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Comprehensive Examination (Part II)

Doctor of Philosophy (Research) Proposal


DEVELOPMENT OF PIEZO-ELECTRIC SENSOR FOR STRAIN
RATE DEPENDENT APPLICATIONS OF GEOLOGICAL
MATERIALS
Submitted by
PRATEEK NEGI
(2013CEZ8433)
Under the Supervision of
Dr. Tanusree Chakraborty
Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI
April, 2015

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the report titled DEVELOPMENT OF PIEZO-ELECTRIC SENSOR
FOR STRAIN RATE DEPENDENT APPLICATIONS OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS
which is being submitted by PRATEEK NEGI (ENTRY NO.: 2013CEZ8433) for the
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is a record of
the students own work carried out at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi under my
supervision and guidance. The matter embodied in this report has not been submitted elsewhere
for the award of any other degree or diploma.

Dr. Tanusree Chakraborty,


Assistant Professor,
New Delhi

Department of Civil Engineering

April, 2015

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
First and foremost I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my guide and mentor
Dr.Tanusree Chakraborty, who encouraged me to work on an interdisciplinary project. Her
continuous support and far sightedness has been a strong motivation for me.
Secondly, I would also like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thankfulness, towards
Dr.Suresh Bhalla, Associate professor, Civil Engineering Department, IIT Delhi. His knowledge
and support has made this work possible. His resourcefulness and critical views have greatly
helped me in this work.
I am also very thankful towards my friends Dr. Naveet Kaur, Rajesh Kumar, Anuj
Parashar, Swapnil Mishra, Ankesh Kumar, Priyanka Jain, Hemant Meena and Arundhuti
Banarjee to make all those tea breaks into brain storming sessions while relaxing my strenuous
schedule.
My thanks are also due to all the Civil Engineering Faculty and other staff members
especially Mr. Gosain (Rock Mechanics Lab), Mr. Lal Singh (Smart Structures and Dynamics
Laboratory), Mr. Satish (Civil Engineering Workshop) for their support and keenness in my
work. I am extremely grateful to Mr. Vinod Sharma from SSDL and Mr. Deepak from concrete
lab to give their helping hand unconditionally, which made my experimentation possible. The
kind of cooperation of all those who helped directly or indirectly in completion of this work are
acknowledged herewith.
Lastly, I feel privileged and grateful to my parents and my brother, for everything in my
life and the fact that I have reached here today. Everything that I have achieved is because of
their blessings, encouragement and support. Thanks to all of you, I really appreciate everything
that you have done for me.

New Delhi

(PRATEEK NEGI)

April, 2015

(2013CEZ8433)

ABSTRACT

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE
Abstract.........................................................................
Contents........................................................................

CHAPTER-1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

INTRODUCTION
Strain rate
Slow Strain Rate Testing
High Strain rate Testing
Wave propagation in solids
Strain rate behavior of rocks and soils

1.6
1.7

Research Objectives and scope


Organization of the report

CHAPTER-2
2.1
2.2

2.3
2.4
2.5

2.6
2.7
2.8

THE PIEZOELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY: AN


OVERVIEW
Introduction
Piezoelectricity: The Background
2.2.1 Bars
2.2.2 Specimen
2.2.3 Striker Launching System
2.2.4 Data acquisition system
2.2.5 Accessories
Principles of the Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar
Piezo Electric Sensors
Data Acquisition and Instrumentation
2.5.1 The Electrical Resistance Strain Gage
2.5.2 Convolution of Measured Strain
Testing Concerns
Testing Procedure
Data Processing Procedure

CONTRIBUTING CHAPTER ONE

CHAPTER-3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

CHAPTER-4

EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF PZT AND


STRAIN GAUGES

PAGE
NO.

1st Year

2nd Year

1stSemest

2nd

er

Semester

Task 1
(Course
Work)
Task 2
(Literature
Review)
Task 3
(Analysis;
Lab
Experiment)
Task 4
(Developme
nt of SHPB
apparatus)
Task 5
(Testing of
Rocks and
Soils)
Task 6
(Modeling of
Piezo
Sensors)

3rd Year

1stSemest

2nd

1stSemest

2nd

er

Semester

er

Semester

Comprehensive
viva

Task 7
(Synopsis)
Task 8
(Thesis)

Research plan for future


Task 1: Course work (CGPA: 8.00 on the scale of 10.00)
Task 2: Literature study and hands on experience on piezo sensors, data logging systems and
SHPB at Terminal ballistic Research Lab (DRDO)
Task 3: Preliminary experiments for comparison of Piezo sensors with Foil type Strain Gauges
Task 4: Developing SHPB apparatus in Geo-Dynamics lab, Civil Engineering Department, IIT
Delhi.
Task 5: To collect Rock and Soil samples and to perform static as well as high strain rate
dynamic tests on them
Task 6: Numerical modeling of piezo sensors
Task 7: Synopsis
Task 8:Thesis writing

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.

BACKGROUND

The strength of any material depends on the rate of stress imposed on it. Geologic materials like
rocks including rock masses and soils are also strain rate sensitive for their strengths. Attewell
and Rinehart have verified experimentally that the increase in strain rate increases the dynamic
strength of rock mass. The variation of yield strength with applied strain rate is shown in the
figure 1 (Nikolaevsky, 1990)

Figure 1. Strain rate vs. Yield strength of Dolomite (1), Limestone (2),
Granite (3), Basalt (4) and brittle aluminum (5) (Nikolaevsky, 1990)

High strain rate testing of materials has been continuously being developed for more than 100
years. In geotechnical applications various underground structures must be designed to function
properly over a wide range of strain rates. The compression behavior of rocks at high strain rates
differs significantly from quasi-static or intermediate strain rates. To consider this effect the
materials needs to be characterized under dynamic conditions. In laboratory testing of rocks and
soils for their compressive behavior, the strain rate applied is less than 1 s -1. But in real life
situations these materials may face strain rates in the range of 100 s -1 to10000 s-1. Such as in the
case of shock waves generated from blasts or foreign objects impact, earthquakes, terminal
ballistics. So, to test these materials at higher strain rates, one has to go beyond the conventional
servo-hydraulic machines. Table 1.1 shows the compilation of testing methods for various strain
rates.

Table 1Experimental methods for high strain rate testing.

Applicable strain rate, s-1


Compression Tests
<0.1
0.1-100
0.1-500
200-104
103-105
Tension Tests
<0.1
0.1-100
100-103
104
>105
Shear and multi-axial tests
<0.1
0.1-100
10-103
100-104
103-104
104-107

Testing Technique
Conventional load frames
Special servo-hydraulic frames
Cam plasto-meter and drop test
Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar in compression
Taylor impact test
Conventional load frames
Special servo-hydraulic frames
Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar in tension
Expanding ring
Flyer Plate
Conventional tests
Special servo-hydraulic frames
Torsional impact
Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar in torsion
Double-notch shear and punch
Pressure-shear plate impact

REFERENCES
1. Attewell PB. Dynamic fracturing of rocks, parts I, II, III. Colliery Eng 1963:203 10.
24852, 28994.
2. Rinehart JS. Dynamic fracture strength of rock. In: Proceeding of 7th symp. on rock
mech. New York: Press of American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and petroleum
Engineers; 1965. p. 2058.
3. Nikolaevsky VN. Mechanics of porous and fractured media. Singapore: World
Scientific; 1990.