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# CHAPTER 2: PROPERTIES OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

Example 2.3

How high would the tube of a barometer have to be if water were used instead of mercury?

Soultion

input
P ( psia) 14.7
Sg 1

output
H ( ft ) 33.95

Example 2.7

For the hydraulic press of figure 2.13, the following data are given:

Soultion

input
A1 (in2) 2
A2 (in2) 20
S1 (in) 1
FI (Ib) 100

## Determine each of the following ;

a)F2
b)S2
c)The energy input
d)The energy output

output

S2 (in) 1000 lb
F2 (Ib) 0.1 in
Energy input (in.Ib) 100 in.lb
Energy output (in.Ib) 100 in.lb

Example 2.8

A 10-in^3 sample of oil is compressed in a cyclinder until its pressure is increased from 100 to 2000 psi.

Solution

input
V (in3) 10
P (psi) 1900
β (psi) 250000
output
∆V (in3) -0.076 in^3

Example 2.12

A lubrication test was run on a hydraulic fluid using a four ball wear tester having a ball diameter(s) of 1.
and a torque arm radius ® of 8 cm. During the test a force (F) of 47 g was measured on the torque arm

Solution

input
s (cm) 1.3
r (cm) 8
F (g) 47
L (g) 20000

output
CF 0.041

Example 2.13

Find the pressure on a skin diver who has descended to a depth of 18.3 m in fresh water?

Solution

input
h (m) 18.300
γ (N/m3) 9797.000

output
P (kPa) 179

Example 2.15

A 163-cm^3 sample of oil is compressed in a cyclinder until its pressure is increased from 68.7 kpa to 13

Solution

input
∆P (kPa) 13053
β (Pa) 1718000

output
∆V (%) -0.76

Example 2.16

For the hydraulic press of figure 2.13 the following data are given:

A1 (cm2) 25
A2 (cm2) 100
S1 (cm) 5
F1 (N) 200

Solution

input
A1 (cm2) 25
A2 (cm2) 100
S1 (cm) 5
F1 (N) 200

output
F2 (N) 800
S2 (cm) 1.25

e is increased from 100 to 2000 psi.if the bulk modulus equals 250,000 psi,find the change in volume of the oil.
ester having a ball diameter(s) of 1.30 cm
g was measured on the torque arm when a constant vertical load(L) of 20 kg was applied to the rotating ball. Calculate the coefficient of fric

## 18.3 m in fresh water?

sure is increased from 68.7 kpa to 13,740 kpa or 13.74 Mpa.If the bulk modulus equals 1718 Mpa find the percent change in volume of the o
g ball. Calculate the coefficient of friction.

## he percent change in volume of the oil ?

Exercise Chapter 2

Exercise 2.44E

What is the pressure at the botom of a 30 ft coulmn of the hydraulic fluid of exercise 2.36?

Solution

Input
H ( ft ) 30
Sg 0.881

output
P (psi) 11.44

Exercise 2.49E

For the fluid power automotive lift system of figure 2.27, the hydraulic piston has a 250mm diameter . How much oil

Solution

input
A (m2) 0.0491
F(N) 13300

output
P (kPa) 271

Exercise 2.50E

In the hydraulic shown in figure 2.28, a force of 100 N is exerted on the small piston.Determine the upward force on

Solution

input
P (kPa) 2.0
A (cm2) 500

output
F (N) 1000

Exercise 2.62E

A lubrication test was run on a hydraulic fluid using a four-ball wear tester having the following specifications:
(1) The ball diameter equals 1.40 cm and
(2) The torque arm radius equials 7.75 cm. During the test a force of 50g was measured on the torque arm when a

Solution
input
F (g) 50
r (cm) 7.75
L (g) 20000
S (cm) 1.4

output
CF 0.0768
s a 250mm diameter . How much oil pressure(kpa) is required to lift a 13,300 N automobile?

iston.Determine the upward force on the large piston. The area of the small piston is 50 cm² and the area of the large piston is 500 cm².

## ng the following specifications:

measured on the torque arm when a constant vertical load of 20g was applied to the rotating ball.Calculate the coefficient of friction.
a of the large piston is 500 cm².