density (by default 0.5)

(MODF)

Porosity (1 > n 0)

(MODF)

e
(LOCK)

Void ratio
e = n/(1-n)
Moisture content.

(MODF)

Sw
(LOCK)

PHIeff

Saturation degree
Sw = W*GAMs / (e*GAMw) = W*GAMd / (n*GAMw)
Angle of internal friction angle. 90 > PHIeff 0

(MODF)

ceff

Effective cohesion. ceff 0

(MODF)

PHIDPeff

Angle of internal friction angle for Drucker-Prager. 90 > PHIDPeff 0

(MODF)

cDPeff

Effective cohesion. cDPeff 0

(MODF)

DELeff

Angle of dilation (degrees). 90 > DELeff 0

(MODF)

K0

Earth pressure coefficient at rest. K0 0

(MODF)

RuSI
(MODF)

Susceptibility to pore pressure:


0: Not susceptible
1: Susceptible

Ru

Coefficient for pore pressure after consolidation.

(MODF)

kx

Permeability. Kx 0

(MODF)

ky

Permeability. Ky 0

(MODF)

kz

Permeability. Kz 0

(MODF)

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3-29

Chapter 3 Materials

GSI

Geological strength index. 100 GSI 0

(MODF)

HB_m

Hoek & Brown coefficient m

(MODF)

HB_s

Hoek & Brown coefficient s

(MODF)

HB_mr

Hoek & Brown residual coefficient m

(MODF)

HB_sr

Hoek & Brown residual coefficient s

(MODF)

HB_n

Hoek & Brown coefficient n. 0.5 n < 0.65

(MODF)

HB_m0

Hoek & Brown coefficient m for unfractured rock. m0 0

(MODF)

HB_s0

Hoek & Brown coefficient s for unfractured rock. s0 1

(MODF)

HB_ALF

Fragility / ductility limit coefficient.

(MODF)

HB_md

Factor for dilatancy calculation. By default HB_md=1

(MODF)

HB_bd

Factor for dilatancy calculation. By default HB_bd=0

(MODF)

3-30

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4

Specific Code Properties

There are some properties in CivilFEM that are code dependent. This code
dependent properties are described hereafter for each one of the materials supported
by CivilFEM.

3.4.1

Eurocode 3 (Structural Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered:
3.4.1.1
GAMM0
(MODF)

GAMM1
(MODF)

GAMM2
(MODF)

3.4.1.2
fy (Thk)

Partial safety factors


Partial safety factor for calculating the resistance of class 1, 2 or 3
sections (GAMM0 1) M0=1.1 (Default value)
Partial safety factor for calculating the resistance of class 4 sections
and sections subjected to buckling (GAMM1 1) M1=1.1 (Default
value)
Partial safety factor for calculating the resistance of net sections
(GAMM2 1) M2=1.25 (Default value)
Mechanical properties
Yield strength of the material (fy

0).

(LIBR)

fu (Thk)

Ultimate strength (fu

0).

(LIBR)

3.4.2

Spanish EA code (Structural Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered:
3.4.2.1
GAMa
(MODF)

3.4.2.2
SIGe(Thk)

Partial safety factors


Partial safety factor (Art.3.1.7 GAMa

1)

Ma =1(Default

value)

Mechanical properties
Elastic limit (Art.3.1.7) SIGe

(LIBR)

SIGr(Thk)

Tension resistance (Art.3.1.7) SIGr

(LIBR)

SIGu(Thk)

Design resistance (Art.3.1.7) SIGu = SIGe/GAMa

(LOCK)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-31

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.3

LRFD (Structural Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered:
3.4.3.1
fy (Thk)

Mechanical properties
Yield strength of the material (fy

0).

(LIBR)

fu (Thk)

Ultimate strength (fu

0).

(LIBR)

3.4.4

BS5950-1985 (Structural Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered:
3.4.4.1
Ys (Thk)
(LIBR)

Us (Thk)

Mechanical properties
Yield strength of the material (Ys

0).

Ultimate strength Art. 5.1.1 (Us 0).

(LIBR)

ROy (Thk)

Design resistance. BS 5950 Art 3.1.1

(LIBR)

Ke (Thk)
(LIBR)

ROy = 1.0Ys 0.84Us


Effective area/Net area ratio Art. 3.3.3 BS 5950
Ke = 1.2 grade 40 or 43
Ke = 1.1 grade 50 or WR50
Ke = 1.0 grade 55
Ke = 0.75Us/Ys 1.2 in any other case

3.4.5

BS5950-2000 (Structural Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered:
3.4.5.1
Ys (Thk)

Mechanical properties
Yield strength of the material (Ys

0).

(LIBR)

Us (Thk)

Ultimate strength Art. 3.1.1 (Us 0).

(LIBR)

ROy (Thk)
(LIBR)

Ke (Thk)
(LIBR)

3-32

Design resistance. BS 5950 Art 3.1.1


ROy = 1.0Ys 0.84Us
Effective area/Net area ratio Art. 3.4.3 BS 5950
Ke = 1.2 grade 40 or 43

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

Ke = 1.1 grade 50 or WR50


Ke = 1.0 grade 55
Ke =

3.4.6

Us
in any other case
1.2 ROy

GB50017 (Structural Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered:
3.4.6.1
f (Thk)

Mechanical properties
Tensile, compressive or bending strength.

(LIBR)
(LIBR)

Compressive strength when the ending section is under compressive


load.

fv (Thk)

Shear strength.

fce (Thk)

(LIBR)

3.4.7

Eurocode 2 (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered:
3.4.7.1
CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement
Refers to the different types of cement used:
S:

Slow hardening cements

N:

Slow hardening cements (Default value)

R:

Rapid hardening cements

RS: Rapid hardening high strength cements


3.4.7.2
GAMc
(MODF)

ALP
(MODF)

Partial safety factors


Partial safety factor for concrete (GAMc

1) ( c=1.5 default value).

Additional reduction factor for sustained compression (0 ALP 1). The


default values are
ALP = 0.85 for Eurocode 2 1991.
ALP = 1.00 for Eurocode 2 2008.

3.4.7.3
fck
(LIBR)

Mechanical properties
Concrete characteristic 28-day compressive strength (+Compression
fck 0)

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3-33

Chapter 3 Materials

fcm
(MODF)

fcd

Mean 28-day compressive strength (+ Compression) fcm

fcm = fck + 8 N/mm2, in which fcm, and fck are in MPa.


Design 28-day compressive strength (+Compression) fcd = fck/GAMc

(LOCK)

fctm
(MODF)

Mean tensile strength (+ Tension)


fctm = 0.3*(fck2/3); fck

50 MPa

fctm = 2.12*ln(1+(fcm/10)); fck > 50 MPa (fctm, fcm and fctk in MPa)
fctk_005
(MODF)

fctk_095
(MODF)

EPSc1
(LIBR)

Lower characteristic tensile strength (percentile-5%) (+Tension)


fctk_005 = 0.7*(fctm)
Upper characteristic tensile strength (percentile-95%) (+Tension)
fctk_095 = 1.3*(fctm)
Strain value of the peak compressive strength (- Compression). The
default value is:
EPSc1 = -0.0022 for Eurocode 2 1991 and fck

50MPa

EPSc1 = 0.7*fcm0.31 < 2.8 for Eurocode 2 2008


EPScu

Ultimate strain in compression (-Compression).

(LIBR)

Coefficient which depends on the type of cement.

(MODF)

S:

s = 0.38

N:

s = 0.25

R:

s = 0.25

RS:

s = 0.20

3.4.7.4

Time dependent mechanical properties

BETcc

Coefficient which depends on the concrete age.

(LOCK)

BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days)

fcm_t(Age) Mean compressive strength. (+ Compression)


(MODF)

fcm_t = BETcc*fcm

fck_t(Age) Characteristic t-day compressive strength. (+ Compression)


(MODF)

fck_t = fcm_t - 8 (fck_t and fcm in MPa)

fcd_t(Age) Design t-day compressive strength (+Compression) fcd_t = fck_t/GAMc


(LOCK)

Ecm(Age)
(MODF)

Ec(t)

Secant modulus of elasticity.


Ecm = 9500*[(fck_t+8)1/3] (fck_t and Ecm in MPa)
Tangent modulus of elasticity, Ec = 1.05*Ecm

(MODF)

Ecd(t)

3-34

Design modulus of elasticity, Ecd = Ecm/GAMc

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

(LOCK)

3.4.7.5

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to


Eurocode 2 are:

3.4.7.5.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Short-term loads

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.7.5.2

Definition of the stress-strain diagram for short term loads (TSASSD


= 2):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 20 points (NPSDSSD = 20) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. The strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

1.000*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (2)

0.793*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (3)

0.617*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (4)

0.468*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (5)

0.342*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (6)

0.234*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (7)

0.143*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (8)

0.066*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (9)

1.000*EPSc1

SAEPS (10)

0.964*EPSc1

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3-35

Chapter 3 Materials

SAEPS (11)

0.922*EPSc1

SAEPS (12)

0.873*EPSc1

SAEPS (13)

0.816*EPSc1

SAEPS (14)

0.749*EPSc1

SAEPS (15)

0.669*EPSc1

SAEPS (16)

0.575*EPSc1

SAEPS (17)

0.465*EPSc1

SAEPS (18)

0.335*EPSc1

SAEPS (19)

1.181*EPSc1

SAEPS (20)

0.000

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM(i) = -[(k*Eta(i) -Eta(i) 2)/((1+(k-2)*Eta(i))]*fcm_t
Where:
K=

1.10*Ecm*EPSc1/(-fcm_t) for Eurocode 2 1991


1.05*Ecm*EPSc1/(-fcm_t) for Eurocode 2 2008

Eta(i) = SAEPS(i) / EPSc1


3.4.7.6

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to


Eurocode 2 are the following:

3-36

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Parabolic-rectangular

TSDSSD= 2

Bilinear

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.7.6.1

Definition of the parabolic-rectangular stress-strain diagram


(TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for this diagram are the following:
SDEPS (1)

cu2

SDEPS (2)

c2

SDEPS (3)

= 0.9 *

c2

SDEPS (4)

= 0.8 *

c2

SDEPS (5)

= 0.7 *

c2

SDEPS (6)

= 0.6 *

c2

SDEPS (7)

= 0.5 *

c2

SDEPS (8)

= 0.4 *

c2

SDEPS (9)

= 0.3 *

c2

SDEPS (10)

= 0.2 *

c2

SDEPS (11)

= 0.1 *

c2

SDEPS (12)

= 0.0

where:
cu2

= -0.0035 if fck

cu2

= -(2.6+35[(90-fck)/100]4)/1000 if fck > 50 MPa

c2

= -0.0020 if fck

cu2

50 MPa

50 MPa

= -(2.0+0.085(fck-50)0.53)/1000 if fck > 50 MPa

(fck in MPa)
The corresponding stress values are the following:
For the first 11 points:
SDSGM(i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *(250*SDEPS(i) +1)*ALP*fcd_t for Eurocode 2 1991
SDSGM(i) = -[1-(1-SDEPS(i) /
n = 2.0 for fck

n
c2) ]*ALP*fcd_t

for Eurocode 2 2008

50 MPa

n = 1.4+23.4*[(90-fck)/100]4 for fck > 50 MPa


For point 12:
SDSGM(i) = -ALP*fcd_t

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3-37

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.7.6.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 3 points (NPSDSSD = 3) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 4.2.1.3.3 (b)
of Eurocode 2 and are the following:
SDEPS (1) =

cu3

SDEPS (2) =

c3

SDEPS (3) = 0.000


Where
cu3

= -0.0035 for fck

50 MPa

cu3

= -0.001*(2.6+35*[(90-fck)/100]4) for fck > 50 MPa

c3

= -0.00135 for fck

50 MPa and Eurocode 2 1991

c3

= -0.00175 for fck

50 MPa and Eurocode 2 2008

c3

= -0.001*(1.75+0.55*(fck-50)/40) for fck > 50 MPa

Stress points are the following:


SDSGM (1) = -ALP*fcd_t
SDSGM (2) = -ALP*fcd_t
SDSGM (3) = 0.000

3.4.8

Eurocode 2 (Reinforcement Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined:
3.4.8.1
GAMs
(MODF)

3.4.8.2
fyk

Partial safety factors


Steel partial safety factor (GAMs

0)

= 1.15 (default value)

Mechanical properties

(LIBR)

Characteristic yield stress- Indicates the characteristic value of the


applied load over the area of the transverse section.

fyd

Design yield stress. fyd = fyk/GAMs

(LIBR)

ftk
(LIBR)

Characteristic tensile stress. Refers to the characteristic value of the


maximum axial load in tension over the area of the transverse section.

EPSuk

Characteristic elongation at maximum load. EPSuk

3-38

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

(LIBR)

3.4.8.3
Duct
(LIBR)

3.4.8.4

Ductility
Ductility- The default value depends on ftk, fyk and EPSuk
If EPSuk > 0.050 and ftk/fyk > 1.08

Duct = HIGH

If EPSuk > 0.025 and ftk/fyk > 1.05

Duct = NORMAL

Any other case

Duct = NONE

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available are the following:

3.4.8.4.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points:


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

= 1.0E-2

Stress points are the following:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex
3.4.8.4.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points:


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -EPSuk

SAEPS (2)

= -fyk/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fyk/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= EPSuk

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3-39

Chapter 3 Materials

Stress points are the following:


SASGM (1) = -ftk
SASGM (2) = -fyk
SASGM (3) = fyk
SASGM (4) = ftk
3.4.8.5

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available are the following:

3.4.8.5.1

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear with horizontal top branch

TSDSSD= 2

Bilinear with inclined top branch

Definition of the bilinear diagram with horizontal top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= -EPSuk

SDEPS (2)

= -fyd/Ex

SDEPS (3)

= fyd/Ex

SDEPS (4)

= EPSuk

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SDSGM (1)

= -fyd

SDSGM (2)

= -fyd

SDSGM (3)

= fyd

SDSGM (4)

= fyd

3.4.8.5.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram with inclined top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4

3-40

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SDEPS (1) = -EPSuk
SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex
SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex
SDEPS (4) = EPSuk
The corresponding stress points are the following:
SDSGM (1) = -ftk/GAMs
SDSGM (2) = -fyd
SDSGM (3) = fyd
SDSGM (4) = ftk/GAMs

3.4.9

Eurocode 2 (Prestressing steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 4) the following properties are defined:
3.4.9.1

Safety factors

GAMs

Safety factor (GAMs

(MODF)

3.4.9.2
fpk
(LIBR)

fp01
(LIBR)

EPSuk
(LIBR)

3.4.9.3
Ro_60

1)

Mechanical properties
Characteristic tensile strength. fpk 0
0.1% Proof-stress. fp01 0
Characteristic elongation at maximum load. EPSuk
0.035)

0 (by default =

Relaxation
Relaxation for 1000hours and 60%fmax.

(MODF)

Ro_70

Relaxation for 1000hours and 70%fmax.

(MODF)

Ro_80

Relaxation for 1000hours and 80%fmax.

(MODF)

LtRat
(MODF)

Ratio between long-term relaxation losses and 1000 hours relaxation


losses.

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-41

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.9.4

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams are the following:


TSASSD= 0: User defined
TSASSD= 1: Elastic
TSASSD= 2: Bilinear
3.4.9.4.1

Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -10-2

SAEPS (2)

= 10-2

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS (1)Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS (2)Ex
3.4.9.4.2

Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= 0.0

SAEPS (2)

= 0.9fpk/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= EPSuk

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SASGM (1) = 0.0
SASGM (2) = 0.9fpk
SASGM (3) = fpk

3-42

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.9.5

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams are the following:


TSDSSD= 0: User-defined
TSDSSD= 1: Bilinear with horizontal top branch
TSDSSD= 2: Bilinear with inclined top branch
3.4.9.5.1

Definition of the bilinear diagram with horizontal top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points:


NPSDSSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= 0.0

SDEPS (2)

= 0.9fpk/(Ex.GAMs)

SDEPS (3)

= EPSuk

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SDSGM (1)

= 0.0

SDSGM (2)

= 0.9fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (3)

= 0.9fpk/GAMs

3.4.9.5.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram with inclined top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SDEPS (1) = 0.0
SDEPS (2) = 0.9fpk/(Ex.GAMs)
SDEPS (3) = EPSuk
The corresponding stress points are the following:
SDSGM (1) = 0.0
SDSGM (3) = 0.9fpk/GAMs
SDSGM (4) = fpk/GAMs

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3-43

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.10

ACI (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined:
3.4.10.1
CuTp
(MODF)

Type of cement and curing


Type of curing (ACI-219R-4 Art. 2.2.1)
MOIST: moist cured (default value)
STEAM: steam cured

CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement (ACI-219R-4 Art. 2.2.1)


I: cement type I (default value)
III: cement type III

3.4.10.2
fc

Mechanical properties
Specified compressive strength (Art. 5.1 of the ACI-318) (+ Compression)

(LIBR)

a
(MODF)

Constant which depends on the type of cement and curing (table 2.2.1 of
the ACI-209R-4).
Cutp = Moist

CeTp = I

Cutp = Moist

CeTp = III a = 4.00

Cutp = Steam CeTp = I

a = 4.00
a = 4.00

Cutp = Steam CeTp = III a = 4.00


BET
(MODF)

Constant which depends on the type of cement and curing (table 2.2.1 of
the ACI-209R-4).
Cutp = Moist

CeTp = I

Cutp = Moist

CeTp = III BET = 0.92

Cutp = Steam CeTp = I

BET = 0.85
BET = 0.95

Cutp = Steam CeTp = III BET = 0.98


3.4.10.3
fc_t(Age)
(LIBR)

fr (Age)
(LIBR)

Ec(Age)
(LIBR)

BET1
(LIBR)

3-44

Time dependent mechanical properties


Concrete compressive strength (ACI-209R-4 Art. 2.2.1) (+ Compression)
fc_t = Age / (a+BET*Age)*fc
Modulus of rupture (ACI-318 Art. 9.5.2.3) fr

7.5

fc _ t

Modulus of elasticity (Art. 8.5.1 of the ACI-318)


Ec = RHO1.5*fc_t1/2 (with RHO in lb/ft3)
Factor that allows transforming the parabolic stress distribution of the
beam compressive zone to a rectangular one (Art. 10.2.7.3 of the ACI318). This factor 1 varies depending on the concrete characteristic

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

strength. The different values this factor may have are described bellow:

8000 psi

fc

4000 psi

1= 0.85

fc

4000 psi

1= 0.85 - 0.05*(fc-4000)/1000

fc

8000 psi

1= 0.65

Note: All these formulae are valid for a fc of 28 days.


EPS0(Age) Strain of the maximum compressive stress for parabolic stress-strain
(LIBR)
diagram (ACI 318-95 article Art. 10.2.7 Figure 6-8) (+Compression)
EPS0 = 2* (0.85*fc_t)/Ec
3.4.10.4

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the
ACI code are the following:

3.4.10.4.1

TSASSD= 0:

User defined

TSASSD= 1:

Elastic

TSASSD= 2:

PCA Parabolic

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

1.0E-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.10.4.2

Definition of the PCA parabolic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in ACI-318 article Art.
10.2.6 and are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.0030

SAEPS (2)

= -EPS0

SAEPS (3)

= -9/10*EPS0

SAEPS (4)

= -8/10*EPS0

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3-45

Chapter 3 Materials

SAEPS (5)

= -7/10*EPS0

SAEPS (6)

= -6/10*EPS0

SAEPS (7)

= -5/10*EPS0

SAEPS (8)

= -4/10*EPS0

SAEPS (9)

= -3/10*EPS0

SAEPS (10)

= -2/10*EPS0

SAEPS (11)

= -1/10*EPS0

SAEPS (12)

= 0.000

Stress points are the following:


If 0 > SAEPS(i) > (-EPS0)
SASGM(i) =

0.85*fc_t*[2*(SAEPS(i) /-EPS0)-(SAEPS(i) /-EPS0)2]

If (-EPS0) > SAEPS(i)


SASGM(i) =

0.85*fc_t

3.4.10.5

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the
ACI code are the following:

3.4.10.5.1

TSDSSD= 0:

User defined

TSDSSD= 1:

PCA Parabolic

TSDSSD= 2:

Rectangular

Definition of the PCA Parabolic diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in ACI-318 article Art.
10.2.6 and are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= -0.0030

SDEPS (2)

= -EPS0

SDEPS (3)

= -9/10*EPS0

SDEPS (4)

= -8/10*EPS0

SDEPS (5)

= -7/10*EPS0

SDEPS (6)

= -6/10*EPS0

SDEPS (7)

= -5/10*EPS0

3-46

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

SDEPS (8)

= -4/10*EPS0

SDEPS (9)

= -3/10*EPS0

SDEPS (10)

= -2/10*EPS0

SDEPS (11)

= -1/10*EPS0

SDEPS (12)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress points are the following:


If 0 > SDEPS(i) > (-EPS0)
SDSGM (i) = 0.85*fc_t*[2*(SDEPS(i) /-EPS0)-(SDEPS(i) /-EPS0)2]
If (-EPS0) > SDEPS
SDSGM (i) = 0.85*fc_t
3.4.10.5.2

Definition of the rectangular diagram (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagrams points


NPSDSSD = 0
For rectangular diagrams, it does not make sense to consider any specific point in this
diagram because stresses do not depend on strains, but on the distance between the
outer most compressed fiber and the neutral axis.

3.4.11

ACI (Reinforcement steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are considered:
3.4.11.1
fy

Mechanical properties
Yield strength (Art. 3.5 of the ACI-318)

(LIBR)

3.4.11.2

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to the ACI code are the following:

3.4.11.2.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points:


NPSASSD = 2

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-47

Chapter 3 Materials

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= -1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

= 1.0E+2

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex
3.4.11.2.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points:


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.01

SAEPS (2)

= -fy/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fy/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= 0.01

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = -fy
SASGM (2) = -fy
SASGM (3) = fy
SASGM (4) = fy
3.4.11.3

Stress-strain diagram for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to the ACI code are the following:

3.4.11.3.1

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagrams points


NPSDSSD = 4

3-48

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SDEPS (1) = -0.01
SDEPS (2) = -fy/Ex
SDEPS (3) = fy/Ex
SDEPS (4) = 0.01
The corresponding stress values are:
SDSGM (1) = -fy
SDSGM (2) = -fy
SDSGM (3) = fy
SDSGM (4) = Fy

3.4.12

ACI (Prestressing steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 4) the following properties are considered:
3.4.12.1
StTp
(MODF)

Mechanical properties
Prestessing steel type
0:

Low-relaxation

1:

Stress-relieved

fpu

Specific tension strenght

fpy

Yield strength

(LIBR)
(LIBR)

3.4.12.2
Rlcf1

Relaxation
Coefficient 1 for the relaxation calculation

(MODF)

Rlcf2

Coefficient 1 for the relaxation calculation

(MODF)

3.4.12.3

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel,


according to the ACI code are the following:
TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-49

Chapter 3 Materials

TSASSD= 2
3.4.12.3.1

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= -10-2

SAEPS (2)

= 10-2

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS (1)Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS (2)Ex
3.4.12.3.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= 0.0

SAEPS (2)

= fpy/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= 0.035

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = 0.0
SASGM (2) = fpy
SASGM (3) = fpu
3.4.12.4

Stress-strain diagram for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel,


according to the ACI code are the following:

3-50

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.12.4.1

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagrams points


NPSDSSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SDEPS (1) = 0.0
SDEPS (2) = fpy/Ex
SDEPS (3) = 0.035
The corresponding stress values are:
SDSGM (1) = 0.0
SDSGM (2) = fpy
SDSGM (3) = fpu

3.4.13

CEB-FIP (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined:
3.4.13.1
CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement
Type of cement (appendix d.4.2.1)
S:

Slow hardening cements

N:

Normal hardening cements (default value)

R:

Rapid hardening cements

RS: Rapid hardening high strength cements


3.4.13.2
GAMc
(MODF)

3.4.13.3
fck
(LIBR)

fcd

Safety factors
Partial safety factor for concrete (Art. 1.6.4.4) (GAMc
c=1.5 (default value)

1)

Mechanical properties
Characteristic compressive strength (+ Compression) fck

(LOCK)

Design compressive strength at 28 days (Art. 1.4.1 b) (+ Compression)


fcd = fck/GAMc

fcm

Mean compressive strength (Art. 2.1.3.2) (+ Compression fcm

(MODF)

0)

fcm = fck + 8 N/mm2, in which fcm, and fck are in N/mm2.

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-51

Chapter 3 Materials

fctk_min

Lower characteristic tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3.3.1 (2.1-2))

(MODF)

fctk_max

(+ Tension) fctk_min = 0.95*[(fck/10)2/3] (fctk_min and fck in N/mm2)


Upper characteristic tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3.3.1 (2.1-3))

(MODF)

fctm

(+ Tension) fctk_max = 1.85*[(fck/10)2/3] (fctk_max and fck in N/mm2)


Mean tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3.3.1 (2.1-4))

(MODF)

s
(MODF)

(+ Tension) fctm = 1.40*[(fck/10)2/3] (fctm and fck in N/mm2)


Coefficient which depends on the type of cement and is used to calculate
the characteristic concrete resistance at a specific age (Art. 2.1.6.1)

3.4.13.4
BETcc(Age)
(LOCK)

fcm_t(Age)
(MODF)

fck_t(Age)
(MODF)

Cetp= S:

s = 0.38

Cetp= N:

s = 0.25

Cetp= R:

s = 0.25

Cetp= RS:

s = 0.20

Time dependent mechanical properties


Coefficient which depends on concrete age (Art. 2.1.6.1 (2.1-54))
BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days.)
Mean t day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.6.1 (2.1-53))
(+Compression)
fcm_t = BETcc*fcm
Characteristic t-day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.3.2)
(+Compression) fck_t = fcm_t - 8 (in MPa)

(LOCK)

Design t-day compressive strength (Art. 1.4.1 b) (+Compression)


fcd_t = fck_t/GAMc

fcd1(Age)

Uniform strength for uncracked regions (Art. 6.2.2.2)

fcd_t(Age)

(LOCK)

fcd2(Age)
(LOCK)

k
(MODF)

fcd1 = 0.85*(1-fck_t/250)*fcd_t (fcd1, fck_t and fcd_t in N/mm2)


Uniform strength for cracked regions (Art. 6.2.2.2)
fcd2 = 0.60*(1-fck_t/250)*fcd_t (fcd2, fck_t and fcd_t in N/mm 2)
Strength ratio. This coefficient refers to the ratio of tension over
compression resistance. Its value is taken from article (Art. 2.1.3.4)
K = fctm / fcm

Eci(Age)
(MODF)

Ec(Age)
(MODF)

Ec1(Age)
(MODF)

EPSc1
(LIBR)

3-52

Tangent modulus of elasticity (Art. 2.1.4.2)


Eci = (BETcc)1/2 *2.15E4*{[(fcm_t)/10]1/3} (in N/mm2)
Reduced modulus of elasticity (article 2.1.4.2)
Ec = 0.85*Eci
Secant modulus of elasticity (Art. 2.1.4.4.1)
Ec1 = (BETcc)1/2 *fcm_t/(-EPSc1)
Strain of the maximum compressive stress (Art. 2.1.4.4.1)
(-Compression) EPSC1 = -0.0022

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

EPSc_lim(Age) Maximum concrete strain in compression (Art. 2.1.4.4.1)


(LIBR)
c,lim

EPScuB

1
2

1 Eci
1
2 Ec1

2 1
1 1 Eci
1
4 2 Ec1
2

1/ 2

(- Compression)

Maximum strain in bending for a parabolic rectangular diagram (Art.


6.2.2.2 (6.2-2)). This strain varies with the concrete characteristic
strength, following the criteria specified bellow: (+ Compression)

(LOCK)

If fck

50 (in MPa)

If fck 50 (in MPa)


EPScuC

EPScuB = 0.0035
EPScuB = 0.0035*(50/fck) (in N/mm2)

Maximum strain in compression for a parabolic rectangular diagram


(Art. 6.2.2.2 (6.2-6)) (+ Compression) EPScuC = 0.0035

(LOCK)

EPScuU

Maximum strain for a uniform stress diagram (Art. 6.2.2.2 (6.2-6))


(+Compression)

(LOCK)

EPScuU = 0.004 - 0.002*(fck/100) (in N/mm2)


3.4.13.5

Stress-strain diagram for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to


CEB-FIP code are the following:
TSASSD= 0: User defined
TSASSD= 1: Elastic
TSASSD= 2: Instantaneous loading
3.4.13.5.1

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.13.5.2

Definition of the Instantaneous loading stress-strain diagram


(TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 20
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-53

Chapter 3 Materials

+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.4.4.1 and are the
following:
SAEPS (1)

= 1.000*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (2)

= 0.793*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (3)

= 0.617*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (4)

= 0.468*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (5)

= 0.342*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (6)

= 0.234*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (7)

= 0.143*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (8)

= 0.066*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1

SAEPS (9)

= 1.000*EPSc1

SAEPS (10)

= 0.964*EPSc1

SAEPS (11)

= 0.922*EPSc1

SAEPS (12)

= 0.873*EPSc1

SAEPS (13)

= 0.816*EPSc1

SAEPS (14)

= 0.749*EPSc1

SAEPS (15)

= 0.669*EPSc1

SAEPS (16)

= 0.575*EPSc1

SAEPS (17)

= 0.465*EPSc1

SAEPS (18)

= 0.335*EPSc1

SAEPS (19)

= 0.181*EPSc1

SAEPS (20)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (i) = [((Eci/Ec1*SAEPS(i) /EPSc1)-(SAEPS(i) /EPSc1)2)/
/(1+(Eci/Ec1-2)*SAEPS(i) /EPSc1)]*fcm_t
3.4.13.6

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to


CEB-FIP code are the following:

3-54

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Parabolic rectangular

TSDSSD= 2

Uniform stress

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.13.6.1

Definition of the parabolic rectangular diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 6.2.2.2 and are the
following:
SDEPS (1)

= -EPScuB

SDEPS (2)

= EPSc1

SDEPS (3)

= 9/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (4)

= 8/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (5)

= 7/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (6)

= 6/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (7)

= 5/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (8)

= 4/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (9)

= 3/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (10)

= 2/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (11)

= 1/10*EPSc1

SDEPS (12)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress point values are the following:


If SDEPS(i) > EPSc1
SDSGM (i) = -0.85*fcd_t*[2*(SDEPS(i) /-EPSc1)+(SDEPS(i) /-EPSc1)2]
If SDEPS(i) < EPSc1
SDSGM(i) = -0.85*fcd_t
3.4.13.6.2

Definition of uniform stress stress-strain diagrams (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points:


NPSDSSD = 3

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-55

Chapter 3 Materials

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 6.2.2.2 and are the
following:
SDEPS (1) = -EPSc1
SDEPS (2) = -EPSc1/1000
SDEPS (2) = 0.000
The corresponding stress point values are the following:
SDSGM (1) = -fcd2
SDSGM (2) = -fcd2
SDSGM (3) = 0.00

3.4.14

CEB-FIP (reinforcement steel)

For this type of material (Type = 3) the following properties are defined:
3.4.14.1
GAMs
(MODF)

3.4.14.2
fyk
(LIBR)

fyd

Safety factors
Steel safety factor (Art. 1.6.4.4)

= 1.15

Mechanical properties
Characteristic yield stress (Art. 2.2.4.1) (fyk

0)

Design yield stress (Art. 1.4.1 b) fyd = fyk/GAMs

(LOCK)

ftk
(LIBR)

EPSuk
(LIBR)

Duct
(LIBR)

Characteristic tensile strength (Art. 2.2.4.1) ftk

Characteristic elongation at maximum load (Art. 2.2.4.1) EPSuk


Steel ductility (Art. 2.2.4.4)
If ftk/fyk

1.15 and EPSuk

0.060

Duct = S

If ftk/fyk

1.08 and EPSuk

0.050

Duct = A

If ftk/fyk

1.05 and EPSuk

0.025

Duct = B

In any other case

3-56

Duct = NONE

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.14.3

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to CEB-FIP code are the following:

3.4.14.3.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points:


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.4.3 and are the
following:
SAEPS (1)

= -1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

= 1.0E2

The corresponding stress points are:


SASGM (1)

= SAEPS(1)*Ex

SASGM (2)

= SAEPS(2)*Ex

3.4.14.3.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points:


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.4.3 and are the
following:
SAEPS (1)

= -EPSuk

SAEPS (2)

= -fyk/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fyk/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= EPSuk

The corresponding stress points are:


SASGM (1)

= -fyk

SASGM (2)

= -fyk

SASGM (3)

= fyk

SASGM (4)

= fyk

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-57

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.14.4

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to CEB-FIP code are the following:

3.4.14.4.1

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.4.3 and are the
following:
SDEPS (1) = -0.01
SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex
SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex
SDEPS (4) = 0.01
The corresponding stress points are:
SDSGM (1) = -fyd
SDSGM (2) = -fyd
SDSGM (3) = fyd
SDSGM (4) = fyd

3.4.15

EHE (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties according to EHE are
described hereafter:
3.4.15.1
CeTp
(MODF)

3.4.15.2
GAMc

Type of cement
Type of cement. The different types of cement are described in article
Art. 30.4 and are the following:
N:

Normal hardening cements (default value)

R:

Rapid hardening cements

Safety factors
Partial concrete safety factor (Art. 15.3) GAMc =1.5 (default value)

(MODF)

3-58

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.15.3
fck

Mechanical properties
Characteristic 28-day concrete compressive strength

(LIBR)

fcm

(+ Compression fck

0)

Mean 28-day concrete compressive strength (Art. 39.6)

(MODF)

(+ Compression fcm

0)
2

fcm = fck + 8 (N/mm ).


fcd

Design 28-day concrete compressive strength (Art. 39.4)

(LOCK)

fctm

(+ Compression) fcd = fck/GAMc


Mean tensile strength (Art. 39.1)

(MODF)

fctk_005

(+ Tension) fctm = 0.3*(fck2/3) (N/mm2)


Lower characteristic tensile strength (percentile-5%) (Art. 39.1)

(MODF)

fctk_095

(+ Tension) fctk_005 = 0.21*(fck2/3) (N/mm2)


Upper characteristic tensile strength (percentile-95%) (Art. 39.1)

(MODF)

EPSc1

(+ Tension) fctk_095 = 0.39*( fck2/3) (N/mm2)


Strain of maximum compressive stress (Art. 21.3.3 which)

(LIBR)

EPSclim
(LIBR)

(+ Compression) EPSc1 = 0.0022 (default value)


Maximum strain in compression (Art. 21.3.3 Table 21.3.3)
(+Compression EPSclim 0):
According to CEB-FIP, Art. 2.1.4.4.1:
c,lim

Eci
(LIBR)

1
2

1 Eci
1
2 Ec1

2 1
1 1 Eci
1
4 2 Ec1
2

1/ 2

Tangent modulus of elasticity (Art. 21.3.3 Table 21.3.3) (Eci

0)

According to the Art. 2.1.4.4.1 of the CEB-FIP code


Eci=2.15*((fcm/10)1/3) (in MPa)

K
(MODF)

Coefficient which depends on the type of cement used. The value of


this factor can be found in the commentary of article Art. 30.4 which
states the following:
0 K

CeTp = N K = 0.43
CeTp = R K = 0.30
3.4.15.4

Time dependent mechanical properties

BETc(Age) Coefficient which depends on concrete age (Art. 30.4)


(LOCK)

fck_j(Age)
(MODF)

BETc = exp {K*[1-(28/Age)1/2]}

(Age is expressed in days)

Characteristic compressive strength (Art. 39.6)


fck_j = fck*BETc
(N/mm2)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

(+ Compression)

3-59

Chapter 3 Materials

fcm_j(Age) Mean compressive strength (Art. 39.6) (+ Compression)


(MODF)
fcm_j = fck_j + 8
(N/mm2)
fcd_j(Age)
(LOCK)

BETt(Age)
(LOCK)

Design j day compressive strength (Art. 39.4)


fcd_j = fck_j/GAMc

(+ Compression)

Coefficient which depends on concrete age. This coefficient has been


taken from article (Art. 30.4)
BETt = exp {0.10*[1-(28/Age)]} (Age is expressed in days)

fctm_j(Age) Mean tensile strength (Art. 30.4)


(MODF)

E0j (Age)

(+ Tension)

Tangent modulus of elasticity (Art. 39.6)

(MODF)

Ej (Age)

E0j = (BETc)1/2 *10000*(fcm_j1/3) (N/mm2)


Secant modulus of elasticity (Art. 39.6)

(MODF)

3.4.15.5

fctm_j = fctm*BETt

Ej = (BETc)1/2 *8500*(fcm_j1/3) (N/mm2)


Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to EHE
code are the following:

3.4.15.5.1

TSASSD= 0:

User defined

TSASSD= 1:

Elastic

TSASSD= 2:

Instantaneous loading

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.15.5.2

Definition of the instantaneous loading stress-strain diagram


(TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 20
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the

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3.4 Specific Code Properties

following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 21.3.3 and are the
following:
SAEPS (1)

= -EPSclim

SAEPS (2)

= -0.793*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1

SAEPS (3)

= -0.617*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1

SAEPS (4)

= -0.468*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1

SAEPS (5)

= -0.342*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1

SAEPS (6)

= -0.234*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1

SAEPS (7)

= -0.143*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1

SAEPS (8)

= -0.066*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1

SAEPS (9)

= -EPSc1

SAEPS (10)

= -0.964*EPSc1

SAEPS (11)

= -0.922*EPSc1

SAEPS (12)

= -0.873*EPSc1

SAEPS (13)

= -0.816*EPSc1

SAEPS (14)

= -0.749*EPSc1

SAEPS (15)

= -0.669*EPSc1

SAEPS (16)

= -0.575*EPSc1

SAEPS (17)

= -0.465*EPSc1

SAEPS (18)

= -0.335*EPSc1

SAEPS (19)

= -0.181*EPSc1

SAEPS (20)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SASGM(i)= -[(k*Eta(i)-Eta(i)^2)/(1+(k-2)*Eta)]*fcm_j
Where:
K = Eci*EPSc1/(fcm_j(28))
Eta(i) = -SAEPS(i)/EPSc1
3.4.15.6

Stress-strain diagram for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the
EHE code are the following:
TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Parabolic rectangular

TSDSSD= 2

Bilinear

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Chapter 3 Materials

TSDSSD= 3

3.4.15.6.1

Rectangular

Definition of the parabolic rectangular stress-strain diagram


(TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 39.5 a) and are the
following:
SDEPS (1)

= -EPSmin

SDEPS (2)

= -EPSint

SDEPS (3)

= -9/10* EPSint

SDEPS (4)

= -8/10* EPSint

SDEPS (5)

= -7/10* EPSint

SDEPS (6)

= -6/10* EPSint

SDEPS (7)

= -5/10* EPSint

SDEPS (8)

= -4/10* EPSint

SDEPS (9)

= -3/10* EPSint

SDEPS (10)

= -2/10* EPSint

SDEPS (11)

= -1/10* EPSint

SDEPS (12)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress points are the following:


EHE-98
For the first 11 points:
SDSGM (i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *[250*SDEPS(i) +1]*0.85*fcd_j
For point 12:
SDSGM (i) = 0.85*fcd_j
EHE-08
For the first 11 points:
SDSGM (i) = fcd_j*[1-(1-SDEPS(i) / EPSint)n]
n = 2; fck

50 MPa

n =1.4 + 9.6 * [(100-fck)/100]4; fck > 50 MPa


For point 12:
SDSGM (i) = fcd_j

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3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.15.6.2

Definition of the bilinear stress-strain diagram (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 39.5 a) and are the
following:
SDEPS (1)

= - EPSmin

SDEPS (2)

= - EPSint

SDEPS (3)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress points are the following:


EHE-98
SDSGM (1)

= -0.85*fcd_j

SDSGM (2)

= -0.85*fcd_j

SDSGM (3)

= 0.00

EHE-08
SDSGM (1)

= -fcd_j

SDSGM (2)

= -fcd_j

SDSGM (3)

= 0.00

3.4.15.6.3

Definition of the rectangular stress-strain diagram (TSDSSD = 3):

Number of diagram points:


NPSDSSD = 0
For rectangular diagrams, it does not make sense to consider any specific point in
this diagram because stresses do not depend on strains but on the distance between
the outer most compressed fiber and the neutral axis.

3.4.16

EHE (Reinforcement Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties, according to EHE are
described hereafter:
3.4.16.1
GAMs
(MODF)

Safety factors
Steel safety factor (Art. 15.3)

= 1.15

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Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.16.2
fyk

Mechanical properties
Characteristic yield stress (Art. 31.1 & Art. 38.2) of the EHE code.

(LIBR)

fyd

Design tensile strength Art. 38.3 (+ Tension) fyd = fyk/GAMs

(LOCK)

fycd
(LOCK)

fmax

Design compressive strength. This value has been taken from article (Art.
40.2) (+ Compression) fycd = Min (fyd, 400 Mpa)

(MODF)

Characteristic tensile strength. This value has been taken from article
(Art. 38.2) (+ Tension) fmax = 1.05*fyk

EPSmax

Characteristic elongation at maximum load (Art. 38.2) (EPSuk

(MODF)

3.4.16.3

0)

Stress-strain diagram for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to EHE code are the following:

3.4.16.3.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.010

SAEPS (2)

= 0.010

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex
3.4.16.3.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 4

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3.4 Specific Code Properties

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 21.3.3 and are the
following:
SAEPS (1)

= -EPSmax

SAEPS (2)

= -fyk/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fyk/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= EPSmax

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = -fmax
SASGM (2) = -fyk
SASGM (3) = fyk
SASGM (4) = fmax
3.4.16.4

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to EHE code are the following:

3.4.16.4.1

TSDSSD= 0:

User defined

TSDSSD= 1:

Bilinear with horizontal top branch

TSDSSD= 2:

Bilinear with inclined top branch

Definition of the bilinear with horizontal top branch stress-strain


diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.4 and are the
following:
SDEPS (1) = -0.010
SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex
SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex
SDEPS (4) = 0.010
The corresponding stress values are:
SDSGM (1) = -fyd
SDSGM (2) = -fyd

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Chapter 3 Materials

SDSGM (3) = fyd


SDSGM (4) = fyd
3.4.16.4.2

Definition of the bilinear with sloping top branch stress-strain diagram


(TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.4 and are the
following:
SDEPS (1) = -0.010
SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex
SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex
SDEPS (4) = 0.010
The corresponding stress values are:
SDSGM (1) = -fyd-(0.0035-fyd/Ex)*(fmax-fyk)/(EPSmax-fyk/Ex)
SDSGM (2) = -fyd
SDSGM (3) = fyd
SDSGM (4) = fyd+(0.010-fyd/Ex)*(fmax-fyk)/(EPSmax-fyk/Ex)

3.4.17

EHE (Prestressing steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 4) the following properties, according to EHE are
described hereafter:
3.4.17.1
GAMs
(MODF)

3.4.17.2
fmax
(LIBR)

fpk
(LIBR)

fyd

Safety factor
Safety factor (Art. 15.3) GAMs

Mechanical properties
Characteristic tensile strength (Art.32.2) fmax
Characterisitc yield stress (Art. 38.6). fpk

Design tensile strength (Art. 38.6) (+Tension) fpd = fpk/GAMs

(LOCK)

EPSmax

3-66

Total elongation due to the maximum load (Art. 38.2) (EPSuk

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

0)

3.4 Specific Code Properties

(MODF)

3.4.17.3
AgeR1

Relaxation
Relaxation age 1 (hours).

(MODF)

AgeR1

Relaxation age 2 (hours).

(MODF)

Ro1_60

Relaxation for AgeR1 and 60%fmax

(MODF)

Ro1_70

Relaxation for AgeR1 and 70%fmax

(MODF)

Ro1_80

Relaxation for AgeR1 and 80%fmax

(MODF)

Ro2_60

Relaxation for AgeR2 and 60%fmax

(MODF)

Ro2_70

Relaxation for AgeR2 and 70%fmax

(MODF)

Ro2_80

Relaxation for AgeR2 and 80%fmax

(MODF)

3.4.17.4

Stress-strain diagram for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel,


according to EHE code are the following:

3.4.17.4.1

TSASSD= 0

User-defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

TSASSD= 3

Characteristic diagram

Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

= 1.0E+2

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex

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Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.17.4.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.823(Fmax/fpk-0.7)5+Fmax/Ex)

SAEPS (2)

= -fpk/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fpk/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= 0.823(Fmax/fpk-0.7)5+Fmax/Ex)

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = -fpk+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRATEx
SASGM (2) = -fpk
SASGM (3) = fpk
SASGM (4) = fpk+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRATEx
3.4.17.4.3

Definition of the characteristic diagram (TSASSD = 3):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 20
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.5 and are the
following:
SAEPS (1) = 0.0
SAEPS (2) = 0.7*fpk/Ex
For the points 3 to 20:
SAEPS (i) = 0.823*(SASGM(i) / fpk-0.7)^5+ SASGM(i) / Ex
The corresponding stress points are the following:
SASGM (1)

0.0

SASGM (2)

0.7*fpk

SASGM (3)

0.10*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (4)

0.20*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (5)

0.25*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (6)

0.30*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (7)

0.35*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

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3.4 Specific Code Properties

SASGM (8)

0.40*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (9)

0.45*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (10) =

0.50*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (11) =

0.55*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (12) =

0.60*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (13) =

0.65*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (14) =

0.70*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (15) =

0.75*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (16) =

0.80*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (17) =

0.85*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (18) =

0.90*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (19) =

0.95*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

SASGM (20) =

1.00*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk

3.4.17.5

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel,


according to EHE code are the following:

3.4.17.5.1

TSDSSD= 0

User-defined

TSDSSD= 1

Design diagram

Definition of the design diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Numner of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 20
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.6 and are the
following:
SDEPS (1) = 0.0
SDEPS (2) = 0.7*fpk/Ex/GAMs
For the points 3 to 20:
SDEPS(i) = 0.823*(SASGM(i) / fpk*GAMs-0.7)^5+ SASGM(i) / Ex
The corresponding stress points are the following:
SDSGM (1)

0.0

SDSGM (2)

0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (3)

0.10*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (4)

0.20*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

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Chapter 3 Materials

SDSGM (5)

0.25*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (6)

0.30*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (7)

0.35*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (8)

0.40*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (9)

0.45*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (10) =

0.50*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (11) =

0.55*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (12) =

0.60*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (13) =

0.65*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (14) =

0.70*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (15) =

0.75*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (16) =

0.80*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (17) =

0.85*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (18) =

0.90*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (19) =

0.95*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

SDSGM (20) =

1.00*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs

3.4.18

BS8110 (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined:
3.4.18.1
CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement and curing


Type of cement
S:

Slow hardening cements

N:

Normal hardening cements (default value)

R:

Rapid hardening cements

RS: Rapid hardening high strength cements


3.4.18.2
GAMc
(LIBR)

3.4.18.3
fcu

Safety factors
Safety factor for concrete. Table 2.2. BS 8110: Part 1: 1997
GAMc 1
Mechanical properties

(LIBR)

Specified concrete compressive strength at 28 days (+ Compression) Art


2421. BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 . fcu 0

EPSc1

Strain in concrete at maximum stress. BS8110: Part 2: Figure 2.1

(LIBR)

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3.4 Specific Code Properties

EPSc1 0

(- Compression).
EPScu

Ultimate strain in compression. (- Compression). EPScu 0

(LIBR)

s
(LIBR)

3.4.18.4

Coefficient which depends on the type of cement concerned. Taken from


CEB-FIP code, article 2.1.6.1
Cetp= S:

s = 0.38

Cetp= N:

s = 0.25

Cetp= R:

s = 0.25

Cetp= RS:

s = 0.20

Time dependent mechanical properties

BETcc(Age) Coefficient which depends on concrete age.


(LIBR)

fcu_t (Age)
(LIBR)

BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days.)


Characteristic t-day compressive strength BS 8110: Part2 Table 7.1
(+ Compression).
fcu_t 0

Ko

fcu_t=BETcc*fcu

(LIBR)

Constant that is closely related to the modulus of elasticity of the


aggregate. BS 8110: Part 2: Art 7.2
Ko 0

Ec28

Modulus of elasticity at 28 days. BS 8110: Part 2: Art 7.2

(LIBR)

Ec_t (Age)
(LIBR)

3.4.18.5

Ec28 0

Ec28=Ko+0.2*fcu*1000

Modulus of elasticity. BS 8110: Part 2: Art 7.2


Ec_t 0

Ec_t=Ec28*(0.4+0.6*fcu_t/fcu)

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the
BS8110 code are the following:
TSASSD= 0:

User defined

TSASSD= 1:

Elastic

TSASSD= 2:

Structural analysis

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Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.18.5.1

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.18.5.2

Definition of the Structural analysis stress-strain diagram (TSASSD =


2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 20
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in BS8110 Part 2 Fig,2.1
and are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= 1.000*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (2)

= 0.793*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (3)

= 0.617*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (4)

= 0.468*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (5)

= 0.342*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (6)

= 0.234*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (7)

= 0.143*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (8)

= 0.066*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1

SAEPS (9)

= 1.000*EPSc1

SAEPS (10)

= 0.964*EPSc1

SAEPS (11)

= 0.922*EPSc1

SAEPS (12)

= 0.873*EPSc1

SAEPS (13)

= 0.816*EPSc1

SAEPS (14)

= 0.749*EPSc1

SAEPS (15)

= 0.669*EPSc1

SAEPS (16)

= 0.575*EPSc1

SAEPS (17)

= 0.465*EPSc1

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3.4 Specific Code Properties

SAEPS (18)

= 0.335*EPSc1

SAEPS (19)

= 0.181*EPSc1

SAEPS (20)

= 0.000*EPSc1

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SASGM(i)= -[(k*Eta(i)-Eta(i)^2)/(1+(k-2)*Eta)]*0.8*fcu_t
Where:
K = 1.4*Ec_t*EPSc1/(-fcu_t)
Eta(i) = -SAEPS(i)/EPSc1
3.4.18.6

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the
ACI code are the following:

3.4.18.6.1

TSDSSD= 0:

User defined

TSDSSD= 1:

Parabolic rectangular

TSDSSD= 2:

Rectangular

Definition of the Parabolic rectangular diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in BS 8110: Part 1.
Figure 2.1 and are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= -0.0035

SDEPS (2)

= -2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (3)

= -0.9*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (4)

= -0.8*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (5)

= -0.7*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (6)

= -0.6*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (7)

= -0.5*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (8)

= -0.4*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (9)

= -0.3*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (10)

= -0.2*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (11)

= -0.1*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)

SDEPS (12)

= 0.000

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3-73

Chapter 3 Materials

The corresponding stress points are the following:


For points 2 to 12:
SDSGM(i)=(-0.67E8/2.4/2.4)*SDEPS(i) ^2+(0.67E4/1.2)*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)*SDEPS(i)
For point 1:
SDSGM(i) = 0.67*fcu_t / GAMc
3.4.18.6.2

Definition of the rectangular diagram (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagrams points


NPSDSSD = 0
For rectangular diagrams, it does not make sense to consider any specific point in this
diagram because stresses do not depend on strains but on the distance between the
outer most compressed fiber and the neutral axis.

3.4.19

BS8110 (Reinforcement steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are considered:
3.4.19.1
GAMs

Safety factor
Safety factor for steel. BS 8110: Part 1: Table 2.2

(LIBR)

3.4.19.2
fy

GAMs 1
Mechanical properties
Yield strength. BS 8110: Part 1: Table 3.1

fy 0

(LIBR)

Rm

Characteristic tensile strength. BS 4449: Table 7

(LIBR)

A5

(+ Tension)

Elongation at fracture. BS 4449: Table 7

(LIBR)

3.4.19.3

Rm 0

(+ Tension)

A5 0

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to BS8110 code are the following:

3.4.19.3.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 2

3-74

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= -1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

= 1.0E+2

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*ExLn
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*ExLn
3.4.19.3.2

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.01

SAEPS (2)

= -fy/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fy/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= 0.01

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = -fy
SASGM (2) = -fy
SASGM (3) = fy
SASGM (4) = fy
3.4.19.4

Stress-strain diagram for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to BS8110 code are the following:

3.4.19.4.1

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagrams points


NPSDSSD = 4

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3-75

Chapter 3 Materials

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SDEPS (1) = -0.01
SDEPS (2) = -fy/GAMs/Ex
SDEPS (3) = fy/ GAMs/Ex
SDEPS (4) = 0.01
The corresponding stress values are:
SDSGM (1) = -fy/GAMs
SDSGM (2) = -fy/GAMs
SDSGM (3) = fy/GAMs
SDSGM (4) = fy/GAMs

3.4.20

GB50010 (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined:
3.4.20.1
CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement and curing


Type of cement
SL:

Slow hardening cements

N:

Normal hardening cements (default value)

R:

Rapid hardening cements

RS: Rapid hardening high strngth cements


3.4.20.2
GAMc

Safety factors
Safety factor for concrete. GAMc 1 Art. 1.6.4.4

(MODF)

3.4.20.3
fcuk

Mechanical properties

(LIBR)

Specified concrete compressive strength at 28 days Art 4.1.1


(+Compression). fcu 0

ALPC1

Prism strength and cube strength ratio.

(MODF)

0.76

For concrete C50

0.82

For concrete C80

These values are obtained from the following formula:


ALPC1=0.76 + 0.06*(fcuk - 50.0)/30.0

3-76

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

(- Compression) 0.76 ALPc1 0.821


ALPC2
(MODF)

Brittle reduction coefficient.


1.0

For concrete C40

0.87

For concrete C80

These values are obtained from the following formula:


ALPC2=1 - 0.13*(fcuk - 40.0)/40.0
(- Compression) 0.87 ALPc2 1
DELTA
(MODF)

FCK

Variation coefficient (Table 4.1.3).


Fcuk

C15

C20

Delta

0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11

(MODF)

FTK
(MODF)

FT

C30

(MODF)

n
(MODF)

EPS0
(LIBR)

EPSCu
(LIBR)

3.4.20.4

C40

C45

C50

C55 C60-C80
0.10

fck=0.88*ALPc1*ALPc2*fcuk
Design value for axial compressive strength (Art. 4.1.3) (+Compression
fck0).
FC

FC

= FCK / GAMc

Standard tensile strength (Art. 4.1.4) (+Tension ftk>0).


ftk =0.88*0.395*(fcuk**0.55)*(1-1.645*delta)**0.45*ALPc2
Design value for tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3) (+Compression ft>0):

(MODF)

C35

Standard axial compressive strength.

(LOCK)

FC

C25

fcd = ftk/GAMc
Coefficient which depends on the type of cement (0<s<1):
CeTp=SL :

s= 0.38

CeTp=N :

s= 0.25

CeTp=R :

s= 0.25

CeTp=RS:

s= 0.20

Exponent of the stress strain diagram Art. 7.1.2-3.


n=2-(fcuk-50)/60 [MPa]
Compressive strain at Fc Art. 7.1.2-4:
EPS0 = 0.002+0.5*(fcuk-50)*10E-5 [MPa]
Limit compressive strain in concrete in Art. 7.1.2-5:
EPScu = 0.0033-(fcuk-50)*10E-5 [MPa]
Time dependent mechanical properties

BETcc(Age) Coefficient which depends on concrete age. The age index must be
(LOCK)
specified in IDX1.

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3-77

Chapter 3 Materials

BETcc=*exp{s*[1-(28/Age)^1/2]} (Age is expressed in days.)


Standard t day compressive strength. The age index must be
specified in IDX1.

Fck_t(Age)
(MODF)

fck_t=BETcc*fck
Fc_t(Age)

Design t day compressive strength. The age index must be specified


in IDX1.

(MODF)

fc_t=fck_t/GAMc
Ec_t(Age)

Modulus of elasticity. The age index must be specified in IDX1.

(MODF)

Ec=1.D5/(2.2D0+34.7D0/Fcuk/BETcc) [MPa]
3.4.20.5

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to


GB50010 code are the following:

3.4.20.5.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Structural analysis

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.20.5.2

Definition of the Structural analysis stress-strain diagram (TSASSD =


2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 20
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in GB50010 and are the
following:
SAEPS (1)

3-78

= 1.000D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

SAEPS (2)

= 0.793D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

SAEPS (3)

= 0.617D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

SAEPS (4)

= 0.468D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

SAEPS (5)

= 0.342D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

SAEPS (6)

= 0.234D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

SAEPS (7)

= 0.143D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

SAEPS (8)

= 0.066D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc

SAEPS (9)

= 1.000D0*EPSc

SAEPS (10)

= 0.964D0*EPSc

SAEPS (11)

= 0.922D0*EPSc

SAEPS (12)

= 0.873D0*EPSc

SAEPS (13)

= 0.816D0*EPSc

SAEPS (14)

= 0.749D0*EPSc

SAEPS (15)

= 0.669D0*EPSc

SAEPS (16)

= 0.575D0*EPSc

SAEPS (17)

= 0.465D0*EPSc

SAEPS (18)

= 0.335D0*EPSc

SAEPS (19)

= 0.181D0*EPSc

SAEPS (20)

= 0.000D0

The corresponding stress points are the following:


If SASGM(i) EPSc
SASGM(i)= [ALPa*GBx+(3D0-2D0*ALPa)*GBx**2D0+(ALPa-D0)*GBx**3D0]*fck_t(i)
Otherwise:
SASGM(i)= [GBx/(ALPd*(GBx-1.D0)**2D0+GBx)]*fck_t(i)
Where:
GBx=SAEPS(i)/EPSc
ALPa=2.4D0-0.0125D0*fck_t(i)
3.4.20.6

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to


GB50010 code are the following:
TSDSSD= 0:

User defined

TSDSSD= 1:

Parabolic rectangular

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3-79

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.20.6.1

Definition of the Parabolic rectangular diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in GB50010 and are the
following:
SDEPS (1)

= -EPScu

SDEPS (2)

= -1.0D0*EPS0

SDEPS (3)

= -0.9D0*EPS0

SDEPS (4)

= -0.8D0*EPS0

SDEPS (5)

= -0.7D0*EPS0

SDEPS (6)

= -0.6D0*EPS0

SDEPS (7)

= -0.5D0*EPS0

SDEPS (8)

= -0.4D0*EPS0

SDEPS (9)

= -0.3D0*EPS0

SDEPS (10)

= -0.2D0*EPS0

SDEPS (11)

= -0.1D0*EPS0

SDEPS (12)

= 0.0D0

The corresponding stress points are the following:


For points 3 to 12:
SDSGM(i) =1.D0-(1.D0+ SDEPS(i)/EPS0)**n)*fc_t(i)
For point 1:
SDSGM(1) = -fc_t
For point 2:
SDSGM(2) = -fc_t

3.4.21

GB50010 (Reinforcement steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are considered:
3.4.21.1
GAMs
(MODF)

3-80

Safety factor
Safety factor for steel
GAMs 1

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.21.2
fyk

Mechanical properties
Yield strength; fyk 0

(LIBR)

fy

Characteristic tensile strength.

(MODF)

3.4.21.3

(+ Tension)

fy = fyk/GAMs

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to GB50010 code are the following:

3.4.21.3.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= -1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

= 1.0E-2

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex
Number of diagram points:
NPSASSD = 4

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3-81

Chapter 3 Materials

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.01

SAEPS (2)

= -fyk/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fyk/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= 0.01

The corresponding stress values are:


SASGM (1) = -fyk
SASGM (2) = -fyk
SASGM (3) = fyk
SASGM (4) = fyk
3.4.21.4

Stress-strain diagram for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to GB50010 code are the following:
TSDSSD= 0: User defined
TSDSSD= 1: Bilinear
3.4.21.4.1

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagrams points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as:
SDEPS (1) = -0.01
SDEPS (2) = -fy
SDEPS (3) = fy
SDEPS (4) = 0.01
The corresponding stress values are:
SDSGM (1) = -fy
SDSGM (2) = -fy
SDSGM (3) = fy
SDSGM (4) = fy

3-82

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.22

AS3600

CivilFEM does not contain the material data conforming to Australian Standard
AS3600. If this code is activated, the selected material (concrete or reinforcement
steel) will be filled out with the same parameters as the ACI-318 code requires.

3.4.23

NBR6118 (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered:
3.4.23.1
CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement
Refers to the different types of cement used. These types are described
in the Appendix A article A.2.4 and are the following:
CPI:

Normal hardening cements (Default value).

CPII: Normal hardening composite cements.


CPIII: Slow hardening blast furnace cements.
CPIV: Slow hardening puzzolanic cements.
CPV: Rapid hardening high strength cements.
3.4.23.2
GAMc
(MODF)

3.4.23.3
fck

Partial safety factors


Partial safety factor for concrete (Art. 12.4.1 GAMc
c=1.5

1)

(Default value)

Mechanical properties

(LIBR)

Concrete characteristic 28-day compressive strength (Art. 8.2.4)


(+Compression fck 0)

fcm

Mean 28-day compressive strength (Art. 6.4.3) (+ Compression) fcm 0

(MODF)

fcd

fcm = fck + 1.65*Sd


Design 28-day compressive strength (Art. 12.3.3) (+Compression)

(LOCK)

fctm
(MODF)

fctk_inf
(MODF)

fctk_sup
(MODF)

Sd
(MODF)

fcd = fck/GAMc
Mean tensile strength (Art. 8.2.5) (+ Tension)
fctm = 0.3*(fck2/3) (fctm and fctk in MPa)
Lower characteristic tensile strength (Art. 8.2.5) (+Tension)
fctk_inf = 0.21*(fck2/3) (fctk and fctk_inf in MPa)
Upper characteristic tensile strength (Art. 8.2.5) (+Tension)
fctk_inf = 0.39*(fck2/3) (fctk and fctk_sup in MPa)
Standard deviation (Art. 6.4.3) (Sd > 0)
Sd = 4 MPa (default value)

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3-83

Chapter 3 Materials

Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. (Art. 12.3.3)

(MODF)

CPI:

s = 0.25

CPII: s = 0.25
CPIII: s = 0.38
CPIV: s = 0.38
CPV: s = 0.20
3.4.23.4
BETcc

Time dependent mechanical properties


Coefficient which depends on concrete age. (Art. 12. 3. 3)

(LOCK)

BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days)

fcm_t(Age) Mean compressive strength. (+ Compression) (Art. 6.4.3)


(MODF)

fcm_t = fck_t+1.65*Sd

fck_t(Age) Characteristic t day compressive strength. (+ Compression) (Art. 8.2.4)


(MODF)

fck_t = fck * BET1

fcd_t(Age) Design t day compressive strength (Art. 12.3.3) (+Compression)


(LOCK)

If Age < 28 days fcd_t = fck_t/GAMc


If Age

Eci(Age)

Initual modulus of elasticity (Art. 8.2.8).

(MODF)

Ecm(Age)

Eci = 5600 * fck_t


Secant modulus of elasticity (Art. 8.2.8).

(MODF)

3.4.23.5

28 days fcd_t = fck/GAMc

Ecm = 0.85 * Eci


Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different type of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to


NBR6118 are:
TSASSD= 0: User defined
TSASSD= 1: Elastic
3.4.23.5.1

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

3-84

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.23.6

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to


NBR6118 are the following:

3.4.23.6.1

TSDSSD= 0:

User defined

TSDSSD= 1:

Parabolic-rectangular

Definition of the parabolic-rectangular stress-strain diagram


(TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for this diagram are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= -0.0035

SDEPS (2)

= -0.0020

SDEPS (3)

= 0.9*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (4)

= 0.8*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (5)

= 0.7*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (6)

= 0.6*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (7)

= 0.5*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (8)

= 0.4*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (9)

= 0.3*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (10)

= 0.2*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (11)

= 0.1*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (12)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress values are the following:


For the first 11 points:
SDSGM(i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *(250*SDEPS(i) +1)*0.85*fcd_t
For point 12:
SDSGM(i) = -0.85*fcd_t

3.4.24

NBR6118 (Reinforcement Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined:

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-85

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.24.1
GAMs
(MODF)

3.4.24.2
fyk

Partial safety factors


Steel partial safety factor (GAMs

0)

= 1.15 (default value)

Mechanical properties

(LIBR)

Characteristic yield stress (Art. 8.3.6) Refers to the characteristic value


of the applied load over the area of the transverse section.

fyd

Design yield stress (Art. 8.3.6) fyd = fyk/GAMs

(LIBR)

ftk
(LIBR)

Characteristic tensile stress (Art. 8.3.6) Refers to the characteristic


value of the maximum axial load in tension over the area of the
transverse section.

EPSuk

Characteristic elongation at maximum load (Art. 8.3.6) EPSuk

(LIBR)

3.4.24.3

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to NBR6118 are the following:

3.4.24.3.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the Elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken as follows:
SAEPS (1)

= -10-2

SAEPS (2)

= 10-2

Stress points have been taken as follows:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex
3.4.24.3.2

Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 4

3-86

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken as the follows:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.01

SAEPS (2)

= -fyk/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fyk/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= 0.01

Stress points have been taken as follows:


SASGM (1) = -fyk+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRAT*Ex
SASGM (2) = -fyk
SASGM (3) = fyk
SASGM (4) = fyk+(SAEPS(4)-SAEPS(3))/PLRAT*Ex
3.4.24.4

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to NBR6118 are the following:

3.4.24.4.1

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Design diagram

Definition of the Design Diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken as follows:
SDEPS (1)

= -0.01

SDEPS (2)

= -fyd/Ex

SDEPS (3)

= fyd/Ex

SDEPS (4)

= 0.01

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SDSGM (1)

= -fyd

SDSGM (2)

= -fyd

SDSGM (3)

= fyd

SDSGM (4)

= fyd

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3-87

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.25

Indian Standard 456 (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered:
3.4.25.1
CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement
Refers to the different types of cement used. These types can be
chosen among those considered in the CEB-FIP code:
SL: Slow hardening cements
N:

Slow hardening cements (Default value)

R:

Rapid hardening cements

RS: Rapid hardening high strength cements


3.4.25.2
GAMc
(MODF)

Partial safety factors


Partial safety factor for concrete (Art. 36.4.2.1 GAMc
value)

3.4.25.3
fck
(LIBR)

fcd
(LOCK)

fct

Design 28-day compressive strength (Art. 36.3.1) (+Compression) fcd =


fck/GAMc

Ec

28 days elasticity modulus (Art. 6.2.3.1)

(MODF)

3.4.25.4
BETcc
(LOCK)

Ec = 5000*fck (Ec and fck in N/mm2)


Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. (chosen among those
considered in the CEB-FIP code)
SL:

s = 0.38

N:

s = 0.25

R:

s = 0.25

RS:

s = 0.20

Time dependent mechanical properties


Coefficient which depends on concrete age.
BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days)

fcm_t(Age) Mean compressive strength. (+ Compression)


(MODF)

3-88

(Default

Concrete characteristic 28-day compressive strength (Art. 6.1)


(+Compression fck 0)

Characteristic tensile strength (Art. 6.2.2) (+Tension)


fctk = 0.7*(fck)^1/2 (fctk and fck in N/mm2)

c=1

Mechanical properties

(MODF)
(MODF)

1)

fcm_t = BETcc*fcm

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

fck_t(Age) Characteristic t-day compressive strength. (+ Compression)


(MODF)

fck_t = fcm_t - 8 (fck_t and fcm in N/mm2)

fcd_t(Age) Design t-day compressive strength (Art. 4.2.1.3.3 (4) & (11))
(LOCK)
(+Compression) fcd_t = fck_t/GAMc
Ec_t(t)

Modulus of elasticity

(MODF)

3.4.25.5

Ec_t = 5000*fctk_t (Ec_t and fck_t in N/mm2)


Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to IS456


are:

3.4.25.5.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.25.6

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to


Eurocode 2 are the following:
TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Parabolic-rectangular

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-89

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.25.6.1

Definition of the parabolic-rectangular stress-strain diagram


(TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 12
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for this diagram are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= -0.0035

SDEPS (2)

= -0.0020

SDEPS (3)

= 0.9*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (4)

= 0.8*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (5)

= 0.7*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (6)

= 0.6*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (7)

= 0.5*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (8)

= 0.4*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (9)

= 0.3*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (10)

= 0.2*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (11)

= 0.1*(-0.0020)

SDEPS (12)

= 0.000

The corresponding stress values are the following:


For the first 11 points:
SDSGM(i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *(250*SDEPS(i) +1)*0.67*fcd_t
For point 12:
SDSGM(i) = -0.67*fcd_t

3.4.26

Indian Standard 456 (Reinforcement Steel)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined:
3.4.26.1
GAMs
(MODF)

3.4.26.2
fy

Partial safety factors


Steel partial safety factor (Art. 36.3.1) (GAMs
value)

0)

= 1.0 (default

Mechanical properties

(LIBR)

Characteristic yield stress. Refers to the characteristic value of the


applied load over the area of the transverse section.

fyd

Design yield stress fyd = fyk/GAMs

3-90

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

(LIBR)

ft
(LIBR)

Characteristic tensile stress. Refers to the characteristic value of the


maximum axial load in tension over the area of the transverse section.

EPSuk

Characteristic elongation at maximum load EPSuk

(LIBR)

3.4.26.3

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to IS456 are the following:
TSASSD= 0: User defined
TSASSD= 1: Elastic
TSASSD= 2: Bilinear
3.4.26.3.1

Definition of the Elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -10-2

SAEPS (2)

= 10-2

Stress points are the following:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
3.4.26.3.2

Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -0.01

SAEPS (2)

= -fy/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= fy/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= 0.01

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3-91

Chapter 3 Materials

Stress points are the following:


SASGM (1) = -fy+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRAT*Ex
SASGM (2) = -fy
SASGM (3) = fy
SASGM (4) = -fy+(SAEPS(4)-SAEPS(3))/PLRAT*Ex
3.4.26.4

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to IS456 are the following:
TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

3.4.26.4.1

Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to article Art. 4.2.2.3.2 and are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= -0.01

SDEPS (2)

= -fyd/Ex

SDEPS (3)

= fyd/Ex

SDEPS (4)

= 0.01

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SDSGM (1)

= -fyd

SDSGM (2)

= -fyd

SDSGM (3)

= fyd

SDSGM (4)

= fyd

3.4.27

Russian Code SP-52-101 (C

52-101) (Concrete)

For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered:
3.4.27.1
CeTp
(MODF)

Type of cement
Refers to the different types of cement that can be used. Chosen among
those considered in the CEB-FIP code:
SL: Slow hardening cements
N:

3-92

Slow hardening cements (Default value)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

R:

Rapid hardening cements

RS: Rapid hardening high strength cements


3.4.27.2
GAMb
(MODF)

GAMbt
(MODF)

3.4.27.3
Rbn
(LIBR)

Rb

Partial safety factors


Partial safety factor for compressed concrete (Art. 2.1.2.2. GAMb
b=1.5 (Default value)
Partial safety factor for tensioned concrete (Art. 2.1.2.2. GAMbt
bt=1.3 (Default value)

1)
1)

Mechanical properties
Concrete characteristic 28-day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.2.1)
(+Compression Rbn 0)

(LOCK)

Design 28-day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.2.2) (+Compression) Rb


= Rbn/GAMb

Rbtn

Concrete characteristic 28 days tensile strength (Art. 2.1.2.1) (+Tension)

(MODF)

Rbt
(MODF)

EPSb0
(LIBR)

EPSb2
(LIBR)

s
(MODF)

3.4.27.4
BETcc
(LOCK)

Design 28 days tensile strength (Art. 2.1.2.2) (+Tension) Rbt =


Rbtn/GAMb
Strain value at the end of the second segment of the strain-stress curve
(Art. 21.2.5) (- Compression) EPSc1 = -0.0022 (Default value)
Ultimate strain in compression (Art. 2.1.2.11)
(-Compression) EPSb2 = -0.0035 (Default value)
Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. Chosen among those
considered in the CEB-FIP code.
SL:

s = 0.38

N:

s = 0.25

R:

s = 0.25

RS:

s = 0.20

Time dependent mechanical properties


Coefficient which depends on concrete age.
BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days)

Rbn_t(Age) Characteristic t-day compressive strength. (+ Compression)


(MODF)

Rbn_t = BETcc*Rbn

(LOCK)

Design t-day compressive strength (Art. 4.2.1.3.3 (4) & (11))


(+Compression) Rb_t = Rbn_t/GAMb

Eb(Age)

Initial modulus of elasticity (Table 2.1-4)

Rb_t(Age)

(MODF)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-93

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.27.5

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different type of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to SP 52101 are:
TSASSD= 0: User defined
TSASSD= 1: Elastic
TSASSD= 2: Bilinear
TSASSD= 3: Trilinear
3.4.27.5.1

Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following:
SAEPS (1)

-10-2

SAEPS (2)

10-2

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex
3.4.27.5.2

Definition of the bilinear stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 3 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.2.12 and
are the following:
SAEPS (1)

EPSb2

SAEPS (2)

0.0015/GAMb

SAEPS (3)

0.000

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (1)

= -Rb_t

SASGM (2)

= -Rb_t

SASGM (3)

= 0.000

3.4.27.5.3

Definition of the trilinear stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 3):

The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following
one:

3-94

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.2.11 and
are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= EPSb2

SAEPS (2)

= EPSb0

SAEPS (3)

= 0.6*Rd/Eb

SAEPS (4)

= 0.000

For these points, stress values are the following:


SASGM (1)

= -Rb_t

SASGM (2)

= -Rb_t

SASGM (3)

= -0.6*Rb_t

SASGM (4)

= 0.000

3.4.27.6

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to SP


52-101 are the following:

3.4.27.6.1

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

TSDSSD= 2

Trilinear

Definition of the bilinear stress-strain diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following (according to Art. 2.1.2.12):
+Tension, -Compression
Strain values for this diagram are the following:
SDEPS (1)

EPSb2

SDEPS (2)

0.0015/GAMb

SDEPS (3)

0.000

The corresponding stress values are the following:


SDSGM (1)

= -Rb_t

SDSGM (2)

= -Rb_t

SDSGM (3)

= 0.000

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-95

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.27.6.2

Definition of the trilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.2.11 and
are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= EPSb2

SDEPS (2)

= EPSb0

SDEPS (3)

= 0.6*Rd/Eb

SDEPS (4)

= 0.000

Stress points are the following:


SDSGM (1)

= -Rb_t

SDSGM (2)

= -Rb_t

SDSGM (3)

= -0.6*Rb_t

SDSGM (4)

= 0.000

3.4.28

Russian Code SP-52-101 (C


(Reinforcement Steel)

52-101)

For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined:
3.4.28.1
GAMs
(MODF)

3.4.28.2
Rsn

Partial safety factors


Steel partial safety factor (Art. 2.3.3.2) (GAMs
value) (Art. 2.2.2.2)

0)

= 1.00 (default

Mechanical properties

(LIBR)

Characteristic yield stress (Art. 2.2.2.2) Refers to the characteristic


value of the applied load over the area of the transverse section.

Rs

Design yield stress (Art. 2.2.2.2)

(LIBR)

Rsw
(LIBR)

EPSs2
(LIBR)

3-96

Rs = Rsn/GAMs
Characteristic tensile stress in the stirrups (Art. 2.2.2.3)
Rs = 0.8*Rs

500 MPa

Characteristic elongation at maximum load (Art. 2.2.2.7) EPSs2

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.4 Specific Code Properties

3.4.28.3

Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to SP 52-101 are the following:

3.4.28.3.1

TSASSD= 0

User defined

TSASSD= 1

Elastic

TSASSD= 2

Bilinear

Definition of the Elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 2
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -1.0E-2

SAEPS (2)

= 1.0E-2

Stress points are the following:


SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex
SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex
3.4.28.3.2

Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2):

Number of diagram points


NPSASSD = 3
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.2.7 and are the following:
SAEPS (1)

= -EPSs2

SAEPS (2)

= -Rs/Ex

SAEPS (3)

= Rs/Ex

SAEPS (4)

= EPSs2

Stress points have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.2.7 and are the following:
SASGM (1) = -Rs
SASGM (2) = -Rs
SASGM (3) = Rs
SASGM (4) = Rs

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-97

Chapter 3 Materials

3.4.28.4

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel,


according to SP 52-101 are the following:

3.4.28.4.1

TSDSSD= 0

User defined

TSDSSD= 1

Bilinear

Definition of the bilinear stress-strain diagram (TSDSSD = 1):

Number of diagram points


NPSDSSD = 4
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
following:
+Tension, -Compression
Strain points have been taken according to article Art. 2.2.2.7 and are the following:
SDEPS (1)

= -EPSs2

SDEPS (2)

= -Rs/Ex

SDEPS (3)

= Rs/Ex

SDEPS (4)

= EPSs2

The corresponding stress points are the following:


SDSGM (1)

= -Rs

SDSGM (2)

= -Rs

SDSGM (3)

= Rs

SDSGM (4)

= Rs

3.4.29

ITER Structural Design Code for Buildings

This design code specifies the use of the materials defined in Eurocode 2. Therefore,
everytime the ITER design code is selected, the material properties will be those
defined in Eurocode 2, 2008 revision.

3-98

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.5 FLAC3D Properties

3.5

FLAC3D Properties

The ~CFMP command defines the material properties that are necessary to carry out
an analysis with FLAC3D, both for structural and soil and rock elements. These
properties have the labels and values described hereafter:

3.5.1

FLAC3D material properties for soil and rock


elements

3.5.1.1

Type of constitutive model

CMOD

Type of constitutive model

3.5.1.2
bu

Null model

Elastic isotropic (default)

Elastic orthotropic

Elastic transversely isotropic

Drucker-Prager

Mohr-Coulomb

Ubiquitous-joint

Strain-hardening/softening

Bilinear strain-hard/soft ubiquitous-joint

10

Double-yield

11

Modified Cam-Clay

Elastic isotropic model parameters


Elastic bulk modulus, K
K=E/3/(1-2*Un)

sh

Elastic shear modulus, G


G=E/2/(1+Nu)

3.5.1.3

Elastic orthotropic model parameters

dd

Dip direction of plane defined by axes 1'-2'

dip

Dip angle of plane defined by axes 1'-2'

e1

Young's modulus in direction 1'

e2

Young's modulus in direction 2'

e3

Young's modulus in direction 3'

g12

Shear modulus in planes parallel to axes 1'-2'

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-99

Chapter 3 Materials

g13

Shear modulus in planes parallel to axes 1'-3'

g23

Shear modulus in planes parallel to axes 2'-3'

nu12

Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in direction 1' when


tension is applied in direction 2'

nu13

Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in direction 1' when


tension is applied in direction 3'

nu23

Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in direction 2' when


tension is applied in direction 3'

nx

x-component of unit normal to plane defined by axes 1'-2'

ny

y-component of unit normal to plane defined by axes 1'-2'

nz

z-component of unit normal to plane defined by axes 1'-2'

rot

Rotation angle between the 1' axis and the dip-direction vector,
positive clockwise defined, starting at the dip-direction vector

3.5.1.4

Elastic transversely isotropic model parameters

dd

Dip direction of the plane of isotropy

Dip

Dip angle of the plane of isotropy

E1

Young's modulus in the plane of isotropy

E3

Young's modulus normal to the plane of isotropy

G13

Shear modulus for any plane normal to the plane of isotropy

Nu12

Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in the plane of


isotropy when tension is applied in the plane

Nu13

Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in the plane of


isotropy when tension is applied normal to the plane

3.5.1.5

Drucker-Prager model parameters

Bu

Elastic bulk modulus, K

Ks

Material parameter, phi

Qd

Material parameter, qpsi

Qv

Material parameter, phi

Sh

Elastic shear modulus, G

ten

Tension limit, SIGt

3.5.1.6

Mohr-Coulomb model parameters

bu

Elastic bulk modulus, K

Cohesion, c

Di

Dilatancy angle, psi

3100

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.5 FLAC3D Properties

Fric

Internal angle of friction, phi

Sh

Elastic shear modulus, G

ten

Tension limit, SIGt

3.5.1.7

Ubiquitous-joint model parameters

bu

Elastic bulk modulus, K

Cohesion of matrix, c

Di

Dilation angle of matrix, psi

Fric

Internal angle of friction, phi

Jc

Joint cohesion, cj

Jdd

Dip direction of weakness plane

Jdil

Joint dilation angle, psij

Jdip

Dip angle of weakness plane

Jf

Joint friction angle, phij

Jnx

x-component of unit normal to weakness plane

Jny

y-component of unit normal to weakness plane

Jnz

z-component of unit normal to weakness plane

Jt

Joint tension limit, SIGtj

Sh

Elastic shear modulus, G

ten

Tension limit of matrix, SIGt

3.5.1.8

Strain-hardening/softening model parameters

bu

Elastic bulk modulus, K

Cohesion, c

Ct

Number of the table relating cohesion to plastic shear strain

Di

Dilation angle, psi

Dt

Number of the table relating dilation angle to plastic shear strain

Fric

Angle of internal friction, phi

Ft

Number of the table relating friction angle to plastic shear strain

Sh

Elastic shear modulus, G

Ten

Tension limit, SIGt

tt

Number of the table relating tension limit to plastic tensile strain

3.5.1.9
Bij

Bilinear strain-hard/soft ubiquitous-joint model parameters


=0 for joint linear model (default)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-101

Chapter 3 Materials

=1 for joint bilinear model


Bim

=0 for matrix linear model (default)


=1 for matrix bilinear model

bu

Elastic bulk modulus, K

C2

Number of the table relating matrix cohesion c2 to matrix plastic


shear strain

Cj

Number of the table relating joint cohesion cj1 to joint plastic shear
strain

Cj2

Number of the table relating joint cohesion cj2 to joint plastic shear
strain

Matrix cohesion, c1

Co2

Matrix cohesion, c2

Ct

Number of the table relating matrix cohesion c1 to matrix plastic


shear strain

D2

Number of the table relating matrix dilation psi2 to matrix plastic


shear strain

Di2

Matrix dilation angle, psi2

Di

Matrix dilation angle, psi1

Dj

Number of the table relating joint dilation psij1 to joint plastic shear
strain

Dj2

Number of the table relating joint dilation psij2 to joint plastic shear
strain

Dt

Number of the table relating matrix dilation angle psi1 to matrix


plastic shear strain

F2

Number of the table relating matrix friction angle phi2 to matrix


plastic shear strain

Fj

Number of the table relating joint friction angle phij1 to joint plastic
shear strain

Fj2

Number of the table relating joint friction angle phij2 to joint plastic
shear strain

Fr2

Matrix friction angle, phi2

Fric

Matrix friction angle, phi1

Ft

Number of the table relating matrix friction phi1 to matrix plastic


shear strain

Jc2

Joint cohesion,cj2

Jc

Joint cohesion,cj1

Jdd

Dip direction of weakness plane

Jdil

Joint dilation angle, psij1

3102

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.5 FLAC3D Properties

Jdip

Dip angle of weakness plane

Jd2

Joint dilation angle, psij2

Jf

Joint friction angle, phij1

Jf2

Joint friction angle, phij2

Jnx

x-component of unit normal to weakness plane

Jny

y-component of unit normal to weakness plane

Jnz

z-component of unit normal to weakness plane

Jt

Joint tension limit, SIGtj

Sh

Elastic shear modulus, G

Ten

Matrix tension limit, SIGt

Tj

Number of the table relating joint tension limit SIGtj to joint plastic
tensile strain

Tt

Number of the table relating matrix tension limit SIGtj to joint plastic
tensile strain

3.5.1.10

Double-yield model parameters

Bu

Elastic bulk modulus, K

Cap_p

Current intersection of the volumetric yield surface (cap) with the


pressure axis (mean stress), pc

Cohesion, c

Cp

Number of the table relating cap pressure to plastic volume strain

Ct

Number of the table relating cohesion to plastic shear strain

Di

Dilation angle, psi

Dt

Number of the table relating dilation angle to plastic shear strain

Ev

Cumulative plastic volumetric strain

Angle of internal friction, phi

Ft

Number of the table relating friction angle to plastic shear strain

Mu

Multiplier on current plastic cap modulus to provide the elastic bulk


and shear moduli, R

Maximum elastic shear modulus, G

Tension limit, SIGt

tt

Number of the table relating tensile limit to plastic tensile strain

3.5.1.11

Modified Cam-Clay model parameters

Bulk_b

Maximum elastic bulk modulus, kmax

Cv

Initial specific volume, v0

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-103

Chapter 3 Materials

Ka

Slope of the elastic swelling line, kappa

Slope of the normal consolidation line, lambda

Mm

Frictional constant, M

Mpc

Preconsolidation pressure, pc0

Mp1

Reference pressure, p1

Mv_l

Specific volume at reference pressure, p1, on the normal


consolidation line, vlambda

Poisson's ratio, nu

sh

Elastic shear modulus, G

3.5.2

FLAC3D material properties for structural


elements

3.5.2.1

Type of constitutive model

TSEL

3.5.2.2

Types of structural elements available


1

BeamSEL (default option)

CableSEL

PileSEL

ShellSEL

GeogridSEL

LinerSEL

BEAM element parameters:

density

Mass density, ro

emod

Youngs modulus, E

Nu

Poissons ratio, nu

pmoment

Plastic moment capacity, Mp

thexp

Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat

3.5.2.3

CABLE element parameters:

density

Mass density, ro

Emod

Young's modulus, E

Gr_coh

Grout cohesive strength (force) per unit of length, cg

Gr_fric

Grout friction angle, phig ()

Gr_k

Grout stiffness per unit length, kg

3104

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.5 FLAC3D Properties

Gr_per

Grout exposed perimeter, pg

Slide

Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF)

Slide_to

Large-strain sliding tolerance

Thexp

Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat

Ycomp

Compressive yield strength (force), Fc

ytens

Tensile yield strength (force), Ft

3.5.2.4

PILE element parameters:

Density

Mass density, ro

Emod

Youngs modulus, E

Nu

Poissons ratio, nu

Pmoment

Plastic moment capacity, Mp

Thexp

Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat

Cs_scoh

Shear coupling spring cohesion per unit length, cs

Cs_sfric

Shear coupling spring friction angle, Phis ()

Cs_sk

Shear coupling spring stiffness per unit length, ks

Cs_ncoh

Normal coupling spring cohesion per unit length, cn

Cs_nfric

Normal coupling spring friction angle, phin ()

Cs_ngap

Normal coupling spring gap-use flag, g (default: OFF)

Cs_nk

Normal coupling stiffness per unit length, kn

Slide

Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF)

Slide_to

Large-strain sliding tolerance

3.5.2.5
Tbeh

Ele

SHELL element parameters:


Type of constitutive behavior
1

Isotropic (default option)

Orthotropic

Finite element type


1

CST

CSTH

DKT

DKT_CST

DKT_CSTH

Density

Mass density, ro

Emod

Young's modulus, E (Isotropic)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-105

Chapter 3 Materials

Nu

Poisson's ratio, nu (Isotropic)

E11

Orthotropic material property, e11

E12

Orthotropic material property, e12

E22

Orthotropic material property, e22

E33

Orthotropic material property, e33

Thexp

Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat

3.5.2.6
Tbeh

Ele

GEOG element parameters:


Type of constitutive behavior
1

Isotropic (default option)

Orthotropic

Finite element type


1

CST

CSTH

DKT

DKT_CST

DKT_CSTH

Density

Mass density, ro

Emod

Youngs modulus, E (Isotropic)

Un

Poissons ratio, un (Isotropic)

E11

Orthotropic material property e11

E12

Orthotropic material property e12

E22

Orthotropic material property e22

E33

Orthotropic material property e33

Thexp

Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat

Cs_scoh

Coupling spring cohesion (stress units), c

Cs_sfric

Coupling spring friction angle, phi ()

Cs_sk

Coupling spring stiffness per unit area, k

Slide

Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF)

Slide_to

Large-strain sliding tolerance

3.5.2.7
Tbeh

3106

LINER element parameters:


Type of constitutive behavior
1

Isotropic (default option)

Orthotropic

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.5 FLAC3D Properties

Ele

Finite element type


1

CST

CSTH

DKT

DKT_CST

DKT_CSTH

Density

Mass density, ro

Emod

Young's modulus, E (Isotropic)

Nu

Poisson's ratio, nu (Isotropic)

E11

Orthotropic material property e11

E12

Orthotropic material property e12

E22

Orthotropic material property e22

E33

Orthotropic material property e33

Thexp

Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat

Cs_ncut

Normal coupling spring tensile strength (stress units), ft

Cs_nk

Normal coupling spring stiffness per unit area, kn

Cs_scoh

Shear coupling spring cohesion (stress units), c

Cs_scohr

Shear coupling spring residual cohesion (stress units), cr

Cs_sfric

Shear coupling spring friction angle, phi ()

Cs_sk

Shear coupling spring stiffness per unit area, ks

Slide

Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF)

Slide_to

Large-strain sliding tolerance

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-107

3.6 Active Properties

3.6

Active Properties

CivilFEM material properties are time dependent. This dependence is controlled by


making use of a global variable called active time (see ~ACTTIME command). This
time is common to all materials and its value is fixed by the user at every moment.
CivilFEM active time may coincide or not with ANSYS time (ANSYS TIME
command).
On the other hand, each definition of a CivilFEM material contains the materials
activation time that controls the time at which the materials start to exist. Once both
the active and the activation times are established, those materials whose activation
time is not greater than the active time will be active. Those elements whose material
is inactive, do not exist to any effect (either in CivilFEM or in ANSYS). The age of
each material is calculated at every moment using the active time (ActTime) and
activation instant values:
MatAge (Imat) = ActTime TmAct (Imat)
MatAge:

Material Age

ActTime: Active Time


TmAct:

Materials activation time

Imat:

Material taken into account

This MatAge allows to calculate any property of the material at any time just by
means of an interpolation of the corresponding time dependent vectors. Each
property has its own interpolation procedure. When the user modifies the value of
Actime, all the mechanical properties (observed by ANSYS and CivilFEM) of the
affected materials and cross-sections being automatically changed.

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-109

3.7 Material Properties Dependence

3.7

Material Properties Dependence

In order to proceed properly to the definition and modification of the material


properties, the dependences among them should be kept in mind, mainly, the
modifying priority order adopted by the program regarding the automatic modification
of related properties.
In case two or more related parameters have the same modifying priority order, the
user can choose which one is to be modified, since the program takes care of
changing the values of the rest of related parameters automatically. Related data
having the same modifying priority order are called coupled data (this fact is
represented by a double arrow in the charts that are shown later on).
In the following tables, all the material properties that are subjected to modifications
as well as the order of priority among them are included. The column on the left
contains those material properties having higher hierarchy (order of priority). When
the user modifies these values, all their dependent parameters (those being on the
second column of the tables) will be modified and recalculated automatically by the
program. It can be easily observed that parameters' dependence is nested.
Therefore, a specific material property may have a higher hierarchy with regard to
other parameters and a lower one regarding others.
Tables are divided according to property types: external data, general properties
(concerning all materials), specific material properties (steel, concrete, reinforcement
steel and prestressing steel) and code properties (properties depending on active
code and material).

3.7.1

External Data
ActTime

3.7.2

MatAge

General Properties
TAct

MatAge

Ex

Gxy
If material is reinforcement steel
Structural and
section stress-strain diagrams change.

NUxy

Gxy

RHO

GAM (coupled data)

RHO

Ec (If ACI-318 code is active)

VCos

Mcos

Wcos (coupled data)

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-111

Chapter 3 Materials

3.7.3

Structural Steel Specific Properties


ExLn

Ex
Stress-strain diagrams (structural and sections)

Nthk

Thik
fy of Eurocode 3
fu of Eurocode 3
SIGe of EA code
SIGu of EA code
fy of LRFD
fu of LRFD
Ys of BS5950 (1985)
Us of BS5950 (1985)

Thik

Stress-strain diagrams (structural and sections)

TSASSD

Structural Stress-strain diagrams

TSDSSD

Sections Stress-strain diagrams

PLRAT

Stress-strain diagrams (structural and sections)

3.7.4

Concrete Specific Properties


Concrete Specific Properties
Age_New(1)

BETcc of Eurocode 2
fc_t of ACI
BETcc of model code CEB
BETc of EHE
BETt of EHE
BETcc of BS8110

MatAge

ExLn

TpEx

ExLn

ExLn

Ex

(1) Age_Del and Age_Mov are similar to this parameter, that is to say, they are
related to the same data and having equal hierarchy order.

3.7.5

3-112

Soil Specific Properties


TpEx

ExCal

ExCal

Ex

TpNuxy

NuxyCal

NuxyCal

Nuxy

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.7 Material Properties Dependence

TpRHO

RHOCal

RHOCal

RHO

ExSt

ExCal

NuxySt

NuxyCal

ExD

ExCal

NuxyD

NuxyCal

GAMd

GAMs
GAMsat
GAMap
RHOd
SW

GAMs

RHOs

GAMsat

GAMsub
RHOsat

GAMsub

RHOsub

GAMap

RHOap

GAMw

SW
GAMsat

RHOsub

RHOcal

RHOap

RHOcal

E
GAMs
GAMsat
SW

GAMap
SW

D10

CCurv
CUnif

D60

CCurv
CUnif

3.7.6

wl

Ip

wp

Ip

Rock Specific Properties

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-113

Chapter 3 Materials

TpEx

ExCal

ExCal

Ex

TpNuxy

NuxyCal

NuxyCal

Nuxy

TpRHO

RHOCal

RHOCal

RHO

ExSt

ExCal

NuxySt

NuxyCal

ExD

ExCal

NuxyD

NuxyCal

GAMd

GAMs
GAMsat
GAMap
RHOd
SW

GAMs

RHOs

GAMsat

GAMsub
RHOsat

GAMsub

RHOsub

GAMap

RHOap

GAMw

SW
GAMsat

RHOsub

RHOcal

RHOap

RHOcal

E
GAMs
GAMsat
SW

GAMap
SW

GSI

HB_n
HB_m
HB_s

3-114

HB_m0

HB_m

HB_s0

HB_s0

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.7 Material Properties Dependence

3.7.7

Specific Code Properties

3.7.7.1

Specific Code Properties (Eurocode 3)


fy

Stress-strain diagrams (structural and sections)

GAMM0

Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

3.7.7.2

Specific Code Properties (EA)


GAMa

SIGu
Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

SIGe

SIGu
Stress-strain diagrams (structural and sections)

3.7.7.3

Specific Code Properties (AISC-LRFD)


Fy

3.7.7.4

Stress-strain diagrams (structural and sections)

Specific Code Properties (BS5950-1985 & 2001)


Ys

ROy
Ke
Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

Us

ROy
Ke
Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis

Specific Code Properties (Eurocode 2 Concrete)

3.7.7.5
Cetp

GAMc

fcd
fcd_t
Ecd

fck

fcm
fcd
fctm

fcm

fcm_t

fctm

fctk_005
fctk_095

BETcc

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-115

Chapter 3 Materials

BETcc

fcm_t

fcm_t

fck_t
Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis

fck_t

fcd_t
Ecm

fcd_t

Stress-strain diagrams

Ecm

ExLn (si TpEx = 3)


Ec
Ecd
Stress-strain diagrams (SA:1)

Ec

ExLn (si TpEx = 1)

Ecd

ExLn (si TpEx = 4)

EPSc1

Stress-strain diagrams

EPScu

Stress-strain diagrams

ALP

Stress-strain diagrams

TSASSD

Stress-strain diagrams

TSDSSD

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (Eurocode 2 Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.6
GAMs

fyd
Stress-strain diagrams

fyk

fyd
Duct
Stress-strain diagrams

fyd

Stress-strain diagrams

ftk

Duct
Stress-strain diagrams

EPSuk

Duct
Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (Eurocode 2 Prestressing Steel)

3.7.7.7

3-116

GAMs

Stress-strain diagrams

fpk

Stress-strain diagrams

fp01k

Stress-strain diagrams

EPSuk

Stress-strain diagrams

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.7 Material Properties Dependence

Specific Code Properties (ACI Concrete)

3.7.7.8
Cutp

a
BET

Cetp

a
BET

fc

fc_t
BET1

fc_t

BET

fc_t

fc_t

fr
Ec
EPS0
Stress-strain diagrams

Ec

ExLn (si TpEx = 1)


EPS0

EPS0

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (ACI Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.9
fy

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (ACI Pretressing Steel)

3.7.7.10
fpu

fpy

fpy

Stress-strain diagrams

StTp

fpy
Rlcf1

Specific Code Properties (CEB-FIP Concrete)

3.7.7.11
Cetp

GAMc

fcd
fcd_t

fck

fcd
fcm
fctk_min
fctk_max
fctm

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-117

Chapter 3 Materials

EPScuB
EPScuU

fcm

fcm_t
k
Eci
Ec1

fctm

BETcc

BETcc

fcm_t
Eci
Ec1

fcm_t

fck_t
Stress-strain diagrams

fck_t

fcd_t
fcd1
fcd2

fcd_t

fcd1
fcd2
Stress-strain diagrams

fcd2

Stress-strain diagrams

Eci

ExLn (si TpEx = 1)


Ec
EPSc_lim
Stress-strain diagrams

Ec

ExLn (si TpEx = 5)

Ec1

ExLn (si TpEx = 3)


EPSc_lim
Stress-strain diagrams

EPSc1

Ec1
Stress-strain diagrams

EPSc_lim

Stress-strain diagrams

EPScuB

EPSmin
Stress-strain diagrams

EPScuC

3-118

EPSmin

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.7 Material Properties Dependence

EPScuU

EPSint

TSDSSD

EPSmin
EPSint

Specific Code Properties (CEB-FIP Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.12

Specific Code Properties (CEB-FIP Reinforcing Steel)


GAMs

fyd

fyk

fyd
Duct
Stress-strain diagrams

fyd

Stress-strain diagrams

ftk

Duct

EPSuk

Duct
Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (EHE Concrete)

3.7.7.13
Cetp

GAMc

fcd
fcd_j

fck

fcm
fcd
fctm
fctk_005
fctk_095
fck_j

fcm

Eci
E0_j
Ej

fctm

fctm_j

Eci

ExLn (si TpEx = 1)


EPSclim
Stress-strain diagrams

BETc

BETc

fck_j

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-119

Chapter 3 Materials

E0_j
Ej
fck_j

fcm_j
fcd_j

BETt

fctm_j

fcm_j

EPSclim
Stress-strain diagrams

fcd_j

Stress-strain diagrams

E0_j

ExLn (si TpEx = 2)

Ej

ExLn (si TpEx = 3)

EPSc1

EPSclim
Stress-strain diagrams

EPSclim

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (EHE Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.14
GAMs

fyd

fyk

fyd
fmax
Stress-strain diagrams

fyd

fycd
Stress-strain diagrams

fmax

Stress-strain diagrams

EPSmax

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (EHE Prestressing Steel)

3.7.7.15
GAMs

fpd

fpk

fpd
Stress-strain diagrams

fpd

Stress-strain diagrams

fmax

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (BS8110 Concrete)

3.7.7.16

3-120

Cetp

GAMc

Stress-strain diagrams

fcu

fcu_t

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.7 Material Properties Dependence

Ec28
Ec_t
EPSc1

Stress-strain diagrams

EPScu

Stress-strain diagrams

BETcc

BETcc

fcu_t

fcu_t

Ec_t

Ko

Ec28

Ec28

Ec_t

Ec_t

ExLn (if TpEx = 1)

Specific Code Properties (BS8110 Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.17
GAMs

Stress-strain diagrams

fy

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (GB50010 Concrete)

3.7.7.18
Cetp

GAMc

fc
ft
fc_t

fcuk

Ec_t(NAge)
ALPc1
ALPc2
fck
fck_t(NAge)
ftk
n
EPS0
EPScu
Delta

ALPc1

fck

ALPc2

fck

Delta

ftk

fck

fck_t(NAge)
fc

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-121

Chapter 3 Materials

ftk

ft

BETcc(Nage)

BETcc
(Nage)

fcu_t(NAge)

fck_t
(Nage)

fc_t(NAge)

fc_t
(Nage)

Stress-strain diagrams

Ec_t
(Nage)

ExLn

EPS0
(Nage)

EPSint

EPScu
(Nage)

EPSmin

Ec_t(NAge)

Stress-strain diagrams

Stress-strain diagrams

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (GB50010 Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.19
GAMs

fy

Fyk

fy
Stress-strain diagrams

Fy

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (NBR6118 Concrete)

3.7.7.20
Eci

Ecs

GAMc

fcd
fcd_j

Fck

fcm
fcd
fctm
fctk_inf
fctk_sup
fcm_j
fcd_j

Sd

fcd_j
fcm_j

fck_j

fcd_j
Eci

3-122

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3.7 Material Properties Dependence

Ex

Stress-strain diagrams

fcd_j

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (IS456 Concrete)

3.7.7.21
Cetp

GAMc

fcd
fcd_t

fck

fct
fcd
fck_t
Ec

BETcc

fck_t

fck_t

fcd_t
Ec_t

BETcc

BETcc

fcm_t

fcd_t

Stress-strain diagrams

Ec_t

TpEx

Specific Code Properties (IS456 Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.22
GAMs

fyd
Stress-strain diagrams

fyk

fyd
Stress-strain diagrams

TSASSD

Stress-strain diagrams
KPLA

TSDSSD

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (SP 52-101-03 Concrete)

3.7.7.23
Cetp

GAMb

Rb
Rb_t

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.

3-123

Chapter 3 Materials

GAMbt

Rbt

Rbtn

Rbt
S65_FT

Rbn

Rbn_t
Eb

BETcc

BETcc

Rbn_t

Rbn_t

Rb_t
Eb
S65_fc

Rb_t

Stress-strain diagrams

Eb

TpEx

EPSb0

Stress-strain diagrams
EPSmin

TSASSD

Stress-strain diagrams
KPLA

TSDSSD

Stress-strain diagrams

Specific Code Properties (SP 52-101-03 Reinforcing Steel)

3.7.7.24
GAMs

Rs

Rsn

Rs

Rs

Stress-strain diagrams
Rsw

EPSs2

Stress-strain diagrams

TSASSD

Stress-strain diagrams
KPLA

TSDSSD

3-124

Stress-strain diagrams

CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.