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KODAK: Student Filmmaker's Handbook

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Student Filmmaker's Handbook


The Kodak Worldwide Student Program gratefully acknowledges the
contributions of Ryerson Polytechnic University's Digital Media Projects
Office in association with The Kodak Worldwide Student Program for the
publication of The Student Filmmaker's Handbook.

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Introduction
Which Film Should I Use?
Anatomy of a Data Sheet
Sensitometric and Image-Structure Data
Physical Characteristics
Storage of Raw and Exposed Film
How do I know I'm ordering the right film? How to identify the
film's format, emulsion, length, and winding
Cores and Spools
Winding
Perforations
Film Identification
Filtration
Motion Picture Sound Recording
Projection
Dealing with a Motion Picture Laboratory
Laboratory Operations
Marketing a Film
Distribution and Promotion
Glossary of Motion Picture Terms

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KODAK: To The Student Filmmaker

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

To The Student Filmmaker


The Student Filmaker's Handbook is a compilation of information
available in many different Kodak publications. It is a resource for you to
use as you pursue a career in this most exciting of industries.

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It will interest you to know that you are entering the film industry at one
of its most exciting and dynamic times. Technological innovations
recently announced and those just around the corner guarantee that
FILM will be a fascinating career far into the next century. Silver halide
technology, the bedrock of film manufacturing, is moving ahead each
year with new Kodak T-GRAIN Emulsions and new and improved color
dye systems. Our scientists assure us that they will be able to improve
the quality of film many times over in the next few years. What that
means for you is that you will be recording sharper and more accurate
color images than you have ever seen before.

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Those images will be manipulated in many new ways. HDTV (High


Definition Television) is on the horizon and just beyond that is the whole
new world of digital transmission of images over optical fiber networks.
Eastman Kodak Company has recently demonstrated a new CCD HDTVTelecine and a High Resolution Electronic Intermediate System which will
bridge the gap between electronic and silver halide technologies. And
that is just the beginning. The good news for you is that your
productions on film will be recorded on the one worldwide production
standard.
Wherever your work takes you, film will be the standard for motionpicture image production. And what's more, you will have recorded your
program on the highest resolution, brightest and most accurate color
medium in the world. No other technology offers the quality of a film
image; and remember, that quality is going to improve in the years
ahead.
So, welcome to the motion picture industry. I hope you will find this
book useful, and I hope you will look upon Eastman Kodak Company as a
source of quality products and technical support now and in the future.

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KODAK: Which Film Should I Use?

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Which Film Should I Use?


Before selecting a specific film or films, you, the producer, and the
director, will have to answer a number of basic technical and aesthetic
questions about the entire production. The answers you provide will help
greatly in the selection of the films that will best translate your concepts
into moving pictures on a screen that convey your intended message
accurately, completely, and effectively.
You should consider the following factors because they directly affect
your choice:
l

Anticipated release format. Will the finished prints be 35 mm or


16 mm? Shooting a 16 mm camera film to produce 35 mm release
prints will involve some sacrifice in image quality.
Number of finished prints needed. If you need only one and
you need it fast, a reversal film designed for direct projection will
be ideal. If you are producing several prints, the camera film
should be selected with an eye toward the economics of the
various film printing systems.
The finished form of the picture. Should the finished film be in
color or in black-and-white? The aesthetic impact of black-andwhite film is distinctly different from that of color. What feeling
should the film convey? The sharp distinctions in hue and density
provided by a color film image can convey more information than
the same image composed of shades of gray. Filmmakers should
not assume, however, that color is always more interesting, or that
black and white is always less expensive. Should the film be silent
or should it have sound? A sound track can help to focus and direct
a viewer's attention to the message. Answers to these questions
depend on the purpose and audience for the film.
Type of lighting and exposure index. Will the subject be filmed
indoors or out? Can you control the light? Some films are especially
designed for low levels of light or for sensitivity at particular bands
of the spectrum. All films are balanced for particular kinds of
lighting. Will your film give you an accurate record of the colors in
the scene if you make the motion picture only in the light available
to you?
Type of filtration needed. If you have to use several filters to
compensate for uncontrolled elements in the scene or in the
lighting, will the film be fast (sensitive) enough to record a highquality image?
Type of processing and printing facilities available. Few labs
process all types of film. If your nearby laboratory processes only
color film, you may have to send your black-and-white film to an
out-of-town lab. This situation can be especially time-consuming if
the film requires editing and must be shuttled back and forth
several times. You can avoid much anxiety by getting to know the
personnel at the laboratories that process your films and explaining
your special needs to them. It may be worthwhile to select films
that can be processed by a laboratory directly familiar with your
needs.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Anatomy of a Data Sheet

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Anatomy of a Data Sheet


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Film Types, Names, and Numbers


Film Descriptions
Negative Camera Films
Exposure Information
Exposure Index
Exposure Latitude
Illumination (Incident Light) Table
Lighting Contrast Ratios
Reciprocity Characteristics
Filter Factors
Color Balance
Printing Conditions

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Kodak's film data sheets are the best source for technical information
about Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films. Each data sheet consists
of one or more pages of detailed technical information for a particular
film. These sheets provide useful information for the careful and
knowledgeable reader.
In the discussion of professional motion picture films that follows, we are
using that form of a Film Data Sheet as a road map. The next four pages
illustrate a data sheet for a hypothetical film that can be used in every
stage of motion picture work. A real data sheet would obviously have
fewer entries--camera film data sheet, for example, does not contain
paragraphs titled "Printing Conditions" because printing conditions are
only relevant to laboratory and print films.
The large circles on the hypothetical data sheet illustration that is shown
on the next few pages contain page numbers referring you to the
beginning of a discussion on that specific topic. For example, the data
sheet has a (4) on the section "exposure indexes." If you scroll down and
find the (4) and the heading "Exposure Index," you can read about that
topic. Each number on the data sheet will refer you to that section in the
text.
A single free copy of any film data sheet is available from our website or
write: Eastman Kodak Company, Dept. 412-L, Rochester, NY 146500532.

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KODAK: Film Types, Names, and Numbers

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Film Types, Names, and Numbers areas 1 and


2
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Film production-from recording motion with a camera to projecting the


image on a screen or cathode-ray tube-often involves three different
kinds of film.

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Camera film is used to record the original scene. Many kinds of camera
films are available for the many conditions under which subjects often
must be filmed, for the special effects the cinematographer wants to
produce, and for the processing and projection requirements of the job.

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Once the film has been edited from a workprint, laboratory films used to
produce the intermediate stages needed in the lab for special effects,
titling, etc. Using intermediates also protects your valuable, original
footage from potential damage during the printing process.

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Print film , on the other hand, is used to print both the first workprint and
as many copies as needed of the final edited version of the project.
People in the photographic industry generally refer to films by number
(5248, for example) rather than by name (Eastman Color Negative II
Film, in this case). Thus, the four -digit number is more prominently
displayed on the film data sheet than the name. The first of the four
digits indicates the size or "gauge" of the film. When the first digit is 5,
the film is 35 mm or wider; a 7, on the other hand, indicates a 16 mm
film or a film that will be slit down to these narrower gauges after
processing. When a film is available in both the 16 mm and 35 mm
widths, both the 7000 and 5000 series of digits appear on the data
sheet.
The name also indicates properties of the film. Kodak EKTACHROME Film
indicates a reversal color film. Panchromatic and orthochromatic refer to
the light-sensitivity range of the film. Most film names are selfdescriptive.
The important thing to remember about the name and number is to use
both accurately when ordering film or film data sheets.

Film Descriptions area 3


Under the heading General Properties on a typical data sheet, there will
always be a brief description of the overall characteristics of the film. The
paragraphs that follow describe each of the Kodak and Eastman Motion
Picture Films currently available and are similar in coverage to
paragraphs found on each film data sheet.

Negative Camera Films


Camera films are available in two general types: negative and reversal.
Negative film produces an image that must be printed on another stock
for final viewing. Since at least one intermediate stage is usually
produced to protect the original footage, negative camera film is an

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KODAK: Film Types, Names, and Numbers

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efficient choice when significant editing and special effects are planned.
Printing techniques for negative-positive film systems are very
sophisticated and highly flexible; hence, negative film is especially
appropriate for complex special effects. All negative films can go through
several print generations without pronounced contrast buildup.

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KODAK: Data Sheet Page 1

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Exposure Information

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Exposure Information
Film data sheets for camera films give exposure information under these
headings: Film Exposure Indexes, Illumination Table, Lighting Contrast
Ratios, Reciprocity Characteristics, and Filter Factors (black-and-white
film) or Color Balance (color films). Explanations of each of these
elements are explained on the following few pages.

Exposure Index area 4

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The film Exposure Index (EI) is a measurement of film speed that can be
used with an exposure meter to determine the aperture needed for
specific lighting condifions. The indexes reported on film data sheets for
Eastman and Kodak Motion Picture Films are based on practical picture
tests but make allowance for some normal variations in equipment and
film that will be used for the production. There are many variables for a
single exposure. Individual cameras, lights, and meters are all different
(lenses are often calibrated in T-stops). Coatings on lenses affect the
amount of light that strikes the emulsion. The actual shutter speeds and
f-numbers of a camera and those marked on it sometimes differ.
Particular film emulsions have unique properties. Camera techniques can
also affect exposure. All of these variables can combine to make a real
difference between the recommended exposure and the optimum
exposure for specific conditions and equipment. Therefore, you should
test several combinations of camera, film, and equipment to find the
exposures that produce the best results. Data sheet Exposure Index
figures are applicable to meters marked for ISO speeds and are used as
a starting point for an exposure series.

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When it comes to measuring light, there are three kinds of exposure


meters: The averaging reflection meter and the reflection spot meter are
most useful for daylight exposures while the incident exposure meter is
designed for indoor work with incandescent illuminations. Detailed
directions for using all three are given in Kodak Pocket Photoguide,
Kodak Publication No. AR-21). The two reflection meters are sometimes
used with the Kodak Gray Card. One side of the card has a neutral 18percent reflection which can be used indoors to aid in measuring the
average reflection for a typical subject. You can also use this side of the
card outdoors by increasing the exposure 1/2 stop above the calculated
exposure. The other side of the card has 90-percent reflection for use at
low- light levels. The use of this card and appropriate adjustments for
aperture and exposure time is covered in Kodak Gray Cards, Kodak
Publication No. R -27.

Exposure Latitude
Exposure latitude is the range between overexposure and underexposure
within which a film will still produce usable images. As the luminance
ratio (the range from black to white) decreases, the exposure latitude
increases. For example, on overcast days the range from darkest to
lightest narrows, increases the apparent exposure latitude. On the other
hand, the exposure latitude decreases when the film is recording
subjects with high-luminance ratios such as black trees against a sunlit,
snowy field.

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KODAK: Exposure Information

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Illumination (Incident Light) Table area 5


When the illumination is very low or when you cannot make reflectedlight measurements conveniently, use an incident-light meter can be
used to read the illumination direcdy in footcandies (lux).
Note: Lux is the term used to describe the intensity of the exposing light
in the current international standards for determining film speed. Most
existing incident-light meter scales are still marked in footcandles. A
footcandle is approximately equal to 1/10 metre -candle or lux.

Lighting Contrast Ratios area 6


When using artificial light sources to illuminate a subject, you can
determine a ratio between the relative intensity of the key light and the
fill lights. First, measure the intensity of light at the subject under both
the key and fill lighting. Then measure the intensity of the fill light alone.
The ratio of the intensities of the combined key light and fill lights to the
fill light alone, measured at the subjects, is known as the lighting ratio.
Except for dramatic or special effects, the generally accepted ratio for
color photography is 2 to I or 3 to 1. If duplicate prints of the camera
film are needed, the ratio should seldom exceed 3 to 1. For example, if
the combined main light and fill light on a scene produce a meter reading
of 6000 footcandles at the highlight areas and 1000 footcandles in the
shadow areas, the ratio is 6 to 1. The shadow areas should be
illuminated to give a reading of at least 2000 and preferably 3000
footcandles to bring the lighting ratio within the permissible range.

Lighting contrast ratio 2:1

Lighting contrast ratio 5:1

Figure 1

Reciprocity Characteristics area 7


Reciprocity refers to the relationship between light intensity (illuminance)
and exposure time with respect to the total amount of exposure received
by the film. According to "The Reciprocity Law," the amount of exposure
(H) received by the film equals the illuminance (E) of the light striking
the film multiplied by the exposure time (t). In practice, any film has its
maximum sensitivity at a particular exposure (i.e., normal exposure at
the film's rated exposure index). This sensitivity varies with the exposure
time and illumination level. This variation is called "reciprocity effect."
Within a reasonable range of illumination levels and exposure times, the

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KODAK: Exposure Information

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film produces a good image. At extreme illumination levels or exposure


times, the effective sensitivity of the film is lowered, so that predicted
increases in exposure time to compensate for low illumination or
increases in illumination to compensate for short exposure time fail to
produce adequate exposure. This condition is called "Reciprocity Law
Failure" because the Reciprocity Law fails to describe the film sensitivity
at very fast and very slow exposures. The Reciprocity Law usually applies
quite well for exposure times of 1/5 second to 1/000 second for blackand-white films. Above and below these speeds, black-and-white films
are subject to reciprocity failure but their wide exposure latitude usually
compensates for the effective loss of film speed. When the law does not
hold, the symptoms are underexposure and change in contrast. For color
films, the photographer must compensate for both film speed and color
balance changes because the speed change may be different for each of
the three emulsion layers. However, contrast changes cannot be
compensated for or contrast mismatch can occur.

Filter Factors area 8


Since a filter absorbs part of the light that would otherwise fall on the
film, you must increase the exposure when you use a filter. The filter
factor is the multiple by which an exposure is increased for a specific
filter with a particular film. This factor depends principally upon the
absorption characteristics of the filter, the spectral sensitivity of the film
emulsion, and the spectral composition of the light falling on the subject.

Conversion of Filter Factors to Exposure Increase in


Stops
Filter
Factor

+
Stops

Filter
Factor

+
Stops

Filter
Factor

+
Stops

1.25

+1/3

+2

12

+3 2/3

1.5

+ 2/3

+2 1/3

40

+5 1/3

+1

+2 2/3

100

+6 2/3

2.5

+1 1/3

+3

1000

+10

+1 2/3

10

+3 1/3

Published filter factors apply strictly to the specific lighting conditions


under which the measurements were made, so it may be desirable,
especially for scientific and technical applications using reversal films, to
determine the appropriate filter factor under actual working conditions.
To determine a filter factor, place a subject with a neutral-gray area, a
Kodak Gray Card, or a photographic gray scale in the scene to be
photographed. Shoot the scene without filtration. Then, with the filter or
filter pack in place, shoot a series of exposures at 1/2-stop intervals
ranging from 2 stops under to 2 stops over the exposure determined
using the published filter factor. Compare the (neutral-gray) density of
one frame in the unfiltered scene with the density of one frame in each
one of the filter series, either visually or with a densitometer to find the
filtered exposure that equals the unfiltered exposure in overall density.
The filter factor is the ratio of the filtered exposure to the unfiltered
exposure with equal densities.
Filter Factor =

Exposure with filter


Exposure eithout filter

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KODAK: Exposure Information

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Color Balance area 9


Color balance relates to the color of a light source that a color film is
designed to record without additional filtration. All laboratory and print
films are balanced for the tungsten light sources used in printers, while
camera films are nominally balanced for 5500 K daylight, 3200 K
tungsten, or 3400 K tungsten exposure.
When filming under light sources different from those recommended,
filtration over the carnera lens or over the light source is required.
Camera film data sheets contain starting-point filter recommendations
for the most common lighting sources: daylight, 3200 K tungsten, 3400
K tungsten, cool-white fluorescent, deluxe cool-white fluorescent, and
Mole -Richardson HI Arc lamps (both white-flame and yellow-flame
carbons).

Printing Conditions area 10


A representative printer setup is described for each laboratory or print
film. These printer setups should be read for comparison purposes and
used only as a starting point. The use of the Laboratory Aim Density
(LAD) control method is recommended for determining optimum printing
exposure.

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KODAK: Sensitometric and Image-Structure Data

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Sensitometric and Image-Structure Data


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Understanding Sensitometric Information


Characteristic Curves
General Curve Regions
Curve Values
Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity
Spectral-Dye-Density Curves
Image Structure
Modulation-Transfer Curve
Graininess and Granularity
Measuring RMS Granularity
Factors That Affect Graininess
Granularity and Color Materials
Some Practical Effects of Graininess and Granularity
Resolving Power

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Sensitometry is the science of measuring the response of photographic


emulsions to light. "Image-structure" refers to the properties that
determine how well the film can faithfully record detail. The appearance
and utility of a photographic record are closely associated with the
sensitometric and image-structure characteristics of the film used to
make that record. The ways in which a film is exposed, processed, and
viewed affect the degree to which the film's sensitometric and imagestructure potential is realized. The age of unexposed film and the
conditions under which it was stored also affect the sensitivity of the
emulsion. Indeed, measurements of film characteristics made by
particular processors using particular equipment and those reported on
data sheets may differ slightly. Still, the information on the data sheet
provides a useful basis for comparing films. When cinematographers
need a high degree of control over the outcome, they should have the
laboratory test the film they have chosen under conditions that match as
nearly as possible those expected in practice.

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KODAK: Understanding Sensitometric Information

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Understanding Sensitometric Information


Transmission density (D) is a rneasure of the light-controlling power of
the silver or dye deposit in a film emulsion. In color films, the density of
she cyan dye represents its controlling power to red light, that of
magenta dye to green light, and that of yellow dye to blue light.
Transmission density may be mathematically defined as the common
logarithm (Log base 10) of the ratio of the light incident on processed
film (P o) to the light transmitted by the film (Pt).

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D = log

Po
10

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Pt
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The measured value of the density depends on the spectral distribution


of the exposing light, the spectral absorption of the film image, and the
special sensitivity of the receptor. When the spectral sensitivity of the
receptor approximates that of the human eye, the density is called visual
density. When it approximates that of a duplicating or print stock, the
condition is called printing density.
For practical purposes, transmission density is measured in two ways:

Figure 2
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Totally diffuse density ( Figure 2) is determined by comparing all of


the transmitted light with the incident light perpendicular to the
film plane ("normal": incidence). The receptor is placed so that all
of the transmitted light is collected and evaluated equally. This
setup is analogous to the contact printer except that the receptor
in the printer is film.

Figure 3
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Specular density ( Figure 3) is determined by comparing only the


transmitted light that is perpendicular ("normal") to the film plane
with the "normal" incident light, analogous to optical printing or

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KODAK: Understanding Sensitometric Information

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projection.
To simulate actual conditions of film use, totally diffuse density readings
are routinely used when motion-picture films are to be contact printed
onto positive print stock. Specular density readings are appropriate when
a film is to be optically printed or directly projected. However, totally
diffuse density measurements are accepted in the trade for routine
control in both contact and optical printing of color films. Totally diffuse
density and specular density are almost equivalent for color films
because the scattering effect of the dyes is slight, unlike the effect of
silver in black-and-white emulsions.

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KODAK: Characteristic Curves

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Characteristic Curves area 11


A characteristic curve is a graph of the relationship between the amount of
exposure given a film and its corresponding density after processing. The
density values that produce the curve are measured on a film test strip
that is exposed in a sensitometer under carefully controlled conditions and
processed under equally controlled conditions. When a particular
application requires precise information about the reactions of an emulsion
to unusual light-filming action in a parking lot illuminated by sodium vapor
lights, for example, you can filter the exposing light in the sensitometer
can be filtered to simulate that to which the film will actually be exposed.
A specially constructed step tablet, consisting of a strip of film or glass
containing a graduated series of neutral densities differing by a conslant
factor, is placed on the surface of the test strip to control the amount of
exposure, the exposure time being held constant. The resulting range of
densities in the test strip simulates most picture-taking situations, in
which an object modulates the light over a wide range of illuminance,
causing a range of exposures (different densities) on the film.

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After processing, the graduated densities on die processed test strip are
measured with a densitometer. The amount of exposure (measured in lux
1
) received by each step on the test strip is multiplied by the exposure
time (measured in seconds) to produce exposure values in units of luxseconds. T'he logarithms (base 10) of the exposure values (log H) are
plotted on the horizontal scale of the graph and the corresponding
densities are plotted on the vertical scale to produce the characteristic
curve. This curve is also known as the sensitometric curve, the D Log H
(or E) curve, or the H&D (Hurter and Driffield) curve 2.
In the following table, the lux-sec values are shown below the log
exposure values. The equivalent transmittance and opacity values are
shown to the left of the density values.
Typical Characteristic Curve

The characteristic curve for a test film exposed and processed as


described in the table is an absolute or real characteristic curve of a
particular film processed in a particular manner.
Sometimes it is necessary to establish that the values produced by one
densitometer are comparable to those produced by another one. Status
densitometry is used for this. Status densitometry refers to measurements

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KODAK: Characteristic Curves

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made on a densitometer that conforms to a specified unfiltered spectral


response (Dawson and Voglesong, Response Functions for Color
Densitometry, PS&E Journal, Volume 17, No. 5 Sept/Oct 1973). When a
set of carefully matched filters is used with such a densitometer, the term
Status A densitometry is used. The densities of color positive materials
(reversal, duplicating, and print) are measured by Status A densitometry.
When a different set of carefully matched filters is incorporated in the
densitometer, the term Status M densitometry is used. The densities of
color preprint films (color negative, intemegative, intermediate, lowcontrast reversal original, and reversal intermediate) are measured by
Status M densitometry. (DAK Densitometer Filter Sets are purchased
directly from the manufacturers of densitometers. For further information,
contact the densitometer manufacturer.)

Figure 4

These illustrations show the relationship between subject luminance,


negative density, and the characteristic curve. There is one stop
difference in luminance between each of the points 2 to 10. Point 1 is a
specular highlight which photographs as if it were about 2 stops brighter
than point 2, which is a diffuse highlight. Point 9 is the tone to be
reproduced just lighter than black. There are 7 stops difference between
points 2 and 9, which is the typical range for normal luminance range
subjects. Point 10 is about one stop darker than point 9, and reproduces
as black. The graph shows where points of these brightness differences
generally fall on a characteristic curve. Point 9 is exposed on the speed
point of the film, which develops to a density of about 0.10 above the
base plus fog density (the density of the clear film base after developing).
The density range from point 9 to point 2 is about 1.05.

Representative characteristic curves are those that are typical of a product

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KODAK: Characteristic Curves

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and are made by averaging the results from a number of tests made on a
number of production batches of film. The curves shown in the data sheets
are representative curves.
Relative characteristic curves are formed by plotting the densities of the
test film against the densities of a specific uncalibrated sensitometric-step
scale used to produce the test film. These are commonly used in
laboratories as process control tools.
Black-and-white films usually have one characteristic curve (see Figures 5
and 6). A color film, on the other hand, has three characteristic curves,
one each for the red-modulating (cyan-colored) dye layer, the greenmodulating (magenta-colored ) dye layer, and the blue-modulating
(yellow- colored) dye layer (see Figures 7 and 8). Because reversal films
yield a positive image after processing, their characteristic curves are
inverse to those of negative films (compare Figures 5 and 6).
Typical Characteristic Curves
Black and White Negative Film

Figure 5

Black and White Reversal Film

Figure 6
Color Negative Film

Figure 7

Color Reversal Film

Figure 8

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KODAK: General Curve Regions

Page 1 of 5
WEDNESDAY, JUL

General Curve Regions


Regardless of film type, all characteristic curves are composed of five
regions: D -min, the toe, the straight-line portion, the shoulder and Dmax.

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Exposures less than at A on negative film or greater than at A on


reversal film will not be recorded as changes in density. This constant
density area of a black-and-white film curve is called base plus fog. In a
color film, it is termed minimum density or D-min.
The toe (A to B), as shown in Figure 9, is the portion of the characteristic
curve where the slope (or gradient) increases gradually with constant
changes in exposure (log H).

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The straight-line (B to C), Figure 10, is the portion of the curve where
the slope does not change; the density change for a given log-exposure
change remains constant or linear. For optimum results, all significant
picture information is placed on the straight-line portion.
The shoulder (C to D), Figure 11 , is the portion of the curve where the
slope decreases. Further changes in exposure (log H) will produce no
increase in density because the maximum density (D-max) of the film
has been reached.
Base density is the density of fixed-out (all silver removed) negativepositive film that is unexposed and undeveloped. Net densities produced
by exposure and development are measured from the base density. For
reversal films, the analogous term of D-min describes the area receiving
total exposure and complete processing. The resulting density is that of
the film base with any residual dyes.
Fog refers to the net density produced during development of negativepositive films in areas that have had no exposure. Fog caused by
development may be increased with extended development time or
increased developer temperatures. The type of developing agent and the
pH value of the developer can also affect the degree of fog. The net fog
value for a given development time is obtained by subtracting the base
density from the density of the unexposed but processed film. When
such values are determined for a series of development times, a timefog curve ( Figure 12) showing the rate of fog growth with development
can be plotted.

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KODAK: General Curve Regions

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Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11

Curve Values
You can derive additional values from the characteristic curve that not
only illustrate properties of the film but also aid in predicting results and
solving problems that may occur during picture-taking or during the
developing and printing processes.
Speed describes the inherent sensitivity of an emulsion to light under
specified conditions of exposure and development. The speed of a film is
represented by a number derived from the film's characteristic curve.
Contrast refers to the separation of lightness and darkness (called
"tones") in a film or print and is broadly represented by the slope of the
characteristic curve. Adjectives such as flat or soft and contrasty or hard
are often used to describe contrast. In general, the steeper the slope of

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the characteristic curve, the higher the contrast. The terms gamma and
average gradient refer to numerical means for indicating the contrast of
the photographic image.
Gamma is the slope of the straight-line portion of the characteristic
curve or the tangent of the angle (a) formed by the straight line with the
horizontal. In Figure 5, the tangent of the angle (a) is obtained by
dividing the density increase by the log exposure change. The resulting
numerical value is referred to as gamma.
Gamma does not describe contrast characteristics of the toe or the
shoulder. Camera negative films record some parts of scenes, such as
shadow areas, on the top portion of the characteristic curve. Gamma
does not account for this aspect of contrast.
Average gradient is the slope of the line connecting two points bordering
a specified log-exposure interval on the characteristic curve. The location
of the two points includes portions of the curve beyond the straight-line
portion. Thus, the average gradient can describe contrast characteristics
in areas of the scene not rendered on the straight-line portion of the
curve. Measurement of an average gradient extending beyond the
straight-line portion is shown in Figure 13.
Curves for a Development-Time Series on a
Typical Black and White Negative Film

Figure 12
Average Gradient Determination

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KODAK: General Curve Regions

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Figure 13
The particular gamma or average gradient value to which a specific
black-and-white film is developed differs according to the properties and
uses of the film. Suggested control gamma values are given on the data
sheets for black-and-white negative and positive films.
If characteristic curves for a black-and-white negative or positive film are
determined for a series of development times and the gamma or average
gradient of each curve is plotted against the time of development, a
curve showing the change of gamma or average gradient with increase
development is obtained. You can use the time-gamma curve ( Figure
14) to find the optimum developing time to produce the control gamma
values recommended in the data sheet (or any other gamma desired).
Black-and-white reversal and all color film processes are not controlled
by using gamma values.
Flashing camera films to lower contrast is a technique 3 that involves
uniformly exposing film before processing to lower its overall contrast.
It's used with some color films. It is actually an intentional light fogging
of the film. You can make the flashing exposure before or after the
subject exposure, either in a camera or in a printer. The required amount
of exposure and the color of the exposing light depends on the effect
desired, the point at which the flashing exposure is applied, the subject
of the main exposure, and the film processing. Because of potential
latent image changes, a flashing exposure just prior to processing is the
preferred method.

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KODAK: General Curve Regions

Figure 14

Page 5 of 5

Figure 15

This fairly common practice is often used to create a closer match of two
films' contrast characteristics when they are intercut. The hypothetical
characteristic curves in Figure 15 show what occurs when one film is
flashed to approximately match another film's characteristic curve. The
illustration has been simplified to show an ideal matching of the two
films. In practice, results will depend on the tests run using the specific
films intended for a production.
Some film productions use flashing (called "creative flashing") to alter
the contrast of the original camera negative of a particular scene to
create a specific effect-making pastels from more saturated colors,
enhancing shadow detail, and the like. Further discussion of this type of
flashing is presented in "Creative Post-Flashing Technique for the The
Long Goodbye," American Cinematographer Magazine, March 1973.

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KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity

Page 1 of 4
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity area


12
Student Main

The term color sensitivity is used on data sheets for some black-andwhite films to describe the portion of the visual spectrum to which the
film is sensitive. All black-and-white camera films are panchromatic
(sensitive to the entire visible spectrum). Some laboratory films are also
panchromatic: Eastman Fine Grain Duplicating Panchromatic Negative
Film, Eastman Panchromatic Separation Film, and Eastman High Contrast
Panchromatic Film.

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Some films, called orthochromatic, are sensitive mainly to the blue-andgreen portions of Lhe visible spectrum. Eastman Direct MP, Eastman
Reversal BW Print, and Eastman Sound Recording II Films are all
orthochromatic laboratory or print films.

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Films used exclusively to receive images from black-and-white materials


are blue-sensitive: Eastman Fine Grain Release Positive Film, Eastman
High Contrast Positive Film, and Eastman Fine Grain Duplicating Positive
Film.
One film is sensitive to blue light and ultraviolet radiation: Eastman
Television Recording Film. The extended sensitivity in the ultraviolet
region of the spectrum permits the film to respond to the output of
cathode- ray tubes.
While color films and panchromatic black-and-white films are sensitive to
all wavelengths of visible light, rarely are two films equally sensitive to
all wavelengths. Spectral sensitivity describes the relative sensitivity of
the emulsion to the spectrum within the film's sensitivity range. The
photographic emulsion has inherently the sensitivity of photosensitive
silver halide crystals. Itese crystals are sensitive to high-energy
radiation, such as X -rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation and bluelight wavelengths (blue- sensitive black-and-white films). In conventional
photographic emulsions, sensitivity is limited at the short (ultraviolet)
wavelength end to about 250 nanometers (nm) because the gelatin used
in the photographic emulsion absorbs much ultraviolet radiation. The
sensitivity of an emulsion to the longer wavelengths can be extended by
the addition of suitably chosen dyes.
By this means, the emulsion can be made sensitive through the green
region (orthochromatic black-and-white films), through the green and
red regions (color and panchromatic black-and-white films), and into the
near-infrared region of the spectrum (infrared-sensitive film). See Figure
16.
Three spectral sensitivity curves are shown for color films-one each for
the red -sensitive (cyan-dye forming), the green-sensitive (magenta-dye
forming), and the blue-sensitive (yellow-dye forming) emulsion layers.
One curve is shown for black-and-white films. The data are derived by
exposing the film to calibrated bands of radiation 10 nanometers wide
throughout the spectrum, and the sensitivity is expressed as the
reciprocal of the exposure (ergs/cm2 ) required to produce a specified

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KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity

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density. The radiation expressed in nanometers is plotted on the


horizontal axis, and the logarithm of sensitivity is plotted on the vertical
axis to produce a spectral-sensitivity curve, as shown in Figure 17.

Figure 16
Equivalent neutral density (END)-When the amounts of the components
of an image are expressed in this unit, each of the density figures tells
how dense a gray that component can form.
Because each emulsion layer of a color film has its own speed and
contrast characteristics, equivalent neutral density (END) is derived as a
standard basis for comparison of densities represented by the spectralsensitivity curve. For color films, the standard density used to specify
spectral sensitivity is as follows:
For reversal films, END = 1.0
For negative films, direct duplicating, and print films,
END= 1.0 above D -min.

Spectral -Dye-Density Curves area 13


Proessing exposed color film produces cyan, magenta, and yellow dye
images in the three separate layers of the film. The spectral-dye-density
curves (illustrated in Figure 18) indicate the total absorption by each
color dye measured at a particular wavelength of light and the visual
neutral density (at 1.0) of the combined layers measured at the same
wavelengths.
Spectral-dye-density curves for reversal and print films represent dyes
normalized to form a visual neutral density of 1.0 for a specified viewing
and measuring illuminant. Films which are generally viewed by projection
are measured with light having a color temperature of 5400 K. Color-

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KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity

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masked films have a curve that represents typical dye densities for a
mid-scale neutral subject.
The wavelengths of light, expressed in nanometers (nm), are plotted on
the horizontal axis, and the corresponding diffuse spectral densities are
plotted on the vertical axis. Ideally, a color dye should absorb only in its
own region of the spectrum. All color dyes in use absorb some
wavelengths in other regions of the spectrum. This unwanted absorption,
which could prevent satisfactory color reproduction when the dyes are
printed, is corrected in the film's manufacture.
In color negative films, some of the dye-forming couplers incorporated in
the emulsion layers at the time of manufacture are colored and are
evident in the D-min of the film after development. These residual
couplers provide automatic masking to compensate for the effects of
unwanted dye absorption when the negative is printed. This explains why
negative color films look orange.
Since color reversal films and print films are usually designed for direct
projection, the dye-forming couplers must be colorless. In this case, the
couplers are selected to produce dyes that will, as closely as possible,
absorb in only their respective regions in the spectrum. If these films are
printed, they require no printing mask.

Figure 17

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KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity

Page 4 of 4

Figure 18
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KODAK: Image Structure

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Image Structure
The sharpness of image detail that a particular film type can produce
cannot be measured by a single test or expressed by one number. For
example, resolving-power-test data gives a reasonably good indication of
image quality. However, because these values describe the maximum
resolving power a photographic system or component is capable of, they
do not indicate the capacity of the system (or component) to reproduce
detail at other levels. For more complete analyses of detail quality, other
evaluating methods, such as the modulation-transfer function and film
granularity, are often used. An examination of the modulation-transfer
curve, RMS granularity, and both the high- and low-contrast resolving
power listings will provide a good basis for comparison of the detailimaging qualities of different films.

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Modulation-Transfer Curve area 14


Modulation transfer relates to the ability of a film to reproduce images of
different sizes. The modulation-transfer curve describes a film's capacity
to reproduce the complex spatial frequencies of detail in an object. In
physical terms, the measurements evaluate the effect on the image of
light diffusion within the emulsion. First, film is exposed under carefully
controlled conditions to a series of special test pattems, similar to that
illustrated in (a) of Figure 19. After development, the image (b) is
scanned in a microdensitometer to produce trace (c).

Figure 20
Image (b) of a sinusoidal test object (a)
recorded on a photographic emulsion and a
microdensitometer tracing (c) of the image.

The resulting measurements show the degree of loss in image contrast


at increasingly higher frequencies as the detail becomes finer. These
losses in contrast are compared mathematically with the contrast of the
portion of the image unaffected by detail size. The rate of change or
"modulation" (M) of each pattern can be expressed by this formula in
which E represents exposure:
M=

E max - E min

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KODAK: Image Structure

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E max + E min

When the microdensitometer scans the test film, the densities of the
trace are interpreted in terms of exposure, and the effective modulation
of the image (Mi) is calculated. The modulation-transfer factor is the
ratio of the modulation of the developed image to the modulation of the
exposing pattern (Mo), or Mi/Mo. This ratio is plotted on the vertical axis
(logarithmic scale) as a percentage of response. The spatial frequency of
the patterns is plotted on the horizontal axis as cycles per millimeter.
Figure 20 shows two such curves. At lower magnifications, the test film
represented by curve A appears sharper than that represented by curve
B; at very high magnifications, the test film represented by curve B
appears sharper.

Figure 20
All of the photographic modulation-transfer curves in the data sheets
were determined using a method similar to that specified by ANSI
Standard PH2.39-1977. The films were exposed with the specified
illuminant to spatially varying sinusoidal test patterns having an aerialimage modulation of a nominal 35 percent at the image plane, with
processing as indicated. In practice, most photographic modulationtransfer values are influenced by development adjacency effects and are
not exactly equivalent to the true optical modulation-transfer curve of a
particular photographic product.
Modulation-transfer measurements can also be made for the non -film
components in a photographic system such as cameras, lenses, printers,
etc, to analyze or predict the sharpness of the entire system. By
multiplying the responses for each ordinate of the individual curves, you
can combine the modulation-transfer curve for a film with similar curves
for an optical system to calculate the modulation-transfer characteristics
of the entire system.

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KODAK: Graininess and Granularity

Page 1 of 6
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Graininess and Granularity area 15


The terms graininess and granularity are often confused or even used as
synonyms in discussions of silver or dye-deposit distributions in
photographic emulsions. The two terms refer to two distinctly different
ways of evaluating the image structure. When a photographic image is
viewed with sufficient magnification, the viewer experiences the visual
sensation of graininess, a subjective impression of nonuniformity in an
image. This nonuniformity in the image structure can also be measured
objectively with a rnicrodensitometer. This objective evaluation
measures film granularity.
Motion picture films consist of silver halide crystals dispersed in gelatin
(the emulsion) which is coated in thin layers on a support (the film
base). T'he exposure and development of these crystals forms the
photographic image, which is, at some stage, made up of discrete
particles of silver. In color processes, where the silver is removed after
development the dyes form dye clouds centered on the sites of the
developed silver crystals. The crystals vary in size, shape, and
sensitivity, and generally are randomly distributed within the emulsion.
Within an area of uniform exposure, some of the crystals will be made
developable by exposure; others will not.

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The location of these crystals is also random. Development usually does


not change the position of a grain, so the image of a uniformly exposed
area is the result of a random distribution either of opaque silver
particles (black- and-white film) or dye clouds (color film), separated by
transparent gelatin (Figures 21 and 22).

Figure 21

Figure 22

Grains of silver halide are


randomly distributed in the
emulsion when it is made. This
photomicrograph of a raw
emulsion shows silver halide
crystals.

Silver is developed or clouds of dye


formed at the sites occupied by the
exposed silver halide. Contrary to
widely held opinion, there is little
migration or physical joining of
individual grains. Compare the
distribution of silver particles in this
photomicrograph with the
undeveloped silver halide in Figure
21.

Although the viewer sees a granular pattern, the eye is not necessarily
seeing the individual silver particles, which range from about 0.002 mm
down to about a tenth of that size.
At magnifications where the eye cannot distinguish individual particles, it

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KODAK: Graininess and Granularity

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resolves random groupings of these particles into denser and less dense
areas. As magnification decreases, the observer progressively associates
larger groups of spots as new units of graininess. The size of these
compounded groups gets larger as the magnification decreases, but the
amplitude (the difference in density between the darker and the lighter
areas) decreases. At still lower magnifications, the graininess disappears
altogether because no granular structure can be seen ( Figure 23).

Figure 23
(a) A 2.5X enlargement of a negative shows no apparent graininess.
(b) At 20X, some graininess shows. (c) When a segement of the
negative is inspected at 60X, the individual silver grains strt to
become distinguishable. (d) With 400X magnification, the discrete
grains are easily seen. Note that surface grains are in focus while
grains deeper in the emulsion are out of focus. The apparent
"clumping" of silver grains is actually caused by overlap of grains at
different depths when viewed in two-dimensional projection. (e) The
makeup of individual grains takes different forms. This filamentary
silver, enlarged by an electron microscope, appears as a single
opaque grain at low magnification.

Randomness is a necessary condition for the phenomenon. If the


particles were arranged in a regu;ar pattern like the halftone dot pattem
used in graphic arts, no sensation of graininess would be created. When
a halftone is viewed at a magnification sufficient for the dots to be
distinguished, the eye notices the pattern and does not group dots into
new patterns. Even though the dot pattern can be seen, the eye does
not perceive graininess because the pattern is regular, not random
(Figure 24). At lower magnifications-at which the dots can no longer be
resolved-the awareness of pattern ceases, and the image areas appear
uniform.

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KODAK: Graininess and Granularity

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Figure 24
If the uniform dot pattern of a conventional halftone is used to reproduce a
scene, the eye accepts the image as a smooth, continuous-tone rendition
(a). This happens because the dots are regularly spaced. However, when
the halftone dots are distributed randomly in an area to reproduce a scene
(b) the image looks "grainy." Graininess in the image is due, in part, to the
random distribution of the individual elements which make up that image.

When you view a random pattem of small dots magnified enough to


resolve the individual dots, you do not perceive an orderly or intelligible
pattem. When the magnification is decreased so the dots cannot be
resolved, they appear to blend together to form an image whose surface
is nonuniform or grainy.

Measuring RMS Granularity


The attributes of the photographic image which cause the human eye to
perceive graininess can also be measured (and simulated) by an electrooptical system in a microdensitometer. These measurements are
analyzed statstically to provide numerical values that correlate with the
visual impression of graininess. The two major advantages of objective
measurement are that instruments can be devised to make rapid and
precise measurements and that these measurements can be manipulated
readily by mathematical means.
Ordinary densitometers measure density over areas much larger than
those of individual silver particles. Since there are so many particles in
the aperture of an ordinary densitometer, small variations in the number
of particles measured will not affect the reading.
Just as higher magnification increases the apparent graininess, a
decrease in the aperture produces higher granularity values. When the
aperture of the densitometer is considerably reduced, fewer particles are
included and a small change in their number is recorded as a variation in
density. Analysis of the magnitude of these variations gives a statistical
measure of the granularity of a sample.
In practice, an area of apparently uniform density is continuously
scanned by the small aperture usually 48 nanometers in diameter (see
Figure 25). The transmitted light registers on a photo-sensitive pickup,

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KODAK: Graininess and Granularity

Page 4 of 6

and the current produced is then fed to a meter calibrated to read the
standard deviation of the random-density fluctuations (see Figure 26 ).

Figure 25
A large aperture "sees" a vast number of individual silver
grains. Therefore, small local fluctuations have practically
no effect on the density it records. Small apertures
(about one twentieth of the larger aperture diameter)
detect random differences in grain distribution when they
sample the large "uniform" area.

Figure 26
The signal from a continuous density scan of a
grainy emulsion appears the same as random
electrical noise when displayed on an
oscilloscope. The rms voltmeter gives a direct
readout of "noise level."

Standard deviation describes the distribution of a group of values (in this


case, variations in density) about their average. The square root (R) of
the arithmetic mean (M) of the squares (S) of the density variations is
calculated-hence, the term RMS granularity. For ease of comparison, this
small decimal number is multiplied by a factor of 1,000, yielding a small
whole number, typically between 5 and 50.
The RMS granularity instrument used at Kodak is calibrated to measure
American National Standard (PH2.19-1976) diffuse visual density. The

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KODAK: Graininess and Granularity

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about 0.6 to 0.9). The light tones of the print are on the toe of the
characteristic curve where the slope is very much lower than unity.
Hence, the contrast with which the graininess is reproduced is very lowdecreasing its visibility. In dark tones, the eye is less able to distinguish
graininess. The eye easily detects density differences as low as 0.02 in
the average highlight density, but can detect density differences only on
the order of 0.20 in the average shadow density. In the midtones, where
the slope of the curve is constant, the print material has its maximum
contrast and the eye can more readily distinguish small density
differences; therefore, the granularity can be most easily detected by the
eye as graininess.
Another factor in perceiving graininess is the amount of detail in a scene.
Graininess is most apparent in large areas with fairly uniform densities
and is much less evident in areas full of fine detail or motion.
It is difficult to predict the magnification at which projected print images
will be viewed since both the projection magnification and the distance
from the observer to the screen can very. Both factors affect the picture
magnification, and thus the graininess.
When a motion picture film is seen at great magnification (as from a
front-row theater seat), the viewer may be aware of grains "boiling" or
"crawling" in uniform areas of the image. This sensation is caused by the
frame-to-frame changes of grain positions, which make graininess more
noticeable in a motion picture than in a still photograph. Conversely, the
moving image tends to distract the viewer's attention away from this
sensation, and graininess is, therefore, usually noticed only in static
scenes.

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KODAK: Resolving Power

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Resolving Power area 16


The resolving power of a film emulsion refers to its ability to record fine
detail. It is measured by photographing resolution charts or targets
under exacting test conditions. The parallel lines on resolution charts are
separated from each other by spaces the same width as the lines. The
chart contains a series of graduated parallel-line groups, each group
differing from the next smaller or next larger by a constant factor. The
targets are photographed at a great reduction in size, and the processed
image is viewed through a microscope. The resolution is measured by a
visual estimate of the number of lines per millimeter that can be
recognized as separate lines.

Student Main

The measured resolving power depends on the exposure, the contrast of


the test target, and, to a lesser extent, the development of the film. The
resolving power of a film is greatest at an intermediate exposure value,
falling off greatly at high- and low-exposure values. Obviously, the loss
in resolution that accompanies under- or over-exposure is an important
reason for observing the constraints of a particular film when making
exposures.

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Resolution also depends on the contrast of the image, hence, the


contrast of the target. Test exposures are usually made with both a highcontrast (luminance ratio 1000: 1) and a low-contrast (1.6:1) target. A
film resolves finer detail when the image contrast is higher. Both highand low-contrast resolving-power values are determined according to a
method sirnilar to the one described in ANSI No. PH2.33-1969 1R1976).
"Method for Determining the Resolving Power of Photographic Materials,"
are given on the data sheets. The resolving power reported is based on
film exposed and processed as recommended.
The maximum resolution obtainable in practical photographic work is
limited both by the camera lens and by the film. The formula often used
to predict the resolution of a camera original is
1
1
1
=
+
RS 2
RF 2
RL 2
RS = Resolution of the system (lens + film)
RF = Resolution of the film
RL = Resolution of the lens
In practice, other external factors, such as camera movement, focus,
aerial haze, etc, also decrease the resolution from the possible
maximum.

1 One lux is the illumination produced by one standard candle from a distance of 1 meter.
When a film is exposed for 1 second to a standard candle 1 meter distant, it receives 1 luxsec of exposure.
2 Zwick, D., "The Meaning of Numbers to Photographic Parameters" Journal of the Society
of Photo -Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Volume 4 (1966), pages 205-211.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Physical Characteristics

Page 1 of 1
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Physical Characteristics
l
l
l
l

Film Base
Antihalation Backing
Edge Numbers
Dimensional Change Characteristics
Temporary Size Change
n Moisture
n Temperature
n Rates of Temporary Change
n Swell During Processing
Permanent Size Change
n Raw Stock Shrinkage
n Processing Shrinkage
n Aging Shrinkage
Other Physical Characteristics
Curl
Buckling and Fluting

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Film Base

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Film Base area 17


The film base is the plastic support that carries the light-sensitive
emulsion. Requirements for a suitable film base include optical
transparency, freedom from optical imperfections, chemical stability,
photographic inertness, and resistance to moisture and processing
chemicals. Mechanical strength, resistance to tearing, flexibility,
dimensional stability, and freedom from physical distortion are also
important factors in processing, printing, and projection.
Two general types of film base are currently used -cellulose triacetate
esters and a synthetic polyester polymer known as ESTAR Base.
Cellulose triacetate film base is made by combining the cellulose
triacetate with suitable solvents and a plasticizer. Most current Kodak
and Eastman Motion Picture Films are coated on a cellulose triacetate
base.

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ESTAR Base, a polyethylene terephthalate polyester, is used for some


Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films (mostly intermediate and print
films) because of its high strength, chemical stability, toughness, tear
resistance, flexibility, and dimensional stability. The greater strength of
ESTAR Base permits the manufacture of thinner films that require less
room for storage. ESTAR Base films and other polyester base films,
cannot be successfully spliced with readily available commercial film
cements. You can splice these films with a tape splicer or with a splicer
that uses an ultrasonic or an inductive beating current to melt and fuse
the film ends.

Antihalation Backing
Light penetrating the emulsion of a film can be reflected from the baseemulsion interface back into the emulsion. As a result, there is a
secondary exposure causing an undesirable reduction in the sharpness of
the image and some light scattering, called halation, around images of
bright objects. See Figure 27. A dark layer coated on or in the film base
will absorb and minimize this reflection, hence it is called an antihalation
layer. Three methods of minimizing halation are commonly used:
Rem Jet: A black-pigmented, nongelatin layer on the back of the film
base serves as an antihalation and antistatic layer. This layer is removed
during photographic processing.
Antihalation undercoating: A silver or dyed gelatin layer directly beneath
the emulsion is used on some thin emulsion films. Any color in this layer
is removed during processing. This type of layer is particularly effective
in preventing halation for high-resolution emulsions. An antistatic and/or
anticurl layer may be coated on the back of the film base when this type
of antihalation layer is used.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Film Base

Page 2 of 2
Figure 27
Light Piping

Dyed film base : Film bases, especially polyester, can also transmit or
pipe light that strikes the edge of the film. This light can travel inside the
base and fog the emulsion (Figure 27 ). A neutral-density dye is
incorporated in some film bases and serves to both reduce halation and
prevent light piping. This dye density may vary from a just detectable
level to approximately 0.2. The higher level is used primarily for halation
protection in black-and-white negative films on cellulosic bases. Unlike
fog, the gray dye does not reduce the density range of an image,
because it, like a neutral- density filter, adds the same density to all
areas. It has, therefore, a negligible effect on picture quality.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Edge Numbers

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Edge Numbers
Edge numbers (also called key numbers or footage numbers) are placed
at regular intervals along the film edge for convenience in frame-forframe matching of the camera film to the workprint. The numbers are
printed along one edge outside the perforations on 35 mm film and
between the perforations on 35 mm film and between the perforations
on 16 mm film. The numbers are sequential, usually occurring every 16
frames (every 12 inches) on 35 mm film and every 20 frames (every 6
inches) on 16 mm film. In a few instances, edge numbers on 16 mm
films are located every 40 frames (12 inches).
All Kodak camera film is edge numbered at the time of manufacture in
one of two ways:

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Latent Image: The film edge is exposed by a printer mounted at the


perforator to produce an image visible only on processed film. The five or
seven digits are sequential and will change every 16 (35 mm) or 20 (16
mm) frames. The cluster of numbers and letters to the left of the
sequential numbers are a manufacturer's code for the type of product,
the perforator, and the equipment used to produce the product. All
Kodak 16 mm and 35 mm camera color film is latent-image edge
numbered ( Figure 28).
Visible Ink Image: During manufacturing, the filrn stock is numbered
with a visible ink. Again, this process is performed at the perforators.
The ink, unaffected by photographic chemicals, is printed on the
emulsion surface of the film. The numbers are visible on both the raw
stock and the processed film. In Figure 29, the visible ink edge
numbering will be more visible after processing. All 35 mm Kodak blackand-white motion picture camera films have ink edge numbers. The
letter "C" is a manufacturer's product identification.
A third method of applying edge
numbering is very often used by
commercial motion picture labs. There
the film is numbered on the base side,
generally with yellow ink. This numbering
does not interfere with the
manufacturer's edge numbers because
the lab numbers are ordinarily printed on
the opposite edge of the film. Normally,
both the original camera film and the
workprint are edge numbered identically
for later ease in matching the two.

Figure 28
Latent image edge numbering

Figure 30 is a sample of Eastman EKTACHROME Video News Film 7240


(Tungsten), edge numbered by a laboratory in New York City.
With double-system sound, both the film and the magnetic tape are
often edge numbered by the lab for ease of editing.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Edge Numbers

Page 2 of 2

Figure 29

Figure 30

Visible ink edge numbering

Laboratory applied edge numbering

In 1990, Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new edge-numbering


system that will eventually be included on all Eastman camera negative
films, both black-and-white and color. The new system incorporates
Eastman KEYKODE TM ; numbers which are machine readable in bar code.
A variety of scanners can read this bar code in the same way that the
bar code on most products in supermarkets is read by a scanner in the
checkout line. The human-readable key numbers are similar to previous
edge numbers, but are easier to read. In this improved format, the key
number consists of 12 highly legible characters printed at the familiar
one-foot, 64 perforation interval. The KEYKODE TM ; number incorporates
the same human-readable number, but in a bar code. See Figures 31
and 32.

Eastman 16 mm Edgeprint Format


Featuring KEYKODE TM Numbers - Figure 31, 32

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Dimensional Change Characteristics

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Dimensional Change Characteristics


Motion picture film dimensions are influenced by variations in
environmental conditions. The film swells during processing, shrinks
during drying, and continues to shrink at a decreasing rate throughout
its life. These dimensional changes in film are either temporary
(reversible) or permanent (irreversible). Temporary size changes are
caused by a modification in the moisture content or the temperature of
the film. The extent of both temporary and permanent size alterations is
largely dependent upon the film support. However, since the emulsion is
considerably more hygroscopic than the base, it also has a marked
influence on dimensional variations caused by humidity. Permanent
shrinkage of film on cellulose triacetate support is due to loss of residual
solvents or plasticizer, and, to a slight extent, the gradual elimination of
strains introduced during manufacture or processing. ESTAR Base has no
residual solvent or plasticizer and absorbs less moisture than cellulose
triacetate; consequently, its size changes are considerably less. Some
permanent shrinkage occurs in aging of raw stock processing, and aging
of processed film. Values for the dimensions change characteristics of
current Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films are given in the table
below.

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Approximate Dimensional Change Characteristics of Current Kodak and Eastman


Motion Picture Films

Film

Base

Humidity
Coefficient of
Expansion %
per 1% RH
(a)

Thermal
Coefficient of
Expansion %
per 1F (b)

Potential
Aging
Shrinkage %
(d)

Length

Width Length

Black-and-white
camera
negative,
duplicating
negative, color
negative, color
Triacetate
internegative,
color
intermediate
and
EKTACHROME
Camera Films

0.007

0.008 0.0025 0.0035

0.03

0.05

0.2

0.25

Black-and-white
release positive,
duplicating
positive,
Triacetate
variable-density
sound recording
and Eastman
Color Print

0.005

0.006 0.0025 0.0035

0.03

0.05

0.4

0.5

0.003

0.003

0.02

0.02

0.04

0.04

Eastman Color
Print and
Eastman Color
Reversal
Intermediate

ESTAR

0.001

Width

Processing
Shrinkage %
(c)

0.001

Length Width Length Width

(a) Measured between 15% and 50% RH at 21 C (70 F)


(b) Measured between 49C (12 F) and 21C (70 F) at 20% RH
(c) Tray processing measured at 21C (70F) and 50% RH after preconditioning at low
relative humidity

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Temporary Size Change

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Temporary Size Change


Moisture. Relative Humidity (RH) of the air is the major factor affecting
the moisture content of the film, thus governing the temporary
expansion or contraction of the film (assuming constant temperature).
For camera films, the humidity coefficients are slightly higher than for
positive print films. The coefficients given in the table above are
averages for the range of 15- to 50-percent RH, where the relationship
between film size and relative humidity is approximately linear. For
ESTAR Base films, this coefficient is larger at lower humidity ranges, and
smaller at higher humidity ranges. When a given relative humidity level
is approached from above, the exact dimensions of a piece of film on
cellulose triacetate support may be slightly larger than when the level is
approached from below. The opposite is true for ESTAR Base films, which
will be slightly larger when the film is previously conditioned to a lower
humidity than it would be if conditioned to a higher humidity.

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Temperature. Photographic film expands with heat and contracts with


cold in direct relationship to the film's thermal coefficient. The thermal
coefficients for current Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films are
listed in the previous table.
Rates of Temporary Change. Following a shift in the relative humidity of
the air surrounding a single strand of film, humidity size alterations occur
rapidly in the first 10 minutes and continue for about an hour. If the film
is in a roll, this time will be extended to several weeks because the
moisture must follow a longer path. In the case of temperature
variations, a single strand of film coming in contact with a hot metal
surface, for example, will change almost instantly. A roll of film, on the
other hand, requires several hours to alter size.
Swell during Processing. All motion picture films swell during
photographic processing and shrink during drying. The swell of triacetate
films is initially rapid and depends upon the temperature of the
processing solutions, time, and film tension. Acetate films swell more in
the widthwise than in the lengthwise direction, and negative films swell
more than print films. The change for ESTAR Base films is much smaller.
The effects of drying upon the final dimensions are discussed in the
section on permanent size change.

Swell %
Film Type

Base

Length Width

Negative

Triacetate

0.4

0.6

Positive - Black-and-White and


Color

Triacetate

0.3

0.5

Reversal-Color

AcetatePropionate

0.6

0.8

Positive-Color

ESTAR

0.05

0.05

Swell During Processing

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Temporary Size Change

Page 2 of 3

Permanent Size Change


Permanent size change is the summation of the shrinkage of the raw
film, the size change due to processing, and the shrinkage of the
processed film.
Raw Stock Shrinkage. Immediately after slitting and processing, the
unexposed motion-picture film is placed in cans that are sealed with
tape. Until the film is removed from the can, solvent loss from triacetate
film is extremely low. The lengthwise shrinkage will rarely exceed 0.5
percent during the first 6 months in a 1000-foot can of 35 mm film.
ESTAR Base films will not shrink more than 0.2 percent while in a taped
can.
Processing Shrinkage. The net effect of processing triacetate base film is
normally slight shrinkage (see table ) unless the film has been stretched.
Some commercial processing machines have sufficiently high tension to
stretch the wet film (particularly 16 mm film); consequently, a lower net
processing shrinkage or even a slight permanent stretch may result.
Because of its greater strength and resistance to moisture, the overall
size change of ESTAR Base films is much less.
Aging shrinkage. It is important that motion picture negatives,
internegatives, and color originals have low aging shrinkage so that you
can make satisfactory prints or duplicates even after many years of
storage. With motion picture positive film intended for projection only,
shrinkage is not especially critical because it has little effect on
projection.
The rate at which aging shrinkage occurs depends upon the conditions of
storage and use. Shrinkage is hastened by high temperature and, in the
case of triacetate films, by high relative humidity which aids the diffusion
of solvents from the film base.
The potential aging shrinkage of current motion-picture films is given in
this table. In the case of processed negatives made on stock
manufactured since June 1954, the potential lengthwise shrinkage of
about 0.2 percent is generally reached within the first two years and
almost no further shrinkage occurs thereafter. This very small net
change is a considerable improvement over the shrinkage characteristics
of negative materials available before 1954 and permits good printing
even after long periods of keeping.
The lengthwise shrinkage of release prints made on triacetate supports is

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KODAK: Temporary Size Change

Page 3 of 3

about 0.1 to 0.3 percent for 35 mm film and 0.1 to 0.4 percent for 16
mm film during the first two years. Higher shrinkage can occur over a
longer period, as indicated in this table. Shrinkage of films on ESTAR
Base is unlikely to exceed 0.04 percent.
Although aging shrinking of motion picture films is a permanent size
change, humidity and thermal size changes can either increase or
decrease the observed size change.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Other Physical Characteristics

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Other Physical Characteristics


Aside from image quality considerations, other factors can affect the
satisfactory performance of motion picture film.

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Curl

Career Profiles
Film Techniques

Photographic-film curl is defined as the departure from flatness of


photographic film. Curl toward the emulsion is called positive while curl
away from the emulsion is termed negative. Although the curl level is
established during manufacture, it is influenced by the relative humidity
during use or storage, processing and drying temperatures, and the
winding configuration.

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Figure 33
At low relative humidities, the emulsion layer contracts more than the
base generally producing positive curl. As the relative humidity
increases, the contractive force of the emulsion layer decreases and the
inherent curl of the support becomes dominant.
Film wound in rolls tends to assume the lengthwise curl conforming to
the curve of the roll. When a strip of this curled film is pulled into a flat
configuration, the lengthwise curl is transformed into a widthwise curl.

Buckling and Fluting


Very high or low relative humidity can also cause abnormal distortions of
film in rolls. Buckling, caused by the differential shrinkage of the outside
edges of the film, occurs if a tightly wound roll of film is kept in a very
dry atmosphere. Fluting, the opposite effect, is caused by the differential
swelling of the outside edges of the film; it occurs if the roll of film is
kept in a very moist atmosphere. To avoid these changes, do not expose
the film rolls to extreme fluctuations in relative humidity.

Aditional reading on "Physical Characteristics of film."


Adelstein, P. Z. and Calhoun, J. M., "Interpretation of Dimensional Changes in Cellulose
Ester Base Motion Picture Films," Journal of the SMPTE , 69:157-63, March 1960.
Adelstein, P. Z. Graham, C. L., and West, L. E., "Preservation of Motion Picture Color Films
Having Permanent Value," Journal of the SMPTE , 79:1011 -1018, November 1970.

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KODAK: Other Physical Characteristics

Page 2 of 2

Calhoun, J. M "The Physical Properties and Dimensional Behavior of Modon Picture Films,"
Journal of the SMPTE , 43:227-66, October 1944.
Fordyce, C. R., "Improved Safety Motion Picture Film Support," Journal of the SMPTE ,
51:331 -50, October 1948.
Fordyce, C. R., Calhoun, J. M., and Moyer, E. E., "Shrinkage Behavior of Motion Picture
Film," Journal of the SMPTE , 64:62 -66, February 1955.
Miller, A. J. and Robertson, A. C., "Motion Picture Film-Its Size and Dimensional
Characteristics," Journal of the SMPTE, 74:3-1 1, January 1965.
Neblette, C. B., "Photography-Its Materials and Process," Chapter 11, D. VanNostrand Co.,
Inc., 1962

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Storage of Raw and Exposed Film

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Storage of Raw and Exposed Film


l

Raw Stock in Original Package


Temperature
Radiation
Gases and Vapors
Relative Humidity
Handling
Unprocessed Film before and after Exposure
General Concerns
Temperature
Gases and Radiation
Relative Humidity
Handling

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Storage of Raw and Exposed Film (18)


The sensitometric characteristics of virtually all unprocessed photographic
materials gradually change with time, causing loss in sensitivity, a change in
contrast, a growth in fog level, or possibly all three. In color films, the rates at
which the various color-sensitive layers respond are not necessarily the same,
thus the color balance of the material can also change. Improper storage
usually causes much larger changes in color quality and film speed than do
variations in manufacturing. Scrupulous control of temperature and humidity,
thorough protection from harmful radiation and gases, and careful handling are
important to long, useful film life.
This section explains how to store raw film stock and exposed but unprocessed
film. This chart summarizes optimum storage conditions.

Raw Stock in Original Package


Temperature
In general, the lower the temperature at which a film is stored, the slower will
be its rate of sensitometric change during aging. For periods up to six months,
motion picture raw stock should be stored at a temperature of 13C (55F) or
lower during the entire storage period if optimum film properties are to be
retained.
Raw stock should be stored at -18 to -23C (0 to -IOF) if it must be kept
longer than six months or if the film is intended for a critical use that requires
uniforrn results. Sensitometric change cannot be prevented by such storage,
but it will be minimized.
IMPORTANT: After removing a package of raw stock from cold storage, allow it
to warm up to room temperature (70F +/- 5F) before opening the can. This
will prevent telescoping of the roll during handling because of cold-induced
looseness between the layers and will prevent moisture condensation and
spotting of the film.
Type of Warm -Up Times (Hours)
Kodak
Film
For 14C
For 55 C

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KODAK: Storage of Raw and Exposed Film

Page 2 of 3

Package (25F) Rise (100F) Rise


8 mm
super 8
16 mm
35 mm

1
1
1
3

1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
5

Radiation
Do not store or ship raw stock near X-ray sources or other radioactive
materials. Some scanning devices used by postal authorities and airlines may
fog raw stock. Take special storage precautions in hospitals, industrial plants,
and laboratories where radioactive materials are in use. Label packages of
unprocessed films that must be mailed across international borders: "Contents:
Unprocessed photographic film. Please do not X-ray."

Short-Term
(less than 6 months)

Long-Term
(more than 6 months)

%
%
Temperature Relative Temperature Relative
Humidity
Humidity
Raw Stock
(in original
sealed cans)

13C (55F)

below 70

Exposed
Unprocessed

-18 to -23C
(0 10F)*

-18 to -23C
(0 10F)

Not Recommended (see text


below)

After removal from storage, keep sealed (in original cans) until temperature is above the dew
point of outside air. (See table of warm up times.)
* Exposed film should be processed as soon as possible after exposure.

Gases and Vapors


Gases (such as formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia,
illuminating gas, engine exhaust) and vapors (from solvents, mothballs,
cleaners, turpentine, mildew and fungus preventives, and mercury) can change
the sensitivity of photographic emulsions. The cans in which motion picture film
is packaged provide protection against some gases, but others can slowly
penetrate the adhesive tape seal. Keep film away from any such contaminationfor example, closets or drawers that contain mothballs-otherwise,
desensitization of the silver halide grains or chemical fogging can occur.
Relative Humidity
Since a small amount of vapor leakage through the closure of a taped can is
unavoidable, give motion picture films additional water-vapor protection if they
are to be kept longer than a month in an area having high relative humidity (70
percent or higher), such as home refrigerators or damp basements. Protect
unopened rolls by tightly sealing them in a second plastic container or can.
NOTE: It is the relative humidity, not the absolute humidity, that determines
the moisture content of film. Relative humidity is best measured with a sling
psychrometer. In a small storage chamber, a humidity indicator, such as those
sold for home use, is satisfactory.
Handling
Storage rooms for motion-picture raw stock should be designed so that
accidental flooding from storms, water pipes, or sewers cannot damage the
product. Store all film at least 15 cm(6in.)off the floor.

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KODAK: Storage of Raw and Exposed Film

Page 3 of 3

Construct and insulate rooms that are artificially cooled so that moisture does
not condense on the walls. If the building itself is not fireproof, install sprinklers.
As indicated, control of relative humidity below 70 percent is not critical as long
as the film cans remain sealed. Maintain the temperature as uniform as possible
throughout the storage room by means of adequate air circulation so that
sensitometric properties remain consistent, roll to roll.
Do not store film near heating pipes or in the line of sunlight coming through a
window, regardless of whether the room is cool or not.

Unprocessed Film before and after Exposure


General Concerns
Once you open the original package, the film is no longer protected from high
relative humidities that can cause undesirable changes. Exposed footage is even
more vulnerable to the effects of humidity and temperature. Therefore, process
film as soon as possible after exposure.
Temperature
Protect film in original packages or loaded in cameras, cartridges, magazines,
on reels, and in carrying cases from direct sunlight and never leave film in
closed spaces that may trap heat. The temperatures in closed automobiles,
parked airplanes, or the holds of ships, for example, can easily reach 60C
(140F) or more. A few hours under these conditions, either before or afer
exposure, can severely affect the quality of the film. If processing facilities are
not immediately available, store exposed films at -18C (OF).
Gases and Radiation
Keep films away from the harmful gases and radiation mentioned earlier.
Relative Humidity
When handling motion-picture film in high relative humidities, it is much easier
to prevent excessive moisture take-up than it is to remove it. If there are delays
of a day or more in shooting, remove the magazine containing partially used
film from the camera and place it in a moisture-tight dry chamber. This
prevents any absorption of moisture by the film during the holding period.
Immediately after exposure, return the film to its can and retape it to prevent
any increase in moisture content over that picked up during actual exposure.
Moisture leakage into a taped can is more serious when the can contains only a
small quantity of film. When these circumstances exist, seal as many rolls as
possible in a second moisture- resistant container.
Handling
Handle the film strand only by the edges to avoid localized changes in film
sensitivity caused by fingerprints. Folding and crimping the film also introduces
local changes in sensitivity. Keep the surfaces that the film travels over clean to
prevent scratching of the film's base or emulsion.
A more detailed discussion of long-term storage may be found in The Book of
Film Care, Kodak Publication No. H-23.

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KODAK: How do I know I'm ordering the right film?

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

How do I know I'm ordering the right film?


How to identify the film's format, emulsion, length, and
winding

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Motion picture film emulsions are coated on a 54-inch-wide continuous


web of film base. These 54-inch rolls constitute the master stock rolls
that are slit into strips during the finishing process. Each master roll is
assigned a number, and each strip also has a reference number. After
slitting, the strips are perforated and cut to the designated lengths.

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Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Camera Films are then wound on
cores or spools, the ends are taped, and the wound film is wrapped in
black, plastic bags before being packaged in taped metal cans or box
bins. The plastic bags protect the film from exposure to light, provide a
high degree of cleanliness, and make the film fit snugly inside the can.

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The tape used on the outside of a film can serves as a seal between the
cover and body of the can. This tape is designed to resist the flow of air
and moisture so that the newly manufactured film retains its original
moisture content. The tape and can are both marked to identify the
contents. A description of the identifying codes on tape, can label, and
film appears under Film Identification.
The "rolls available" block on the data sheet describes forms in which a
particular film type is available.
The first column gives the catalog number (CAT No.), perhaps the most
important piece of information to know when ordering film from Kodak.
The catalog number identifies a particular kind of emulsion, film format,
and length to our Customer Relations Representatives. For example, CAT
No. 124 6636 describes only one film package: 100 feet of Eastman
Color Negative Film 5247 (35 mm), EI Winding, one row of perfs (1866
pitch), with a film identification number of ECN718.
The second column gives the film identification number, a combination of
a three-letter film emulsion designation (ECN, in the example above) and
a three-digit specification number (718, in this case). The number
designates film width; perforation type and format; type of core, spool,
or magazine; and winding. This code does not generally refer to the film
length.
The last two or three columns-Description, Format (applicable only to
films available in multi rank), and Perforation Type-provide the film
length and the information abstracted from the specification number.
A single free copy of any film data sheet is available from this website or
write: Eastman Kodak Company, Dept. 412-L, Rochester, NY 146500532.

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KODAK: Cores and Spools

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Cores and Spools


KODAK and EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are available on several types
of cores and spools, each appropriate to the design of the equipment in
which the films are to be exposed. The films are connected to the core,
or spool, in one of the following ways: (1) wound on the core indicates
the film is initially started by tightly lapping several convolutions of film
around the core. When the film is wound on the core, the core cannot be
removed from the film except by unwinding the film; (2) core inserted
indicates that the film is initially wound on a collapsible mandrel that is
later removed and the core inserted in the cavity of the roll. Thus, the
film is not attached to the core.

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The standard core and spool types for KODAK and EASTMAN Motion
Picture Films are shown and described below:

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Figure 34
Type T Core -16 mm. Figure 34 illustrates a plastic core with a 2-inch (51 mm) outside
diameter and a 1-inch (25.4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and film slot. Normally
used with 16 mm films up to 400 feet (122 m) in length, except 100 -foot (30.5 m) and
200-foot (61 m) lengths of camera negative and reversal materials, which generally come
on camera spools with integral leaders and trailers for loading under subdued light.

Figure 35

Type Z Core -16 mm. A plastic core with a 3 -inch (76 mm) outside diameter. Contains a
1-inch (25.4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Used with camera and
print films in roll sizes longer than 400 feet (122 m). See Figure 35.

Figure 36

Type U Core-35 mm. A plastic core with a 2 -inch (51 mm) outside diameter. Contains a 1
-inch (25.4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Customarily used with
camera negative, sound, print, and television recording films, and positive films that are
used in title cameras. Supplied in a variety of lengths. See Figure 36.

Figure 37

Type K Core -35 mm. A plastic core with a 3 -inch (76 mm) outside diameter. Contains a

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KODAK: Cores and Spools

Page 2 of 2

1-inch (25.4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Used with 2000-foot
(610 m), 3000-foot (914 m), 4000-foot (1219 m), and some 1000-foot (305 m) lengths of
negative, sound, print, and television recording films. See Figure 37.

Figure 38

Type Y Core-35 mm. A plastic core with the same dimensions as the Type K Core but
made of a stronger material to hold 6000-foot (1829 m) rolls of color print film. See Figure
38.

Figure 39

R-90 Spool -16 mm. A metal camera spool with a 3.615-inch (92 mm) flange diameter
and a 1 1/4 -inch (32 mm) core diameter. Square hole with single keyway in both flanges.
Center hole configuration is aligned on both flanges. The standard sales lengths for this
spool are 100 feet (30.5 m) of acetate base film. Used in cameras such as the Canon and
Elmo for double super 8 film and in 16 mm spool-loading cameras. See Figure 39.

Figure 40

R-190 Spool-16 mm. A metal camera spool with a 4.940-inch (125 mm) flange diameter
and a 1 1/4 -inch (32 mm) core diameter. Square hole with single keyway, two offset round
drive holes, and one elliptical hole in both flanges. Side 1 and Side 2 markings. Will accept
200 feet (61 m) of acetate base film. See Figure 40.

Figure 41

S-83 Spool-35 mm. A metal camera spool with a 3.657 -inch (93 mm) flange diameter
and a 31/32 -inch (25 mm) core diameter. Square holes with single keyway in both flanges.
Center hole configuration is aligned on both flanges. Intended for 100 feet (30.5 m) of
acetate base film. Used with camera negative materials. See Figure 41.

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KODAK: Winding

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Winding
When a 16 mm roll of raw stock, perforated along one edge, is held so
that the end of the film leaves the roll at the top and to the right, it is
designated Winding A if the perforations are toward the observer,
Winding B if the perforations are away from the observer, as shown in
Figure below. Winding A films are used to make contact prints and are
not intended for use in the camera. Winding B is used for camera film, to
make optical prints, and on bidirectional printers.
NOTE: When requesting single-perforated film on a spool or core that
has nonsymmetrical flanges (i.e., a different hole or keyway on either
side), you must indicate the hole or keyway closest to the perforations
and specify whether the emulsion should be wound in or out.

Winding A
Emulsion Side in

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Winding B
Emulsion Side in

Film for use in 16 mm single -system sound cameras is regularlyg


furnished in Winding B on 100-foot (30.5 m) and 200 -foot (61 m) spools.
It is also furnished in Winding B on 400-foot (122 m) Type T cores and,
occasionally, on spools.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Perforations

Page 1 of 1
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Perforations
l
l

l
l

Sizes and Shapes


Perforation Types
35 mm and 60 mm End Use
16 mm End Use
Optimum Pitch for Printing
Projection Print Aspect Ratios

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KODAK: Sizes and Shapes

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Sizes and Shapes


In the early days of 35 mm motion pictures, film perforations were round.
Because these perforations were more subject to wear, the shape was
changed to that now known as the Bell & Howell (BH) or 'negative'
perforation. See Figure 43. This modification improved positioning accuracy
and was the standard for many years. During this time, 35 mm professional
motion picture cameras and optical printers were designed with registration
pins that conformed to negative (BH) perforation and are still so designed to
this day. Thus, camera films and many laboratory films use the negative
(BH) perforations. The high shrinkage of older films on nitrate base made the
negative perforation a problem on projection films because of the excessive
wear and noise during projection as the sprocket teeth ticked the hold-back
side of the perforations as they left the sprocket. The sharp corners also
were weak points and projection life of the film was shortened. To
compensate for this, a new perforation was designed with increased height
and rounded corners to provide added strength. This perforation, commonly
known as the KS or "positive" perforation, has since become the world
standard for 35 mm projection print films.

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During the period when the production of color prints involved the multiple
printing of separation negatives onto a common print film, a third design,
known as the Dubray-Howell perforation, was introduced. It had the same
height as the negative (BH) perforation to maintain the necessary
registration but had rounded corners to improve projection life. This
perforation is still available for special applications and on certain films
(Eastman Color Intermediate II Film 5243, for example). Because shrinkage
in current films is low, the shorter perforation height poses no projection
wear problems. In 1953, the introduction of CinemaScope produced a fourth
type of perforation. This wide-screen projection system incorporated 35 mm
film with perforations that were nearly square and smaller than the positive
(KS) perforation. The design provided space on the film to carry four
magnetic-sound stripes for stereophonic and surround sound. Although not
widely used now, this perforation is still available on 35 mm Eastman Color
Print Film.
Except for early experimentation, perforation dimensions on 16 mm and 8
mm films have remained unchanged since their introduction.
Each type of perforation is referred to by a letter identifying its shape and by
a number indicating the perforation pitch dimension. Perforation pitch is the
distance from the bottom edge of one perforation to the bottom edge of the
next perforation. The letters BH indicate negative perforations, which are
generally used on camera films, on intermediate films, and on films used in
special-effect processes. The letters KS indicate positive perforations, which
are used on most positive sound recording films and color print films The
letters CS designate the smaller perforations used for projection prints on
which additional space must be provided for multiple sound tracks in the
CinemaScope process.
The designation BH 1866, for example, indicates a film having negative - type
perforations with a pitch dimension of O.1866 inch (4.740 mm).
Camera films may be perforated along both edges (double perforated) or

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Sizes and Shapes

Page 2 of 3

along only one edge (single perforated). All 35 mm camera films are double
perforated. Films for single-pass 16 mm and 8 mm camera use may be
single or double perforated. Single-perforated 16 mm films are often
magnetically striped for single-system sound or post process sound addition.
Double -perforated super 8 and regular 8 film is always suppled in 16 mm
width to allow two-pass camera operation. Films used in laboratories for
intermediate and release prints are supplied in a variety of perforation
formats. The letter R preceded by a number designates the number of rows
of perforations in a strip (1R-one row, 2R-two rows, etc.).
Some flexibility is possible in selecting double- or single-perforated film. You
can use double -perforated film in cameras having a single pull-down claw.
Also, you can duplicate or print footage exposed on double-perforated film on
single-perforation stock if a photographic (optical) or magnetic sound track is
to be added to the film. (NOTE: Do not use single- perforated film in
equipment designed for double-perforated film.)

Figure 43

Perforation Type
Bell & Howell Kodak Standard
Dimensions Inches

mm

Inches

mm

16
Inches

Tolerance +/ mm

Inches

mm

0.1100

2.794

0.1100

2.794

0.0720 1.829 0.0004

0.010

0.0730

1.854

0.0780

1.981

0.0500 1.270 0.0004

0.010

H*

0.0820

2.08
0.020

0.51

0.010

0.03

0.25

0.001

* Dimension H is a calculated value

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KODAK: Sizes and Shapes

Page 3 of 3

Figure 44

Perforation Type and ANSI Number


1R -2994
(PH22.109)
Dimensions Inches
A*

0.628

1R- 3000
(PH22.12)

2R -2994
(PH22.110)

2R -3000
(PH22.5)

Tolerance +/ -

mm

Inches

mm

Inches

mm

Inches

mm

Inches

mm

15.95

0.628

15.95

0.628

15.95

0.628

15.95

0.001

0.03

0.2994 7.605 0.3000 7.620 0.2994 7.605 0.3000

7.620

0.0005

0.013

0.0355 0.902 0.0355 0.902 0.0355 0.902 0.0355

0.0355

0.0020

0.051

0.413

10.49

0.413

10.49

0.001

0.03

G
(max)

0.001

0.03

0.001

0.03

29.94

760.5

30.00

762.0

0.03

0.8

L**

29.94

760.5

30.00

762.0

* This dimension also represents the unperforated width.


** This dimension represents the length of any 100 consecutive perforation intervals

Figure 45

Perforation Type and ANSI Number


BH-1866
(PH22.93)
Dimensions Inches

BH-1870
(PH22.34)

KS -1866
(PH22.139)

KS -1870
(PH22.36)

Tolerance
+/-

mm

Inches

mm

Inches

mm

Inches

mm

Inches

mm
0.025

A*

1.377

34.975

1.377

34.975

1.377

34.975

1.377

34.975

0.001

0.1866

4.74

0.1870

4.75

0.1866

4.740

0.1870

4.750

0.0005 0.013

0.079

2.01

0.079

2.01

0.079

2.01

0.079

2.01

0.002

0.05

0.999

25.37

0.999

25.37

0.999

25.37

0.999

25.37

0.002

0.05

G
(max)

0.001

0.03

0.001

0.03

0.001

0.03

0.001

0.03

L**

18.66

474.00

18.70

474.98

18.66

474.00

18.70

474.98

0.015

0.38

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KODAK: Perforation Types

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Perforation Types
35 mm and 65 mm End Use

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1. BH- 1870-35 mm Bell -Howell negative perforations with a pitch


measurement of 0.1870" (long pitch), ANSI PH22.93-1980
2. BH-1866-35 mm Bell-Howell negative perforations with a pitch
measurement of 0.1866" (short pitch), ANSI PH22.93-1980
3. KS-1870-35 mm and 65 mm Kodak Standard Positive perforations
with a pitch measurement of 0.l870" (long pitch), ANSI PH22.1391980; PH22.145-1981
4. KS-1866-35 mm and 65 mm Kodak Standard Positive perforations
with a pitch measurement of 0.1866" (short pitch), ANSI
PH22.139-1980; PH22.145-1981
5. DH-1870-35mm Dubray-Howell perforations with a pitch
measurement of 0.1870" (long pitch), ANSI PH22.102-1980
6. CS-1870-35 mm CinemaScope perforations with a pitch
measurement of 0.1870" (long pitch), ANSI PH22.102-1980
7. KS-1870-70 mm film perforated 65 mm Kodak Standard Positive
perforations with a pitch measurement of 0.1870" (long pitch),
ANSI PH22.119-1981

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16 mm End Use
8. 2R-2994-16 mm film perforated two edges with a perforation pitch
of 0.2994" (short pitch), ANSI PH22.110-1980
9. 2R-3000-16 mm film perforated two edges with a perforation pitch
of 0.3000" (long pitch), ANSI PH22.110-1980
10. IR-2994-Same as No. 8 except perforated one edge, ANSI
PH22.109-1980
11. 3R-2994-35mm film perforated 16 mm with perforation pitch of
0.2994" (short pitch), ANSI PH22.171-1980
12. IR-3000-Same as No. 11 except with a perforation pitch of
0.3000" (long pitch), ANSI PH22.171-1980
13. 3R-3000-Same as No.11 except with a perforation pitch of
0.3000" (long pitch) ANSI PH22.171-1980

Optimum Pitch for Printing


Confinuous printers used for motion-picture film are designed so that the
original film and the print raw stock are in contact (emulsion-toemulsion) with each other as they pass around the printing sprocket,
with the raw stock on the outside. To prevent slippage between the two
films during printing (which would produce an unsharp or unsteady
image on the screen), the original film must be slightly shorter in pitch
than the print stock. In most continuous printers, the diameter of the
printing sprocket, Figure 46, is such that the pitch of the original must be
0.2 to 0.4 percent (theoretically, 0.3 percent) shorter than that of the
print stock. With nitrate film and early safety film, this condition was
achieved by natural shrinkage of the original during processing and early
aging. However, the substantially lower shrinkage of present safety films
makes such a natural adjustment impossible; therefore, film used as
printing originals is now manufactured with the pitch slightly shorter than
the pitch of the print film. For 35 mm film, the pitch dimensions are

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KODAK: Perforation Types

Page 2 of 3

0.1870 inch (4.750 mm) on print film and 0.1866 inch (4.740 mm) on
original film; for 16 mm film, they are 0.3000 inch (7.620 mm) on print
film, 0.2994 inch (7.605 mm) on original film. For intermediate and print
films used to make super 8 prints, the pitch dimensions are 0.1667 inch
(4.234 mm) on print film, 0.1664 inch (4.227 mm) on intermediate film.
This difference in pitch accounts for about 0.2 percent of the theoretical
0.3 percent; processing and aging shrinkage of the original film before
printing usually provides the balance. See the first perforation type
reference for additional information.

Figure 46
A printing sprocket

Projection Print Aspect Ratios


The aspect ratio is the relationship between
the width and height of an image. While the
image dimensions may vary in size according
to projection requirements, the aspect ratio
should comply with the cinematographic
intent. The industry standard for theatrical
motion pictures remained a constant 1.37:1
between the introduction of sound and the
introduction of CinemaScope in 1953 when
wide screen presentations were developed.
While the original stereophonic (four -track
magnetic) CinemaScope presentation had an
aspect ratio of 2.55: 1, the flat, or
nonanamorphic systems, designed to simulate
wide screen images, provided several aspect
ratios from 1.66:1 all the way up to and
including 2:1. During this uncertain period,
release prints were often printed with wider
frame lines to emphasize that increased ratios
were intended. During printing, the frame lines
could be varied by printing the lines in to cover
some of the original film image. At the same
time, television's demands for feature films
Figure 47
increased. However, because the typical
Potential image lossed when
television display provides a fixed ratio of
changing aspect ratios
1.33:1, many of the films shown on television, after adjustment to fill
the video screen height, lost a substantial part of the image at the
edges. See Figure 47. Several approaches to rectifying this
incompatibility were tried with various levels of success until the industry
came to the current "consensus" that 1.85:1 would be the "normal"
theatrical projection ratio but that the print would have an image of
greater height so that it could fill a television screen without creating

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KODAK: Perforation Types

Page 3 of 3

borders. Today, the usual procedure when filming productions for


theatrical release and eventual TV showing is to "matte" the camera
viewfinder to clearly indicate 1:85:1 and to keep all pertinent action
within this area. Nevertheless, the entire 1.37:1 frame is exposed. The
cinematographer must make certain no scene rigging, mike books,
cables, or lighls are included in the expanded area. Subsequent release
prints, therefore, contain a sufficient frame height to provide normal
telecine transmission. In the theater, the projectionist must use a 1:85:1
aperture plate and exercise some judgment in adjusting the projector
framing. This can be done conveniently during the showing of the titles.

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KODAK: Film Identification

Page 1 of 1
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Film Identification
l
l
l
l

Unprocessed Film
How to Read a Film Can Label
Processed Film
Know Your Films
Test Exposures
To Provide a Reference Point
For Locations with Unfamiliar Lighting
To Establish a Reference with You and Your Laboratory
To Evaluate Specific End-Use Appearance
To Determine the "Look" of the Finished Job
To Check Specific Color Reproduction

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KODAK: Unprocessed Film

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Unprocessed Film
The eleven-digit code on the label in Figure 49 (5247-123-4567) identifies the
film type (5247), the emulsion batch number (123), and the number of the roll
(4567) from which this strip of Eastman Color Negative Film was cut. The
emulsion batch number and roll number also appear on the tape sealing the can.

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The Film Identification code (ECN 718 in this case) gives the emulsion type (ECN
or Eastman Color Negative Film) and film specification number (718), a code
describing width, perforation type and format, winding, and type of core, spool,
or magazine.
The film width, perforation pitch, and emulsion position and winding type are
identified on the label.

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The film-strip reference number identifies the location of a particular strip of film
cut from the master roll. This number (1 through 38 for 35 mm and 1 through
83 for 16 mm) appears on a sticker affixed to most cans holding 400 or more
feet of film. Figure 48 shows such a sticker.

Figure 48

How to read a film can label

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KODAK: Unprocessed Film

Page 2 of 3

Film Sizes

Figure 49

Processed Film
The film strip reference number affixed to the can of raw stock film also appears
as a latent image on the film itself. It is visible on the processed film between
"Eastman" and "SAFETY FILM" on the edge print.
On 35 mm films having multiple -row perforations (used only by processing
laboratories to print multiple copies of a film simultaneously), a lowercase letter
or letters (a, b, c, etc) appear between "SAFETY" and "FILM" to identify the
perforation format of the parent strip and the location of the sub strip within it.
The combinations of manufacturer's code (an uppercase letter for 35 mm or a
trailer-end marking for 16 mm), film base data, and edge-print medium (ink or
latent image) are helpful in identifying processed film. If a film data sheet carries
a "Film Identification" heading, the uppercase letter of the manufacturer's code
will be listed.

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KODAK: Know Your Films

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Know Your Films


Design, manufacture, actual shooting, projection, and storage conditions
all influence film performance and selection. First we'll discuss why an
on-site test is a good idea. Suppose your test shows that the film stock
being considered produces unattractive results under the lights you plan
to use to illuminate a few scenes. Will a filter correct the situation? Can
you change the lighting? Will another film stock work better for those
scenes?
Our second topic, filtration, covers the wide range of uses for filters to fill
the needs of your unique circumstances.
The third section covers the process by which the sound you recorded is
combined with your images in the final print.

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The last two sections explain how to care for the finished films you have
carefully created.

Test Exposures
Every production presents a unique set of conditions and demands. A full
understanding of the job at hand and careful evaluation of the
information in the data sheets should give the filmmaker a good idea of
how a chosen film stock will respond to most filming situations. Testing
reduces any remaining uncertainties and establishes the reaction of a
particular film to a unique situation. Tle variations that make test
exposures worthwhile and the technique of interpreting such exposures
are the subjects of this section. Testing is one aspect of professional
work too often overlooked in practice. When seeking the best possible
results, filmmakers should run tests to provide reference points during
production and to confirm choices based on previous experience and
data sheet information.
Here, listed in the order of the time they may occur, are the principle
causes of real or apparent changes in speed in all films, and contrast and
color balance in color films. Failure to understand these causes can lead
to misunderstanding or misinterpretation of photographic results:
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

Slight manufacturing variations among different emulsion batches


Adverse storage conditions before exposure
Scene illumination of incorrect or mixed color quality
Differences in film sensitivity with changes in illumination level and
exposure time
Variations in equipment (lenses, shutters, exposure meters, etc)
Adverse storage conditions between film exposure and processing
Nonstandard processing conditions
Nonstandard viewing conditions
Differences in personal judgment

All except the first are beyond the scope of manufacturing control and
cannot be predicted accurately from the data sheets. Furthermore, the
variations encountered in practical use are apt to be a great deal larger

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KODAK: Know Your Films

Page 2 of 3

than those permitted by manufacturing tolerances. These are the basic


reasons why you should make a test exposure whenever speed and
color-balance are important. Test exposures are necessary for reversal
materials that will be projected directly after processing more so than for
negative or printed reversal materials because density and color-balance
adjustments cannot be made during printing.
Most professionals realize the perishable nature of sensitized materials
and are careful to avoid subjecting films (especially color) to extreme
heat and humidity, either before or after exposure. The other factors
listed are equally important, however, even if not equally familiar. None
should ever be overlooked when choosing a film or attempting to explain
an unexpected result.
Two or more causes of variation may influence results at the same time.
Often the effects are additive, and minor single variations will, when
combined, produce noticeable results unless proper compensation is
made in advance. Only a test exposure under the practical conditions of
use will furnish this information.

To Provide a Reference Point


A speed variation of 1/3 stop, and sometimes more, usually passes
unnoticed when black-and-white film is projected. In a color film, where
the performance of each emulsion layer is evaluated in terms of the
other two, a much smaller variation in the relative speed of any one
layer is evident to the user. Coating thickness is a manufacturing
variable that provides an excellent illustration of the technical accuracy
maintained in making color films. Tests have shown that the thickness of
each emulsion layer must be controlled within 4 or 5 percent; any larger
variation would by itself use up the entire color-balance tolerance
available.
Since a typical color emulsion is only 3 ten thousandths of an inch thick,
so only 15 millionths of an inch variation is allowable. And this kind of
accuracy is maintained in making successive coatings on a thin, flexible
base in the dark!
Every effort is made to achieve the greatest possible uniformity in the
manufacture of Kodak films, but within such close tolerances minor
variations are unavoidable. Of course, variations are smallest among
films of the same emulsion number. In any case, test data obtained
under actual production conditions is recommended to supplement the
manufacturer's data.
At Kodak, the standardization of manufacturing operations is
supplemented by an extensive testing and quality-control program. Only
film produced within narrow tolerances of the production aim point is
shipped from the manufacturing plant.
The actual sensitometric tolerances tested include speed, fog, contrast,
color-contrast match, and maximum density. Production tests are made
at normal room temperature with illuminants equivalent in color quality
to tungsten (3200 or 3400 K) lamps for tungsten films and to average
sunlight plus skylight (5500 K) for daylight films. They are exposed at
times considered representative of the major applications for the films.
In all cases, films are processed in accordance with process
specifications. Physical characteristics such as curl, perforation pitch,

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KODAK: Know Your Films

Page 3 of 3

weave, tensile strength, freedom from scratches, etc., are also carefully
controlled.
With Eastman and Kodak EKTACHROME Films, the permitted colorbalance variations, tested under normal recommended use, fall
approximately within the range correctable by a CC10 filter in the
camera exposure. In the case of negative films, normal color-balance
variations fall within a range for which adjustment can easily be made in
the printing process.
The careful cinematographer should make practical picture tests on new
film batches with the exposure and filtration to be used for the rest of
the production. These tests will help to determine if any additional
filtration and exposure adjustments are needed.

For Locations with Unfamiliar Lighting


Filmmakers are well aware that color films are balanced in manufacture
for exposure to light of a certain color quality. Color negative film offers
considerable latitude because some adjustments for color balance you
can make during printing. Even reversal materials that will be printed
offer some latitude because of the printing step. However, when a
reversal material isn't going to be printed, you must make compensation
if the light source differs in color quality from that for which the film is
balanced. Even the "correct" light may be changed appreciably in color
quality as it passes from source to subject to film. Discolored or dirty
reflectors and camera lenses with a color tint can change color quality.
Furthermore, the color quality of tungsten and fluorescent lamps can
change with age and voltage fluctuations. Lighting from mixed sources
will also change color renderings.

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KODAK: Film Identification

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Film Identification
To Establish a Reference with You and Your Laboratory

Student Main
About the Program

Different laboratories can produce noticeable variations in image quality


and effective film speed, and from time to time variations can be noted
at a single laboratory. Typical processing can result in speed variations of
plus or minus 1/2-stop and color-balance variations on the order of +/CC10 filter. Tests processed by your chosen laboratory serve as a base in
all future discussions with the laboratory.

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To Evaluate Specific End-Use Appearance


The conditions under which film is viewed have a marked effect on the
apparent color quality of the picture. For critical applications, test film
should be projected and evaluated under the specific conditions in which
it will be used. The locations of the projector, the viewer, and the screen
can affect the image quality dramatically.

Motion Picture Home

To Determine the "Look" of the Finished Job


Because the viewers' reactions to a projected image involve their
psychological responses, a projected image can never be "perfect" in any
simple sense.
Like all photographic and electronic imaging systems, Kodak color films
exhibit small color differences between the image and the subject itself
when they are critically compared. Usually these differences are
insignificant, but cinematographers have to judge whether the "look" of
the film is consistent with their intentions and with the nature of the
subject.
Since the manufacturer's evaluation of color balance is determined from
picture tests judged by a number of observers, it is obvious that an
individual cinematographer, producer, or laboratory may prefer a color
balance different from one judged desirable by the manufacturer.
Because the manufacturer can never judge color balance appropriately
for all tastes and all extremes of working conditions, critical work should
be preceded by tests made as closely as possible to the conditions of
final use, if possible, on the actual subject. You should always make the
test on film of the same emulsion number as that to be used for the final
exposure and kept under similar conditions before and after exposure.
The exposure time, light source, and processing conditions should also
be identical with those planned for the final work.

To Check Specific Color Reproduction


With only three dyes, color films are, able to produce a pleasing
rendering of most colors. Occasionally, though, some colors present
special difficulties in accurate reproduction, even though the film has
been manufactured, stored, exposed, and processed correctly.
Fortunately, the conditions that produce these effects are not common.

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KODAK: Film Identification

Page 2 of 3

Since a large majority of all photographs include people, the


reproduction of flesh tones is a primary consideration in the design of a
color film. Also important are the reproduction of neutrals (whites, grays,
and blacks) and the reproduction of common "memory" colors, such as
blue sky, green grass, etc. Because films are designed to reproduce
these colors properly under a variety of conditions, some other colors such as shades of chartreuse, lime, pink, and orange-may reproduce less
well. (It is possible to design a film that would improve the reproduction
of these other colors, but only at the expense of generally more
important flesh tones, sky, grass, etc.) More noticeable difficulties can be
encountered because color films do not have exactly the same color
sensitivities as the human eye. For most subjects, the three lightsensitive layers of the film do not have to "see" the subject exactly the
same way the human eye does. In most cases, the differences are
scarcely noticeable.
Sometimes, though, the differences between film sensitivity and visual
sensitivity produce unwelcome results. Since color films are sensitive to
ultraviolet radiation, a substance reflecting ultraviolet energy will
reproduce bluer on film than it looks to the eye. If it is blue to begin
with, this effect is of little or no consequence. With other colors,
however, the additional blueness may neutralize the original color or
even make it appear blue. Neutral and near-neutral colors are more apt
to be affected by such a shift, because their saturation is low. For
example, a black tuxedo made of synthetic material may appear blue. An
ultraviolet absorbing filter, such as a Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No.
2B, over the lens or over the light source when practical can reduce this
effect.
Closely related is the effect of ultraviolet fluorescence. Some fabrics
absorb ultraviolet radiation and remit it in the near-blue (shortest
wavelength) portion of the visible spectrum. Since the eye is not very
sensitive in this part of the spectrum, the effect may not be readily
apparent until a photograph of the subject is viewed. An analogous
visual effect is created by black light which makes special paints, some
fabrics, etc, glow in the dark.
Under an ultraviolet lamp, any fabric containing brighteners will
fluoresce, but many white fabrics contain brighteners introduced during
manufacture or laundering to give them a whiter appearance.
Examination of any suspect fabrics under an ultraviolet source will
generally indicate whether there will be a fluorescence problem. In this
case, a filter over the lens does not help; however, an ultraviolet
absorber over the light source may prove helpful. A photographic test is
the best way to determine whether problems with reproduction in the
ultraviolet range should be anticipated.
Perhaps most troublesome are the color reproduction problems
sometimes called anomalous reflectance. They arise from high
reflectance at the far red and infrared end of the spectrum, where the
eye has little or no sensitivity. The heavenly blue moming glory and
ageratum flowers are examples of colors occurring in nature that
reproduce poorly because color films are much more sensitive to the far
red than the eye. Among artificial materials, some classes of organic dye
are notable examples of high reflectance in the far red. These dyes are
currently very popular with fabric manufacturers because they are
relatively inexpensive and work well with synthetic materials. While the
high reflectance of these dyes in the far red and infrared can be found in
all colors, its effect is most noticeable in medium to dark green fabrics,

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KODAK: Film Identification

Page 3 of 3

where the photographic effect of the far red reflectance is to neutralize


the green, making it appear browner.
You can identify high reflectance at the far end of the spectrum can be
identified by use of a deep red filter such as a Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin
Filter No. 70. If the materials are examined under a tungsten light, a
green natural-fiber material will appear black, whereas a synthetic
material with high reflectance in the far red will appear much lighter.
Because the judgment is quantitative, a sample of a green fabric known
to reproduce well should be compared with the test fabric under the
filter. If the test fabric appears distinctly light in a side-by-side
comparison through the No. 70 filter, you should expect a reproduction
problern. Even then, confirmation by means of a photographic test under
actual working conditions is advisable if circumstances permit.

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31/07/2002

KODAK
Gives You
The Edge
That Counts.

16mm

EASTMAN 16 mm KEYKODE Numbers


USERSGUIDE
Film Identification Code
Letter which identifies film type:

EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers


Kodak's machine-readable key numbers.
Includes the 10-digit key number,
manufacturer identification code, film
type, and offset in perforations.
(barcode detail next page)

Current Films
D. . .
E. . .
H. . .
I...
K. . .
L. . .
M. . .

7234
7222
7231
7246
7245
7293
7248

Q. . .
R. . .
S. . .
U. . .
V. . .
Y. . .
Z. . .

7277
7289
7272
7279
7244
7620
7274

Discontinued Films
A. . .
C. . .
J. . .
N. . .

7243
7297
7296
7292

O . . . 7249
T . . . 7298
W. . . 7287

Zero-Frame Reference
Mark
Dot which identifies the
frame directly below as the
zero-frame specified by both
the human-readable key
number and the machinereadable bar code.

Key Number:
Prefix Six digits that identify
film roll.
Count Four digits that increment

every six inches


Manufacturer
Identification Code

(20 perforations).

(Below the Zero-Frame


Reference Mark) Letter
which identifies film
manufacturer. K=Eastman
Kodak Company.

Strip Number

Tails

Base Up

EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers Information

Encoded in USS-128
Barcode

Start Character is toward head of film

Manufacturers Information
Matching Check Symbols
Four randomly selected and
placed symbols designed as an
extra matching check.
To Use: After matching key
number and checking picture,
verify that the same symbols are
located in the same position on
both the workprint and the
negative.

Repeats every two feet (80 perforations).

Density Patch
Repeats every ten feet
(400 perforations).

Heads

KODAK
Gives You
The Edge
That Counts.

35mm

Heads

EASTMAN 35 mm KEYKODE Numbers


USERSGUIDE

Base Up
Strip Number

Manufacturers Information

Manufacturer
Identification Code
Letter which identifies film
manufacturer. K=Eastman
Kodak Company.

EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers


Kodak's machine-readable key
numbers. Includes the 10-digit key
number, manufacturer identification
code, film type, and offset in
perforations.
(barcode detail next page)

Zero-Frame Reference Mark


Key Number:
Count Four digits that
increment once per foot
(64 perforations).
Prefix Six digits that identify
film roll.

Dot which identifies the frame


directly above as the zero-frame
specified by both the humanreadable key number and the
machine-readable bar code.

Tails

Matching Check Symbols


Two randomly selected and
placed symbols designed as an
extra matching check.
To Use: After matching key
numbers and picture, verify that
the same symbols are located in
the same position on both the
workprint and the negative.

Note: The solid squares also


serve as density patches.

Mid-Foot Key Number


Positioned halfway (+32 perforations) between
each main key and Keykode number, these midfoot numbers identify short scenes that may not
include a main key or Keykode number. Mid-foot
key numbers are printed in smaller type to
distinguish them from the main key numbers.

Frame-Index Marker
A hyphen every four
perforations helps locate the
frame lines for dark scenes.
To Use: Locate one frame
line. Determine its offset
from index marker (0, +1, +2,
or +3 perforations). Use this
offset for frame-line
reference.
Note: The frame-index
marker is not printed when
it interferes with any other
edgeprint information.

Film Identification Code


Letter which identifies film type:

Current Films

EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers Information

D. . .
E. . .
H. . .
I...
K. . .
L. . .
M. . .
Q. . .

5234
5222
5231
5246
5245
5293
5248
5277

R. . .
S. . .
T. . .
U. . .
V. . .

5289
5272
5298
5279
5244
2244
X. . . SFX 200T
Y. . . 5620
Z. . . 5274

Discontinued Films

Encoded in USS-128 Barcode

A. . .
B. . .
C. . .
F. . .
G. . .

5243
5247
5297
5295
5294

J...
O...
P...
W. . .

5296
5249
5600
5287

KODAK
Gives You
The Edge
That Counts.

65mm

Heads

Base Up

Manufacturers Information
EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers
Kodak's machine-readable key numbers.
Includes the 10-digit key number,
manufacturer identification code, film type,
and offset in perforations.

(barcode detail next page)


Zero-Frame Reference Mark
Dot which identifies the frame
directly above as the zero-frame
specified by both the humanreadable key number and the
machine-readable bar code.

Key Number
Count Four digits that increment
every 120 perforations.
Prefix Six digits that identify film roll.

Current Films
I...
K. . .
L. . .
M. . .
Q. . .

5246
5245
5293
5248
5277

R. . .
T. . .
U. . .
V. . .
Z. . .

5289
5298
5279
5244
5274

Film Identification Code


Letter which identifies film type:

Manufacturer Identification Code


Letter which identifies film manufacturer.
K= Eastman Kodak Company.

Discontinued Films
A. . . 5243
B. . . 5247
C. . . 5297

J . . . 5296
W. . . 5287

EASTMAN 65 mm KEYKODE Numbers


USERSGUIDE

One-third Key Number


The key number +40, with bar code
and frame-reference dot, is offset 40
perforations from the main key number.
Use to identify short scenes which may
not include the main key number.

Matching Check Symbols


Two randomly selected symbols for additional
matching checks.
To Use: After matching key numbers and
checking picture, verify that same symbols are
located in same position on both the workprint
and the negative. Check symbols are another
aid in matching very short scenes. The solid
squares also serve as density patches to
evaluate edgeprint exposure.

EASTMAN KODAK Numbers Information

Encoded in USS - 128 Barcode

This edgeprint format pertains to all Eastman 65mm negative and intermediate films.

Tails

Two-thirds Key Number


Like the one-third key number,
but +80 perforations following
the main key number.

Frame-Reference Markers
A Dash, Key and Plus are printed at
regular intervals to help locate frame
lines, especially for scenes shot in
low light.
Dash: Frame reference mark for
5- and 10-perf formats.
Key: Frame reference mark for
8-perf format.
+ Plus: Frame reference mark for
15-perf format.
(Every third dash is a plus)
To Use: Locate one frame line and
nearest reference marker for the
given film format. Count the number
of perforations between the frame
line and the marker. Use this perf
offset to identify the location of
frame lines throughout the scene.
Note: Frame-reference markers are
not printed when they interfere with
other edgeprint information.

Improved
Edgeprint
Format for
KODAK
65mm Film

Interval between main Keykode numbers increased from


80- to 120-perforations
Facilitates the development of software programs for accurate
electronic editing in all 65mm formats.

Two intermediate Keykode numbers offset 40- and 80perforations from the main Keykode number
An aid in matching short scenes which may not include the main
key number.

Larger (full-size) human-readable intermediate key numbers


Easier to read on original and intermediate films. More legible
on 35mm printdown workprint. Along with +40 and +80 perf
designators, the two alpha-characters preceding the key
number are half size to further indicate these are intermediate
key numbers.

Frame-reference marker (key) added for 8-perf format


A new reference symbol for quickly locating the frame lines of
dark scenes shot in the 8-perf format. (An addition to the dash
and plus symbols currently used to reference frame lines on
5-, 10- and 15- perf formats.)

New manufacturer identification code-22


Allows readers and software to automatically recognize the
new edgeprint format and accurately record Kodak Keykode
numbers from the new and previous formats, even when
intercut. Note: The identification code was 02 for the previous
65mm format.

New printer number sequence -91 and -92


Printer numbers (first two digits of the key number) are 91 or
92. Printer numbers for previous Kodak 65mm films were 01
or 02. On a negative cut list, the different numbers quickly
identify the edgeprint format of the film.

Strip number added to the manufacturer's information


Provides further identification for any roll of 65mm film.

KODAK: Filtration

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Filtration
l

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Filters Useful with All Camera Films


Polarizing Filters
Neutral Density Filters
Filters for Black-and-White Films
Correction Filters
Contrast Filters
Haze Filters
Filters for Color Films
Selecting Filters for Correcting Color Temperature
Light Source Conversion with Filters
Light Balancing Filters
Conversion Filters
Limits to Color Temperature Measurement
Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters
Color Compensating Filters for Color Correction
Combining Color Compensating Filters
Exposure Allowance for Filters
Filters for Color Printing

Student Main
About the Program
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Motion Picture Home

White light is the sum of all the colors of the rainbow; black is the
absence of all these colors. For practical purposes, we can consider white
light as composed of equal amounts of three primary light colors-red,
green, and blue. For example, if green and red are subtracted, we see
blue. We, see many more colors in nature than these three because
absorption and reflection of the primaries are rarely complete.
Our perception of a color is influenced by the surrounding colors and
brightness level, the surface gloss of an object, and any personal defects
in our color vision. Different films also see colors differently due to
differences in spectral sensitivity. Filtration used with black-and-white
films can control the shades of gray to obtain a technically correct
rendition or to exaggerate or suppress the tonal differences for visibility,
emphasis, or other effects. Filtration with color films can change the
color quality of the light source to produce proper color rendition or to
create special effects.

Colors as Seen in White


Light

Colors of Light Absorbed

Red

Blue and green

Blue

Red and green

Green

Red and blue

Yellow (red-green)

Blue

Magenta (red-blue)

Green

Cyan (blue-green)

Red

Black

Red, green, and blue

White

None

Gray

Equal portions of red, green, and


blue

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KODAK: Filtration

Page 2 of 2

Filters always subtract some of the light reflected from a scene before it
reaches the film plane in the camera. A red filter then is not "red" but
rather a filter that absorbs blue and green. Similarly, a yellow filter is
one that absorbs blue light. A yellow sunflower absorbs blue light and
reflects the other parts of white light-red and green, which we see as
yellow (lack of blue).

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KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films

Page 1 of 4
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Filters Useful with All Camera Films


Polarizing Filters

Student Main
About the Program

Polarizing filters (also called polarizing screens) are used to subdue


reflections from surfaces such as glass, water, and polished wood, and
for controlling the brightness of the sky. By reducing glare, polarizing
filters also increase color saturation. Using a polarizing filter to control
the brightness of the sky has several advantages over color filters: (1)
The color rendering of foreground objects is not altered. (2) It is easy to
determine the effect produced by the polarizing filter by checking the
appearance of the image in the viewfinder (for cameras equipped with
reflex-type viewfinders), or by looking through the filter when it is held
at the same angle as used on the camera. (3) Other filters can be used
with a polarizing filter to control the color rendering of objects in the
foreground, while the polarizer independently controls the brightness of
the sky.

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Motion Picture Home

The amount of polarized light from a particular area of the sky varies
according to the position of the area with respect to the sun, the
maximum occurring at an angle of 90 from the sun. Panning the
camera, therefore, should be avoided with a polarizing because the sky
will become darker or lighter as the camera position changes.
The sky may appear lighter than you would expect for these reasons:
l

A misty sky does not photograph as dark as a clear blue sky. You
can't darken an overcast sky by using a polarizing filter.
The sky is frequently almost white at the horizon and shades to a
more intense blue at the zenith. Therefore, the effect of the filter
at the horizon is small, but it becomes greater as you aim the
camera upward.
The sky near the sun is less blue than the surrounding sky and,
therefore, is less affected by a filter.

When you begin making exposures with a polarizing filter, be sure to


remember that this filter has a minimum filter factor of 2.5 (increase
exposure by 1 1/3 stops). This factor applies regardless of how the
polarizing screen is rotated. In addition to this exposure increase, you
must make any exposure increases required by the nature of the
lighting. For example, for the dark-sky effect, the scene must be
sidelighted or toplighted, so it will be necessary to add approximately
1/2-stop exposure to the 1 1/3- stop increase required by the polarizing
filter factor.
Give an additional 1/2-stop exposure when you use a polarizing filter to
eliminate reflections from subjects; reflections often make objects look
brighter than they really are. See Figure 50.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films

Figure 50

Page 2 of 4

A polarizer can eliminate reflections


on non-metallic surfaces.

Neutral Density Filters


Neutral density filters, such as the Kodak WRATTEN Neutral Density
Filter No. 96, reduce the intensity of light reaching the film without
affecting the tonal rendition of colors in the scene. Neutral density filters
make it possible to film in bright sunlight using high-speed films without
having to use very small lens openings. In black-and-white motion picture photography, Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filters No. 03N5 and 8N5
permit the use of a larger lens opening for depth-of-field reduction.
These filters combine a neutral density of 0.5 with the blue and
ultraviolet correction capability of WRATTEN Gelatin Filters No. 3 and No.
8, respectively. In color motion picture photography, you can use
combination filters, such as Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filters No. 85BN3
and 85BN6, to convert the color temperature from 5500 K (daylight) to
3200 K (professional tungsten lighting), and at the same time, obtain
neutral densities of 0.3 and 0.6. Since a 0.3ND filter causes a one-stop
reduction in exposure, these filters require, respectively, one and two
stops of additional exposure.
Kodak WRATTEN Neutral Density Filter No. 96
Neutral
Percent
Density Transmittance

Filter
Factor

Increase in
Exposure (Stops)

0.1

80

1 1/4

1/3

0.2

63

1 1/2

2/3

0.3

50

0.4

40

2 1/2

1 1/3

0.5

32

1 2/3

0.6

25

0.7

20

2 1/3

0.8

16

2 2/3

0.9

13

1.0

10

10

3 1/3

2.0

100

6 2/3

3.0

0.1

1,000

10

4.0

0.01

10,000

13 1/3

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KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films

Page 3 of 4

Filters for Black-and-White Films


Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filters are used with a wide range of black-andwhite films for many purposes. They can emphasize clouds, reduce the
brightness of blue sky and water, penetrate haze in distant landscapes,
increase tonal contrast between colored objects, and produce special
effects such as simulated night scenes.
The filters used in black-and-white work fall into three main types: (1)
Correction filters change the color quality of the exposing light so that
the film records all colors at approximately the relative brightness values
seen by the eye. (2) Contrast filters change the relative brightness
values so that two colors that would otherwise record as nearly the same
shade of gray will have decidedly different brightness in the picture. (3)
Haze filters reduce the effects of aerial haze.

Correction Filters
Most panchromatic emulsions have a high sensitivity to both ultraviolet
and blue radiation. Because this sensitivity is dissimilar to the spectral
sensitivity of the eye, blue or violet subjects are often overexposed and
rendered too light on the final print. For example in location work,
correction filters are often used to overcome an apparent lack of contrast
between blue sky and white clouds. At the red end of the spectrum,
certain higher speed panchromatic films possess a marked red sensitivity
that, unless compensated for, tends to distort the rendering of red
subject matter. Deliberate overcorrection is sometimes done to achieve
special effects.
Foliage looks slightly darker than we expect when it is photographed on
black-and-white film without a filter. By using a yellow or yellow-green
filter to absorb some of the unwanted blue and red light, you can record
foliage in its proper gray tone.
This may seem to imply a contradiction: If a filter subtracts light, there
will be less density on the negative and the print will be darker, so how
does the filter make foliage lighter? Actually, the filter darkens the
rendering on the print of the color it absorbs, thus making the colors it
transmits lighter by comparison.
This becomes apparent when the negative is correctly printed.

Contrast Filters
Used with black-and-white films contrast filters change the relative
contrasts between two objects that would normally photograph as nearly
the same shade of gray. The following guideline will help you choose
contrast filters: A filter transmits its own color, making that color lighter
in a black-and- white print. To make a color darker, use a filter that will
absorb that color. If you use a No. 25 red filter, which transmits the red
of the geranium blossoms and absorbs the green of the grass, the
geraniums will be light and the grass dark in your print. Since you
probably think of the flowers as being brighter than the grass, this print
may look natural to you. But if you use a No. 58 green filter, which
absorbs the red of the geraniums and transmits the green of the grass,
you'll get the opposite result: dark flowers and light grass. You can also
underexpose the film when using a contrast filter to simulate a night
effect under daylight conditions; use orange and red filters, such as

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KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films

Page 4 of 4

Kodak WRATTEN Filter Nos. 23A, 25, 29, or 72B.


The color filter circle, Figure 51 , will help you decide what filters to use
to lighten or darken the gray-tone rendering of most colors. The No. 58
filter is green, for example, which lightens the gray-tone rendering of
green, yellow, and blue-green, and darkens the rendering of orange,
magenta, and red. The filter factors given are often different for tungsten
and for daylight because tungsten light contains relatively more red light
while daylight contains more blue.

Haze Filters
The effects of haze can be reduced by filtering out some of the blue and
ultraviolet lighy. Yellow filters, commonly used for haze peneration and
darkening of the sky, are Kodak WRATTEN Filters No. 3, 8, 12, and 15, in
order of increasing absorption. For further darkening of the sky and
increased haze penetration, use filters ranging from light orange to deep
red, such as filters No. 21, 23A, 25 and 29. These filters absorb varying
degrees of blue light and green light.

Figure 51
Note: If conditions require long time exposures, corrections for reciprocity effect
in addition to the corrections for the filter factor may be necessary.
* For a gray-tone rendering of colors approximating their visual brightness.

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KODAK: Filters for Color Films

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Filters for Color Films


In exposing color films and in making prints and intermediates, there are
a number of conditions under which you can obtain good color rendition
through the use of correcting filters. Daylight and artificial light differ
from one another in spectral quality and are individually subject to
considerable variation. When the actual light is different from that
specified for a particular film, correction filters can adjust the color
quality of the illumination to that for which the film is balanced.
Data sheet tables are usually a reliable guide to the right filters for
obtaining optimum color balance and are especially useful as a starting
point from which to run tests. However, they cannot cover all such
variables as high or low voltage, aging of lamps, or color contribution of
diffusers. Color-temperature meters measuring the three primary colors
provide an accurate method of determining the spectral-energy
distribution of light sources as they relate to the sensitivities of the three
layers in color films. Such meters as the Spectral-tricolor meter and the
Minolta 3 color meter, while costly, provide the user an excellent means
of finding the actual spectral distribution. Two-color meters (much less
costly) show the balance between the red and blue light, and are
adequate to indicate the spectral distribution of light sources having a
continuous energy distribution across the spectrum (such as an
incandescent light). They are not satisfactory for sources (such as
fluorescent lights) having a skewed or discontinuous distribution.

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Some meters give a choice of correcting the balance either wilh color
balancing and conversion filters or with color compensating filters. In
most instances, making the main correction with color compensating
filters requires many filters, whole correcting with light balancing and
conversion filters requires two at the most. Because the addition of many
filters over a camera lens increase flare and decreases sharpness, color
temperature (red- blue) correction is best made with light balancing and
conversion filters and green-magenta adjustment is best made with color
conipensating filters.

Selecting Filters for Correcting Color Temperature


The color quality of some illuminants can be expressed in terms of color
temperature-a measure of the light irradiated by an idea-radiator, that
is, a black body heated to incandescence. When the visual color of the
illuminant is the same, or nearly the same, as that of the ideal radiator
at a given temperature, the illuminant color is described in terms of the
corresponding temperature of the ideal radiator, which is expressed in
degrees Kelvin (K).
NOTE: Do not confuse sunlight with daylight. Sunlight is the light of the
sun only. Daylight is a combination of sunlight plus skylight. The values
given are approximate because many factors affect color temperature.
Outdoors, the sun angle and the conditions of sky, clouds, haze, or dust
particles will raise or lower the color temperature. Indoors, tungsten
bulbs are affected by age (and blackening), voltage,type of reflectors
and diffusers -all of which can influence the actual color temperature of
the light. Usually, a change of 1 volt equals 10K. But this is true only

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KODAK: Filters for Color Films

Page 2 of 2

within a limited voltage range and does not always apply to booster
voltage operation since certain bulbs will not exceed a certain color
temperature regardless of the increase in voltage.

Color Temperature for Various Light Sources


Artificial Light
Degrees
Kelvin

Source
Match Flame

1,700

Candle Flame

1,850

40-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp

2,650

75-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp

2,820

100-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp

2,900

200-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp

2,980

1000-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp

2,990

3200 K Tungsten Lamp

3,200

Molard "Brute" with Yellow Flame


Carbons and YF-101 Filter (approx)

3,350

"C.P." (Color Photography) Studio


Tungsten Lamp

3,350

Photoflood and Reflector Flood Lamp

3,400

Daylight Blue Photoflood Lamp

4,800

White Flame Carbon Arc Lamp

5,000

High-Intensity Sun Arc Lamp

5,500

Xenon Arc Lamp

6,420

Daylight
Source

Degrees Kelvin

Sunlight: Sunrise or Sunset

2,000

Sunlight: 1 Hour after Sunrise

3,500

Sunlight: Early Morning

4,300

Sunlight: Late Afternoon

4,300

Average Summer Sunlight at Noon


(Washington, DC)

5,400

Direct Midsummer Sunlight

5,800

Overcast sky

6,000

Average Summer Sunlight


(plus blue skylight)

6,500

Light Summer Shade

7,100

Average Summer Shade

8,000

Summer Skylight Will Vary from

9,500 to 30,000

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Light Source Conversion with Filters

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Light Source Conversion with Filters


To evaluate filter requirements for the conversion of light sources, it is
helpful to use the reciprocal of the color temperature. The concept of
expressing color temperature in reciprocal form is useful because a given
sum of reciprocal units corresponds approximately to the same color
difference for most visibly emitting sources (in the range from 1000 K to
10,000 K). The reciprocal color temperature is commonly multiplied by
1,000,000 to give numbers of convenient size. The values obtained by
this operation have, in the past, been called micro -reciprocal degrees or
"mireds."
1,000,000 x

1
Tk

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Recently, the term reciprocal megakelvins (MK-1 ) has been used to


replace mireds. The reciprocal color temperature expressed in reciprocal
megakelvins has the same numerical value as with mireds, but the value
is arrived at by first expressing the color temperature in megakelvins (1
MK = 1,000,000 K) and taking the reciprocal. For example, the reciprocal
color temperature for a 6000 K source is
1/0.006 MK = 167 MK-1
Filters such as Kodak Light Balancing Filters and Kodak WRATTEN
Photometric Filters modify the effective color temperature, hence the
reciprocal color temperature, of any light source by a definite amount.
Each filter can be given a visual shift value that is defined by the
expression
1
1
T2
T1
where T 1 is the color temperature of the light through the filter (both
values expressed in megakelvins). Remember that the concept of color
temperature relates to the response of the visual system. To match the
actual response of films as opposed to the response of the eye, some
filters are designed empirically to fit existing photographic requirements.
These filters may or may not provide a visual shift that relates to the
measured photographic effect. This list give filters that provide the
desired photographic result when used for the conversion indicated. The
shift value given is a nominal value defined by the equation
1
1
T2
T1
and is not a measure of the visual shift that might actually be computed
for the filter. A new concept termed photographic color temperature is
being developed. If this method proves viable, reporting additional filter
data in terms of photographic effect should provide greater assistance in
the choice of appropriate filters for photography under a wide range of
illuminants.

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KODAK: Light Source Conversion with Filters

Page 2 of 3

The light source conversion nomograph shown in Figure 52 is designed


to simplify the problem of selecting the proper conversion filter. The
original light source, T 1 , is listed in the left column and covers the
practical range of color temperatures from 2000 to 10,000 K. The righthand column lists the color temperature of the light through the filterthat is, the converted source, T 2 . The center column shows the scale of
reciprocal megakelvin (MK -1) shift values. To find the shift value and
consequently the filter required for a particular conversion, it is only
necessary to place a straight- edge on the points corresponding to the
color temperature of the available source, T 1, and the desired color
temperature of the filtered source, T 2, respectively. The straightedge
crosses the center column and indicates the reciprocal megakelvin shift
value of the required filter. The zero point on this column indicates that
no filter is required, values above zero point (+) require yellowish filters,
and those below the zero point (-) require bluish filters.
Filters can also be combined, the desired combination being calculated
by adding the (MK- 1) shift values of the filters, with due regard to the
sign. If you use more than one filter, remember that the illumination loss
and flare due to reflection of the multiple surfaces may become
considerable.

Reciprocal Color Temperature (MK-1)for Color


Temperatures from
2000K to 6900 K*
K

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

2000

500

476

455

435

417

400

385

370

357

345

3000

333

323

312

303

294

286

278

270

263

256

4000

250

244

238

233

227

222

217

213

208

204

5000

200

196

192

189

185

182

179

175

172

169

6000

167

164

161

159

156

154

152

149

147

145

* Values in reciprocal megakelvins (MK -1) are equal numerically to values in "mireds."

Light Balancing Filters


Color motion picture films are balanced in manufacture for use either
with tungsten light sources (3200 K, type B, or 3400 K, type A) or with
illumination of daylight quality (5500 K). Kodak Light Balancing Filters
are used over the camera lens to enable the photographer to make
minor adjustments to the light reaching the film. If the required colorbalance adjustment is small, a single bluish filter of the No.82 series, or
a single yellowish filter of the No. 81 series, will be adequate. Kodak
Light Balancing Filter No. 82 is intended, in effect, to raise color
temperature by 100 K, the 82A by 200 K, the 82B by 300K, and the 82C
by 400 K. Those of the No. 81 series (91, 81A, 81B, 81C 81D) are
intended to reduce color temperature by 100 K steps. For greater color
correction, combine two filters in the same series.

Conversion Filters
If still greater corrections in color are required, you can use light
balancing filters and conversion filters. Use conversion filters over the
camera lens to make significant changes in the color temperature of

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KODAK: Light Source Conversion with Filters

Page 3 of 3

illumination (e.g., daylight to artificial light).

Limits to Color Temperature Measurement


Color temperature refers only to the visual appearance of a light source
and does not necessarily describe its photographic effect. Although some
light sources emit strongly in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, the
color temperature of such a source does not measure this portion of the
emission because the eye is not sensitive to radiation below 400 nm.
Since a film is usually sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, a scene can
record overly blue unless special corrective means are used to filter out
the ultraviolet.
Also, color temperature does not take into account the spectral
distribution of a light source. Unless the light source has a similar
spectral distribution to that of a black body radiator (e.g. various types
of tungsten- filament lamps), its effective color temperature alone may
not be reliable as a means of selecting a suitable filter for adapting the
source for color photography. Fluorescent lamps, for example, do not
have the continuous, smooth spectral-distribution curve that is
characteristic of a tungsten- filament source.
Although two different light sources may be described as having the
same color temperature, the photographic results obtained with each
may be quite different.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters

Page 1 of 5
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters


Photographs of distant landscapes, mountain views, snow scenes, scenes
over water, and sometimes aerial photographs in open shade made on
color films balanced for daylight are frequently rendered with a bluish
cast. This is caused by the scattering of ultraviolet radiation to which the
film is more sensitive than the human eye. Kodak WRATTEN Filter No. 1A
(skylight filter) absorbs ultraviolet light. By placing this filter over the
lens, you can reduce the bluish cast and slightly penetrate the haze.

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Kodak Light Balancing and Conversion Filters for


Color Films

Motion Picture Home

Kodak Light Balancing Filters


Filter
Color

Filter
Number

Exposure
Increase
in Stops*

Bluish

82C + 82C
82C + 82B
82C + 82A
82C + 82
82C
82B
82A
82

1 1/3
1 1/3
1
1
2/3
2/3
1/3
1/3

No Filter Necessary

Yellowish

81
81A
81B
81C
81D
81EF

1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
2/3
2/3

To Obtain
3200 K
from
2490
2570
2650
2720
2800
2900
3000
3100

To Obtain
3400 K
from

K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K

2610
2700
2780
2870
2950
3060
3180
3290

K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K

3200 K

3400 K

3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3850

3510
3630
3740
3850
3970
4140

K
K
K
K
K
K

News & Events

K
K
K
K
K
K

Nominal
Shift
Value
(MK -1)*
-89
-77
-65
-55
-45
-32
-21
-10
9
18
27
35
42
52

Conversion Filters
Nominal
Shift
Value
(MK -1)*

Filter
Color

Filter
Number

Exposure
Increase
in Stops*

Blue

80A
80B
80C
80D

2
1 2/3
1
1/3

3200
3400
3800
4200

to
to
to
to

5500
5500
5500
5500

-131
-112
-81
-56

Amber

85D
85
85N3
85N6
85N9
85B
85BN3
85BN6

1/3
2/3
1 2/3
2 2/3
3 2/3
2/3
1 2/3
2 2/3

5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

3800
3400
3400
3400
3400
3200
3200
3200

81
112
112
112
112
131
131
131

Conversion
in Degrees K

*These values are approximate. For critical work, they should be checked by practical

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KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters

Page 2 of 5

test, especially if more than one filter is used.

The nomograph can be used to find the shift value for a


particular conversion by placing a staightedge from an
original source (T 1) to a second source (T 2 ). The shift value
can be read on the center line. Use of the nominal shift
values for filters shown on the previous tables will allow
choice of filters that approximate the necessary correction.
Shift values are algebraically additive; filters can be combined
to acheive the required shift.

Figure 52

Color Compensating Filters for Color Correction


A color compensating (CC) filter controls light by attenuating principally
one or two of the red, blue, or green parts of the spectrum. You can use,
them singly or in combination to introduce almost any desired color
correction. Use CC filters to make changes in the overall color balance of
pictures made with color films, or to compensate for deficiencies in the
spectral quality of the light to which color films must sometimes be
exposed. Such corrections are often required, for example, in making
color prints or in photography with unusual light sources. If the color
balance of a test is not satisfactory, the extent of filtering required to
correct it can be estimated by viewing the test print through color
compensating filters.
Kodak Color Compensating Filters have excellent optical quality and are
suitable for image-forming optical systems-over the camera lens, for
example. However, because they are gelatin filters, they are very

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KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters

Page 3 of 5

susceptible to scratches and fingerprints, both of which can affect optical


quality to a serious degree. Color compensating filters are available in
several density values for each of the following colors: cyan, magenta,
yellow, red, green, and blue.
The density of each color compensating filter is indicated by the numbers
in the filter designation, and the color is indicated by the final letter. In a
typical filter designation, CC20Y represents a "Color Compensating Filter
with a density of 0.20 that is Yellow."
The densities of color compensating filters are measured at the
wavelength of maximum absorbtion (i.e., the density of a yellow filter is
given for blue light). That's the reason the term peak density is used in
the table. The density values do not include the density of the gelatin on
which the filter dye is coated, nor do they include the density of the glass
in which a filter may be mounted.
The standardized density spacing of these filter series (5, 10, 20, 30, 40,
50 in each color) helps predict the photographic effects of filter
combinations. The red, green, and blue filters each absorb two thirds of
the visible spectrum; the cyan, magenta, and yellow filters each absorb
one third of the spectrum. In the red, green, and blue series, each filter
contains the same dyes in approximately the same amounts as the two
corresponding yellow and magenta, yellow and cyan, or magenta and
cyan filters.

Combining Color Compensating Filters


The determination of filter combinations can usually be simplified by
thinking of all the filters in terms of the subtractive colors:
Red (absorbs blue and green) = yellow (absorbs blue) +
magenta (absorbs green)
Green (absorbs blue and red) = yellow (absorbs blue) + cyan
(absorbs red)
Blue (absorbs green and red) = magenta (absorbs green) +
cyan (absorbs red)
The following method of calculation is recommended:
1. Convert the filters to their equivalents in the subtractive colors cyan, magenta, and yellow-if they are not already of these colors.
For example,
20R = 20M + 20Y.
2. Add like filters together. For example,
20M + 10M = 30M.
3. If the resulting filter combination contains all three subtractive
colors, cancel out the neutral density by removing an equal amount
of each. For example,
10C + 20M + 20Y = 10M + 10Y + 0.10ND
(neutral density, which can be eliminated).

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KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters

Page 4 of 5

4. If the filter combination contains two different filters of equal


density, substitute the equivalent single red, green, or blue filter.
For example,
10M + 10C = 10B.

Exposure Allowance for Filters


You must make filters absorb light. You must increase exposure for this
loss of light. The published exposure increases for Kodak Color
Compensating Filters (see below) provide a rough guide to the exposure
adjustments required for a single filter. To determine the exposure
increase for two or more filters of different colors run practical tests
using initially the sum of the suggested increases for the individual
filters.
Kodak Color Compensationg Filters
Peak
Density
0.025
0.05
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
Peak
Density

0.025
0.05
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50

Yellow
(Absorbs
Blue)
CC025Y
CC05Y**
CC10Y**
CC20Y**
CC30Y
CC40Y**
CC50Y
Red
(Abosrbs
Blue and
Green)
CC025R
CC05R**
CC10R**
CC20R**
CC30R
CC40R
CC50R

Exposure
Increase
in Stops*
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
2/3
Exposure
Increase
in Stops*
1/3
1/3
1/3
2/3
2/3
1

Magenta
(Absorbs
Green)
CC025M
CC05M**
CC10M**
CC20M**
CC30M
CC40M**
CC50M
Green
(Absorbs
Blue and
Red

CC05G
CC10G
CC20G
CC30G
CC40G
CC50G

Exposure
Increase
in Stops*
1/3
1/3
1/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
Exposure
Increase
in Stops*

1/3
1/3
1/3
2/3
2/3
1

Cyan
(Absorbs
Red)

Exposure
Increase
in Stops*

CC025C
CC05C**
CC10C**
CC20C**
CC30C
CC40C**
CC50C
Blue
(Absorbs
Red and
Green)

CC05B
CC10B
CC20B
CC30B
CC40B
CC50B

1/3
1/3
1/3
2/3
2/3
1
Exposure
Increase
in Stops*

> 1/3
1/3
2/3
2/3
1
1 1/3

* These values are approximate. For critical work, they should be checked by practical
tests, especially if more than one filter is used.
**Similar Kodak Color Printing Filters (Acetate) are available.

Filters for Color Printing


Motion picture printers used for printing color films are generally
equipped with high-wattage lamps, making it necessary to insert a heatabsorbing glass to protect the mirrors and filters in the printer optical
system from damage. Use a dichroic heat-reflecting glass or a heatabsorbing filter. The Heat Absorbing Filter No. 2043 (4 mm) now used in
many laboratories is satisfactory. It is available from Kodak. An
ultraviolet-absorbing filter may also be required, as specified on the data
sheets.
Kodak Color Printing Filters, listed in the table below, are made on an
acetate film base and are used singly or in combination for color
correction of light sources in subtractive color printing. Color printing
(CP) filters are similar to color compensating (CC) filters in that they
control principally the red, green, or blue parts of the visible spectrum;
unlike CC filters, CP filters cannot be used in the image-forming beam if
optimum quality is desired.

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KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters

Page 5 of 5

See Kodak Publication No. B-3, Handbook of Kodak Photographic Filters,


for more technical information concerning the filters discussed in this
section.

Kodak Color Printing Filters


Cyan

Magenta

Red

Yellow

CP05C
CP10C
CP20C
CP40C

CP05M
CP10M
CP20M
CP40M

CP05R
CP10R
CP20R
CP40R

CP05Y
CP10Y
CP20Y
CP40Y

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KODAK: Motion Picture Sound Recording

Page 1 of 1
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Motion Picture Sound Recording


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A Brief History of Sound


Magnetic and Photographic Sound
Photographic Tracks
Basics of Photographic Sound
Photographic Sound-Track Reproduction

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KODAK: A Brief History of Sound

Page 1 of 4
WEDNESDAY, JUL

A Brief History of Sound


Sound was introduced to the movies in 1927 with Al Jolson's The Jazz
Singer. In 1977, the motion picture industry celebrated the 50th
anniversary of the talkies.

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1920's

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The very first sound was produced in the early 1900's from a
phonograph disk running in mechanical synchronism with the picture at
33 1/3 RPM. Obvious synchronization problems requiring the constant
attention of the projectionist led to a system which allowed the picture
and sound track to be printed together on the same piece of film.

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1930's
Two photographic-sound recording systems evolved-variable-density and
variable-area. Variable-density meant that the density of the sound track
varied in accordance with the audio signal. Variable-area meant that the
width of the clear area of the track varied with the signal.
Also, there were several different types of variable-area tracks-the
earliest unilateral, the improved bilateral and dual-bilateral and the
special push-pull tracks. Because of the complexities of push-pull tracks,
they were used for in-house operations, not released. Only on picture,
the 1941 version of Walt Disney's Fantasia , was released with push-pull
tracks, and then only as a special road show performance where Disney
technicians had complete control.

1940's
The primary shortcoming of photographic sound tracks was (and still is)
noise. Early in their use, schemes were devised for noise reduction. Over
the years, many variations of both variable density and variable-area
tracks were developed to increase their dynamic range. This need for
greater sound level led to the abandonment of variable density in favor
of the higher output variable -area recording.
The added realism of stereophonic sound challenged engineers. In the
late 1930's, Bell Labs developed a stereo system with four variable -area
tracks on 35 mm film and in 1941, Fantasia was released as the first
commercial stereo release.

1950's
The 1950's brought wide-screen pictures-most using multiple magnetic
tracks for stereo sound. The driving force was more realistic and exciting
theater entertainment to counter the home TV threat to their business.
In late 1952, a three-camera, three-projector, ultra-wide screen format
was introduced. Its seven sound tracks were on a separate film run
synchronously with the picture. In 1953, Fox released The Robe in
CinemaScope,--a 2.35:1 wide screen picture from a standard 35 mm
print with four magnetic tracks, three for wide-band audio and a narrow

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KODAK: A Brief History of Sound

Page 2 of 4

track for surround sound. Todd-AO, the company which invented 70 mm


6-track magnetic sound tracks, revolutionized the industry with its 70
mm release of Oklahoma in 1955. This double -width film not only gave
the very best wide-screen picture, but its six magnetic-sound tracks
produced stereo sound of superb quality. Many other wide-screen
contenders offering improved quality or lower cost came and wentCinemaScope 55, MGM Camera 65, Cinemiracle, Technirama, and
VistaVision.

1960's and 1970's


In the 1960's and early 1970,s, 70 mm 6-track magnetic sound and 35
mm CinemaScope fared the best. However, the laws of economics did
catch up with CinemaScope. Ninety percent of these prints were released
with no magnetic tracks, only a monaural optical track. Of the remaining
10 percent that had magnetic tracks for stereo, nearly all also had a 1/2
width optical sound track nudged in so that the print could be played in
theaters without magnetic stereo capability. The reason was simple. The
addition of magnetic stripes and recording four tracks on each print
increased their cost from 50 to 75 percent. Also, superior magnetic
sound required scrupulous and costly maintenance of the magnetic
sound reproducers.
These cost pressures caused engineers to take a close look at optical
sound. If they could substantially improve the frequency response and
signal-to-noise ratio of an optical track, several tracks could be recorded
in the space used for one. They could produce stereo sound without the
added print costs of magnetic tracks.
In mid-1965, Ray Dolby from Oregon, then living and working in
England, developed a noise reduction system for magnetic reduction in
magnetic recording that was adopted immediately in the music industry.
In 1972, Dolby noise reduction was introduced into motion-picture
sound- recording, but for monaural sound, not stereo sound.
Dolby Laboratories, spurred by a Kodak employee, Ron Uhlig's success
with 2-track, 2-channel stereo sound for 16 mm film, developed a 2 track stereo variable-area system with complete compatibility. Theaters
converted to decode Dolby tracks could enjoy the low noise, relatively
wide-frequency range stereo reproduction and also get acceptable
monaural sound when playing a standard Academy mono print.
Also, Dolby-encoded stereo prints would yield acceptable monaural
reproduction on unconverted projectors on theaters not equipped for
stereo. In 1974, two pictures were released with Dolby Stereo Variable Area (SVA) tracks; in 1976, four pictures; and by 1978, 25 pictures.
Over 900 theaters worldwide were equipped to reproduce Dolby-encoded
SVA tracks by 1979.
At that time, it cost between $10,000 and $15,000 to add Dolby SVA to
theaters already equipped to play stereo from 4-track CinemaScope or
from 6-track 70 mm prints. For theaters only able to play monaural
tracks, these costs increased to between $15,000 and $25,000. All for
the attraction of Dolby Stereo on the marquee, but that's proved to be a
substantial attraction to the many theaters who invested in Dolby.
Other contenders for this marketplace were Colortek, Todd-AO/Nuoptix,
Universal with its Sensurround, 20th Century -Fox with their Fox Sound

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360, and Pacific Theaters with their drive-in bilingual presentation of Star
Wars .

1980's
Through it all, three formats have withstood the test of time:
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35 mm Monophonic Photographic Sound Tracks or Academy


Tracks-a standard format since 1927. These are bilateral or dualbilateral variable- area tracks. The term Academy was coined
because of standardization efforts made in the late 1930's by a
group at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
35 mm Stereophonic Photographic Sound Tracks with Dolby Noise
Reduction-the most common 35 mm format today. Dolby calls
them SVA or Stereo Variable -Area Tracks.
70 mm Magnetic Sound Tracks-a format used in specialized
theaters who promote a wide-screen image and high-quality
sound. The picture is shot on either 65 mm or 35 mm negative film
and the final print is released on 70 mm print film. The only
difference between 65 mm and 70 mm film is the added width of
2.5 mm outside the perforation area on each edge of 70 mm film
for the magnetic stripes.

By the mid-1980's, considerable interest had developed in digital sound


on motion picture film. This interest was spurred to no small degree by
the availability to the consumer of compact audio discs. This digital
recording medium is quickly supplanting tape and long-play phonograph
records for home sound systems because of its virtually flawless audio
quality.

1990's and Beyond


In 1990, Cinema Digital Sound (CDS) for film became a reality. The
Cinema Digital Sound System was co -developed by Optical Radiation
Corporation and the Motion Picture and Television Products Division of
Eastman Kodak Company. CDS features six discrete channels of pure
digital sound optically encoded on the print film. CDS debuted in 1990 at
selected theaters featuring Dick Tracy in the 70 mm format in New York
City and Los Angeles.
CDS provides filmmakers with a precise ability to control the direction
and movement of sound to create a more compelling illusion of reality.
Five discrete channels reproduce the full tonal and frequency ranges the
human ear is capable of hearing. A separate sub-woofer channel
reproduces the lowest bass tones.
CDS is designed to provide consistent audio quality for the life of the
print. Wear and tear can reduce the audio quality of conventional 35 mm
optical and 70 mm magnetic sound tracks. To provide this durability of
the digital sound track, CDS features a sophisticated error collection
system to ensure that every audience will hear opening night sound
quality, even months later.

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KODAK: A Brief History of Sound

Page 4 of 4

Figure 53
The separation of sound into six discrete channels ensures that audiences will not only hear
all of the subtleties of dialogue, effects, and music, the way it is meant to be heard, but
from the special location where it originated.

The ability to encode digital sound optically on film required a major


technological breakthrough providing the key to affordability and
reliability of CDS.
Theatres equipped with single channel surround speakers can easily
retrofit for the dual channel surround of CDS. All it requires is installation
of a digital decoder on the projector and a digital-to-analog processor in
the projection booth equipment-rack. Some theaters may consider the
option to upgrade speaker systems to realize the full potential that CDS
offers.
CDS technology for 70 mm and 35 mm release prints is virtually the
same. A decision was made to debut CDS in 70 mm format so the new
audio system could be introduced in road show theaters.
Motion pictures can be released in CDS format by simply remixing the
audio made for conventional prints to six discrete channels of digital
optical sound.
Eventually recording and mixing techniques will evolve to take full
advantage of CDS features. More original sound will be recorded and
mixed digitally now that there is a way to release movies in digital sound
format.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound

Page 1 of 4
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Magnetic and Photographic Sound


Sound is recorded on a motion picture print in one of two ways, either
magnetically on a metallic oxide strip coated on the film or
photographically by an optically modulated light system.

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A magnetic sound track consists of a strip of metallic oxide coated along


the edge of a motion picture film. Sound is recorded on this stripe by
running it past a magnetic recording head that selectively magnetizes
the metallic particles in the coating. Since coating formulations have
been developed that are not affected by the processing chemicals, they
can be applied to the film before (prestripe) or after (poststripe)
processing. Seventy-millimeter and some 35 mm prints may have
multiple stripes for stereophonic sound and special sound effects.

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A second, much narrower stripe of the same thickness and, usually the
same material is coated near the edge of the film support that is used for
the sound stripe (between the perforations and the nearest edge) on 16
mm and super 8. This stripe is normally not used for magnetic recording;
it balances the film mechanically to keep it from telescoping or binding
against the reel flanges during projection and rewinding.
A photographic sound track is a record of sound (voice, music, etc.)
printed near the edge of a motion picture film. Photographic sound tracks
are usually printed on the film at the same time as the photographic
image. Thus, the two can also be duplicated simultaneously, unlike
magnetic sound tracks which must be recorded on each print in a
separate nonphotographic operation.
A film producer who wants photographic sound sends the rough-edited
workprint, the original film, the script, and the final magnetic recording
to a laboratory where conforming, editing, and addition of the sound
track are accomplished. The original film, or a printing master with
photographic sound track, is then printed for release.
Photographic sound prints can be made from original films with magnetic
sound stripes or from original films and separate magnetic tracks. A
photographic sound track will last the life of the film and cannot be easily
damaged through cleaning or other maintenance of the film. There is
also no danger of accidentally erasing the track. However, the
reproduction fidelity of photographic sound tracks can be degraded by
dust particles and scratches. Also, changes cannot be made in a
photographic sound track after it has been printed on the film.
Magnetic tracks, on the other hand, are less susceptible to dust and dirt
distortion and are degraded very little by scratches. The magnetic stripe
offers other advantages. The additional height of the magnetic stripe
raises the emulsion (image) off the base side of the next convolution of
film on a reel, protecting the picture area from frictional damage,
emulsion-to-base sticking, etc. The stripe may also have higher fidelity
sound (greater frequency response and better signal-to-noise ratio).

Photographic Tracks

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KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound

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A photographic sound-track negative consists of an exposed area whose


width and area vary with the volume and frequency of sound recorded.
The track looks like one or more narrow, jagged, black-and-white
patterns along the edge of the film. For optimum quality on a variablearea sound track, the clear portions should be as transparent as
possible, and the dark portions should have a density at wavelengths
from 800 to 1000 mm between 1.0 and 1.8. Consequently, emulsions
and processes that produce high contrast are generally used to record
variable-area sound-track negatives.

Basics of Photographic Sound


The reproduction of sound requires that the sound waves be converted
into electrical signals which are then recorded. The record can then be
played back, generating electrical signals, which can be converted back
to sound waves by the speakers. In photographic sound reproduction,
the actual sound record on the print is a silver, dye, or dye-plus-silver
image along the edge of the film.
Figures 54A, B, and C show the components which convert the
photographic sound track into electrical sound signals. The light energy
from the lamp is formed into a narrow beam by a lens and aperture. The
beam is transmitted through the sound-track area of the film and then
strikes a photocell.

Figure 54a
Schematic of optical sound
reproduction.

Figure 54b

Figure 54c

Light attenuation by a sound


track.

Response of a photocell.

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KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound

Figure 55

Page 3 of 4

Figure 56

A sound track as seen through the


aperture.

As the film moves, the sound track itself varies, or modulates, the
amount of light that reaches the photocell from the sound lamp.
The photocell then converts the light energy into electrical energy. The
electrical current produced by the photocell is directly proportional to the
intensity of the light that reaches it.
Photocells are made out of various photosensitive materials, each having
a different spectral sensitivity. Virtually all 16 mm and 35 mm projectors
have S -1 or silicon-type photocells, sensitive primarily in the infrared
area. Therefore all 16 mm and 35 mm sound tracks must be able to
modulate infrared radiation, which silver and to a lesser extent, silver
sulfide are capable of doing. A sound track made of dye alone will not
modulate the infrared radiation as effectively, reducing the signal-tonoise ratio significantly.
As the film moves past the sound aperture, the variation in the width of
the track determines the amplitude of the signal generated, and the
speed of the variation detertmines the frequency of the signal.
There are several types of variable -area recordings. A unilateral track
consists of modulations that are generated perpendicularly to the
longitudinal dividing edge between the opaque and clear portions of the
track. A bilateral track, Figure 56 , uses modulations that are symmetrical
about the longitudinal center line of the track. A dual bilateral track,
Figure 56, has two bilateral images laid side by side; a multilateral track
employs several bilateral images. The dual bilateral track is the most
widely used because it minimizes distortion or signal loss resulting from
any uneven illumination of the optical slit at the reproduction heads.

Photographic Sound-Track Reproduction


The effectiveness with which a photographic sound track is reproduced is
a function of the spectral energy distribution of the illuminant, the
spectral absorption of the soundtrack image, and the spectral response
of the photoreceptor. The illuminant is usually a tungsten lamp having a
comparatively low color temperature that provides relatively more
energy in the red and infrared regions of the spectrum.
Due to the multilayer construction of most color films, the color of the
light that exposes the sound-track image influences the trace

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KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound

Page 4 of 4

characteristics and, therefore, is generally specified for the particular film


concerned. Silver and silver-plus-dye sound-track images are normally
suitable for use with any projector and are printed from a negative sound
track. Silver sulfide sound-track images have somewhat lower quality.
They are produced on reversal color films only and are themselves
reversal images that are printed from a positive sound-track original.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Projection

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Projection
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Handling and Inspection of Motion-Picture Prints


Common Causes of Abrasion and Wear
n Excessive Tension
n Misalignment of Film in the Projector
n Creased Edges
n Run-Offs and Roping
n Abrasions and Dirt
Cleaning Motion-Picture Prints

The success or failure of any finished film lies in the viewing. Once a
print is made, the final responsibility for the quality of the screen image
rests with the projection equipment and the people who handle the print.
This section covers the steps in inspecting a newly received print for
flaws, the most common causes of film damage and abrasion, techniques
for lubricating new prints, and techniques for cleaning film.

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Handling and Inspection of Motion-Picture Prints


It is important to establish that the print meets your standards. When
you receive a print, inspect it, following the recommendations below:
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Maintain constant tension while rewinding to provide a smooth,


tight reel.
Hold the film by the edges and wear clean, lint-free gloves while
inspecting for damage or bad splices.
Remake faulty splices correctly, whether cement or tape.
Insist on a replacement reel if major cuts and damage are noted
during your inspection.
Provide some means to maintain adequate relative humidity (60
percent is ideal) to help eliminate static electricity buildup in film
transport systems.

Common Causes of Abrasion and Wear


To promote long life for your print, you should be alert to the causes of
damage that can occur during projection. The five most common causes
are discussed below:

Excessive Tension.
Too much tension in the film projection transport system usually results
in objectionable projection noise and in perforation damage. If the film
was properly lubricated at the laboratory, the source of the tension can
be in the gate or at the feed and holdback sprockets.
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Check for deposits on the trap rails and check the gate tension.
Adjust gate tension just tight enough to provide a steady screen
image.
Adjust tension on the projector reel spindles, if possible, to prevent
singing sprockets.
If all of these points check out satisfactorily, check the 35 mm

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KODAK: Projection

Page 2 of 3

prints for proper lubrication of the edges on the emulsion side. The
first step is to vary the gate tension over the entire range. If no
improvement is obtained, inadequate edge lubrication should be
suspected. Sixteen-millimeter films should have an overall
lubricant. The coefficient of friction of the emulsion side of the
unsatisfactory film should be compared to a satisfactory film by the
test described in ANSI PH1.A7 Methods for Detecting the Degree of
Lubrication on Processed Photographic Film by the Paper Clip
Friction Test. A coefficient of 0.2 or lower usually indicates a
satisfactory level of lubrication.

Misalignment of Film in the Projector.


This problem can cause damage at the corners of the perforations and
lead to splitting and breaking at the perforation edge.
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Check alignment of the film as it enters the feed sprocket or leaves


the holdback sprocket.
Check alignment of film in the projector gate.
Examine the print for damaged perforations before using it. (Order
a new reel or print, if necessary.)

Creased Edges. Film edges can become creased if:


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the projector is improperly threaded so that the pad roller creases


the film over the sprocket.
the film is under high tension and binds against some component
or one of the roller flanges.

Run-Offs and Roping. This type of damage, often reported as sprocket


marked, is caused when the film partially leaves the sprocket and rides
over the sprocket teeth while under tension.
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Check for misaligned splices and remake them.


Check for fold-over damaged film sections; repair or replace the
section (or reel), if necessary.
Check to see if any unperforated tape covers perforations and
make necessary repairs.
Check the projector for proper threading and adjusunent.

Abrasions and Dirt. Primarily caused by careless handling, improper


threading, and poorly maintained equipment this kind of film damage is
readily seen by the viewer. If you can answer yes to the following
questions, you are well on your way to minimizing the problems of dirt
and abrasion.
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Is the projection area clean? Especially the floor and rewind bench?
Is the film riding correctly between roller flanges?
Is the print free of oil and grimy dirt?
Are smoking and eating (notorious dirt sources) prohibited in film
handling areas?
Is there enough tension during rewinding so that the film does not
slip on itself during fast starts and stops? (Much abrasion damage
is caused by film slippage.)
Do you use clean, lint-free gloves and hold the film correctly during
rewinding and inspection?
Do you avoid tightening a loose reel by pulling the film end until it
snugs up? (This is another cause of abrasion damage.)

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KODAK: Projection

Page 3 of 3

Cleaning Motion-Picture Prints


Clean and lubricate prints by drawing them between soft lintless cloths
moistened with a preparation such as Kodak Movie Film Cleaner (with
Lubricant). If a film is unsteady and noisy during the first projection, it
may not have been lubricated at the processing laboratory. In this case,
the film should be lubricated, not only to reduce noise but also to
minimize film damage.
Cleaning cloths of the following types are usually satisfactory: a good
grade of Canton flannel, a short- or medium -pile rayon or nylon plush, or
a soft cotton batiste. These should be white, undyed, and free of fabric
fillers and additives for stiffening. If in doubt the cloths should be
laundered before use.
Place the film to be cleaned is placed on a rewind and thread the ladder
stripe onto a take -up reel. As you rewind the film, draw it between two
cloths moistened with the cleaner and lubricant. Constant light pressure
provides continual contact between the film surface and the cloth. Do
this slowly enough to permit the cleaner to evaporate completely before
the film reaches the take-up reel.
Frequent moistening of the cloths is recommended because the solvent
evaporates rapidly.* To avoid scratching the film with accumulated dirt
particles, refold the cloths often so that only clean areas will be in
contact with the film. If streaks are noticed on the film after lubrication,
you can remove them by buffing with a soft cloth before projection.
Cleaning and lubrication should be accomplished with continuous,
smooth rewinding of the whole reel. When you must stop to refold the
cloth and apply more cleaner, back up the film about 1 foot (30.5 cm)
before resuming the cleaning operation.

* Kodak Movie Film Cleaner (with Lubricant) does not contain carbon tetrachloride. Even
so, you should use the cleaner with adequate ventilation. Forced -air ventilation should be
provided. No matter what type of cleaner you are using, follow the instructions on the
container.

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KODAK: Dealing with a Motion Picture Laboratory

Page 1 of 1
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Dealing with a Motion Picture Laboratory


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Tips on Selecting a Laboratory


Laboratory Services: A Walk -Through

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During post production, you will be spending quite a bit of time and
money with a film laboratory. Locating the right lab is extremely
important. Ideally, you should have some feeling for a lead early in the
production phase, before you have many hours worth of exposed film on
your hands and are wondering what to do with it. How do you find that
lab? The purpose of this section is to explain how laboratory operations
fit into your total production. First come some tips on selecting a lab.
Next is a walk-through of laboratory operations during a typical
production. The next section deals with processing and printing
operations and equipment so that you can appreciate what can be done
with your film once you've exposed it.

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KODAK: Tips on Selecting a Laboratory

Page 1 of 2
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Tips on Selecting a Laboratory


Generally, the laboratory that gets your business will be the one whose
capabilities best match the requirements for your particularjob.
Laboratories differ in terms of the technical services they offer,
personnel, track record on similar projects, size and location, prices, and
so on. Weight all of these factors in selecting the right laboratory for the
job at hand.
Every production has different requirements. The laboratory selected to
do a production filmed in 35 mm for television distribution will probably
be different from the one chosen to handle a job shot in 16 mm for
reduction to super 8 to be used in point-of-purchase advertising. The
challenge is to find the lab that can satisfy the greatest number of your
needs on schedule and within budget. There are a number of trade-offs.

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Consider the question of size. The big lab can usually offer lower prices
due to their large-volume operation, more complete in-house services,
and excellent quality control. The small laboratory usually offers custom
handling and easy access to the right people for advice and counsel. But
they may have to charge more to support their custom operation or
subcontract more of the job.
Consider the location. If a laboratory is a significant distance from your
place of business, you will be faced with the potential hazards and
increased costs of shipping valuable footage to and from the lab. Daily
communications with the lab may also be more difficult.
Consider your confidence in the laboratory. The selected laboratory
should be looked upon as a silent partner in the production of a motion
picture. The laboratory should be taken into the producer's confidence,
kept informed about the films and photographic techniques being used,
advised of the specific objectives, and alerted to any problems that
might develop. Given this relationship, the laboratory can assist and
simplify your endeavors. You should select a laboratory you feel takes
your interests seriously.
These important steps in your production can be smoothed considerably
if adequate communications are established right from the start. Both
you and your laboratory should know what is expected-and when to
expect it.
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Know your needs. Have a good idea of what you want from a
laboratory and then talk about those needs with several
laboratories before you make a choice. In your discussions, be sure
to relay your ideas about such things as editing, dubbing, special
effects, animation, etc, so the lab can help you accomplish these
tasks in the best way possible.
Get acquainted. Once you have made your choice of laboratories,
get to know, as well as possible, the people who will do your work.
Tell them as much as you can about yourself, your needs, and your
style. The more you communicate with them about yourself and
your production, the better they can serve you.
Get it in writing. Face-to-face discussions and telephone calls are

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KODAK: Tips on Selecting a Laboratory

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necessary for efficient work flow; but when it comes to specifying


what you want, when you want it, and how much it will cost, a
carefully written document-the purchase order-is a must.
Listed below are some of the principal services offered by commercial
motion picture laboratories. Few laboratories will offer all the services
listed but most of them will provide a major portion.
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Processing camera film. (Special overnight pickup and delivery, or


weekend service is available in some places by prearrangement)
Find out what processes are available, including special techniques
(e.g. flashing or force processing).
Furnishing advice to help with technical or even aesthetic
problems.
Printing and duplicating from camera films for workprints or
releaseprints. Most laboratories will print or duplicate the camera
film after it is processed. They may also hold the original in their
vault and forward the print for use as a workprint. Thus the
original is protected from damage in handling until it is needed for
final conforming.
Black-and-white printing from a color original to produce a
workprint for sound editing.
Edge numbering of originals and workprints to facilitate editing.
Editing, cutting, splicing, and assembling as directed by the
producer.
Conforming by matching the original camera film to the workprint
as edited by the producer.
Optical effects which these include dissolves, wipes, fades, freeze
frames, etc.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through


To help you visualize the way a laboratory's operations interact with you
and your production, this walk-through gives you three views of
scheduling. First is a flowchart of operations from preproduction through
various laboratory operations to delivery of the edited, printed film. The
chart shows a graphic description of the close communication between
lab and cinematographer that produces a satisfactory final print. Next is
a narrative about the production of a film for television that
demonstrates the behind the scenes laboratory work that keeps a
production on schedule. Last is a day- to-day schedule, from shooting to
release print, of this production.

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Now, let's describe our show. This weekly one-hour series is produced by
a major studio that has a network contract requiring the production of 24
episodes. The show routinely includes practical location photography
(day and night). Six to seven days of filming are common for each show.
Here's how the laboratory fits into the production. On most days, the
production company's exposed 35 mm negative is at the studio's camera
department by 7:00 p.m. A truck from the laboratory picks up the
negative along with those of several other production. Often, the truck
makes several trips throughout the evening.
The first batch of negatives arrives by lab truck, is sorted by the
directions on the film cans (flashing, forcing, priorities, etc.), and
prepared for processing. The rolls are processed and sent to negative

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KODAK: Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through

Page 2 of 3

assembly where the out-take negative is removed and stored for


safekeeping. Rolls (approximately 1,000 ft) of print-take negative are
assembled and spliced. The roll is ultrasonically cleaned and printed at
exposure values that had been derived through a "fine-tuning" of timing
information obtained early in the production season on the laboratory's
electronic color analyzer. The daily print is developed and screened by
the laboratory customer representative usually between 6:00 and 9:00
a.m. The print is projected full aperture at approximately 120 ft/min (32
frames per second) so any film, camera, or laboratory problems can be
seen. The daily prints are delivered to the production company's editors
by 9:00 am. for syncing with the sound track that has been transfered
from 1/4-inch magnetic tape to 35 mm magnetic film. At 1:00 p.m. the
director and other production personnel screen the synced dailies on
double -system projectors.
The laboratory won't be involved in this particular episode in the series
for about two weeks (in some cases for two months, depending on the
activities of the production company). During this time, the studio is
editing, dubbing and mixing sound, and preparing optical effects.
The laboratory's next job is to assemble these elements and generate
the final composite prints for this episode. The network usually requires
two 35 mm prints (for New York and Los Angeles) and three to fifteen 16
mm prints. Two of the 16 mm prints are backup prints for the 35's, one
is for Canadian television (which usually is broadcast 3 to 4 days before
the U.S. air date), and the remainder are split regionally within the
network system.
This phase begins with close communications between the production
company's negative cutter and the laboratory. As reels near completion,
the negative cutter delivers the cut negative with instructions to the lab.
The reel may be only 90 percent complete, but the lab can begin to
splice and notch the negative, leaving leader in the areas that are not
firm or are awaiting inclusion of laboratory -created segments (dissolves,
fades, and titles) primarily on color reversal intermediate (CRI) or color
intermediate film stock. The optical effects elements are usually created
by an independent optical house rather than the laboratory.
When the negative has been spliced and notched, it is timed on an
electronic analyzer to determine the exposure values to be used in the
printer. The timing information is used on a proof printer which prints
only a few frames of each scene. This proof print is screened (single frame projection) to identify any further color or density corrections
required. A complete composite print (answer print) is then made and
evaluated on the analyzer. Once the answer print has been accepted by
the producer, a second 35 mm print is made. A 16 mm wet-gate
reduction CRI is made, using the final timing derived for the 35 mm
answer print. From this 16 mm reduction, the required 16 mm prints are
contact printed.
On the fourth day after the laboratory received the cut negative, the
answer print is screened at the laboratory for representatives of the
production company and the network, and the print is approved.

Day-to-day Schedule of the Production


Starting
on Hay

Event

Huration

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KODAK: Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through


Preproduction

1-6 weeks.
Depends on how many locations to be
scouted and/or how many sets to be
constructed.

Days 0-6

Production

Photography-6 days.

Day 2

Postproduction

2-8 weeks
Laboratory opertations begin during
shooting and include processing the
negative, daily workprint printing, cutting
the workprint into sequences, making
optical effects, adding stock footage and
sound effects, making titles, and dubbing
(voice, sound effects, and music). Optical
effects are scheduled whenever the
individual scene elements are available.
Several labs may be involved in some
phase of these operations.

Day 12

1. First Cut

Includes action and voice only, in rough


sequences. No opticals, titles, sound
effects, although some opticals and titles
are being made.

Day 24

2. Final Cut

Workprint. More precisely edited into final


form. Some opticals but no titles or sound
effects.

Days 2531

3. Negative Cut Music composed and scored, sound effects


made, opticals and titles prepared, editing
finished. Camera negative physically cut to
conform to final cut of the workprint. Dupe
negatives spliced in where there are
opticals and title negative footage added.
Actual splicing is done at the laboratory.

Day 32

4. Dubbing

1-3 days.
All sound materials (live music, recorded
music, voice, sound effects such as
gunshots, footsteps, etc) combined into a
composite magnetic sound track. Magnetic
track transferred to optical track.

Days 34,
35 & 36

5. First Trial

Film shows aesthetic defects in some


areas. Needs tightening up and polishing,
slight recutting. Some elements missing in
titles.

Day 37

6. First Answer Contains everything; becomes New York


Print 35 mm
air print.

Day 38

Second Answer Slight color corrections; becomes Los


Print
Angeles air print.

Day 39

7. 16 mm
Prints

Page 3 of 3

Reduction CRI and ten 16 mm prints.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations

Page 1 of 4
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Motion Picture Laboratory Operations


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Processing Equipment
Construction of Containers
Transport Design
Access Time
Time and Temperature
Agitation
Mechanical Specifications
Process Control

One important consideration when selecting film-one too often


overlooked-is the processing requirements for a given film and the
printing needs for the whole production. One way to better appreciate
the sophisticated technology that turns your exposed camera film into
good projection film is to understand the processes and equipment in the
modern film laboratory. In this section, we will describe the operations
and equipment involved in processing and printing your film.

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Processing Equipment
The modern motion-picture laboratory uses the continuous processor, a
machine that provides the most efficient way of handling long lengths of
film. Other kinds of equipment can be built or purchased for
development of small amounts of black-and-white footage, but the
continuous processor meets the quantity and quality demands of
professional processing. In essence, the continuous processor moves film
through the appropriate sequences of developers, fixers (or stop baths),
washes, and dryer at a carefully controlled speed. The processor also
controls solution temperature and agitation to produce optimum results
for the particldar kind of film being processed.

Construction of Containers
Glass, hard rubber, polyethylene, 316 stainless steel, and titanium are
the materials most commonly used in the construction of containers for
mixing, storing, and using photographic solutions.
Not all metals are suitable. Tin, copper, and their alloys may cause
serious chemical fog or rapid oxidation when used with developers. Do
not use aluminum, zinc, or galvanized iron with either developers or
fixing baths.

Transport Design
The film follows a helical path by moving on partially or totally
submerged banks of rollers through the various solutions ( Figure 57).
Squeegees (Figure 58) or wipers located between the different tanks
remove most of the liquid from the film surface. The most common
method of moving film through a processor is by friction between the
rotating spools and the base side of the film. The other major method is
by sprockets incorporated on the spools which engage the film
perforations.

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KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations

Page 2 of 4

Figure 57

Figure 58

Figure 59

Helical path of film through


a single rack and tank
assembly

This type of wiper -blade squeegee


assembly is used on many
processors.

Roller undercut in image


area.

The film path through the processor wet sections permits only the base
side of the film to contact the rollers. In this way, the emulsion is
protected from possible physical damage that might occur if the soft, wet
emulsion came in contact with the plastic spool surfaces. However, in the
dry sections (feed-on and take-off) of some processing machines, there
may be emulsion- side rollers. These are usually under cut in the image
area and are designed to contact only the edges or perforation area of
the film. Some rollers have ridges that touch only edges of the film, or
the rollers can be flat and covered with soft-touch tires for uniform film
support across the roller width and to prevent scratching of the support
in the image area. See Figure 59.

Access Time
Two of the most widely discussed and perhaps the most misunderstood
items relating to any processor are speed and access time. Speed refers
to the time required for a specific point on a film to travel a specific
distance and is measured in feet or meters per minute. Access time
refers to the time it takes a particular length of film to be completely
processed. Regardless of machine transport speed, which can range from
15 to hundreds of feet per minute, film cannot be processed faster than
the total of the times required in each solution. For example, when a
machine running Process VNF-1 is loaded and processing film, it will be
15 minutes 15 seconds before the first foot of film enters the drying
cabinet no matter what the speed of the machine. However, the time for
completing various lengths of film once the process times are met is in
direct relation to the machine speed. If the machine speed is 15 fpm,
then a 15-foot -long film will take 14 minutes 15 seconds plus 1 minute
to complete the process. With a 150-foot roll, access time will be 14
minutes 15 seconds plus 10 minutes.

Time and Temperature


In black-and-white processing, time and temperature may vary widely
among motion picture laboratories. Each laboratory selects the
appropriate development times and temperatures for the films being
processed in a particular machine and with a particular formula. This is
accomplished by producing a time-gamma curve, as discussed in an
earlier chapter. (Some modifications in the control-gamma aim may be

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KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations

Page 3 of 4

necessary depending upon the type of sensitometer or densitometer


being used.)
For color films, specified temperature tolerances, particularly those for
the developers, are critical. Developer tolerances of +/- 0.3C (+/ 0.5F) are typical. Appreciable deviation from these limits results in
speed and color- balance changes. Many commercial motion picture
laboratories have found it feasible and profitable, in terms of consistent
quality, to control the developer temperature to within +/- 0.15 C (+/ 0.25F), or even less. Process ECN-2 requires that the developer
temperature be held within +/- 0.1C (+/ - 0.2F).
Controlling processing time is also more critical with color films than with
black-and-white films because any changes that occur in color emulsions
may not be equal in all layers. Improper color reproduction can result
from speed shifts, contrast changes, increased fog, etc., in any of the
layers. Therefore, a good lab adheres closely to the exact processing
specifications for the particular equipment and materials.

Agitation
If exposed photographic materials are placed in a developer and allowed
to develop without movement, the action slows down because the
developing chemicals in contact with the film surface become exhausted.
If the film or the solution is agitated, however, fresh solution is
continually brought to the emulsion surface, and the development
continues. An equally important effect of agitation is prevention of
uneven development that may result in mottle, a nonuniform density in
the print that makes it look blotchy. If there is no agitation, the
exhausted solution, loaded with development by- products, may flow
slowly across the emulsion from dense areas to less dense areas and
produce uneven streaks. Agitation keeps the solution uniform throughout
and avoids uneven development. In color processing, proper agitation is
especially critical during the initial development step. The recommended
agitation techniques will vary, depending upon the process and
equipment being used. The film movement, as it passes through the
developer solution is not always sufficient to create adequate agitation.

Mechanical Specifications
If film is to be processed satisfactorily as it moves through the machine,
it must be immersed in solutions of the correct temperature for the
proper length of time. In addition, processing solutions must be
adequately replenished and filtered, and sufficiendy agitated. These
requirements are commonly called the mechanical specifications.
The only valid processing change-made for the purpose of force
processing (for more camera speed under low-light conditions)-involves
increasing the developer (camera negative) or first developer (reversal
camera film) time and/or temperature.
The time that film is immersed in a particular solution depends upon the
length of the film path in each tank and the machine speed. Generally,
time is fixed by the number of rollers per rack and the number of racks
threaded in a tank. Usually, individual rack times can be changed by
rethreading the rack or using a rack equipped with an adjustable lowershaft assembly.

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KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations

Page 4 of 4

Temperatures on most processors are controlled automatically, often to


within +/ - 0.1C but can usually be adjusted manually to accommodate
any desired temperature changes. The laboratory also keeps a highly
accurate thermometer available to double check the processor
temperature gauges.

Process Control
The degree of development in a negative-positive process or first
development in a reversal process is the most important factor in
determining the final image quality. Careful control is critical at this
point. Development is affected by the temperatures and chemical
composition of the developer (or first developer), the time of contact
between the film and the solution, and the degree of agitation. The other
processing steps are also affected by the same factors.
When all is well with the process, the output from the continuous
processor will be good pictures. While these pictures can be evaluated
subjectively by simply looking at them, the most accurate evaluation is
an objective measurement Sensitometric control strip density values,
when plotted in graphic form, give an operator that objective information
about the condition of the process. These measurements are made
before, during, and after a processing run for maximum control of
quality.
The operator also checks the physical operation of the machine
periodically to ensure good results. A good lab observes the following
practices in the physical control of a process:
l

Use of correct processing temperatures, which are checked often.


Thermometers and temperature -controlling devices are calibrated
periodically to insure that the instruments are operating properly.
The temperatures of all solutions are kept within specification to
minimize dimensional changes in the emulsion.
Use of recommended processing times. Machine speed is checked
by carefully measuring the time it takes for a given length of film
to pass a specific point. Knowing it is possible to use an incorrect
processing time when a machine uses different thread-ups for
different film stocks, the careful laboratory checks the solution
times every time there is a threading change. Consider that, for
black-and-white negative or positive process, one might run up to
seven films having nine possible development times through
Developer D-96 in the course of a few hours.
Use of the recommended replenishment rates. Accurate
replenishment increases the useful life of solutions to a great
extent by replacing ingredients that are depleted and maintains the
process at a constant, efficient level. To prevent serious out-ofcontrol situations and chemical waste, laboratories routinely check
the accuracy of their replenisher delivery systems.
An accurate daily record is kept of conditions affecting the process,
including developer temperature, amount of film processed,
volume of replenisher added, and identification numbers of control
stops processed at particular times.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Marketing a Film

Page 1 of 1
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Marketing a Film
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FiIm as a Business Tool


Potential Clients
Client's Communication Requirements
Reaching Agreement on Need for Film

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"People don't buy goods and services; they buy solutions to problems.
People are accustomed to learning through film."

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l
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Filmmakers who learn how to market and how to communicate


with clients are the ones who make films.
You have nothing to sell, of course, except yourself-and the
promise that you can deliver a film that meets your client's needs.
Don't try for a film that will win prizes. If you try for a film that will
best serve your client's needs, you will find yourself with a
prizewinner . . . and a recommendation for another job.
Your reputation is as good as your last film. You build a reputation
by taking care of business every day as though your reputation
were at stake, because it is.

News & Events

Motion Picture Home

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KODAK: Film as a Business Tool

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Film as a Business Tool


"Corporations are closer to the film medium, because they make
commercials and they're more exposed to film; the educational
foundations are not the best source of funds for films."

Student Main
About the Program
Publications
Career Profiles

Knowing how to make a film-kowing how to use the medium to


communicate a message-is not enough if you are to become successful.
You must also know how to communicate with people who need the films
so that you can get a chance to use your creative talents. In business,
that's known as marketing.
Your marketing should begin with a sensible look at what you have to
offer. In reality, film is not what you have to offer. What you have to
offer are solutions to problems, using film as the medium for
communication. That's what nontheatrical filmmaking is all about.

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There are several areas open to the nontheatrical filmmaker-business,


education, special interest groups, vacation resorts, governmental
agencies. All have a use for sponsored nontheatrical films-films that
teach, films that promote, films that pass along information.
Basically, there are three types ofcommunication problems: Those
related to skill and knowledge, motivational problems, and problems of
information; and, of course, some communication problems are a
combination of the three.
Problems in the skill-knowledge area usually involve situations where
someone lacks the understanding necessary to perform a job. People
have to be trained to make products. People have to be instructed in
safety procedures. People have to be coached in selling the product. The
idea is this: People who know more are more effective. That's a good
investment.
In the motivational area, the problem is that someone may not want to
do a job. Most recognize that people who want to work are more
productive and will work harder toward a solution to the problem.
Motivational problems can also involve prospective clients. The solution
in this case can usually be found in the area of more effective advertising
and sales promotion.
In the informational area, the problem is what most people would refer
to as public relations. Corporate and product visibility is very important
to most companies, since exposure and goodwill help sell products. A
company that perceives a need for solving informational problems will
invest in a solution that best reaches its audience.
The point is, business spends money to make money. A smart business
person will provide the money to make a film once there is an
understanding that film will help solve a problem. Your job is to discover
where a film will help.

Potential Clients

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KODAK: Film as a Business Tool

Page 2 of 3

"Organizations (business corporations, universities, churches, hospitals)


have internal communications problems, such as training their
employees, communicating government regulations and rules,
motivating people, and creating a sense of community among their
people so they work as teams; those are common problems for any kind
of organization."
Every company is a potential client. First, start with a list of companies in
your area. Use the phone book, a Chamber of Commerce listing, or the
Fortune 500, trade listings. Some companies, because of size, will be
obvious prospects. Of course, if those companies use film, they probably
have many other filmmakers calling on them already. But you have
nothing to lose by offering your services as well. It's true that you may
not have anything to offer that they are not getting now, but you'll never
know unless you contact them.
"Trade journals will tell you what's going on and what kinds of films are
being made and who's making them. Also, industries will address
business problems in their annual reports . . . Read the business page in
your newspaper; look to see where trends are happening."
There may be several people to contact in each company. Internal
structures are easy enough to penetrate if you keep the cornmunication
needs in mind. One way to get started is to call the switchboard or drop
by the lobby, and ask questions:
"Could I speak to the manager of the Training Department?"
"Who is in charge of Sales Promotion?"
"I'd like to talk to someone in Corporate Relations." . . . and so on. It
may take a while, but most people are helpful once they understand that
you are trying to find someone you can show your talents to.
Within each company there may be several different departments that
have a need for film. You will find that department names vary greatly AV Services, Advertising and Sales Promotion, Media Services, Marketing
Development-but their purposes are all the same: to solve
communication problems. Somewhere in these departments you will find
one or more prospects. They may deal directly with you; on the other
hand, they may be required to request the work through a central medial
department Don't forget, a company with one prospect for you probably
has two.
"To reach individuals in a company, you have to first work through the
'corporate tree' and pick the branch that you feel needs a film."
A second way to get potential clients is to offer them a solution to a
problem you perceive before you ever meet. This involves a good deal of
homework. Look in trade journals, annual reports, and business papers
and magazines. Each will give you an idea of current business problems.
It may spark an idea that you can develop into a proposal. Once your
ideas are thought out, place a few phone calls to the company until you
find someone who is willing to briefly discuss you idea. If that person
seems interested, you can send the full proposal for further
investigation.
If the company is not interested in that particular proposal, you will have
shown yourself to be someone interested in solving its problems, and
that alone may help you get some work.

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KODAK: Film as a Business Tool

Page 3 of 3

And don't forget that your prospects may be working with cyclical
budgets. For example, the textile industry will probably be most busy
twice a year and will have to introduce new products-in the spring and
fall. Car manufacturers come out with their new products in the spring
and fall. Summer recreation has an obvious selling period, as does winter
recreation. Budgets for producing work becomes available before those
selling periods. So, your marketing efforts have to coincide with the
budgets, not with the selling periods. Direct your efforts toward the
future; if your prospect doesn't save money now, the money will come
eventually.
"What you have to get a little more aware of, and perhaps a heck of a lot
more of, is corporate budgeting. Corporate budgets have certain
approval cycles, certain processes, and there are times that you can get
at the money and times that you can't. You don't want to do all your
homework and then go in there and find that there's no water in the
well."
Before you ever reach a potential client's desk, you have to decide why
you are going to meet with that person. Certainly you want to introduce
yourself and, if possible, show some samples of your work. But you
should be trying to do more than that so that you can best define what
you have to offer. Among other things, you will want to find out what
communications needs exist in the company, how these needs are
currently solved, and whether the person you are talking to has the
power or influence to hire you.
When you meet someone for the first time, you have the opportunity to
begin a lasting business relationship. You know what you can do. Now is
your chance to find out what you can do for your prospect. You can only
do that by determining what your prospect needs.

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31/07/2002

KODAK: Film as a Business Tool

Page 1 of 3
WEDNESDAY, JUL

Film as a Business Tool


"Corporations are closer to the film medium, because they make
commercials and they're more exposed to film; the educational
foundations are not the best source of funds for films."

Student Main
About the Program
Publications
Career Profiles

Knowing how to make a film-kowing how to use the medium to


communicate a message-is not enough if you are to become successful.
You must also know how to communicate with people who need the films
so that you can get a chance to use your creative talents. In business,
that's known as marketing.
Your marketing should begin with a sensible look at what you have to
offer. In reality, film is not what you have to offer. What you have to
offer are solutions to problems, using film as the medium for
communication. That's what nontheatrical filmmaking is all about.

Film Techniques
Campus Beat
Speak Out
Program Membership
News & Events

Motion Picture Home

There are several areas open to the nontheatrical filmmaker-business,


education, special interest groups, vacation resorts, governmental
agencies. All have a use for sponsored nontheatrical films-films that
teach, films that promote, films that pass along information.
Basically, there are three types ofcommunication problems: Those
related to skill and knowledge, motivational problems, and problems of
information; and, of course, some communication problems are a
combination of the three.
Problems in the skill-knowledge area usually involve situations where
someone lacks the understanding necessary to perform a job. People
have to be trained to make products. People have to be instructed in
safety procedures. People have to be coached in selling the product. The
idea is this: People who know more are more effective. That's a good
investment.
In the motivational area, the problem is that someone may not want to
do a job. Most recognize that people who want to work are more
productive and will work harder toward a solution to the problem.
Motivational problems can also involve prospective clients. The solution
in this case can usually be found in the area of more effective advertising
and sales promotion.
In the informational area, the problem is what most people would refer
to as public relations. Corporate and product visibility is very important
to most companies, since exposure and goodwill help sell products. A
company that perceives a need for solving informational problems will
invest in a solution that best reaches its audience.
The point is, business spends money to make money. A smart business
person will provide the money to make a film once there is an
understanding that film will help solve a problem. Your job is to discover
where a film will help.

Potential Clients

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"Organizations (business corporations, universities, churches, hospitals)


have internal communications problems, such as training their
employees, communicating government regulations and rules,
motivating people, and creating a sense of community among their
people so they work as teams; those are common problems for any kind
of organization."
Every company is a potential client. First, start with a list of companies in
your area. Use the phone book, a Chamber of Commerce listing, or the
Fortune 500, trade listings. Some companies, because of size, will be
obvious prospects. Of course, if those companies use film, they probably
have many other filmmakers calling on them already. But you have
nothing to lose by offering your services as well. It's true that you may
not have anything to offer that they are not getting now, but you'll never
know unless you contact them.
"Trade journals will tell you what's going on and what kinds of films are
being made and who's making them. Also, industries will address
business problems in their annual reports . . . Read the business page in
your newspaper; look to see where trends are happening."
There may be several people to contact in each company. Internal
structures are easy enough to penetrate if you keep the cornmunication
needs in mind. One way to get started is to call the switchboard or drop
by the lobby, and ask questions:
"Could I speak to the manager of the Training Department?"
"Who is in charge of Sales Promotion?"
"I'd like to talk to someone in Corporate Relations." . . . and so on. It
may take a while, but most people are helpful once they understand that
you are trying to find someone you can show your talents to.
Within each company there may be several different departments that
have a need for film. You will find that department names vary greatly AV Services, Advertising and Sales Promotion, Media Services, Marketing
Development-but their purposes are all the same: to solve
communication problems. Somewhere in these departments you will find
one or more prospects. They may deal directly with you; on the other
hand, they may be required to request the work through a central medial
department Don't forget, a company with one prospect for you probably
has two.
"To reach individuals in a company, you have to first work through the
'corporate tree' and pick the branch that you feel needs a film."
A second way to get potential clients is to offer them a solution to a
problem you perceive before you ever meet. This involves a good deal of
homework. Look in trade journals, annual reports, and business papers
and magazines. Each will give you an idea of current business problems.
It may spark an idea that you can develop into a proposal. Once your
ideas are thought out, place a few phone calls to the company until you
find someone who is willing to briefly discuss you idea. If that person
seems interested, you can send the full proposal for further
investigation.
If the company is not interested in that particular proposal, you will have
shown yourself to be someone interested in solving its problems, and
that alone may help you get some work.

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And don't forget that your prospects may be working with cyclical
budgets. For example, the textile industry will probably be most busy
twice a year and will have to introduce new products-in the spring and
fall. Car manufacturers come out with their new products in the spring
and fall. Summer recreation has an obvious selling period, as does winter
recreation. Budgets for producing work becomes available before those
selling periods. So, your marketing efforts have to coincide with the
budgets, not with the selling periods. Direct your efforts toward the
future; if your prospect doesn't save money now, the money will come
eventually.
"What you have to get a little more aware of, and perhaps a heck of a lot
more of, is corporate budgeting. Corporate budgets have certain
approval cycles, certain processes, and there are times that you can get
at the money and times that you can't. You don't want to do all your
homework and then go in there and find that there's no water in the
well."
Before you ever reach a potential client's desk, you have to decide why
you are going to meet with that person. Certainly you want to introduce
yourself and, if possible, show some samples of your work. But you
should be trying to do more than that so that you can best define what
you have to offer. Among other things, you will want to find out what
communications needs exist in the company, how these needs are
currently solved, and whether the person you are talking to has the
power or influence to hire you.
When you meet someone for the first time, you have the opportunity to
begin a lasting business relationship. You know what you can do. Now is
your chance to find out what you can do for your prospect. You can only
do that by determining what your prospect needs.

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KODAK: Client's Communication Requirements

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Client's Communication Requirements


"You have to find out first of all how they think, how they operate, what
their business is like, and how they make decisions."

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There are two ways to approach a communication problem. One way is


to let the client take control; you do that by talking about yourself, your
attitudes, your previous successes with other similar problems. This
approach is not particularly successful. A more effective way is to take
control yourself-define your meeting; you're there to get business. You
can help yourself by paying attention to the problem. Listen to what the
client has to say and ask questions that will reveal why your client thinks
of the problem as unique.

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But it's not enough for you to discover your client's needs. You also have
to help the client's needs. You also have to help the client really
understand the needs and reach agreement on them. Only when you
have reached that point can you begin to talk about solutions. You may
have to hold several meetings before you begin to talk about film, which
is just the medium for solving the problem.
The importance of good communication skills in determining your client's
needs cannot be overestimated. Remember, you are in marketing as well
as filmmaking. Marketing requires certain skills that you may never have
considered.
Keep in mind that your job is to solve your client's problem. You may
understand the problem one way; your client may understand the
problem differently. You must learn to listen carefully and question your
client skillfully so that you can both agree on a definite solution to the
problem. You may be able to create a great film; but if your client isn't
happy, it may be your last film.

Reaching Agreement on Need for Film


At the end of your first meeting with a prospect, some action has to be
taken if you are going to continue to work with the prospect and perhaps
do a film. This, again, is continuing your control. In business, this point
in the action is called a close.
What it means is that you must get your prospect to agree to do
something. You may have to suggest what to do next. It may be to write
a proposal, meet with other people, or continue discussing how you
might help the company. You have to do something or the prospect is
lost to you.
If you continue to work with the prospect, you will find that at every
point along the way there are places where action must definitely be
taken. For example, when you have submitted a proposal which in many
cases is simply to ask: "Shall we go ahead with it then" or "Does it meet
with your approval?"
When you ask for a positive action and the prospect says No, don't give

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up, not yet. First take the time to find out why your prospect has said no.
It may be that the proposal you have submitted doesn't clearly solve the
problem. In that case, your job is easy; just write another proposal.
Perhaps the client isn't convinced that you can do the job. In that case,
you can ask the client if references from other people would be helpful.
Whatever you do, don't let the word no stop you until you find out why.
And when you find out why, close-that is, take an action that will get you
a yes.
At some point in the filmmaking process-before you begin production-you
will have to communicate with people who hold the purse strings . . . you
will have to get the proposal approved. Even though your client may
understand the creative and technical aspects of filmmaking as well as
you do, somewhere along the line you will have to talk to people who
relate to costs differently than you. Keep in mind that your client's
company doesn't need a film per see, it needs solutions to problems. The
film you create will have to solve those problems in cost-effective ways.
It goes back to the three kinds of communication needs. Ask yourself a
few questions: Will the company be able to sell more porducts? Will it be
able to train people better? Will it now be able to communicate
information to more people more effectively? Will employees be
sufficiently motivated by the film to justify the cost of producing it?
All of these questions are related in one way or another to profit. If the
company can sell more goods and services, get more work done,
disseminate more necessary information using audiovisuals, and if it can
get more in return than it spends on your film, then that is a gain for the
company and the kind of "bottom line" that interests those who have
final approval of the project.
"What gives a company the results it's looking for? A film may be your
end product, but it's not their end product . . . film is a medium you give
them to help solve their internal or external communication problems."
To summarize, finding and keeping clients is a sequential marketing
process. Even though you are only marketing yourself, there is a logical
order of steps to go through in order to get down to business of making a
film.
Basically, it involves doing things one step at a time. First, you have to
decide where the potential jobs are. Second, you have to find out whom
to talk to. Before you ever see that person, you have to do some
homework in two areas. Find out as much as you can about your
prospect's organizational setup and communication needs. Then, decide
what it is you have to talk about so you can present yourself properly.
When you see the prospect, you will go through a series of steps
involving questioning and listening to find out the communication needs
of the prospect and of the company. Once you know these needs, you
have to present yourself as a person-a filmmaker-who can offer some
solutions. And, if the prospect looks good, you have to close-which
means that, if nothing else, you decide when to meet again to talk more
specifically about certain projects or needs within the company.
After you have a project or perhaps an order to get a project, you have
to write a proposal based on the objectives that you and your client have
worked out. You may even have to write a second proposal detailing the

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business advantages to the company as well as alternative proposals.


And finally, you have to secure a contract before you begin production.
At this point, your marketing job is not over. Even though you are now
concentrating most of your efforts on making the film, you must still stay
in close contact with your clients to keep them up-to-date on the
progress of the film and secure the necessary approvals along the way.
Marketing a film is very much like producing a film; every step must be
considered in order to meet the client's needs as the client sees them.
Don't let the term frighten you . . . it's simply a matter of taking care of
business.
Filmmakers tend to think of themselves as artists, apart from the clutter
of the business world. But no matter how alien the concept of marketing
seems, it is still a skill that must be learned and developed. Why?
Because marketing is a skill that will help you make the kind of films you
want.
"Take that next step beyond your filmmaking skills . . . business skills
don't decrease your freedoms . . . a lot of people are afraid that, 'If I
take on business skills, I'm going to spend all my time with tax
accountants; you aren't . . . it means being a little more equipped, more
astute, than the next person-doing more than the client expects."

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KODAK: Distribution and Promotion

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Distribution and Promotion


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General Market Considerations


Educational
Special Interest
Broadcast Television
Cable Television
Vacation Resorts
Film Ingredients
Running Time
ProfessionaI Versus Industrial Talent
Film Content
Distributor Services
Promotional Ideas
Print Inventory
Supporting Materials
Film Maintenance

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Your creative work is of little value unless you have an audience.


If you don't have a plan, it will stay in the can.
When you target your audience, you target your potential for
payback.
There are as many outlets for good films as there are good films. A
good film is one that is aimed at a particular audience. You must
give the audience a chance to see it by making it visible with
promotion, available with distribution, and usable with support
materials and proper maintenance.

The distribution and promotion phase is, many times, a matter of rote.
Many companies have predetermined distribution channels, especially
with materials created for internal use (training outlets or salespeople) or
for well- established clients (dealers or distributors). You may, however,
be able to help your client choose the distribution format. Will the film be
shot in 16 mm and converted to 35 mm, then converted back to 16 mm
for television use? Will it be shot in 35 mm and converted to 16 mm for
distribution? Will the same film have several uses in several formats?
Your client's answers will help you determine both the original format
and the distribution format, determine costs for the total needs of your
client, and avoid serious mistakes when choosing production techniques.
A high contrast black-and-white film, for example, might be dramatic in
a theater setting but look muddy or washed out on a television screen.
Inadequate planning can ruin even your best work or cause unnecessary
costs for your client, and for that reason the distribution format must be
considered in your proposal.
Many times, distribution and promotion are the critical points in the
decision to make-or not make-a film. Is there an audience for the film?
How will you get it to them? How will they know the film is available?
These questions must be addressed in the planning stages; and when
the answers are not obvious, it is very good business to consult a
professional distributor.
Early involvement with a professional film distributor is essential in

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getting a general-interest film production to its target audience. Whether


you are aiming at a large, single audience or widely diversified
audiences, a distribution service is an excellent vehicle for publicizing
and communicating your film's message.
This part covers general considerations for distribution planning, the
potential distribution channels for reaching mass audiences, important
film ingredients influencing distribution methods, and the many services
offered by the distributor (including promotional pieces, print inventory,
supporting materials, film maintenance).

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KODAK: General Market Considerations

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

General Market Considerations


"We have just made a new film. Could you come over and take a look at
it and give us some suggestions for distribution?" This type of request
(which originates from film producers or from the sponsors of a
producer's film) is too often heard by professional film distributors. The
above question should be answered at the planning stage, not after the
film is in the can. Early in the game, consider not only why the film, but
also where the film.
Unfortunately, film producers are often not well-equipped to
communicate to their clients all of the effective distribution alternatives.
If you feel at all uncomfortable with any of the distribution areas, get in
touch with a film distributor who can answer your questions and handle
your specific needs.

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Not all industrial films are suitable for mass distribution, nor are their
target a mass audience. Films are often produced to sell a client's
product, point of view, or service to an extremely narrow market (e. g.,
medical films, military films). These films are carefully aimed at the
target audience and usually delivered directly by the sponsor or his or
her sales personnel. Professional distribution is normally not required for
this type of film. This part is really addressed to the films that are made
for unclassified or general audiences.
Non-theatrical films are generally directed to one or more of the five
potential channels of distribution:
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Educational
Special-interest groups
Broadcast TV
Cable TV
Vacation resorts

Schools and special-interest groups account for the greatest utilization of


sponsored films. Your films can also receive considerable visibility
through the other four distribution channels. If you want to target your
films at these areas most effectively, you should really contact a
professional distributor.

Educational
There are four major subcategories in the educational field: grade
school, junior high school, senior high school, and college. And, even
within these, there are many other subcategories, such as: boys, girls,
and coeds.
Instructional films covering the following subject areas (among many
others) are regularly shown to school-age students:
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Home Economics
Science
Physical Education

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Health
Social Studies
Business and Economics
Vocational Guidance
Arts and Crafts

Also within this age range are various non-school youth organizations
such as: Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Little League, and other sports groups,
YMCA, YWCA, etc.

Special -Interest
The special-interest grouping encompasses business and professional
organizations, religious groups, civic and social clubs, etc,. Listed below
are many of the areas that make up this large and diverse category:
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Business and Industry (e.g., oil companies, computer companies,


electronics factories, automobile companies)
Service and Fraternal organizations (Rotary, Kiwanis, Masons)
Church groups (Finance Committees, Pastor-Parish Relations)
Sports groups-hunting, fishing, automobile clubs (NASCAR, SCCA),
ski clubs, hiking clubs
Federal Govemment agencies (Internal Revenue Service, Health,
Education, and Welfare Department)
State agencies (Department of Motor Vehicles, Transportation
Department)
Military branches (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines)
Hospitals

The above is not intended to limit the possibilities, but merely to point
out the broad range of potential target audiences within the specialinterest category.

Broadcast Television
Broadcast television (commercial and educational) provides the quickest
method of exposing many thousands of viewers to your film at one time
and at a surprisingly moderate cost. Your film should be original and
aesthetically pleasing to be accepted for TV broadcast; it should also be
appropriate for an audience of varying ages, educational backgrounds,
and interests. A couple of points to remember are that running times of
either 13 1/2 or 27 1/2 minutes are most suitable for the average TV
station, and less prevalent film lengths include 3 to 5 minutes and 7 to
10 minutes for use as fill material (full-length film or sports event
running less than a two -hour programming slot). Generally, TV stations
broadcast from 2 to 4 hours of sponsored films every week.

Cable Television
Cable television (CATV) is a steadily growing market. Similar to
broadcast TV, CATV enables you to show your film to many of the cable
viewers (a total of about 10 million homes in 7,000 communities) at a
number of locations throughout the country. Again, your film should
have wide audience appeal, be approplate for many geographic areas,
and run either 13 1/2, 27 1/2, 3 to 5, or 7 to 10 minutes. Although your
film may be meant for a certain special-interest regional group, it could
also be of interest to people in other communities.

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Vacation Resorts
Vacation resorts are another excellent area for promoting your films. You
have the opportunity to reach many community adult groups that do not
normally meet in the summertime. Movies are frequently offered for
evening entertainment by the management for resort hotels, motels,
camps, or other similar vacation habitats. This approach enables you to
communicate with a wide range of relatively affluent viewers (with the
appropriate type of film-skiing, fishing culture) in a leisurely and relaxed
atmosphere.

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KODAK: Film Ingredients

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Film Ingredients
In addition to considering the categories of audiences and potential
distribution channels, you should also examine some of the important
parts of a successfully designed film: the running time, the advantages
and disadvantages of using professional talent versus industrial talent,
and the film content.

Running Time

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The running time of your film will have a significant effect on the way it
is distributed.
Generally, educators are looking for appropriate films running from 15 to
30 minutes. In fact, many will avoid the use of extremely short films
simply because the time required to obtain and set up a movie projector
cannot be justified for a few minutes of screen time.

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Adult organizations, on the other hand, will normally shy away from film
this long, preferring presentations that run less than 15 minutes.
Therefore, you should carefully evaluate the length of your film based on
the target audience. You might even want to produce two different
lengths (different versions) of the film to maximize usage for both the
adult and the school audiences.

Professional Versus "Industrial" Talent


One of your responsibilities is to decide whether to use recognized
(name) talent or unrecognized talent. There are advantages to using
either type of talent (cost considerations and film impact).
The use of good industrial performers in place of name talent can result
in an excellent film; for the most part, viewers are primarily concerned
with the film's message.
If you decide to go with recognized talent, consider these potential (yet
remote) conditions. An actor involved in your production could possibly
do a film for a competitive company and create credibility problems. Or,
such a personality might not be available when needed, could be too
expensive, lose popularity, pass away, or even date a film.
On the other hand, there are certain films that require appropriate stars
(films pertaining to major sports, such as skiing, bowling, auto racing,
soccer, football, baseball).

Film Content
Film content must be a blend of what the client deems impormnt to get
across to the public and the producer's interpretation of those aims.
Some producers, unfortunately, make elaborate films strictly to win
filmmaking awards and to gain recognition, the content and the
cinematic techniques applied may be accentuated to that end. It is

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conceivable that the client's/sponsor's original purpose for the film has
been somewhat misdirected. The real objective is to meet all of your
client's expectations.

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KODAK: Distributor Services

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WEDNESDAY, JUL

Distributor Services
The actual elements of film distribution are simple in theory but vastly
more complex in practice. You might think that to successfully market
your film you need only an audience and a method of getting the film to
the viewers. However, distribution is really a more complex science.

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Mass audiences, such as classroom students (kindergarten to college


level), are fairly easy to locate. Other target audiences (skiers belonging
to ski clubs and members of hunting and fishing Rod and Gun clubs) are
not particularly hard to reach because they belong to well-known
organizations. However, certain desired target audiences are difficult to
find and perhaps not as easily influenced toward using your film.

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This section, then, covers the advantages of using film distributors and
the techniques they use to help you and your sponsor determine less
obvious target audiences.

Promotional Ideas
Efficient promotion can heavily affect overall film distribution. To assist
the sponsor, supplemental promo literature (ranging from a single
handout to a series of brochures and catalogs) can be prepared by the
distributor. Regardless of the format chosen and the cost of producing
such a promotional unit, there will be an extra expense in getting
materials to the audiences.
Obviously, a direct-mail system will play a vital role in getting
promotional media to the film users; to help you, distributors have the
latest comprehensive mailing lists of nationwide business and
educational institutions.
The handling of promotional materials can range from self-mailers to
elaborate catalogs. Costs for an outside vendor's services (layout and
printing) are only part of the expenses that must be factored in; you
may also be charged for mailing lists, handling, and postage.
Self-promotion by a sponsor who has a single film would cost more than
any other unit listing several films for which promotional expenses could
be amortized. The only time a distributor might charge the sponsor a
special fee would be for a very unique promotion. If the sponsor's film is
listed in general catalogs indicating numerous film availabilities, then
there will not be a separate distributor's charge.

Print Inventory
Print inventory is virtually the key element in effective film distribution.
The sponsor will need a sufficient number of prints on hand to
adequately supply all of the intended target audiences. Unfortunately,
many films are produced without consideration given to this subject.
Frequently only a minimal budget is set aside for filmprinting costs.
Based on an old rule of thumb of approximately 20 different audience

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bookings per print per year. a sponsor can roughly calculate how many
audiences can be reached in a year on varying print inventories and thus
estimate the cost of such distribution including prints and commercial
circulation.
Again, be sure you account for anticipated distribution costs in your
planning and budgeting activities. Check with several film distributors
concerning pricing for print-inventory services and factor those expenses
into the distribution plan. It would be unfortunate for you to discover late
in the game that sufficient dollars were not set aside for proper film
distribution.

Supporting Materials
Besides considering print inventory and distribution cost, you should also
think about the possible use of printed instructor or program chairperson
materials, as well as student or group member take-home pieces. Far
too many films are sent to audiences without adequate support
information; by merely supplying a business leader' s (or teacher's)
booklet or guide with the film, you can make it a much more appealing
and meaningful package from the audience's standpoint.
Typical subjects include: a capsule description of the film, an in-depth
discussion of the film's historical context, and a precise presentation on
the products involved (including prices).
Other possible uses: hints on product features and usage, suggestions
for discussion after the Screening, demonstration kits for teachers, tidal
charts for fishermen, game laws for hunters, of exercise suggestions for
athletes.

Film Maintenance
Finally, most film distributors will offer a print maintenance program.
Under such an agreement, your prints will be completely inspected for
torn or open splices, torn sprockets or other imperfections, scratches,
and missing footage. Early correction of these problems will protect your
prints from possible damage and loss.
The distributor will place protective, colored head and tail leaders
(complete with the address of the distributor) on the release prints,
because:
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You can easily identify the film by title and print number.
Color coding of the leader will immediately indicate if the print is
heads or tails out (to determine if rewinding is necessary).
The leader will indirectly guard against film loss through the mail,
in the event that the film and its case become separated.
The leader will protect the film from damages occurring by way of
improper projector threading.
The leader will clear the projector gate of dust and debris before
the film is projected.

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