Está en la página 1de 76

Contents
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2

3

Banchō Sarayashiki

1

1.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

Plot summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2.1

Folk version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2.2

Ningyō Jōruri version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.2.3

Okamoto Kido version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.3

Okiku and Ukiyo-e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

Influences on Japanese culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.6

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Botan Dōrō

5

2.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

2.2

Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.2.1

Otogi Boko version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.2.2

Rakugo version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.2.3

Kabuki version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.2.4

Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.3

Influences and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.4

Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.6

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.8

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Chōchin-obake

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3.1

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

3.2

Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

3.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

i

ii
4

5

6

7

8

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CONTENTS
Female Ghost (Kunisada)

10

4.1

Yūrei-zu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.2

Yakusha-e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.3

Utagawa Kunisada (Toyokuni III) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.4

Female Ghost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.5

Print details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

4.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

4.7

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

4.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4.9

External sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

Funayūrei

15

5.1

Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

5.2

Classics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

5.3

Modern examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.4

From the view of folkloristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.5

Theories on their true identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.6

Funayurei by area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.7

Similar legends outside Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

The Ghost of Oyuki

20

6.1

20

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Goryō

21

7.1

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.2

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.3

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

Hitodama

22

8.1

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

8.2

Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

8.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

8.4

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

8.5

Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

8.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

Ikiryō

24

9.1

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

9.2

Classical literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

9.3

Folk Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

. . . . . . . .3 Physical appearance . . .5 See also . . . . . . .6 10 Inugami 29 10. 32 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 11. . . . . . . . . . . . 29 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 9. . . . . . . . .3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . 34 13. . . . 26 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 31 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Citations . . . . . . . . . .3 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Similar activity or phenomena . . . . .1 Origin of onryō . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 12. . . . . . . . . . . . 30 11. . . 34 13. . . 29 10. . . . . . 31 11. . . . . . . . . . .2 In folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 11 Kuchisake-onna 30 11. . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . . . . . . . 29 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Manga and anime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The modern urban legend . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Examples of onryō vengeance . . . 25 9. .1 In reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 13 Ochimusha 34 13. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . 33 12. . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS iii 9. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Live action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Description . . .6 References . . . . . 27 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9. . . 35 14. . 33 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Regional near-death spirits . . . . . . . . . .3 Other appearances . . . . 31 12 Mujina 32 12. .3 Sightings in Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ikiryō as an illness . . .1 Explanatory notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 11. . . . . . . .2 Onryō vengeance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 14 Onryō 35 14. . . . . . . . . . . . 32 12. . . . . . 28 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 11. . . . . 26 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 39 16. . . .3 Act 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 17. . . . . . . . . . . 44 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 18. . . .2 History . . . . . . . . . 36 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 19 Yotsuya Kaidan 46 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Ubume in art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 15 Shirime 38 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . 44 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Curse using dolls in antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Footnotes . . . .1 Explanatory notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Act 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Popular art . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 14. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ubume in literature . . . . .2 Act 2 .2 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 17. .6 Suggested reading . . . . . . . . 38 15. . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 References . .2 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 18. 46 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .iv CONTENTS 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 17 Ubume 40 17. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 36 14.1 History . .7 References . . . . . . . . .2 External links . . . . . . . . 38 16 Shiryō 39 16. . . . . 41 18 Ushi no toki mairi 42 18. 44 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 14. . . 39 16. . . . . . . 46 19. . . . . . . . . . .1 Overview . . . . . . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Explanatory notes . . . 40 17. . . . . . .5. 36 14. . . . . . . . . .2 Story . 41 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . 42 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ubume in folklore . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11External links .9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 19. . . 52 20. . . . . . . . . .4 Hauntings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 20. . . . . . . . . . . . 48 19. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Yūrei-zu and theatre . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 56 21. . . . . . . . . . 53 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Act 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 20 Yuki-onna 51 20. . 55 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External references . . . 47 19. . . .3 In popular culture . . . . . . .3.3 Historical basis . .CONTENTS v 19. . . . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 19. . . . . . . . . . .3 Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 20.4 See also . . . . . . 49 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Film adaptations . . . .2 Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Censorship . . . . . .3 Ikiryō . . . . . . . . .2 Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lafcadio Hearn's version . . . . . . . . . 47 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 21 Yūrei 55 21. 48 19. . . . . . . . 47 19. . . . 60 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 21. 51 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Japanese afterlife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 22 Yūrei-zu 59 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Act 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buddhist ghosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . .5 Ghost of Oiwa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Popularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 21. . . . . . . . . .2 Historical background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Yūrei . . . . . . . . .1 Famous hauntings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 60 22. . . .5 Exorcism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .10References . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 21. . . . . . . . .5 Yūrei-zu physical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . . . . . . . 59 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Yūrei . . . . . . . . . . 56 21. . . . . 56 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Obake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 21. . . .8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 19. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Yotsuya Kaidan and ukiyo-e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Images . 63 22. .7 Contemporary examples . . . . . . contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . 61 22. . . . . . . . . 67 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . 66 22. . . . . 61 22. .2 Other Edo artists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 22. . . . . . . 69 . . . . . . . . . . .11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Ghost of Oyuki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . .6 Notable Edo examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 See also . .12Text and image sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Content license . . .10References . . .vi CONTENTS 22. . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 22. . . . .9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. 64 22. . . . . . . and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lover. written by Okamoto Kido. in Story 4 of the Japanese television drama Kaidan Hyaku Shosetsu. but again she refused. Such a crime would normally result in her death. Enraged.Chapter 1 Banchō Sarayashiki jōruri production by Asada Iccho and Tamenaga Tarobei I.2 Plot summary Banchō Sarayashiki or Bancho Sarayashi (番町⽫屋 敷 The Dish Mansion at Banchō) is a Japanese ghost story (kaidan) of broken trust and broken promises. she counted and recounted the nine plates many times.1 History tenth and went to Aoyama in guilty tears. which debuted at the Nakamura-za theater and starred Ichikawa Danjūrō VIII and Ichikawa Kodanji IV in the roles of Tetsuzan and Okiku. Another adaptation was made in 2002. She The story of Okiku and the Nine Plates is one of the most worked for the samurai Aoyama Tessan. The familiar ghost legend had been adapted into a ningyō It is said that Okiku became a vengeful spirit (Onryō) 1 . It was a modern version of the classic ghost story in which the horror tale was replaced by a deep psychological study of the two characters' motivations. This one-act adaptation was not popular. leading to 1. In a frenzy. and continues to resonate fused his amorous advances. under the title Minoriyoshi Kogane no Kikuzuki. so he tricked her into bewith audiences today. The samurai The story of Okiku is an old one. until it was revived in June 1971 at the Shimbashi Embujō theater. Okiku often refamous in Japanese folklore. The most familiar and popular adaptation of Banchō Sarayashiki. starring Ichikawa Sadanji II and Ichikawa Shōchō II in the roles of Lord Harima and Okiku. Once there was a beautiful servant named Okiku. lieving that she had carelessly lost one of the family's ten precious delft plates. whose true origins are offered to overlook the matter if she finally became his unknown. she could not find the 1. starring the popular combination of Kataoka Takao and Bando Tamasaburō V in the roles of Tetsuzan and Okiku. however. However. a Kabuki version followed and in September 1824. A one-act Kabuki version was created in 1850 by Segawa Joko III. Banchō Sarayashiki was staged at the Naka no Shibai theater starring Otani Tomoemon II and Arashi Koroku IV in the roles of Aoyama Daihachi and Okiku. Like many successful puppet shows. 1.2. Aoyama threw her cho Sarayashiki in July 1741 at the Toyotakeza theater.* [1] Tsukioka Yoshitoshi's portrait of Okiku. down a well to her death. it first appeared under the title Ban.1 Folk version a dismal fate. debuted in February 1916 at the Hongō-za theater. and quickly folded.

this torment continued until an exorcist or neighbor shouted “ten”in a loud voice at the end of her count. beating her himself when she is raised. Aoyama is enraged and kills her. has her lowered into the well several times. although Aoyama has promised to marry her. has fallen seriously ill. but has recently re. Rejected.2 CHAPTER 1. and tests him by breaking one of the 1.2 by accident. and refuse the proposal. She refuses due to her love for Taketsune. BANCHŌ SARAYASHIKI who tormented her murderer by counting to nine and then making a terrible shriek to represent the missing tenth plate – or perhaps she had tormented herself and was still trying to find the tenth plate but cried out in agony when she never could. and this was adapted into a style of In 1655. The traditional punishment for breaking one Like many Kabuki plays. classics. From then after. Okiku. haunted the samurai no more. Ningyō Jōruri version Hosokawa Katsumoto. Katsumoto's heir. sai included her as one of the kaidan in his One HunAt first. one through nine.2. the sound of a voice counting plates comes from the well. and pardons her. a somewhat . whereupon Tetsuzan strikes her with his sword. However. Okiku again refuses and Tetsuzan has her beaten with a wooden sword. Aoyama sees that her ghostly face is not one of vengeance. sion of Botan Doro. chief retainer Asayama Tetsuzan plots to take over. plans to give a set of 10 precious plates to the Shogun to ensure his succession. 1. While wiping clean his sword. He demands that she become his lover and assist in the murder of Tomonosuke.Okamoto's version is notable for being a much more romantic adaptation of the story. Tetsuzan. Funase Sampei Taketsune is engaged to marry a lady in waiting. Katsushika Hokufamily. Shin Kabuki was ultihas fallen in love with a young servant girl Okiku. Tetsuzan plans to force Okiku to help him murder Tomonosuke. similar to the Kabuki versuzan staring at her contemptuously. Okiku was a popular subject of the plates is death.2. Her ghost. steals one of the 10 plates and summons Okiku to bring the box containing the plates to his chamber.3 Okiku and Ukiyo-e 10 heirloom plates that are the treasure of the Aoyama household. he attempts to seduce Okiku. Aoyama is convinced that Okiku broke the plate dred Tales (Hyaku monogatari) series. Aoyama promises Okiku that he will honor their love. He blames her for the theft and offers to lie for her if she will be his mistress. Ekin. Tomonosuke's retainer. Taking strength from this. He then throws her body down a well. erotically enjoying her torture. mately an unsuccessful merger of East and West. The play ends with the ghost of Okiku rising from the well. Tet. In 1830. She refuses again. he commits seppuku and joins her in death. Tomonosuke. which brought Western plays to Japan for the 1.3 Okamoto Kido version first time. but beauty and calm. Okikuʼs ghost is seen to enter the house and count the plates.Okamoto's Bancho Sarayashiki remains as one of the few ceived an auspicious marriage proposal from an Aunt. finally relieved that someone had found the plate for her. a vassal of the Shogun Aoyama Harima theater known as Shin Kabuki. sending her body into An ukiyo-e print by Hokusai depicting Okiku the well. In some versions of the story. the lord of Himeji Castle. Tetsuzan then has Okiku count the plates to find only nine. but when Okiku reveals that she broke the plate as a love-test. in Edo. through the help of a spy. Encountering her in the garden. There. Okiku doubts. Tetsuzan then has her suspended over a well and. Western plays were much more noticeable for romantic elements. This was an influence of the Meiji restoration. which is demanded by Aoyama's matter for ukiyo-e artists. Tetsuzan realizes that it Romantic Influence is the ghost of Okiku but is entirely unmoved.

net/Proto:Monster_ Party#Haunted_Well [4]“Ido no naka”in Takahashi Rumiko. a well who attacks by throwing plates at the player.Tuttle Publishing. Traditionally. old wells in Japan suffered from an infestation of a type of worm that became known as the “Okiku bug” (Okiku mushi). . there is a female ghost that occasionally pops up from a well in the town level. vol. Most notably. USA. this is where the hapless maid's body was thrown after being killed by Tetsuzan. covered with thin threads making it look as though it had been bound. though this reference in the dialogue does not exist in the final release. ISBN 0-87421179-4 • Ross. ISBN 4900737-37-2 • “Banchô Sarayashiki”. In the 1998 film adaptation of Koji Suzuki's novel Ringu. pp. USA. 1986. 165-184. Catrien. the name of the school the main protagonist (Urameshi Yuusuke). Steven.4 Influences on Japanese culture • Japanese mythology • J-Horror In 1795. Retrieved July 18. who was pushed down a well. Karen. • “Okiku”. As part of an Obon event.” In the video game We Love Katamari. Supernatural and Mysterious Japan.6 Notes [1] (Japanese) Kaidan Hyaku Shosetsu [怪談百物語] :: jdorama. ISBN 0-8076-1126-3 • Brazell. his rival (Kuwabara Kazuma) and his love interest (Yukimura Keiko) attend is “Sarayashiki Junior High. 3 1. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experience in Japanese Death Legends. http://tcrf. Although the castle is closed at night. she appeared as one of the New Forms of Thirty-Six Ghosts by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi. Retrieved July 14.7 References • Addiss. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 1998 • Iwasaka. the ghost in question is that of Sadako Yamamura. Michiko. or Okiku's Well. where she was left to die. This worm. In the prototype version. Columbia University Press. and counts to nine before shrieking and returning. Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays. particularly as ghosts were viewed as fearsome apparitions by nineteenthcentury Japanese.” 1. the residents of Ikkoku-kan take part in a summer festival. The NES game Monster Party features a boss named “Haunted Well”. Mezon Ikkoku. 1984. In the iOS and Android app Ayakashi: Ghost Guild. SEE ALSO notorious artist who had troubles with the law. Inc. 6. [3] The Cutting Room Floor. Kabuki21. was widely believed to be a reincarnation of Okiku. The Ningyo Joruri version is set in Himeji Castle. Kyoko dresses up as Okiku and is supposed to hide in a shallow well. 2006. His portrayal of Okiku is unusually sympathetic. the boss actually counts out ten plates.5. painted a Byobu-e * [2] of Okiku being accused by Tetsuzan Aoyama and his brother Chuta.* [4] In the manga Gintama. it is said that her ghost still rises nightly from the well.. a popular tourist attraction at the castle is Okiku-Ido. there is a parody of this story when the Yorozuya trio assist a man in organizing a“test of courage. Japan. Banchō Sarayashiki is an obtainable daemon. USA. 1. * [3] Manga artist Rumiko Takahashi included a parody of the legend of Okiku in her romantic comedy Maison Ikkoku. Asian Horror Encyclopedia.1.5 See also • Botan Doro • Yotsuya Kaidan • Kaidan • Onryō • Obake • Yurei 1. 2006. Japanese Ghosts and Demons. GeorgeBraziller. In the anime and manga YuYu Hakusho.com [2] Pictures on paper folding screens. reflecting a general trend in his later work. Utah State University Press 1994. 1996. Tokyo.

8 External links • Kaidan Bancho sara yashiki (1957) at the Internet Movie Database • Bancho sara yashiki: okiku to harima (1954) at the Internet Movie Database • Kaidan Hyaku Shosetsu (Story 4) (2002) at JDorama • Original version of the story . BANCHŌ SARAYASHIKI 1.4 CHAPTER 1.

containing Buddhist moral lessons on karma. Lafcadio Hearn. starring Sugimura Haruko. the story was fleshed out considerably. * In 1666. again at the Shimbashi Embujo. A more modern version of the play was written in 1974 by the playwright Onishi Nobuyuki for the Bungakuza troupe. spawning multiple imitative works such as Zoku Otogi Boko (Hand Puppets Continued) and Shin Otogi Boko (New Hand Puppets). it is one of the most famous kaidan in Japan. The plot involves sex with the dead and the consequences of loving a ghost. Japan was a closed society. and based it on the kabuki version of the story.* At the time. spawned largely by the popular game Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai. and is considered the forerunner of the literary kaidan movement that resulted in the classic Ugetsu Monogatari. and staged at the Kabukiza under the title Kaidan Botan Dōrō. * Botan Dōrō (牡 丹 燈 籠 The Peony Lantern) is a Japanese ghost story (kaidan) that is both romantic and horrific. and very little was known outside of its own borders. placing Botan Dōrō in the Nezu district of Tokyo. The collection was didactic in nature.1 History Botan Dōrō entered the Japanese psyche in the 17th century. with the help of a friend. He titled his adaptation A Passional Karma. by adapting the more spectacular tales from Jian Deng Xin Hua into his own book Otogi Boko (Hand Puppets). It was then adapted to the kabuki stage in July 1892. author Asai Ryoi responded to the Edo period craze for kaidan. through a translation of a book of Chinese ghost stories called Jiandeng Xinhua (New Tales Under the Lamplight) by Qu You. based on the kabuki staged for the first time with a full Kabuki casting in June version of the story. this title is commonly used in trans. which increased the popularity of the tale. adding background information on several characters as well as additional subplots. translated Botan Dōrō into English for his book In Ghostly Japan. so China was viewed as a mysterious and exotic nation. A new adaptation by Kawatake Shinshichi III was 丹灯籠 Tales of the Peony Lantern). * Otsuyu and the Peony Lantern In 1899. Otogi Boko was immensely popular. version is still occasionally revived but is less popular than 5 . Kitamura Kazuo and Ninomiya Sayoko. The Kawatake lation. Botan Dōrō was adapted by famous storyteller Encho Sanyutei into a rakugo.* In order to achieve a greater length. It was so successful that it was staged again a few years later in April 1976 at the Shimbashi EmIt is sometimes known as Kaidan Botan Dōrō (怪談牡 bujo. * In 1884.1989.Chapter 2 Botan Dōrō 2. Asai removed the Buddhist moral lessons and gave the stories a Japanese setting.

Otsuyu enters. and Otsuyu and her maid are unable to enter. when the two actresses playing Otsuyu and her maid became sick and died within a week of each other. there remains a superstition that actors who play the ghost roles in Kaidan Botan Doro will come to harm. unable to resist. Saburo's servants. In the morning. and agrees to help Saburo guard his house against the spirits. named Otsuyu. and promise to be married.4 Differences The main differences between the two versions are the changing of the human lover from Ogiwara Shinnojo. a young student. they look remarkably like Otsuyu and her maid. Saburo's health begins to deteriorate. Where the Otogi Boku version was written during the isolated Edo period. something that was played down in older kaidan.2. In the morning. but calls him from outside. He prays for her spirit during the Obon festival. and is surprised to hear the approaching footsteps of two women. his body entwined with Otsuyu's skeleton. where the female ghost hides her spectral nature until the final reveal at the end of the story.2. It is revealed that her aunt. Ogiwara's dead body is found entwined with the woman's skeleton.* The plan works. Ogiwara is instantly smitten with the woman. through a hole in the wall in Saburo's bedroom.* This theme follows the standard pattern of a Noh theater katsuramono play.2. He reports this to the local Buddhist priest. always leaving before dawn. afraid that he 2. accompanied by her maid who suyu merely wishes for a companion in the afterlife. and is unable to see Otsuyu for a long time. the woman and the girl visit at dusk. while another Maya Kakushi no Rei (A Quiet Obsession) which features . an elderly widower. remove the ofuda from the house. When he sees them. The priest places ofuda around the house. who locates the graves of Otsuyu and her maid. Each night Otsuyu. and the establishment of a pre-existing lover's relationship between Otsuyu and Saburo. This comes from a 1919 performance at the Imperial Theater. and he places a protection charm on his house.2 Rakugo version See Kaidan botan dōrō. and was influenced by the flood of Western literature and theater that accompanied the modernization of Japan. Pining for his sweetheart. and vows an eternal relationship. a beautiful woman and a young girl holding a peony lantern stroll by the house of the widowed samurai Ogiwara Shinnojo. or a general loneliness. The nature of the ghost's return to Earth is either a lingering love. The Otogi Boko verThe two lovers.3 Kabuki version A young student named Saburo falls in love with a beautiful woman named Otsuyu. peeks into his home and finds Ogiwara in bed with a skeleton. But Saburo falls ill. the servants find Saburo dead. They meet secretly. he is told that Otsuyu has died. the Rakugo/Kabuki version was written after the Meiji restoration. although they come every night and call out their love to Saburo. and emphasizes Saburo's peaceful expression when his body is found entwined with the skeleton.2 Story will die from heartbreak leaving them without work. The woman is then unable to enter his house.2. has Otsuyu returning This continues blissfully until one night a servant peeks for a former lover. begin their relationship again in sion of Botan Doro has no prior relationship. The carries a peony lantern. reunited. a grave in a temple. and again 2. Rakugo/Kabuki version. 2.* 2. spread the rumor that Otsuyu had died and told Otsuyu in turn that Saburo had died. the daughter of his father's best friend.3 Influences and references Botan Doro establishes the theme“sexual encounter with a womanʼs ghost. and prays the nenbutsu every night. to Saburo. Ogiwara finds that he is in danger unless he can resist the woman. From that night onward. BOTAN DŌRŌ the Onishi one.* 2. when Saburo recovers and goes to see his love. Finally. however. and sees The sexual ghost can be found in Kyōka Izumi's story him having sex with a decaying skeleton. The Rakugo/Kabuki version creates the idea of Otsuyu and Saburo's love being stronger than death. Ogiwara goes out to greet her. who opposed the marriage. Later. Taking Saburo there.* 2.1 Otogi Boko version has sex with Saburo. he convinces him of the truth. spends the night with Saburo. On the first night of Obon. His face is radiant and blissful. and is led back to her house. An elderly neighbor. suspicious of the girl. Consulting a Buddhist priest. Much like Yotsuya Kaidan.* One of these influences was adding a romantic element to the story. * skeleton sits in the doorway holding a peony lantern. The Otogi Boku version makes no mention of Otsuyu's death.6 CHAPTER 2.” which would be encountered in numerous Japanese ghost stories to follow. and Otsecret.

Shinzaburo's friend attempts to rape Tsuya. ^ Iwasaka. Following the koronnn”. 79. Devastated. but fails to kill himself after she dies. direct-to-video releases. Noriko T. Yamamoto's film roughly follows the Otogi Boko version of the story. although the inevitable consequence is treated as a happy ending or at worst bittersweet since they are united beyond the grave & need never again be lonesome. the two sisters commit suicide together. although all of these have been lost to time and only the titles are still known.ocn. My Bride is a Ghost.4 Film lover. It is variously known as Bride from Hell.* A massive change in the story is made in Masaru Tsushima's 1996 Otsuyu: Kaidan botan doro (Haunted Lantern). Ghost Beauty. In 1972. “The Emergence of KaidanShu: The Collection of Tales of the Strange and Mysterious in the Edo Period”Journal of Folklore Studies (60)1 pg. the sexual nature of the relationship between the protagonist and Otsuyu.* 2. ^ Reider. * Notable is Satsuo Yamamoto's 1968 version. “The Appeal of Kaidan Tales of the Strange”Journal of Folklore Studies (59)2 pg. entitled Hellish Love (性談牡丹燈籠 Seidan botan doro). Otsuyu is killed by her father who disapproves of the match with such a lowly samurai. he meets a girl named Tsuya who is the reincarnation of his past beloved.2.jp/~{}nekomata/senzen. 265.5.7 References 1.5 See also • Bancho Sarayashiki • Japanese mythology • Japanese horror • Obake Box cover for Nikkatsu's Hellish Love Boton Dōrō is one of the first Japanese ghost stories to be put to film.html 2. or Peony Lanterns. USA. 2000 3. filmed for Daiei Studios. but she promises to return on Bon Odori to be reunited with her 2. which is the sound of Otsuyu's wooden clogs Rakugo\Kabuki version. The usual consequences follow. ^ Reider.ne. Suzu.* [1] Six further adaptations were made between 1911 and 1937. 2001 2. pg. but the film ends with Shinzaburo and Otsuyu further reincarnated together. Hellish Love places emphasis on * announcing her appearance on stage. Haunted Lantern. 111 1994. ISBN 0-87421-179-4 . so that she would stop being a nuisance jealous of her younger sister.6 Notes [1] http://www2. Michiko. or television versions. The usual encounter with Otsuyu follows. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experience in Japanese Death Legends. living happily in a future life. Utah State University Press. This version has Shinzaburo dreaming of a past life. establishing protagonist Hagiwara Shinzaburo as a teacher who flees an unwanted marriage with his brother's widow & lives quietly some distance from his family. Bride from Hades. with a silent version in 1910.* • Onryō 2. with a new version released every decade as either cinematic releases. SEE ALSO 7 a sensual encounter with a female ghost in an onsen. It is second only to Yotsuya Kaidan in film adaptations. In his present life. but Shinzaburo's father arranges a marriage for him with Tsuya's sister. director Chūsei Sone made a pink film verBotan Doro is famous for the onomatopoeia “karannn sion for Nikkatsu's Roman Porno series. where he promised a Double Suicide with Otsuyu. Noriko T.

2006. Kabuki. George Braziller. Inc. Japanese Horror Cinema USA. Columbia University Press. 2005 ISBN 0-82482990-5 7. ^ Ross. Retrieved July 8. pg. Kabuki 21. USA.. 22.. 1925 2. Retrieved July 28. University of Hawaii Press. a translated by Jeremy Yang. Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays. Tokyo. 2006. Tuttle Publishing. the Popular Stage of Japan. Jay. Zoe. 1986. Catrien. Japanese Ghosts and Demons. Japan. ^ McRoy. ISBN 0-8076-1126-3 • Kincaid. 8. BOTAN DŌRŌ 4. A translation of original Chinese version • The Peony Lantern • Tales of Ghostly Japan • Otsuyu: Kaidan botan-dôrô (1998) at the Internet Movie Database • 1990 botan-dôrô (1990) Database at the Internet Movie • Seidan botan-dôrô (1972) at the Internet Movie Database • Botan-dôrô (1968) at the Internet Movie Database • Kaidan botan-dôrô (1955) at the Internet Movie Database • Kaidan Botan-dōrō trailer . Steven. Supernatural and Mysterious Japan. ^“Botan Doro on Film”.9 External links • Lafcadio Hearn's translation “A Passional Karma” • Mudan Dengji (Peony Lantern) by Qu You. 5. ^ “Botan Doro”. ISBN 4900737-37-2 2. 1998 6. USA.8 Further reading • Addiss.8 CHAPTER 2. Weird Wild Realm. 1996. Macmillian. James T. USA. ^ Araki.

composed of “bamboo and paper or silk.3 See also • Obake • Yōkai • Karakasa The Chōchin-obake in particular was created from a chōchin lantern. Yōkai Jiten [4] Bakechochin.”* [5] • Tsukumogami • Dusclops • ja: 不 落 不 落 ('Burabura'. possibly a type of Chōchin-obake) 3. 109. 57.. popular from the Edo period to the early 20th century (and still in use today). Lawrence. Nihon Shakai Shisō Kenkyūsho. Yōkai Jiten (妖怪 事典). Asian horror encyclopedia: Asian horror culture in literature. and a long tongue protruding from an open mouth. Japan).Chapter 3 Chōchin-obake [3] Kenji Murakami. Mainichi Shimbun (2000).”* [4] They are portrayed with “one eye. (2006) • Bush. (2001) • Kenkyūsho. (2006) • Screech. “paper lantern ghost” ) is a type of Tsukumogami. Writers Club Press. [5] Bakechochin. Harper Element. • The Element Encyclopedia of the Psychic World. Harper Element.2 Suggested Reading •“Bakechochin. Tokyo. (Tokyo. Japan interpreter: Volumes 8-9.1 Notes [1] Bush. (1974) • Murakami.”* [2] The Chōchin-obake also appears in the obake karuta card game. The lens within the heart: the Western scientific gaze and popular imagery in later Edo Japan. * [3] 3. [2] Screech. Timon. Nihon Shakai Shisō. a stock character in the pantheon of ghouls and earned mention in the definitive demonology of 1784.”The Element Encyclopedia of the Psychic World. 109 9 . Kenji (ed.). 3..* [1] "[the] lantern-spook (chochinobake) . University of Hawaii Press (2002) Chōchin-obake Chōchin-obake (提灯お化け. manga and folklore. 57.

bōrei (亡霊). The print is part of the permanent collection of the Prince Takamado Gallery of Japan at the Royal Ontario Museum.”* [7] The Tempō Reforms of 1842.* [2] There is a long tradition of belief in the supernatural in Japan which relates to various influences.* [6] So esteemed and prolific was he in this area. a native animistic religion which presupposes that the physical world is inhabited by eight million omnipresent spirit 4. yōma (妖 魔). ghosts ̶particularly the female variety ̶commonly figured in folktales. also known as Toyokuni III. poets' associations. konpaku (魂魄).* [8] began to be gradually repealed from the late 1840s. henge (変化). Kunisada entered Utagawa Toyokuni's studio from a young age.2 Yakusha-e beings. Taoism and Chinese folklore.Chapter 4 Female Ghost (Kunisada) Female Ghost is an ukiyo-e woodblock print dating to 1852 by celebrated Edo period artist Utagawa Kunisada. Canada.* [1] Literallyʻfaint (幽 . however. painters and woodblock artists began to create images of ghosts. and depictions of macabre or supernatural themes. which peaked in popularity in the mid-nineteenth century. bakemono (化け物). bunraku and nō dramas. the Portraitist of Actors (yakusha-e no Kunisada).rei). Vengeful spirits returning to punish their wrong-doers were a staple of kabuki. oiran courtesans and kabuki actors. as well as of kabuki actors in the roles of ghost characters. as well as theatre. 4. and proved popular with audiences. Other terms include: obake (お化け). During this period. which had banned depictions of geisha.* [4] Wishing to tap into this market for the macabre. and this genre was to become the mainstay of his fame and fortune. yōkai (妖怪). is Shintō. shiryō/ shirei (死霊).* [3] Yūrei-zu such as this one represent the conflation of two prevailing trends in the nineteenth century Japanese literary and visual arts: depictions of the female form. that he earned the epithet “Kunisada. as well as valuable connections to publishers. rei (霊). onryō (怨霊) and yūreijinkō (幽霊 ⼈⼝).ʼyūrei is just one of several Japanese words used to refer to spirits. including such Kunisada Female Ghost print title cartouche imported sources as Buddhism. theatres and actors* [5] He began creating yakusha-e (actor images) in 1808. ghost pictures.1 Yūrei-zu This print belongs to a genre of Japanese painting and ukiyo-e known as yūrei-zu (幽 霊 図).* [9] which 10 . yūki (幽⻤). and was therefore granted access to training from the finest masters of the age. yūkai (幽怪). Female Ghost exemplifies the nineteenth century Japanese vogue for the supernatural and superstitious in the literary and visual arts.yū) spirit (霊 . The most notable influence.

.. was the most prolific and successful print artist of all time. he was also admired for his “convivial and balanced demeanor.”* [19] He is credited with infusing ukiyo-e with a sense of realism.* [28] She wears a long. which was staged at Edo's Nakamura-za theatre in 1852. Her kimono is closed left over right. during which he produced almost one thousand compositions.* [30] The ghost floats. giving them a hunched up. before his work declined into what has been described as “gaudy and ostentatious”use of colour.”* [26] 4. Unlike in many other yūrei-zu. including kabuki-e (pictures of kabuki actors)..”* [16] Kunisada has been described as “without a doubt. and [the fact that] he delivered his commissions on time... She stares off to the right. her gaze following her outstretched right arm.* [11]* [12] Although he debuted as a book illustrator in 1807 with illustrations for the series of beauties “Twelve Hours of the Courtesans”(Keisei jūnitoki). Kunisada was “a trendsetter. the most productive year of Kunisada's career. According to modern critics.4.”* [24] The print dates to 1852 and was therefore done when Kunisada was 66.”* [23] Like the female spirit in this print. 4. and the other with a pale blue and white geometric design. the body below the waist tapered into nothingness. Covering the palm of her right hand is a blue cloth on top of which rests a rolled up kakemono or makimono scroll.* [13] his production really took off from 1809. Her kimono is fastened with a large dark blue obi tied in a disheveled bow at the front. dressed in pale or white clothing. the ghost in this print is not disfigured or particularly ghoulish. he was incredibly prodigious. The image takes its origi- .”* [27] The central area is dominated by the figure of a female spirit with extremely long.* [25] Critics tend to agree that Kunisada's later works suffered in quality “because of over-production and lowering of artistic standards.* [20] Compared with the females idealized in prints by Utamaro. In her left hand she grasps a red cloth̶possibly a furoshiki̶which is tied up as a round. if not outright aggressiveness. FEMALE GHOST 11 left Kunisada free to return to his favourite medium. yūrei-zu (ghost pictures). crowned by a pale blue and white decoration.* [15] Not only was he respected for his artistic talent.* [18] He produced images from diverse genres. shunga (erotica) and musha-e (warrior prints). The image dates to 1852.4 Female Ghost The subject in this print corresponds to the typical depiction of female ghosts in Edo art: “a fragile form with long. and demand for his illustrations soon outstripped that for his masterʼs. flowing hair.振袖) common to the kimono of single women and female ghosts. they generally have longer faces with strong jaws giving an impression of“greater self-possession. Peaking out over her right shoulder is the brown feathered fletching of a single arrow. particularly in his representations of female subjects. Underneath are two inner robes. wildly flowing black hair.” * [17] Until the time of his death in 1865.3 Utagawa Kunisada (Toyokuni III) Born in 1786 in the Honjō district of Edo.* [32] The image depicts a scene from a kabuki play entitled Otogi banashi Hakata no imaori (御伽譚博多新織). pale blue kimono* [29] with the long sleeves (furisode . in tune with the tastes of urban society. his women are shorter limbed.. footless and with arms bent up at the elbows as is customary for ghost images of the period. creating between 35 and 40 thousand designs for individual ukiyo-e prints. flat parcel. Her head is framed by pine boughs.* [14] He founded his own studio in the early 1810s. stumpy look. as it would be worn by a living woman.4.* [22] They are often posed with “slightly bent backs and knees. one solid red.* [10] Utagawa Kunisada (歌川国貞) was an apprentice of Toyokuni I. sumō-e (sumo wrestler Kunisada signature from Female Ghost print pictures). whom he later succeeded as Toyokuni III (三 代 歌 川 豊国).* [21] with shorter and rounder physiques. bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women).* [31] in flames above a grassy field.

i. in red oval toshidama-in cartouche.* [33]* [34] Although it is displayed in isolation in the ROM.5 Print details • Size: ōban • Format: tate-e • Title: Yaeki hime no rei (⼋重機姫の霊). Eikyūdō.* [36] In the tryptich's right position.com [3] Rubin 2000 [4] Rubin 2000 [5] Jesse 2012.the ghost of Princess Yaeki). the character was played by actor Onoe Baikō (尾上梅幸). yakusha-e • Provenance: donated to the ROM by linguist and librarian Leonard Wertheimer (1914-1998) 4.6 See also • Princess Takamado • Spring and autumn landscapes (Hara Zaishō) .print in same collection • Ichikawa Omezō as a Pilgrim and Ichikawa Yaozō as a Samurai (Toyokuni I) .print in same collection • Fan print with two bugaku dancers (Kunisada) print in same gallery • Bust portrait of Actor Kataoka Ichizō I (Gochōtei Sadamasu II) .* [38] 4.* [39] dark blue hanmoto mark in bottom left corner • Censor seals: 2 nanushi seals reading top to bottom Murata (村⽥) & Kinugasa (⾐笠) indicating Murata Heiemon & Kinugasa Fusajiro* [40] • Date seal: rat 6.* [37] including another of the Yaeki hime no rei character. is another character from the play named Shichi[?]shirō (七? 四郎).item in same gallery • Eijudō Hibino at Seventy-one (Toyokuni I) . FEMALE GHOST (KUNISADA) Hakata no imaori • Signature: Toyokuni ga (豊 国 画).12 CHAPTER 4.print in same gallery • Actor Arashi Rikan II as Osome (Ryūsai Shigeharu) .print in same gallery • View of Tempōzan Park in Naniwa (Gochōtei Sadamasu) .* [41] oval in lower left corner.* [35] The image on the left̶to which her outstretched right arm appears to be reaching̶is of Akamatsu Shigetamaru (⾚松重太丸) as played by actor Ichikawa Kodanji (市川⼩団次). Although not named on the print. labelled Female Ghost by ROM • Subject: Yaeki hime no rei (Ghost of Princess Yaeki) character from the kabuki play Otogibanashi • Unit 88-9 (Kiyomizu Masahiro) . The image belongs to a series of over twenty images depicting scenes from the play.items in same gallery Nanushi. 95 [6] Marks 2010. the print is actually the centre image from a tryptich capturing different characters from the play. 95 . lower right corner • Publisher: Yamamoto-ya Heikichi.e. 6th month of 1852. below censor seals • Genre: Yūrei-zu.print in same gallery 4. date and publisher's seals from Kunisada's Female Ghost nal title from the character represented: Yaeki hime no rei (⼋重機姫の霊 . 120 [7] Jesse 2012. 36 [2] tangorin.7 Notes [1] Ross 1996.

Noel.html [13] Marks 2010. 120 [18] Harris 2010. Tokyo: Tuttle. 120 [14] Harris 2010. New York: Phaidon Press Ltd. [30] In preparation for burial or cremation. Ukiyo-e. 311 [12] From his accession to the name Toyokuni in 1844. He is. kimono of the deceased are always closed right over left. • Calza.blogimg. 2009.”Accessed July 18. J. 120 [38] http://enpaku. [36] http://enpaku. [40] http://mercury. • Chiappa. Phaidon Press. 2010.ac.jp/vipsister23/imgs/4/b/ 4b545317.edu/~{}jnc/prints/nanushi. 1991.php [10] Marks 2010.ukiyo-e.jpg for the three intact images. Utah: Utah State University Press. 120 [33] ja: 尾上梅幸 [34] http://ja.html [20] Calza 2003. The Japanese Print: A Historical Guide.8 References • Bell.wikimedia. 125 [32] Marks 2010.org/image/metro/ M141-016-01(02) for versions of this print in other collections.ac. http://mercury. 2010.4.jp/db/enpakunishik/results-big. Japanese Colour Prints. 70 [15] Marks 2010. • Munsterberg. Japanese Woodblock Prints: Artists.lcs. bellaonline.lcs.asp) [31] Ross 1996.ac. 70 [19] Harris 2010. New York: Konecky & Konecky.waseda.org/wiki/File: Kunisada_The_Spectre.com/articles/art27885.jp/db/ enpakunishik/results-1.”In Samurai Stars of the Stage and Beautiful Women: Kunisada and Kuniyoshi Masters of the Color Woodblock Print. php?shiryo_no=101-0877 [11] Harris 2010.jpg [29] See http://ja. . New York: • Iwasaka.mit. U. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Düsseldorf: Hatje Cantz Verlag.jp/db/enpakunishik/results-big. Ukiyo-e Explained. 335 [25] Harris 2010. Images from the Floating World: The Japanese Print. David. 70 [24] Calza 2003. “Nanushi Censor Seals. New York: Weatherhill. Michael Dylan. Bernd. J. which demonstrate colour variation. 93101. REFERENCES [8] Harris 2010. Hugo. 95 13 [37] A number are visible at http://enpaku. 2013.K. Andreas. 335 [21] Calza 2003. edited by Stiftung Museum Kunstpalat. • Jesse.: Global Oriental. • Harris. 1978. 2004.mit. refusing to accept the legitimacy of his predecessor.. Tokyo: Tuttle. 2012. 70 [39] Lane 1978. Gunda Luyken and Beat Wismer. • Marks. 1994. however. 70 [23] Harris 2010. Pandemonium and Parade: Japanese Monsters and the Culture of Yōkai. • Hillier.ukiyo-e. 120 [16] Jesse 2012. Frederick. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experience in Japanese Death Legends.org/image/metro/M141-016-01(02) [35] See http://livedoor. Kunisada consistently signed his works Toyokuni II. Logan. 2003. always referred to as Toyokuni III (Marks 2010. Gian Carlo. Michiko and Barre Toelken.waseda. 70 [41] Lane 1978. Toyokuni II.8. Ukiyo-e: The Art of the Japanese Print. Publishers and Masterworks 1680-1900. 120). 95 [17] Marks 2010.edu/ ~{}jnc/prints/nanushi. Kent.waseda. 1998. 125 [28] This distinction is evident when this print is compared with a contemporary Kunisada image such as the ōkubi-e (large head print) The Ghost of Oiwa (1852) http://commons. 73 [26] Munsterberg 1998. • Lane. “The Golden Age of the Utagawa School: Utagawa Kunisada and Utagawa Kuniyoshi. Richard. 129 [27] Ross 1996. 213 4. 146 [9] Jesse 2012. (http://www. 335 [22] Harris 2010. php • Foster.

http://www.rom. • Rubin. FEMALE GHOST (KUNISADA) . Ghosts.de/ The Utagawa Kunisada Project Vast repository of information about Kunisada's works • http://enpaku. Demons and Spirits in Japanese Lore. Asianart. 2000. Accessed July 12. Catrien. 2013.14 • Ross.9 External sources • http://www.jp/db/enpakunishik/ results-1.waseda.asianart.com. 1996.on. Norman A. Tokyo: Tuttle. June 26.ca/en/ exhibitions-galleries/galleries/world-cultures/ prince-takamado-gallery-japan Webpage for the ROM's Price Takamado Gallery • http://www. Japanese Ghost Stories: Spirits.com/ articles/rubin/ 4.ac.php Images of prints from Kunisada's 1852 Otogi banashi Hakata no Imaori series CHAPTER 4. Hauntings and Paranormal Phenomena.kunisada.

another strange phenomenon at sea. There are stories that speak of ghosts According to legends. such as throwing onigiri into the sea or preparing a hishaku with its bottom missing.* [1] In the From the Tosa Bakemono Ehon.* [1] pending on the area. “boat spirit”) are ghosts (yūrei) that have become vengeful spirits (onryō) at sea. of boats that are themselves 15 . are someto be a type of funayūrei rather a type Funayūrei are ghosts believed to use hishaku (ladles) to times considered * [3] of yōkai.Chapter 5 Funayūrei Kawanabe Kyōsai's “Boatman and Funayūrei”. there are various methods that that appear above water. They are also called mōjabune (亡者船). Yamaguchi Prefecture and the Saga Prefecture. lit.* [1] can be used to protect from the harm they inflict. An example of a funayūrei rendered as an umibōzu-like yokai.1 Legends Umibōzu.* [2] 5. They have been passed down in the folklore of various areas of Japan. fill boats with water and make them sink. or ayakashi depending on the area. They are said to be the remnants of people who have died in shipwrecks Their appearance as depicted in legends varies widely deand are attempting to cause humans to join them. bōko. Period as well as in modern folk customs. “Funayūrei”from the Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki by Sekien Toriyama Funayūrei (船幽霊 or ⾈幽霊. they are called Ayakashi. They frequently appear in ghost stories and miscellaneous writings from the Edo An example of a funayūrei appearing as mysterious flames.

* [8]* [9] Also.* [1] When it appears as a boat. they are said to make the boat's compass malfunction.* [14] Also. ashes. The spirit (気. the funayūrei itself glows with light. incense sticks. feeling pity for the spirit. say “give me a bucket”. lakes. pear on the western sea are departed souls from the Taira and disappear.* [4] In Ehime.* [5] Also.* [13] in Nagasaki Prefecture. Kochi. the stagnated spirits of the ghosts desire to fall. one would get eaten by the sea and drown.* [16] . commented on funayurei that appear as balls of fire or ghosts at sea. in Kochi Prefecture. and water. the Ehon Hyaku create a form and produce a voice are called yurei. It is known that the Taira clan came to ruin in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. and when the spirit stagnates. fishing boats that travel to Hokkaido get turned into a funayurei. gave it a Buddhist service. “even by seeing something from 10 people.* [4] They often appear in rainy days.* [1] In Kōchi Prefecture. the dead would attempt to approach the side of the ship and sink the ship.* [11] and in Otsuki. and since getting startled and attempting to avoid it would result in capsizing and getting stranded on a reef. and would cling to the boat. in the past. causing it to go away. so that it is possible to confirm its details even at night. and burnt firewood.2 Classics it into one's hands.* [1]* [2] There are many legends of funayūrei at sea. you can also sometimes see it in ancient Chinese books (かやうの事つねに⼗⼈なみにあること には待らねども、たまたまはある道理にして、もろ こしの書にもおりおり⾒え待る)".* [11] It is also told that it is good to stir up the water with a stick. it would be no problem to simply push on forward.first place. Although it is not possible to get a hold of smoke with one's hands. one would thus prepare one with its bottom open.* [15] Genrin Yamaoka.* [6] and in the Toyoma Prefecture. In the Monogatari from the Edo period. it would be woven mats. to avoid shipwreck on a day of bad weather. is also sometimes seen as being a type of funayūrei. by making the boat attempt to run. Referring to Zhu Xi and the Cheng-Zhu school. but a funayurei would light a fire on open sea and mislead the boatmen. as well as nights on a new or full moon. Hata District Kochi Prefecture.* [11] There are also various theories that it would be good to throw things into the sea. an intellectual from the Edo period. and thus stave off the funayurei. of ghosts that appear on humanoccupied ships. it would be flowers and incense. so when crossing this sea on a boat. if one tries to avoid it by changing the boat's route. They are described as appearing like umibōzu or kaika.* [9] “Funayūrei”from the Ehon Hyaku Monogatari by Takehara Shunsen clan. but in the open sea between Dan no Ura and Mekari in the Kanmon Straits (Hayamoto. and concluded. a type of onibi. when a funayurei appears. by operating on the sixteenth day of bon. washed rice. he brought up several examples of departed souls that died with resentment and remained even after carrying out their revenge. it would be ashes and 49 rice cakes.* [10] There are also various legends about how to drive away funayurei depending on the area. it would pour water onto the boat. ki) is the beginning of one's nature. causing the crew to hang themselves. it is possible to take 5. By lending a hishaku. by sometimes going along with reason.* [12] in Kochi Prefecture. they would disappear if one stops the ship and stares fixedly at the funayurei for a while.* [7] In Ehime Prefecture.* [2] Other than attempting to sink ships. on a very foggy evening. the funayurei that ap. dango.16 CHAPTER 5. a funayurei wearing armor and helmet would appear. when one encounters a funayurei. making it disappear naturally. FUNAYŪREI ghosts ( ghost ships). 早鞆). one is able to disperse the funayurei by lighting a match and throwing it. people would light a bonfire on land. and swamps of inland areas. the boat runs aground. or of any combination of the above. in the town of Ōtsuki. it would be summer beans. Once. the ones that In the collection of fantastic stories. but they have also been described as appearing in the rivers. it is said to be possible to drive funayurei by saying “I am Dozaemon (わしは⼟左衛⾨だ)" and asserting to be one of the funayurei. the kechibi. there was a Buddhist priest. and by approaching the fire. by accumulating it and staining one's hand. a cliff or a boat without a pulley would appear. and in Kōzushima. Also. and in the Miyagi Prefecture.* [5] and on stormy nights and foggy nights.

* [17] Also.* [27] In order to avoid this. and in Nanaehama.4 From the view of folkloristics Murasa Tsumamura. and who was rumored to be the ghost of Toya Maru. and the hydraulic pressure would obstruct the boat from advancing. in 1969. The fact that sessed by Murasa. For example. Shimane Prefecture According to the folkloristician. By to go close to the sea. a sail boat would come chasing even though there is no wind. what might appear to be nayurei appear in evenings of wind and rain and heavy noctiluca in the lake is said to be a crystallization of fog. so that phantoms Also. fu(now Okinoshima). providing an example of where rumors started to spread about how the victims of the accident turned into funayurei and dug claws into the propellers.6 Funayurei by area wake up at the sound of banging on the glass window. in the area of the ocean that is at the mouth of large rivers. Hideo Hanabe. it would suddenly fill the boat with water and Also. the staff members who slept in the night duty room would 5.* [24] ones who are not deified. and expended all on creating internal waves.3 Modern examples 17 stagnate to sea level. it obstructs the boat's movement. By coiling a white sail and makset days. who would disappear once one reaches the destination. In this way.* [18] would say “lend me a hishaku”to boats that were too slow to flee and sink the boat. among other areas of Kyushu. if one doesn't open a hole in it before giving it over. it appears as an illusion of a boat or an island. the boat would suddenly sink. resulting in the boat not moving. at its foundation. the ferryboats that went on commission after the accident were discovered to have a strange scar on their propeller. in the sea in Kanagawa Prefecture. and also frequently when the weather suddenly worssalt. however much one turns it. Abu District. the beautiful princess Kowaura. it would be to say “I'm putting down the anchor (錨を⼊れる ぞ)" while throwing a stone. some of the strange incidents would be put into a frame of legends. one cause it to sink. During storms. the water temperature.5 Theories on their true identity Funayurei are said to possess ships and prevent them from moving. FUNAYUREI BY AREA 5. but since water with low salinity is comparatively light. it would be to throw ashes. it would also run along. but this is due to being posand illusions would be spoken of as reality. Kumamoto Prefecture. By making the ily adds a sense of reality. Oki District. in Hirado.* [23] 5. and would see the hand of the completely wet female on the Inadakase The coast of Fukushima Prefecture. and other ture (now Hagi). and in Hirado. and a prohibition on breaking these scattering ashes and making a sound.* [2] perse. Mie Prefecture. and would form a boundary. ing of eeriness and unease. and in Bon and in New Year's Eve. ice would melt and float into the middle of sea. the energy would merely stir up the water on the boundary. there is a hypothesis that the internal waves accompanied by changes in the salt content. Here. there would be (hishaku). Hokkaido.”An“inada”is a hishaku that is used on a promissory note remaining on that glass window. and it is said that it effective to they often appear during Bon makes its image overlap attach a sword or knife to the end of a pole and stir with that of the shōrōbune.* [17] boats.6. Nagasaki Prefecture and Goshourajima. and since they also give a feelboat go over it. if the boat has a screw propeller. In polar regions. or forbidden ing it run forward. the thing that spherically ens. after the Toya Maru accident. it would Ugome Hirado.* [26] In the western coast of Kyushu. but the water on both sides would not move too much.”and the next morning. it wanting to bail water.* [22] would observe a white human figure. as the sea several times with it. hear a voice saying “please give me a hishaku. and then throwing the . there are cases where at night.* [20]* [21] In 1954. They other side. saying “lend me an inada pleading for help. the largest marine accident to occur after the war. but by staring in there. and since the matter that accidents happen more eassolidified while shining is Murasa. it is forbidden to fish or go to sea.5.* [14]* [25] 5. It is said that when a boat is possessed. there are areas of water with low salinity. Yamaguchi Prefecfunayurei. which was also recorded by the polar explorer Nansen. got startled that “Toya Maru's victims were speak to people on ships.”and it was said that the The man in white. a female would appear completely wet would appear riding in a taxi. By lending a hishaku with a hole in it. in Aomori Station.* [17] This funayurei appears in sea and on land.* [19] but they have somewhat been given a scientific explanation in the modern era. and in Goshourajima. it is possible to flee and return. shipwrecked members of the university's yacht club were Minamiise. there is also faith in the spirits of those who have died at sea and float around and turn into Yobashiri Aishima. and have been determined to be a phenomenon of internal waves. creating the same result. there is a rumor that at midnight. However. Around that boundary. the sea would suddenly shine with light. it would distaboos.

“Mouren”means ghost. 244 ⾴. Mizuumi Shobō. Mukashibanashi ・Densetsu Shōjiten ( 話・伝説⼩事 典). pp. 集英社新書. a festival has been opened for calming this Mourei Yassan. ⾼知県. [9] 佐々⽊正興 (1983). Chiba Prefecture (now Asahi). (2000). " 憑きもの・妖怪伝承".”and they would sink a ship if one doesn't give them an akadori that has its bottom open. ed. In 伊賀 貞雪他編纂. On the evening of moonlight nights around the time of Bon.* [27] Mayoibune Onga District. pp. 富⼭ 県史 民俗編. it was written as Mourei Yassan (猛霊⼋惨). 本当にいる⽇本の「 代妖怪」図 . it is a funayurei that would appear to fishing boats. pp. yassa. [5] 多⽥克⼰ (1990). ⾼知県史 民俗編. and “yassa”are the encouraging shouts used while rowing a boat. Yōkai Jiten 妖怪事典. there are writings such as “the ghosts of those who have drowned become ghosts [15] 多⽥克⼰編 (1997). p. 宗優⼦の妖怪 2008-01-31.”but since it would sink the boat if lent a hishaku.* [26] They are also said to disappear if one smokes tobacco.* [30] In the works of the yokai manga cartoonist Shigeru Mizuki. Fukuoka Prefecture and in the same prefecture Kanezaki.* [27] They are also said to appear while saying“give me an akadori (淦取り. It is said that kaika would appear and people's voices could be heard.* [32] Misaki (ミサキ) Appearing in Fukuoka Prefecture among other places. In China. Munakata. a scoop for removing water that gathers at the bottom of a ship). 妖記に⾒たりと)" stating that what are considered funayurei to the Japanese were also written about in [17] ⼭⼝敏太郎 (2007). and “inaga” means a hishaku. (now Kuji). [14] 瀬川清⼦ (October 1938). it is a yokai that appears frequently along with black boats. 国書刊⾏会. [4] ⾼⽊啓夫 (1978). Mainichi Shimbunsha. 250 ⾴. there are legends of a phenomenon . ISBN 978-4-91514644-2.8 References [1] Murakami. Nomura. 5. 愛媛県. Kokushokankōkai. it is said that one should thus give a hishaku with its bottom open. 怪異・妖怪 伝承 ータ ース. ISBN 978-4-8380-3108-5. " ⺠俗採訪通巻昭和 39 年度号⾼知県幡多郡⼤⽉町旧⽉灘村". Tada. " 伊予の⺠俗通巻 5 号⾈幽霊やシャクク レ". 幻 世界の ⼈たち. [2] Hanabe.18 CHAPTER 5. ISBN 978-4-7730-0365-9. and discolored monsters would attempt to capsize ships (these are close to the umibōzu). Kunohe District. ⽇本の妖怪百 2. 32–34 ⾴. they appear as sailboats at sea. [6] 國學院⼤學 ⺠俗学研究会. p. A voice would approach the boat saying“mouren. 209.⼭⼈ 話 -. Chōshi city. Ube town. that capsize ships (覆溺 (fukuteki) して死せる者 の⻤ (ghosts) を覆⾈⻤ということ)" and “they [16] ⽥中聡 (2007). " 海の怪異". 怪異・妖怪伝承 ータ ース. [7] 漆間元三 (1973). mouren.7 Similar legends outside Japan called “Kikokutan no Kai”(⻤ 哭 灘 の 怪). China. Iwate Prefecture. and they make an impossible demand“give me a paddle in times of storms (時化 (shike) の時などに櫂 (kai) をよこせ).* [31] and in Sakaiminato. Jun'ichi. と伝説 • According to the Keirin Manroku (桂林漫録) (writ(三元社) 11 巻 (10 号(通巻 130 号)): 23–24 ⾴. 新紀元社. In 溝渕増⺒他編纂. yassa. pp. Truth in fantasy IV. Retrieved 200802-14. saying“give me a hishaku. Retrieved [11] 岩井宏實 監修 (2000). ISBN 978-4-620-314280. [12] 國學院⼤學⺠俗学研究会. [10] 宗優⼦.”but it would do no good to reply. ッズ. lend me an inaga (モウレン、ヤッサ、モウレン、ヤッ サ、いなが貸せえ). " ⺠俗採訪通巻昭和 39 年度号⾼知県幡多郡⼤⽉町旧⽉灘村". On days of deep fog and stormy days. 集 are seen in writings about yokai overseas (海外怪 英社. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 298. Hideo et al. pp. 愛媛県史 民俗上.* [33] Namourei In the legends of Kosode. Tottori Prefecture. ed. In 中沖豊他編. 江 の妖怪事 . 河出書房 新社. or lend them a paddle. they are seen as a kind of Funayurei. and it is said that a spirit of someone who died in a shipwreck is attempting to increase their fellows. ISBN 978-4-0872-0398-1. [3] Kyōgoku. [13] 國學院⼤學⺠俗学研究会. 306 ⾴. pp. p. [8] ⼭⼝常助. 笠倉出版社.* [34] 5. ISBN 978-4-3360-50557. " 海と信仰". pp.”and suddenly a hand would come from the sea. Retrieved 2008-02-14. " ⺠俗採訪昭和 30 年度 号神津島". 怪異・妖怪 伝承 ータ ース. ISBN 978-4-336-03948-4. 291. ed. " 相島⽇記 (1)".* [28]* [29] Mouren Yassa (亡霊ヤッサ) Kaijō District. Yōkai Gahon Kyōka Hyakumonogatari (妖 怪 画 本 歌 百 物 語). 172 ⾴. Retrieved 2008-02-14. Katsumi. FUNAYŪREI anchor. 怪異・妖怪伝承 ータ ース. 75 ⾴. 149 ⾴. Natsuhiko (2008). ⽵原春泉絵本百物語 . " ⾈幽霊". Mizuki's birthplace. (1987). 830–831 ⾴. Kenji. ten in Kansei 12). pp. 富⼭県. ISBN 978-4-3096-1382-6.

[28] ⽇本⺠俗語 第 4 巻. 平凡社. 三重県 観光連盟. " 船幽霊など". ⼩学館. さかなと ⻤太郎のまち境港市観光 イド. [33] 千葉幹夫 (1991). 333–334 ⾴. Utah State University Press. [23] " 三重のむかしばなし". pp. pp. 64 ⾴. pp. pp. In 郡司聡 他編. ⾓川書店. [29] 櫻⽥勝徳 (August 1932). pp. ed. 代⺠話考. vol. 国 妖 怪 事 典. 筑摩 書房. 1703 ⾴. 怪異・妖怪伝承 ータ ース. [25] ⽇本⺠俗語 第 4 巻. ISBN 978-4-06-213742-3. REFERENCES 19 [18] 化野燐 (2008). 1491 ⾴. 怪. ⼩ 学 館 ラ イ ブ ラリー. ISBN 978-4-09460074-2. 境港市. " 島通巻昭和九年前期号肥前平島と出 ⽔の⻑島". Retrieved 2008-02-14. ISBN 978-4-04-883992-1. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 2001. (三元社) 5 巻 (8 号(通巻 56 号)): 22 ⾴. カドカワムック. 2004-0322. 105 ⾴. 渡辺パイプ株式会社. 241 ⾴. [34] ⺠俗学研究所編著 (1955). と伝説 [30] 妖怪事典. [21] " ⽔の不思議船を⽌める魔物、重い⽔と軽い⽔。". ed. pp. pp. 平凡社. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experiences in Japanese Death Legends. ISBN 978-4-480-03813-5. 221–222 ⾴. ⽇本船主協会.5. [27] 千 葉 幹 夫 (1995). 柳⽥國男監修. Michiko and Toelken. [22] ⺠俗学研究所編著 (1955). [19] 桜⽥勝徳. ISBN 978-4-06-205172-9. [31] 1 週間編集部編 (2006). Retrieved 2009-01-31. ⽇本⺠俗語 第 3 巻. 柳⽥國男 監修. pp. 1126 ⾴. [26] 松⾕みよ⼦ (2003). 322 ⾴. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 講談社.com • Iwasaka. ちくま⽂庫 3. 海 学 ール. 1994. 妖怪お化け 学事典. アニメ版ゲゲゲの⻤太郎 読本. • Funayurei Translated funayurei story on Hyakumonogatari. 31 ⾴. [20] " いくら漕いでも進まない船幽霊の秘密は「内部 波」". pp. Water Works ⽔の き. 講談社.8.0024. pp. [32] " 猛霊⼋惨⼤明神祭が開催されました". Barre. pp. 1565 ⾴. ISBN 0-87421-179-4 . Retrieved 2008-02-14. " 妖怪プロファイリング".(※ ⾳量注意) [24] ⽇本⺠俗語 第 4 巻. ⽇本⺠俗語 第 1 巻. 観光三重: 三重県内の観光 イド.

One night her spirit came to him in a dream. 6. 1994.1 References • Iwasaka. This is one of the earliest paintings of a yūrei (ghost) with the basic late-Edo period ghost characteristics: disheveled hair. (a traditional Japanese ghost). lack of lower body. nearly transparent. white or pale blue robe. She died young and Okyo mourned her death. According to an inscription on the painting. limp hands. ISBN 0-87421-179-4 20 . Utah State University Press. founder of the Maruyama-Shijô school of painting. and unable to get her image out of his head he painted this portrait.Chapter 6 The Ghost of Oyuki The Ghost of Oyuki (お雪の幻 Oyuki no maboroshi) is a painting of a female yūrei. Okyo had a mistress in the Tominaga Geisha house. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experiences in Japanese Death Legends. by Maruyama Okyo (1733–1795). Barre. Michiko and Toelken.

2 See also • onryō • yurei 7. 御 (go) meaning honorable and 霊 (ryō) meaning soul or spirit. and his chief Fujiwara adversary and Emperor Daigo's crown prince died. including destruction of crops and the summoning of a typhoon or an earthquake.An article about the Heian period Goryo religion at hyakumonogatari.4 References • Iwasaka. and he was deified as Tenjin-sama. Even this wasn't enough.5 External links • The image of the Goryō for Japanese families • Goryo Shinko .* [1] 7. see Goryeo. the emperor restored all his offices.” An example of a goryō is the Shinto kami known as Tenjin: Government official Sugawara no Michizane was killed in a plot by a rival member of the Fujiwara clan. burned the official order of exile. who could “perform the necessary rites that would tame the spirit. 7. while fires caused by lightning and floods destroyed many of residences. In the years after his death. In order to placate him. the belief was that “the spirits of powerful lords who had been wronged were capable of catastrophic vengeance.” According to tradition. Arising mainly in the Heian period.The Religion of Ghosts . ISBN 0-87421-179-4 7. A shrine was established at Kitano. Michiko and Toelken. With the support of the • Japanese mythology • Emperor Sutoku 7. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experiences in Japanese Death Legends. Utah State University Press.Chapter 7 Goryō This article is about the mythological Japanese spirit. The court drew the conclusion that the disturbances were caused by Michizane's angry spirit. government. For the Korean dynasty. the only way to “quell the wrath of a goryō" was with the help of a yamabushi. especially those who have been martyred. of poetry and of those who suffer injustice. Barre.3 Notes [1] Morris. 1994. and 70 years later he was elevated to the post of Prime Minister. which means “heavenly deity”.com 21 .1 Description • Bancho Sarayashiki The name consists of two kanji. the capital city was struck by heavy rain and lightning. Goryō (御 霊) [ɡoɽjoː] are vengeful Japanese ghosts. and he was promoted to Senior Second Rank. 54. it was immediately raised to the first rank of official shrines. He became the patron god of calligraphy. from the aristocratic classes.

Chiba Prefecture.”and are said to come out of the body 2 or 3 days after a human dies. and also have a tail. They fly crawling along at an elevation that is not very high.” In the Man'yōshū. science from the masses produced the idea of hitodama. you would naturally “). there are common features throughout Japan. or red. Also. “since funerals before the war were burials. There are also a few that have been seen during daytime. a tamase would come towards them saying “let's meet. but it is said that this sound can only be heard by those who have a deep relation with the spirit. so it would be common for the phosphorus 8.old will pretend to have seen one. and Colophotia praeusta. hitodama are called“tamase. mean. let's meet (aimashou. but some differences could also be seen depending on the area.2 Theories is where their name comes from.* [4] In Kawakami.1 Summary that come from the body to react to the rain water on rainy nights and produce light. aimashou)" so Sekien even those who have not seen one when they are 28 years * In Japanese folklore. and are said to make a great sound in storm shutters and gardens. they are said to appear before a child is born* [3] and in some areas are also said to be mysterious flames that drive off humans to death. [5] ing “human soul”) are balls of fire that mainly float in the middle of night. and in Nakijin. meaning think of it as the sorrow* [* 1] on a rainy night “firefly from Heike”). but since hitodama are considered to be the“appearance of souls that have left the body and fly through the air.” they are strictly speaking a different general idea. All these ̶Man'yōshū (Amasaki book) Chapter snail-eating beetles and their larvae are famous for their 16* [2] ability to make special body parts glow (bioluminescence) 22 . They have a color that is blue. Inba District. for those who have not seen a tamase by the time they Hitodama from the Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki by Toriyama are 28 years of age. and go toward temples or people they have a deep relation with. Luciola lateralis (平家ホタル. Concerning their shape and nature. meaning „Genji´s firefly blueness of a hitodama. Heike hotaru. and the meager knowledge about Hitodama are mentioned in literature from ancient times. Genji hotaru. Hitodama (Japanese ⼈魂. According to one theory. In the Okinawa Prefecture.* [1] They are said to be“souls of the dead that have separated from their bodies. there is the following poem:* [1] Another possibility is that they come from fireflies.”* [1] which 8. hitodama are called “tamagai”. but it can either be short or long. of which three species are common in Japan: Luciola cruciWhen you are alone and meet the complete ata (源⽒ホタル.Chapter 8 Hitodama They are frequently confused with onibi and kitsunebi. (now Yachimata). orange.

257. Jean-Claude Vala: Biology of Snail-Killing Sciomyzidae Flies.6 External links • Hitodama at The Obakemono Project . or visual hallucinations. • Ball lightning • Soul • Yurei • Will-o'-the-wisp 8. p. page 24. Routledge. ISBN 978-4-938923-58-7. " ⼈魂に就いて".「 の ( ダマ)」 の ⼈魂の正 を て 40 年 学とロマンの 戦記!. London/New York 2000.77-78 [3] ⺠俗学研究所編著 (1955). University of Hawaii Press. p. Illinois 1985.4 Notes Translation note [1] This 葉⾮左 is actually of unknown meaning and pronunciation. ISBN 0-415-19847-X. Braziller. Helen Foresman: Japanese ghosts & demons: art of the supernatural. Cambridge University Press. [6] ⼤槻義彦 (1986). 8. there are some hitodama that cannot be explained by the above theories. page 172–173.8. と 伝説 (三元社) 8 巻 (10 号(通巻 94 号)): 46–47. • Chris Philo. meaning“firefly catching”) is celebrated. beastly places: new geographies of human-animal relations (= Band 10 von Critical geographies). 894. G. 61–63. 沖 の御 ことば辞典. the Yoshiko Ootsuki posited the idea that they are “plasma from the air. • Stephen Addiss. pp.5.5 Sources • Karen Ann Smyers: The fox and the jewel: shared and private meanings in contemporary Japanese inari worship. Every year at the Fusa-park in Tokyo the legendary feast Hotarugari (蛍狩 り. light bulbs. ⼆⾒ブッ クス.3 See also 23 8. Chris Wilbert: Animal spaces. [5] ⻫藤源三郎 (October 1935). ISBN 0-8248-2102-5. There have also been some“artificial hitodama”created using combustible gases (an experiment in 1976 by the Meiji University professor. animals that have luminous bryophytes attached to them. ボーダー インク. ISBN 978-4-576-86129-6. [4] ⾼橋恵⼦ (1998). but “hahisa”means “sorrow”in Tamil. so they are thought to come from various phenomena. They have also been thought to possibly be misrecognitions of shooting stars. In the 1980s. ISBN 0-52186785-1. ISBN 978-0-486-99052-1 • Lloyd Vernon Knutson. 柳⽥國男 監修. gasses that come from swamps. References [1] 広辞苑 第五版 p. ⼆⾒書房. page 117 & 118. SOURCES and make them blink rhythmically.2255 「⼈魂」 [2] 写真で原典の該当ページを⾒ることが可能。京都 ⼤学附属図書館所蔵 重要⽂化財『万葉集 (尼崎本)』 pp. Honolulu 1999. 8. Camebridge (UK) 2011.”* [6] However. ed. Masao Yamana using methane gas). ⽇本⺠俗語 第 2 巻.

the mentally troubled Kashiwagi fears that his soul may be found wandering (akugaru). a concept not so dissimilar from the evil eye. ikisudama (⽣霊. such as love and infatuation (for example the Matsutōya ghost below). might bring about curses. according to mythology. the Noh play adaptation of the same story.Chapter 9 Ikiryō transforming into their ikiryō form. all or part of the perpetrator's soul leaves the body. out-of-body experience) reported in anecdotal and fictional writings.* [4] However. 9. where they are described as “living spirits”who. with eyewitness accounts and experiences (hauntings. sometimes across great distances.* [6] This spirit is also portrayed in Aoi no Ue. seirei. possessions. In The Tale of Genji. a human soul leaving a body and drifting away is described by the old verb “akugaru” meaning “departure”. It is believed that if a sufficient grudge is held. and stories are told of the ikiryō who bears no grudge. or shōryō. or poses no real threat.”"eidolon"). the possessed person thought to be unaware of this process. In recorded examples.The Tale of Genji (ca.* [1]* [2]* [3] The term(s) are used in contrast to shiryō. even just before their death. and tormented Genji's pregnant wife Aoi no Ue. friends and/or acquaintances. Vengeful spirits (怨霊 onryō) of the living are said to inflict curses (祟り tatari) upon the subject or subjects of their vengeance by means of In the medieval collection Konjaku Monogatarishū is the 24 .* [7]* [8]* [9]* [10]* [11]* [12] and by Murakami* [11]* [lower-alpha 1] The popular belief that the human spirit (or soul) can escape from the body has been around since early times. Possession is another means by which the Ikiryō are commonly believed to be capable of inflicting harm. “living ghost. resulting in her death after the successful delivery of her son.* [2] 9. which refers to the spirit of those who are already deceased. lit. 1100) describes the “well known”episode of the ikisudama (the archaic form of ikiryō) that emerged from Genji's lover Lady Rokujo. A person's ikiryō may also leave the body (often very shortly before death) to manifest its presence around loved ones. appearing in front of the victim to harm or curse them. Murasaki and Onna-sannomiya (ja). if angered. refers to a spirit that leaves the body of a living person and subsequently haunts other people or places. After her death. and requests that last rites are performed on his body to stop his soul from escaping if this should happen.2 Classical literature “Ikiryō" (⽣ 霊) from the "Gazu Hyakki Yagyō" by Sekien Toriyama Ikiryō. Lady Rokujo became an onryō and went on to torment those who would later become Genji's consorts.1 Summary In classical literature. the ikiryō does not necessarily act out of spite or vengefulness.* [6] In the Heian period. The ikiryō has even made its way into Buddhist scriptures. in Japanese popular belief and fiction. the spirit sometimes takes possession of another person's body for motives other than vengeance.

Echizen Province (now Fukui City). that is to say. even though the gates were shut. the woman's monen (妄念). who is brandishing a blade. [22]* [23] from the “Sorori Monogatari”(曾呂利物語)* [18] The horror story (kaidan) collection Sorori Monogatari (曾呂利物語) (published Kanbun 3. the guide learned that the master of the house complained of the presence of his former wife's ikiryō. the souls of the person/s on the brink of death are called amabito. Finally the family sought help from a renowned priest named Zōkai. and believed to depart from the body and walk around. a soul that pays visit to acquaintances is called an omokage (⾯影 〔オモカゲ〕) “reminescence. One night. Yanagita in Tōno monogatari shūi reported that in the Tōno Region. There a woman spoke to him through blinds.3. where he mistakedly thinks he saw a chicken fly from the base of a nearby stone tower on to the road.* [13]* [14]* [15] The ikiryō can also possess the object of its infatuation. sometimes making noises like that of the door sliding open.* [20] In the Kazuno District in Akita Prefecture. Upon reaching the house. and appear to the human eye as an illusion is termed an omaku in this region.* [20]* [21] According to Yanagita. which short led to his later death.* [1]* [18]* [19]* [loweralpha 2] 9. engaging in conversation as if the girls were present before his eyes. Unbeknownst to the man. On occasion. but rumors had already spread regarding the incident.9. lingering shadow”. When the face grins at him. in contrast to those who are only temporarily capable of tapping into such a state as a precursor to their death. critically ill with a case of "cold damage" (傷寒 shōkan) (Typhoid fever or a similar disease).* [16]* [17] 25 but it turns out to be (or has transformed into) the animated. and claimed it was causing his illness.“the thoughts of the dead or the living coalesce into a walking shape. Such individuals are purported to have voluntary control of this ability.3 Folk Law 9. before any tangible news of bereavement arrives.1 Regional near-death spirits Sightings of ikiryō belonging to those whose deaths are imminent have been recorded from all over Japan. or 1663) includes a tale of a woman whose ikiryō assumed the shape of her severed head (cf.3. severed head of the woman. unlike*the stereotypical Japanese ghost that have no legs or feet. tobi-damashi (⾶びだまし) is the equivalent term to the Senboku District. The following morning. and who tormented the boy's conscience. but is still being chased by the man. She was seen wandering around the construction site of the Kōganji temple rebuild project in Tsujibuchi. a tale allegedly based on events in Kyōhō 14 or 15 (1729–30). or Zōkai Etan (象海慧湛 1682-1733). the lady promptly vanished before the man's eyes. leading to the consequential awakening of her husband. the woman turned out to be the ikiryō of the wife the official had abandoned. The priest successfully exorcised the boy and cured his condition. Inside the house. and showering him with gifts of silk cloth. a man traveling towards Kyoto arrives at place called Sawaya in Kita-no-shō. The woman later becomes a nun to repent for her sins. Iwate (ja). Many of the local terms for the ikiryō were collected by Kunio Yanagita and his school of folklorists. Akita region. The recipient of the visit experiencing a metaphysical foreshadowing of this person's death. The guide later sought out the lady's house in Ōmi Province. and leads her to the house of a certain Senior Assistant Minister of Popular Affairs (⺠部⼤夫 Minbu-no-tayū) in the capital. or her wayward thoughts or obsession (that strays from the tenets of Buddhism). according to the title. Aomori Prefecture. rather than its love-rival. The wandering head was. the days before . Iwate Prefecture. and chases it to a home in the capital of the province. it has “Onna no Mōnen Mayoiaruku Koto”(⼥の妄念 ひ く事) feet and make pitter-patter noises.”An example being a beautiful girl aged 16 or 17. The essay collection Okinagusa (翁草) records“Matsutōya yūrei”. and assumes the form of a living human.”It describes how a commoner traveling out of Kyoto agrees to act as guide for a noblewoman at the crossroads. Wailing noises were then heard from inside the house. Stories abound of spirits that materialize (or otherwise manifest their presence) to someone dear to them. whereby a Kyoto merchant named Matsutōya Tokubei (松任屋徳兵 衛) had a teenaged son named Matsunosuke possessed by the spirit of two women who loved him. the housewife transforms from this nightmare being. the ikiryō's words being spoken through the boy's lips.:* [loweralpha 3] In the tradition of the Nishitsugaru District. acknowledging the man's services that day. he attacks with a sword. he would be suspended in mid-air. FOLK LAW tale of “How the Ikiryo Spirit of Omi Province Came and Killed a Man of the Capital.* [20] such as immediate family. Yanagita defines this as the ability of certain persons to traverse the world in their Ikirȳo form. the yōkai monster known as nukekubi).

who claimed phenomenon.* [1] ichijama (ja).* [36]* [37] 9. a folklorist recorded belief in the shininbō (死⼈坊). but his uncle came back to life again. there was a belief that there was a condition called rikonbyō (離魂病) “soul separation illness”.3. The maid later pro. and trapped it beneath a washbasin. see hitodama and hidama. and using these enough so to accuse the nephew of the of chasing him oni powers. wity the traditional conception among Japanese being that the soul escapes the body within a short phase (several days) either before or after death.“Far North resembled the aforementioned tale of the woman's head Tales”) by Tadano Makuzu (d. namely. but he made sure to release the fireball The ushi no koku mairi (丑の刻参り) is. when one.* [29] Therefore. said to appear 2 or 3 days before someone's death. doomed by One case of a near-death hitodama deemed 'suitable for the kage no yamai for three generations in succession. deeds akin Inabe) tells a tale about a band of men who.* [34] Others have reported a sort of outto have seen the entire experience of being chased durof-body experience. with a broom and capturing him. and thus becomes an oni while alive. where one finds a place amongst their ancestors. ternately written as kage-no-wazurai (カ ゲ ノ ワ ズ ラ イ). A while 9. and can be classed as a doppelgänger until he discovered the owner of the soul. performing of a magic fessed to being “pursued by many men and fleeing”to ritual with the intention of becoming an ikiryō is termed take refuge in the warehouse.* [lower-alpha 4] However.* [32] The case study example is that of Yūji Kita. also called bodaiji). he reported seeing an hidama emerge from a stable and into the house's entrance where it was 'flying around'. but filed under chapters on the hitodama phenomenon. whereby the soul would not just separate from the body. Ishikawa on the Noto Peninsula. in the from its trapping. The condition was also known interchangeably as shadow-sickeness (影の病 kage no yamai). he was rushed out to see his sick uncle on the brink of death. Iwate.Although many ikiryō generally are spirits of humans that lore archives of Umedoi. 1825). The woman on the left is afflicted by the “soul separation illness”. whereby their consciousness inhabits ing a dream. would inflict curses and calamity upon a rival. The temple was believed to be the soul's final resting grounds.* [35] Tōno. a target can also be interpreted as ikiryō. pre-death soul flames may not be treated as cases of ikiryō in works on the subject of ghosts. the folk.* [32]* [33] This affliction is treated as an instance of ikiryō by folklorist Ensuke Konno in his chapter on the topic. witnessed by others. late in the to performing magic rituals and intentionally tormenting night. a“soul flame”from a person who is near death is not considered unusual.* [23]* [27]* [28] Soul flames For more details on this topic. and her ikiryō appears next to her. known in Japan as the hitodama or hidama. strikes a nail in a sacred just passed away. IKIRYŌ her death.26 CHAPTER 9. al- 9. The subject worked at the town office of theikiryōto see their own lifeless body.* [30]* [lower-alpha 5] Rikonbyō (離魂病) from the Kyōka Hyaku Monogatari illustrated by Masasumi Ryūkansaijin. in the Okinawa Prefecture. He claimed to have chased it with a broom. discussion' under the topic of ikiryō by a folklorist closely recorded in the Ōshu banashi (奥州波奈志.5 See also • Astral projection • Out of body experience • Doppelgänger .2 Ikiryō as an illness During the Edo period. which was seen passing through on its visits to danna-dera (The family temple.way. in the “Sorori Monogatari”. that the subject The identical double might be seen by the sufferer or be who witnessed the soul's apparition pursued it ruthlessly. but assume the shape and appearance of the sufferer.* [35] In the same waking a maid who was asleep inside.* [31] Similarly. Mie Prefecture (now part of leave the body unconsciously and move about. He soonlearned that his uncle had only hour of the ox (1AM to 3AM). spotted and chased a fireball into a sake warehouse. tree. There are cases where the wandering ikiryō appear as a floating“soul flame”.4 Similar activity or phenomena after.* [22]* [24]* [25]* [26] In Kashima District. and one night.

Tōno Monogatari [26]“lower-alpha” . ed. 68 [6] Konno 1969.) (1956). 67. 池辺義象 (revised). ISBN 082481858X. (1991). or shininbō are used in the Ishikawa Prefecture in isolated cases. (2003). ndl.). Aomori refer to the object as tamashi (タマシ) “souls”. (1997). Kojien [Kojien] (4th ed. ed.5. ISBN 978-0-7007-1185-7 [4] Kojien dictionary* [5] (Japanese) 27 [11] Murakami. There are also many instances reported. pp.9. Izuru (新村出).100–105 [8] Kojien dictionary. Masterpieces of Japanese Poetry: Ancient and Modern 1. p.). “Book 56 Matsutōya yūrei”. tr. [17] Iwaya.5. Yoshiko Kurata (tr. 186–190 (Japanese) [2] Konno 1969. 247.* [5] akugaru. The locals in the Shimokita District. pp. 171. pp. citing Yanagita.1 Explanatory notes [1] Another example of this term occurs in the verse by the poet Izumi Shikibu which depicts the author's soul as a wandering firefly: “While I am rapt in thought. pp. pp. especially when facing death. Routledge. sense 2. Tōno monogatari (in Japanese). Kunio (2004) [1948]. ISSN 1880-4314. [23] Konno 1969. in the town of Ōhata. On the day after a sighting of one heading towards the mountains (Mount Osore) on April 2.). Kunio (1970). ed.). / The fireflies of the marsh would seem to be / My soul. Iwanami. Tale 20). ISBN 978-4-04308320-6. of men materialising in front of a chosen loved one or associate. (1906). pp. the same term in common usage by locals in Komena hamlet. Nihon yōkai daijiten ⽇本妖怪⼤事典 [The Great Yokai Encyclopedia of Japan]. Kadokawa. 9. a boy died in the hospital from injuries he sustained falling off a bridge while double-riding a bicycle. Japanese section (Intercultural Research Institute. 122. these terms are not frequently used anywhere elsewhere.”(Goshūi Wakashū. Kōshō konjaku monogatari shū (in Japanese). A Woman's Weapon: Spirit Possession in The Tale of Genji. pp.. pp. pp. Chapter 3 (Ikiryō no yūri). 66–7. p. 63–98 (Japanese) [3] Clarke.google. Taiseido Shobo Company. Peter Bernard (2000). the Japanese equivalent to the will-o'-the-wisp (or generically "atmospheric ghost lights") [5] Konno 1969. [25] Konno 1969.com/books?id= M3IqAQAAIAAJ |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) [14] Haga.. The Konjaku Tales: From a Medieval Japanese Collection. Chapter 4. Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University. In Senhoku-gun such people are called amabitoand individuals who can 'fly anywhere in their dreams' are called tobi-damashi [flying soul]. Okina gusa 翁草 6. 13–15 (Japanese) [19] Yuasa. 66–67 [13] Dykstra. Doris G. Japanese new religions: in global perspective. 166. “Tōno monogatari supplements 遠野物語拾遺. Kenji (村上健司) (2005). [9] Miyamori. 82. [5] Shinmura. Dai goen 第語 8: 90 [18] Takada 1989.go.5. Kwai books (in Japanese). pp. Tale 160”. Yoshiko (湯 浅 佳 ⼦) (2009). Akita. [10] Konno 1969. (1921). Kansai Gaidai University Publication) 3: 95-. pp. ISBN 4873350263 http://books. SEE ALSO • Fetch (folklore) • Soul 9. p. University of Hawaii Press. Sazanami (1935). Humanities and Social SciencesI (in Japanese) 60: 307– 309. 81. 93–96: subchapter Otto wo torikoroshita aoginu no onna (夫を取り殺した⻘⾐の⼥)“A woman in blue garment who possessed and killed her husband”(Japanese) [16] Kanzawa. ISBN 978-4-00-080101-0.jp/info:ndljp/pid/945416 |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) [15] Konno 1969. Asatarō (ed. caught up and wandering / Forth out of me. 44–46 describes cases of floating balloon-like objects of yellow color (iridescent colored. pp. 46–293 [7] Bargen. Volume 1999 (annotated ed. [20] Yanagita. pp. “Chapter 77”. Yaichi (芳 賀 ⽮ ⼀). About Our Ancestors: The Japanese Family System. pp. 69 [22] Ōtō 1955. [4] A hidama. [21] Konno 1969. 1963. Greenwood Press. ed.2 Citations [1] Ikeda 1959. ISBN 978-4-04-883926-6 [12] Konno 1969. 3 (下): 367– http://dl. Fanny Hagin Mayer (tr. p. 146–151. Kadokawa. 24–25. the same term used in Tsugaru. Gosharō shoten. [2] Original source story title is Onna no maunen mayohi ariku koto (⼥のまうねんまよひありく事) [3] Whilst terms such as tobi-damashi or omokage. 『曾 呂 ⾥ 物 語』の類話[A Study of a similar story of “SORORIMONOGATARI"]. according to Konno) an omen of death. p. 66–67 (in Japanese) [24] Yanagita. Teikan/Tokō (神 沢 貞 幹/神 沢 杜 ⼝ 17101795).

Katsumi (多 ⽥ 克 ⼰) (2008). Yōkai gahon: kyōka hayakumonogatari 妖怪画本 歌 百 物 語 [Yōkai picture book: satirical waka version Hyakumonogatari]. ISBN 978-4-12-200127-5. Mamoru (⾼⽥衛). 37–62 • Chapter 3 Ikiryō no yūri (⽣霊の遊離)“Peregrination of the living soul”. pp.). Yasusaburō (池⽥彌三郎) (1978) [1959]. [37] Shimabukuro. “Sangen no dozoku ⼭原の⼟俗". Ancient Buddhism in Japan 1. p. ISBN 978-4-00-302572-7. Tokihiko (⼤藤時彦) (1955). “Shininbō シニンボウ". • Takada. Hiroshi (中村浩) (1929). Mifflin. Nihon minzokushi taikei 1. Minzokugaku 1 (2): 42–44. 103–104 [28] International Research Center for Japanese Studies (2002). 9. Sōgō nihon minzoku goi ⽇本⺠俗語 [Sogo Japanese folk vocabulary] 1. Kokusho kankōkai (ja). Ōtsuka minzoku gakkai. 64–66) [33] Hearn. (Ancient Buddhism In Japan) . Kōbundō (ja). Brill. Nihon kaidanshū. ed. 283 (Japanese) [36] Uezu. 373. 41. (1989). 75). • Chapter 1 Sugata naki maboroshi (姿なきマ ボロシ) “Phantasm without visible form”. • Konno. 63–98 • Chapter 4 Tamashī no wakare (たましいの 別れ) “Souls bidding farewell”. Kadokawa. In Ikeda Yasusaburō (ja) et al. ed. Edo Kaidanshū 江 怪 談集 [Edo ghost story collection] 2.J. Ensuke (今野円輔) (2004) [1969]. yūrei hen [Japanese kaidan collection: ghosts] (snippet) 1. Houghton. ISBN 978-4-335-57050-6. BN05729787. Heibonsha. pp. 60 –64 [34] Hearn 1905. p. cited by Konno 1969. Iwanami. pp.28 CHAPTER 9. • Visser.37–62) [31] Konno 1969. Marinus Willem de (1935). citing Tōno monogatari [32] Konno 1969. p.6 References • Ikeda. The Romance of the Milky Way: And Other Studies & Stories. pp. “Sorori monogatari 曾呂利物語". 11–36 • Chapter 2 Hitodama kō (⼈魂考) “Thoughts on the soul flame”. 柳⽥國男 (supervising editor). [29] Konno 1969. ISBN 978-4-3360-5055-7. “Chapter: Yōkai soran 妖怪総覧". Genshichi (島 袋 源 七) (1974) [1929]. Leiden: E. Kaii & yōkai denshō database (in Japanese). Hitoshi (上江洲均) (1994) [1972]. ISBN 9784-12-204464-7. IKIRYŌ [27] Nakamura. Chapter 4. Chuokoron.“Noto tō saihōroku 能登島採訪録". 100– 125 • Tada. Lafcadio (1905). Nihon no yūrei ⽇ 本 の 幽 霊 [Ghosts of Japan]. p. • Ōtō. 61 [35] Tada 2008. p. ⺠俗学研究 所. pp. In Natsuhiko Kyogoku. p. pp. ISBN 978-4-04-530301-2. Chapter 2 Hitodama kō.. pp. Chuokoron-Shinsha. pp. 12. ed.38 [30] Konno 1969. Chapter 2 Hitodama kō. Nihon minzoku jiten ⽇本⺠俗事典 [Japanese folk encyclopedia] (Pocket ed.

• Herbert E. Global oriental. ISBN 3844214070. which is similar to the Shikigami and who belongs to the range of the spirits. It´s tradition within these households that family members always marry members from other Inugamimochi only. page 19. Now an Inugami can be evoked.3 External links The inugami as depicted in Sawaki Suushi's Hyakkai-Zukan. Tokyo 1985. Japan Times. Honolulu 2006. when the dog is about to perish and tortured by hallucinations. often similar to werewolves. Several days after that. But Inugami are also said to be very dangerous for the evoker himself: since the Inugami´s soul is blinded by its desire for revenge and its unstoppable rage. Plutschow: A reader in Edo period travel. page 16– 19. 10. ISBN 082482993X. the evoker is perfectly trained.4 Sources 10.“dog god”) is a class of being from to possess humans and manipulate them. 1991. McDonald: Reading a Japanese Film: Cinema in Context. page 408–412. Folklore has it that Inugami can be conjured from a complex and cruel ceremony: A common pet dog must be buried up to his neck. Sumida: And the View from the Shore: Literary Traditions of Hawaiʻi. University of Hawaii Press. The victim is often forced to kill itself or other people. ISBN 1901903230.Chapter 10 Inugami For other uses. ISBN 1932897240. only the head remains free.2 Traditions • Stephen H. Adam Beltz: The Negima Reader: Secrets Behind the Magic. • Takeshi Abe. page 49–51. Similar to Shikigami. page 228. page 11. Berlin 2011. If 29 • Moku Jōya: Mock Jōya's Things Japanese.1 Description Japanese folklore describes Inugami as zoomorphic or anthropomorphic. the Kami. dog-like beings.com (English) Japanese mythology. University of Washington Press. Korea epubli. kidnapping and mutilation of the victims. They are masters of black magic. such as murdering. see Inukami (disambiguation). • Keiko I. or to act like a lunatic. his head must be severed and buried beneath a noisy street. the Inugami can quickly escape the master´s control and kill his own evoker. 10. Then a bowl with food or water must be placed close but in unreachable distance before the snout of the dog. 2006. • Michaela Haustein: Mythologien der Welt: Japan. head and body must be placed in a well prepared shrine. Inugami are evoked for criminal activities. After a certain time. . 2007. Families that keep Inugami in their household are called Inugami-mochi (meaning“Those who have a dog-god as a pet”). possessed paper mannequins. Ainu. DH Publishing Inc. lit. ISBN 0295970782. 10. • Web infos about Inugami at obakemono. he can order his Inugami Inugami (⽝神.

Chapter 11

Kuchisake-onna
Kuchisake-onna (⼝裂け⼥, “Slit-Mouthed Woman”
) is a figure appearing in Japanese urban legends. She
is a woman who was mutilated by her husband, and returns as a malicious spirit. When rumors of alleged sightings began spreading in 1979 around the Nagasaki Prefecture, it spread throughout Japan and caused panic in
many towns. There are even reports of schools allowing
children to go home only in groups escorted by teachers
for safety,* [1] and of police increasing their patrols. Recent sightings include many reports in South Korea in the
year 2004 about a woman wearing a red mask who was
frequently seen chasing children, and, in October 2007, a
coroner found some old records from the late 1970s about
a woman who was chasing little children. She was then
hit by a car, and died shortly after. Her mouth was ripped
from ear to ear.* [2]

11.1 The modern urban legend
Kuchisake-onna (口裂け女)
Conversation Diagram

Asks: "Am I pretty?"

Yes

No

Kills you with
scissors.

may encounter a woman wearing a surgical mask, which
is not an unusual sight in Japan as people wear them to
protect others from their colds or sickness.
The woman will stop the child and ask, “Am I pretty?"
If the child answers no, the child is killed with a pair of
scissors which the woman carries. If the child answers
yes, the woman pulls away the mask, revealing that her
mouth is slit from ear to ear, and asks“How about now?"
If the child answers no, he/she will be cut in half. If the
child answers yes, then she will slit his/her mouth like
hers. It is impossible to run away from her, as she will
simply reappear in front of the victim.
When the legend reappeared, the 1970s rumors of ways
to escape also emerged. Some sources say she can also be
confused by the victim answering her question with ambiguous answers, such as“You are average”or“So-so”.
Unsure of what to do, she will give a person enough time
to escape while she is lost in thought. Another escape
route is to tell her one has a previous engagement; she will
pardon her manners and excuse herself. In some variations of the tale, she can be distracted by fruit or candies
thrown at her which she will then pick up, thus giving the
victim a chance to run. She will also be at an advantage
to run toward you if she has the chance.* [3] Another way
is for the child to ask her if the child is pretty; she will get
confused and leave.* [4]

11.2 In popular culture
11.2.1 Live action

Takes off mask.
Asks: "How about now?"

• Kuchisake-onna (Video, 1996)
No

Cuts you in half.

• Kannô byôtô: nureta akai kuchibiru aka The SlitMouthed Woman (2005)

Yes

• Carved aka A Slit-Mouthed Woman aka Kuchisakeonna (2007)

Slits your mouth so
it appears like hers.

• Kaiki toshi-densetsu - Kuchisake-onna (2008)

Diagram of likely conversations with Kuchisake-onna according
to the modern legend.

According to the legend, children walking alone at night
30

• Kuchisake-Onna 2 The Scissors Massacre aka
Carved 2 aka A Slit-Mouthed Woman 2 aka
Kuchisake-onna 2 (2008)

11.4. REFERENCES
• The Slit-Mouthed Woman 0: The Beginning aka
Kuchisake-onna 0: Biginingu (2008)
• Kuchisake-onna Returns (2012)
• Constantine, in episode 5, Danse Vaudou
• Mamma mia Kara, stupid Gyuri

11.2.2

Manga and anime

• Kuchi-sake Onna
• Kuchisake Onna Densetsu
• The Kuchisake Onna was mentioned in an episode
of "Detective Conan"

11.2.3

Other appearances

The Kuchisake-onna also makes an appearance in:

31
• La Llorona
• Onryō, a malicious ghost in Japanese folklore
• Teke Teke, another malicious Japanese spirit.
• Japanese urban legends
• Vengeful ghost

11.4 References
[1] Severed Mouth Woman on YouTube
[2] http://www.terrorsofmen.com/3159/kuchisake-onna
[3] “Have you heard the one about…?: A look at some of
Japan's more enduring urban legends”. Japan Times. June
7, 2005.
[4] Yoda, H & Alt, M. (2008)“Yokai Attack! The Japanese
Monster Survival Guide”Kodansha Internation
[5] http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=37e_1178742040

• Hell Teacher Nube
• Hanako to Guuwa no Tera
• Franken Fran (includes a short parody of the
Kuchisake-onna legend in an extra of Volume 2)
• Toshi Densetsu (Includes the Kuchisake-onna)

[6] Harstad, Johan (2012). 172 Hours on the Moon. Trans.
Tara F. Chace. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 9780-316-18288-1. LCCN 2011025414.

11.5 External links

• Ghost Stories (The Kuchisake-onna was planned to
make an appearance in episode 5 of the series, but
it was banned after several complaints that her disfigurement looked too much like a cleft palate.)* [5]

• Kuchisake Onna Urban Legend

• Danganronpa The split personality of character Touko Fukawa, the scissors wielding serial
killer Genocider Syo, was most likely inspired by
Kuchisake-onna.

• Tales of Ghostly Japan, Japanzine

• The episode “Danse Vaudou”of Constantine, features the ghost of a supermodel who received similar
scars and goes after people in a similar way to the
Kuchisake-onna
Kuchisake-onna is mentioned in Darlah – 172 timer på
månen (aka 172 Hours on the Moon), a 2008 sci-fi/horror
novel by Johan Harstad.* [6]
Kuchisake-onna is also mentioned in the Japanese visual
novel Rewrite.

11.3 See also
• Bloody Mary, a similar apparition in western urban
legends.
• Glasgow smile

• Kuchisake onna at the Internet Movie Database
• Kuchisake-onna (Japanese)

• Histoire de Kuchisake Onna (French)

Chapter 12

Mujina
12.2 In folklore

“Mujina”from the Wakan Sansai Zue

Mujina (貉) is an old Japanese term primarily referring
to the badger. In some regions the term refers instead
to the raccoon dog (also called tanuki) or to introduced
civets. Adding to the confusion, in some regions badger- “Mujina”from the Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki by Sekien
like animals are also known as mami, and in one part of Toriyama
Tochigi Prefecture badgers are referred to as tanuki and
raccoon dogs are referred to as mujina.
In Japanese folklore, like the fox and the tanuki, they are
frequently depicted as a yōkai that shapeshifts and deceives humans. They are first seen in literature in the
12.1 In reality
Nihon Shoki in the part about Empress Suiko's 35th year
(627), where it states, “in two months of spring, there
The confusion over the term mujina has led to legal conse- are mujina in the country of Mutsu (春 2 ⽉、 陸 奥
quences in Japan. In Tochigi Prefecture in 1924 a hunter 国 に 狢 有 り), they turn into humans and sing songs
killed a raccoon dog, which he believed to be called a mu- (⼈ と な り て 歌 う),”showing that in that era, there
jina. He believed that badgers were a protected species was already the general idea that mujina shapeshift and
as they were called tanuki in Tochigi Prefecture. How- deceives humans.* [1] In the Shimōsa region, they are
ever, the law banning the hunting of tanuki was referring called kabukiri-kozō (かぶきり⼩僧), and they would
to such raccoon dogs, as a raccoon dog is called tanuki shapeshift into a kozō (little monk) wearing a strangely
in Tokyo. The Japanese Supreme Court ruled that the short kimono with a kappa-like bobbed head, and frehunter was legitimately confused and he was judged not quently appear on roads at night without many people
and say, “drink water, drink tea (⽔飲め、茶を飲め).”
guilty.
32

12. a short story relating to the above legends. The witness was reported to have been admitted to the hospital for a nervous breakdown. " 妖怪其他". doi:10. “Faceless Ghost”. Noted Hawaiian historian. Honolulu Advertiser reporter Bob Krauss reported a sighting of a mujina at the Waialae Drive-In Theatre in Kahala. who gave more details on the event. including the previously unreported detail that the mujina in question had red hair. • Hearn. Houghton. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 36: pp.2307/1177429. Krauss reported that the witness watched a woman combing her hair in the women's restroom. Folklore Studies 18: pp. Winkle. from ʻEwa Beach to Hilo. M. Accessed online 03/07/08 Notes 33 • de Visser.6 References [1] 笹間良彦 (1994). pp. 柏書 房. Japan 12. (1908). 1959.3 Sightings in Hawaii On May 19. W.“The Fox and the Badger in Japanese Folklore”. 1–159. “The Goblin Fox and Badger and Other Witch Animals of Japan”. A. JSTOR 1177429. (1959). ISBN 978-4-7601-1299-9. Tochigi.4 Other uses The term can also refer to the following: • "Mujina". [3] Monsters You Never Heard Of!: THE MUJINA by Michael D. 1–93. Source: B.12.5 See also • Folklore in Hawaii 12. Grant has also reported on a number of other mujina sightings in Hawaii. Oliver Wendell Holmes (1904).* [4] The drive-in no longer exists. only to be called by the witness herself. • Casal. 12. the mujina turned. . 図説・⽇本 認⽣物事典. revealing her featureless face. Accessed 3/7/08 [4] THE FACELESS WOMAN MUJINA. pp. Lafcadio. ⺠間伝承 (⺠ 間伝承の会) 第 5 巻 (第 2 号): 9. in a 1981 radio interview dismissed the story as rumor. Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. folklorist and author Glen Grant. Krauss. having been torn down to make room for Public Storage. and when the witness came close enough. Retrieved 200612-14. 77–80. Mifflin and company.6. U. 120 ⾴. REFERENCES * [2] The story in Lafcadio Hearn kaidan collections called “Mujina”* [3] about the witnessing of a faceless ghost (a noppera-bō) is also well-known. found in Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things • Mujina-no-yu is an onsen facility in Nasu. [2] ⼩川景 (November 1939).

1 Appearance [1] Imatani . . Ura Sunday. Instead of only occurring during battle times.Doemu Samurai Toujou" is a 2007 Japanese action game. samurais and aristocrats whose support is no longer needed can also became an Ochimusha. Katsuyuki. • Ochimusha is a low-level warrior-type monster in .2 Modern Times In modern times the term is used to refer to politics that loose an election. meaning defeated warrior that fled the enemy.* [2] In some areas of Nagano and Gifu Prefecture Ochimusha are referred to as daikō(だいこう). Arrows stuck in body is also a common motif. “ochi”literally means “rebel remnants of a defeated faction”and " musha”means warrior.153 [2] . no longer at the level of a samurai. They were was also used to be called ochipuwaa(おちぷはあ) in some parts of Kansai.4 References 13. 13.* [1] • "The Ochimusha . In some instances. while the term“Ochimusha hunting”is 34 •“Mob Psycho 100" Vol 2. since he fled battle instead to commit seppuku. 戦国期の畿内周辺では、「落武者 襲撃慣⾏」が出されており、⼟⺠百姓の落武者 狩りは公認されていた. 岩波ジュニア新書. 13. There are tales of samurai mansions being plundered. is said that to escape safely those warriors get to hide themselves in villages at mountainous areas. ISBN 4005003354 p. a dissolved chonmage.3 In popular culture • Ochimusha is the name of 1925 movie by Hiroshi Shimizu According to the folklore to became an Ochimusha the warrior should be killed by farmers looking for his belongings and to take the reward usually offered for the decapitated head of enemies during the Sengoku period. Akira. 13. • Ochimusha Kote (Ochimusha gloves) an in game item in Final Fantasy XI. and claims that he looks like an Ochimusha. Sometimes the term is also used to refer people with a bald top head and stretched hair on the sides. The dissolved chonmage would then mean losing the social status of the samurai. forth chapter " 喧嘩両成敗の誕 ⽣" 講談社選書メチエ The iconography usually represents the Ochimusha with the crown of his head shaved and the rest of the hair long and loose. used in regard to a candidate caught cheating an election or to corrupt politicians that have been arrested. developed by Tamsoft and published by D3 Publisher. if attacked by the townspeople of the region under their protection.Chapter 13 Ochimusha Ochimusha (落ち武者) is the ghost of a warrior that during the conflict flees the battlefield. The ochimusha is considered a low-class. Is also subject to ochimusha a crimminal that goes into exile. • One of the antagonist in the manga Mob Psycho 100 at one point loses his head top hair.hack game.Shimizu. but this term is no longer in use due derogatory connotations.

or even causing natural disasters to exact vengeance to redress the wrongs it received while A well-known example of appeasement of the onryō alive. literally “vengeful spirit”. the acting agent need not cause the death of his calumniators in quick succession.* [1] Michizane became deified in the cult of the Tenjin. harming or killing enemies. In traditional beliefs of Japan and in literature. see Onryo (wrestler). who had The term overlaps somewhat with goryō (御霊). Believed to that in the cult of the goryō.* [5] Onryō from the Kinsei-Kaidan-Simoyonohoshi (近世怪談 ) (怨霊. drought. Other examples include: 35 • How a Man's Wife Became a Vengeful Ghost and How Her Malignity Was Diverted by a Master of . but causing natural disasters such as earthquakes. onryō Traditionally in Japan onryō driven by vengeance were thought capable of causing not only their enemy's death. and necessarily be a wrathful spirit. the priest Genbō.* [5] This not succeeding entirely.2. except been politically disgraced and died in exile. with Tenman-gū 14. by performing Buddhist rites to pay respect.”after failing to remove his rival.1 Origin of onryō shrines erected around him. he is the target of the onryōʼs vengeance.* [4]). from the Yotsuya Kaidan. sometimes rendered “wrathful spirit”* [1]) refers to a ghost (yurei) believed capable of causing harm in the world of the living.* [1] The Emperor Kammu had accused his brother Sawara of plotting (possibly falsely to remove him as rival to the throne). and granting Prince Sawara the posthumous title of emperor. and the latter who was exiled died by fasting. The reason that the Emperor moved the capital to Nagaokakyō thence to Kyoto was an attempt to avoid the wrath of his brother's spirit. While the origin of onryō is unclear. spirit is the case of Sugawara no Michizane.1 Examples of onryō vengeance Possibly the most famous onryō is Oiwa. the Emperor Kammu. from power). as well as catastrophes (especially lightning damage). as in the case of Hirotsugu's vengeful spirit held responsible for killing the priest Genbō. fires.* [1] as in the case of Prince Sawara's spirit embittered against his brother.* [1] and the first record of possession by the onryō spirit affecting the health is found in the chronicle Shoku Nihongi (797). according to a number of scholars. The earliest onryō cult that developed around Prince Nagaya who died in 729. the emperor tried to lift the curse by appeasing his brother's ghost. their existence can be traced back to the 8th century and was based on the idea that powerful and enraged souls of the dead could influence or harm the living people. such vengeance exacted by supernatural beings or forces is termed tatari (祟り). storms. In this story the husband remains unharmed.* [5] In common parlance.Chapter 14 Onryō 14. Oiwa's vengeance on him isn't physical retribution.* [1] the court tried to appease the wrathful spirit by restoring Michizane's old rank and position. however. but rather psychological torment. named the "Fujiwara no Hirotsugu Rebellion.2 Onryō vengeance For the professional wrestler.* [2]* [3] 14. which states that "Fujiwara Hirotsugu (藤 原広嗣)'s soul harmed Genbō to death”(Hirotsugu having died in a failed insurrection. famine and pestilence.

W. brown shadows (代赭隈 taishaguma) "red ochre fringe”or black kumadori(⽇本博学倶楽部 2005.* [6]* [7] • Of a Promise Broken In this tale from the Izumo area recorded by Lafcadio Hearn. Harvard University Press.* [8] 14. 1973. a specific costume was developed.. unkempt long black hair • Face make-up consisting of white foundation (oshiroi) coupled with face paintings (kumadori) of blue shadows (藍 隈 aiguma) "indigo fringe”.co. The husband. but after a day she gives up and returns. 135 (note 2 to Chapter 2) [3] A source that gives Hirotsugu as first example on record of “etiological possession”is McCullough 1973. (1959). Allan G. 97 [4] McCullough. a samurai vows to his dying wife never to remarry. ed.jp/books?id=eiTWWfoyuyAC& pg=PA560 |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) [2] For a source that identifies Hirotsugu as onryō.google. Kabuki developed a system of visual shorthand that allowed the audience to instantly clue in as to which character is on stage.36 CHAPTER 14.go. p. Saburo (太⽥三 郎). ripping her head off. with the rising of popularity of Kabuki during the Edo period. S. destroys it. 72.. shiroshōzoku (⽩ 装 束) or shinishōzoku (死に装束) • Wild. Hall.2 Citations 14. much like villains are depicted in kabuki make-up artistry. A ghost costume consisted of three main elements: • White burial kimono. The Cambridge History of Japan 2: 559–. Yui (2011). an abandoned wife is found dead with a full head of hair intact and the bones still attached.5. pp. Studies on Japanese Culture (⽇本⽂化研究論集) (The Japan P. asks a diviner (陰 陽師 onmyōji) for aid. (Also printed in Nihon Bunka Kenkyū Kokusai Kaigi gijiroku (⽇本⽂化研究国際会議議事錄) (Volume 1.N. The watchmen who had been put to sleep chase down the apparition.ndl. Ages ago. ISBN 9004196013. and with a slash of the sword while reciting Buddhist prayer. [7] One of the texts cited by Jones: Haga. Highly visual in nature.E. “Spirit Possession in the Heian Period”. The husband must endure while grabbing her hair and riding astride her corpse. Konjaku Monogatarishū. [1] Grappard. Ōta. fearing retribution from her spirit. 57) 14.3 Physical appearance Traditionally. 29–31. (1973). ONRYŌ Divination In this tale from the medieval collection.jp/info:ndljp/pid/ 945416 |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) . as well as emphasize the emotions and expressions of the actor. She complains of the heavy load and leaves the house to “go looking”(presumably for the husband). p. He soon breaks the promise. and the ghost comes to first warn.(p.4 See also • Japanese urban legends • Ghosts in Vietnamese culture • Kayako Saeki • Sadako Yamamura • S-Ko • List of ghosts • Fatal Frame (video game) • Muoi: The Legend of a Portrait (film) • Vengeful ghost 14. Yaichi (芳賀⽮ ⼀). 今 物語集 (Kōshō konjaku monogatari shū). 3 (下): 106 http://dl. pp. (1921). BRILL. (translator).* [9] * [10]* [lower-alpha 1] The Onryō bears a striking similarity to the demonic Kuntilanak and Sundel Bolong of Indonesian folklore. ISBN 0521223539 http://books.1 Explanatory notes [1] In addition to blue. eds. William H. after which the diviner is able to complete her exorcism with an incantation. ed. ed. onryō and other yūrei (ghosts) had no particular appearance. John Whitney.356) [5] Suzuki.5 Footnotes 14. Rikutaro (福⽥陸太郎).5. then murder the young bride. see:Suzuki 2011.. [6] Jones. p. However. and with a single actor often assuming various roles within a play. thirtyseven tales from the Konjaku monogatari collection (snippet). Club) 1: 97. Fukuda. Medicine Master Buddha: The Iconic Worship of Yakushi in Heian Japan. 350.

14. 87. p. [10] Parker. Michiko and Toelken. EXTERNAL LINKS [8] Hearn. 14. ISBN 9004145346. PHP 研 究所. 57. A Japanese miscellany (Little. E. p.7.com/books?id= DGEiAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA15 |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) [9] ⽇本博学倶楽部 (2005).Onryou in the Movies Japanzine By Jon Wilks • Yūrei-ga gallery at Zenshoan Temple 37 . Progressive Traditions: An Illustrated Study of Plot Repetition In Traditional Japanese Theatre. (2006). Lafcadio (1901). BRILL.google. Utah State University Press. Helen S. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experiences in Japanese Death Legends. Brown): 15–26 http://books. ISBN 4569665497. 「通」になれる古典 能を 楽しむ本: 落語・歌 から能・ まで. Barre. 1994.6 Bibliography • Iwasaka. ISBN 0-87421-179-4 14.7 External links • Ghoul Power .

lit.com (English). Tokyo: The Mainichi Newspaper Company.2 External links • Shirime – Eyeball Butt at hyakumonogatari. Kenji (2000).192. ISBN 4-620-31428-5. Yōkai Jiten.1 References [1] Murakami.Chapter 15 Shirime Shirime as drawn by Yosa no Buson. when he heard someone calling out for him to wait. p.“Who's there?!" he asked nervously.* [1] 15. 15. a Samurai was walking at night down the road to Kyōto. only to turn around and find a man stripping off his clothes and pointing his bare buttocks at the flabbergasted traveler. A huge glittering eye then opened up where the strange man's anus should have been. Shirime (尻⽬. This creature was so liked by the haiku poet and artist Buson that he included it in many of his yōkai paintings. 38 . “buttocks eye”) is a strange yōkai with an eye in the place of his anus. The story goes as follows: Long ago.

ISBN 978-4-12-2044654. there are also stories where they chase around those who killed themselves.). 中公⽂庫 下.* [4]* [5] 16. ⽇ 本 怪 談 集 幽 霊 . According to the Kōjien. ⾓川書店. appear to people they are close to and gree them. “Shiryō" from the Gazu Hyakki Yagyō by Sekien Toriyama Shiryō (死霊) are the soul of the dead.* [3] In the Tōno Monogatari. and she was able to get relatives and friends to come. there was a story where after 39 .1 Summary • Tatari Classical literature and folkloristics material has left many mentions of shiryō. they were considered onryō (vengeful spirits) that possess humans and perform a tatari (a type of curse).* [1] 16. but even then the father's shiryō appeared to try to take her away. and they have various behavior.Chapter 16 Shiryō a father who had a daughter died. ISBN 978-4-04308320-6. [4] 柳⽥國男 (2004). the father's shiryō appeared before the daughter. [3] 今野円輔 (2004). pp. 岩波書店. ISBN 978-4-00-080101-0. [5] 今 野 円 輔 (2004). 中央公論新社. loiter around the place they died. and tried to take her away. he finally stopped appearing. ISBN 978-4-00-080111-9. The daughter became afraid. 1360 ⾴. 岩波書店. and try to kill those who they are even close to in order to bring them to the other world.). ⾓川 ソフィア⽂庫.2 References [1] 新村出 編 (1991). 1311 ⾴. 中央公論新社. 194–195 ⾴. 広辞苑 (第 5 版 ed. " 遠野物語拾遺". 中 公 ⽂ 庫 上. ⽇本怪談集幽霊 . and it is said that after one month.* [1]* [2] but other than possessing humans and making them suffer like ikiryō do. pp. pp. 広辞苑 (第 4 版 ed.3 See also • Soul 16. [2] 新村出編 (1991). 153 ⾴. 13–38 ⾴. pp. 遠野物語. ISBN 978-4-12204464-7. It is used as the antonym of ikiryō (soul of the living). pp.

ʼʼ * [6]* [7] Natsuhiko Kyogokuʼs best-selling detective novel.* [18] 40 . candy that has been offered to the image is distributed. a modern statue of Ubume. according to scholars.* [3] The first version of this sort of tale was related by Urabe Suyetake.ʻBe born! Be born!ʼ(obareu. a Japanese yōkai. only to then disappear.* [12] is where local women come to pray to conceive a child or to have a successful pregnancy. creating something of an Ubume 'craze' * [17] at the time of its publication and was made into a major Typically. orʻ ʻbirthing woman ghost. her spiritual attachment (shūjaku) itself becomes this ghost. It is then revealed not to be a human child at all. concern: . servant of Raiko.* [4] just a moment and disappears when her victim takes the swaddled baby."* [11] The Shoshinʼin Temple. uses the Ubume legend as its central motif.2 Ubume in literature Stories about Ubume have been told in Japan since at least the twelfth century. The statue. the weight of the child increases by degrees.* [13] According to Stone and Walter (2008). In form.* [16] 17. obareu). but a boulder or a stone image of Jizo..1 Ubume in folklore Originally the name for a kind of small sea fish.* [10] where a sacrificial mother and child “are buried under one of the supporting pillars of a new bridge. it is soaked in blood from the waist down and wanders about crying. set in the mid-sixteenth century.* [15] The early seventeenth-century tale collection Konjaku hyaku monogatari hyoban says of the Ubume: An image of ubume as depicted by Toriyama Sekien. displayed once a year in July.* [14] 17. has only a head. the Ubume asks a passerby to hold her child for motion picture in 2005. When a woman loses her life in childbirth. with a child in her arms. imploring the passerby to hold her infant. torso. At this festival.Chapter 17 Ubume Ubume (産⼥). the origins of the templeʼs legend.* [8] The baby then becomes increasingly heavy until it is impossible to hold.* [1] appears in folk stories and literature as an old woman or Crone. and women pray for safe delivery and for abundant milk. The Summer of the Ubume. which is clothed in white robes.* [5] in Japanese folklore the term is now applied to the ghost of a woman who had died in childbirth. and arms.* [9] Many scholars have associated the Ubume with the legend of the hitobashira.* [2] As legend has it.. until the bewitched“child” is revealed to be nothing more than a huge rock or boulder. it has no lower half. an ukiyo-e artist famous for his prints of yokai and obakemono.

705. (1994) Kyogoku. A Japanese-English and EnglishJapanese dictionary. SUGGESTED READING 41 17.6. [16] Stone and Walter. usually represented as “naked from the waist historical episodes. [19] Joly.* [21] and the afterlife in Japanese Buddhism. Jacqueline Ilyse and Mariko Namba Walter. yōkai that emerge from pregnant women . 17. [4] ibid. household management and sexuality. goblins Stone. Gazu_Hyakki_Yagyō. Henri L. J. illustrated in the arts of old Japan. 192. 15. San Francisco: Viz Media. [13] Glassman. Women in medieval Japan: motherhood. 17. (2009) Wakita.17. Stanford University. (2006) [7] Stone and Walter. University of California Press. (2001) • Sankai. Death and ghouls. (1887) Tokugawa-era artists* [19] produced many images of Joly. Pandemonium and parade: Japanese monsters and the culture of yōkai. Monash Asia Institute. Ghosts And The Japanese: Cultural Experience in Japanese Death Legends. [20] ibid. [10] Glassman. 16. Legend in Japanese art: a description of Ubume. [8] Stone and Walter." * [20] religious symbolism. 204. [6] Joly. 17. wearing a red skirt and carrying a small baby. 191. Haruko. [21] Stone and Walter. folklore.6 Suggested reading Iwasaka.5 References Bush. 560. [18] ibid. 192.7 See also [9] Joly. (2009) Glassman. legendary characters. (2001) Foster. (1908) s late eighteenth-century encyclopedia of ghosts. myths. [11] Stone and Walter. [3] Joly. Michiko and Barre Toelken.4 Notes [1] Bush. [5] Hepburn. [14] Stone and Walter. Asian horror encyclopedia: Asian horror culture in literature. 192. Writers Club Press. Michael Dylan. 230. 15. 191. 204. Laurence C. [12] Joly. Natsuhiko. The Summer of the Ubume. manga and folklore. Other illustrations of Ubume are from Toriyama Sekienʼ Lane. 188. [17] Foster. 560. [15] Glassman. Maruya & co. up. The religious construction of motherhood in medieval Japan.3 Ubume in art Hepburn. 15. Hank. James Curtis. 16. (2008) 17. 560. [2] Stone and Walter.

* [4] Ushi no toki mairi from the Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki (1779) by Sekien Toriyama* [1] Ushi no toki mairi (Japanese: 丑の時参り) or ushi no koku mairi (丑刻参り) lit. causing death to the target.* [4]* [10] However.* [7] The Kibune Shrine in Kyoto is famously associated with the ritual. In the modern-day common conception.* [6] slipping the iron ring over her head and sticking candles on its three legs. hammers nails into a sacred tree* [5]* [lower-alpha 1] of the Shinto shrine. ushi Gazu Zoku Hyakki (1779.* [5] The woman performing the curse is generally portrayed as dressed in white.Chapter 18 Ushi no toki mairi mairi (丑参り).* [4] wearing an iron “crown”that holds three burning candles. The practitioner̶typically a scorned woman* [3]* [4]̶ while dressed in white and crowning herself with an iron ring set with three lit candles upright..* [4] The iron “crown”that she wears is actually a tripod (五 徳 gotoku) (or trivet. “ox-hour shrine-visit”* [2] refers to a prescribed method of laying a curse upon a target that is traditional to Japan. etc. in Toriyama Sekien's Konjaku Also variously called ushi no toki mōde (丑時詣). the nails are driven through a straw effigy* [lower-alpha 2] of the victim.* [4]* [6] The ritual must be repeated seven days running. impaled upon the tree behind it.* [6]* [lower-alpha 3] She would then nail a straw doll representing her target to a sacred tree (神⽊ shimboku) at the Shinto shrine. by Katsushika Hokusai It was believed that the spot struck on the straw doll corresponded to the area of the body where the target would begin to experience illness or injury. this straw doll or other form of effigy was not a definitive requisite in the ritual even relatively late in the Edo Period. so-called because it is conducted during the hours of the Ox (between 1 and 3AM). For instance.* [5] but being witnessed in the act is thought to nullify the spell. after which the curse is believed to succeed.* [9]* [10] 18. with disheveled hair. pictured top right) depicts the 42 . above a heat source) which she wears in inverted.1 Overview Sources say that common method of the ritual developed during the Edo Period (1603-1868).* [12] a stand for setting cooking pots.* [8] A woman summoning a yōkai through ushi no toki mairi.* [3]* [5] suspending (from her neck) a mirror upon her chest* [1]* [3]* [9]* [11] (which lies hidden* [1]) and wearring a pair of tall clogs (geta). ushimitsu mairi (丑三参り).

The earliest written text of the legend occurs in a lateKamakura Period variant text (Yashirobon codex* [18]) of The Tale of Heike.* [22] However. whose power was contained Abe no Seimei. she was finally given revelation by the resident deity“to bathe for thirty seven days in the rapids of the Uji River. but consumed by jealousy. the ushi no mitsu doki the“chapter of the sword”. then indiscriminately other tioned in the caption. 18. [4] burning brands [* * [lower-alpha 4]] attached to its legs and held in her mouth another brand. The legend is considered the prime source of the later conception Ushi no toki mairi curse ritual.. rather than remain in pure white garb.”* [17] Note that even though Kibune has later been seen as a mecca for the ritual. the Uji River is to the south). day. burning at both ends. the woman performing the curse ritual is depicted with a black ox by Secluding herself in a deserted spot. stricky speaking.* [9]* [13] She may hold in Tsuna kept the demon's arm. the later form of the ushi no mairi devleloped afterwards. this legend was adapted by Zeami* [12] into the Noh play Kanawa or “The Iron Crown”. Hashihime only learned the recipe here. [4] The “proper witching hour”is. HISTORY 43 woman holding a hammer but no doll. the shrine became known a cursing spot in later development.”* [15]* [20] and uses neither a straw doll or hammer.* [20] The Noh play inherits essentially the same outfit for the principal woman. Hashihime was originally a mortal during the reign of Emperor Saga There are unearthed archeological relics shaped like hu(809 to 823).2 History ̶From Tsurugi no Maki* [12]* [20]* [21] See also: Hashihime In earlier times. made a wish to become a kijin (an oni demon) capable of destroying her love rival. the ceremony that the woman undergoes at the Uji River to transmogrify into the demon (2:00~2:30AM).Ichijo Modoribashi (⼀条戻橋)“Turning Back bridge at to pending on the source. However. Nakatomi no Katsumi no Muraji “preparede figures of the Imperial Prince Hikobito (ja).* [15] but has the yingyang master Seimei creates “two life-size straw effigies of the man and his new wife [with] their names [placed] inside”in order to perform the rites to excorcize Hashihime's demon. with an reference in the Nihon shoki chronicle under the reign of Emperor Yōmei.* [19] According to it. Thus in the Tsurugi no maki can be seen such elements as the wearing of the tripod (here called kanawa (鉄輪)) and propping lit torches (similar to candles in later tradition). Hashihime in mortal life was the daughter of a certain nobleman. the nails are driven innocent parties.her rival. under the Tsurugi no maki (“Book of the Sword”) chapter. “five inch nails”) are prescribed according to some authorities. there was a tradition that if one prayed here on the “ox hour of the ox day of the ox month of the ox year" the wish was likely to be granted.* [1] is described as follows: In Sekien's or Hokusai's print (above).2. she diher side.1 Curse using dolls in antiquity Use of dolls in cursing ritual has been practiced since antiquity. lying recumbent. this record does not clarify if the dolls were poked by sharp implements. which relates relates that in the year 587. the term simply referred to worshiping at the shrine during the hours of the ox.2. is expected vided her long hair into five bunches and fashto appear on the seventh night of the ritual. nor is the doll men.* [17] but after turning demon and killing man dolls suspected of being used in curses. and [spellcast] them. Later during the Muromachi Period. her man's kinsmen.* [13] or a“torch of bamboo and pine by the Yinyang master (陰陽師 onmyōji) via chanting the Ninnō-kyō sutra. After 7 days at Kibune Shrine.”but it did not work. set on her head an iron tripod with * the “potency of the charm is lost”. to prey on the samurai Watanabe no Tsuna at the The props used are described somewhat differently. she lived on beyond the normal human directly into the branches of the sacred tree.* [20] Therefore. Called . and enacted it miles away (Kibune is in the north of Kyoto. through the marriage of the use of dolls in the Japanese esoteric art of onmyōdō with the shrine visitng of the ox hour. and the curse connotation developed later. 18. her mouth a comb. Such a black ox. She daubed stride or straddle over the animal to complete the task to her face with vermilion and her body with * success. but the woman painted her entire face and body red. because it was during this alignment of the hour. month.. who is commanded by the oracle to “daub your face with red and wear scarlet clothing.* [15] The Kibune Shrine became strongly associated with the ox hour curse following the fame of the medieval legend of the Hashihime of Uji (“The Princess of the Bridge of Uji (ja)").* [15]* [16] According to legend. [14] but if one betrays fear at the ox's apparition cinnabar.* [18] In this variant of * roots lighted at both ends”.* [1] In this case. life span. de. and one must ioned these bunches into horns. [19] gosun kugi (五⼨釘. only * have her arm severed by the sword Higekiri (髭切). and year that the Kibune deity was believed to have made descent upon the shrine. At the Kibune Shrine in Kyoto.18. Nails of a particular size called the street crossing of Ichijō and Horikawa”bridge.

co. 65. ISBN 1891640321. Susumu (⼩野進) (1974). pp. 139–140 • Rinki no hi no tama (ja). p. 41. [23] [24] Anはかなき⼥の嫉妬より起りて、⼈を失ひ⾝をうし ther from the Tatechō site in Matsue. Ian. One [1] Sekien (1779). aiming at her breasts and her candles around her head. Floating World Editions. • In Japanese law studies.290 and footnote 72 18.* [28] [5] Nelson 1996.6 Footnotes 18. p. even though the accompanying illustration from a Utagawa Toyohiro print clearly shows two supports. 474 [7] Jurgis 1997.4 Popular art • The film Kanawa (1969) is based on the noh play.5 See also • Shintai • kekkai (結界) • Ara-mitama and nigi-mitama [8] Reader. citing Ono. 149 [15] 三橋 2011. 1972. 30 18. 264–5 [16] Marvin. jp/books?id=SXY0AQAAIAAJ |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) [14] 関.* [25] hour (third quarter of the hour of the ox. some have faces realistically drawn and ink. pp. a Rakugo repertoire in which the main character's life and lover both go on ushi no toki mairi [12] Kusano. USHI NO TOKI MAIRI wooden purificatory figurines (⽊製⼈形代 mokusei hi. quoted in Hildburgh 1915. 18. pp. apparently a noblewoman き近き譬ならん」Translation: In the ushi doki mairi. and others with iron nails driven into the breast. ⼩ 学 館. 弘 ⽂堂. Stephen E. ⼀敏. p. eds. pp. [4] or“to each of its leg.1 Explanatory notes [1] sacred tree (御神⽊ | 神⽊ shinboku) [2] straw doll (藁⼈形 wara ningyō) [3] 三橋 2011. Magical Methods for Injuring Persons. p. ISBN 978-4-00-080101-0 • magic [10] ⽇本 国語 ⼤ 辞典 (Nihon kokugo daijiten) 2. pp. p. 宗教⼈類学⼊⾨.6. 143 gives “shrine visitation at the hour of the cow” through the ushi no mairi is often cited as the“textbook example of impossibility defense case crime” [3] Joly 1912. " うしのときま いり". 140. brings ruin to the person and body. 出 (Niimura. Notes. 岩波書店. 143–4. Shimane.18. 和夫. Heaven has a face. pp. visits the shrine in the ushi mitsu heart. attempts to commit murder [2] Nelson 1996. 吉昭 (2000). Tanabe. 19–20. p.google. and this doll had three wooden [a woman] conceals a mirror in the bosom.3 Miscellaneous and drives nails into a sugi tree. ⼤塚. p. lights three pegs or nails driven into it. 時と⽂化: ⽇本史 : 岡⽥芳 ⽣古 記念論集 (snippet) 究の (歴研]): 173. [6] Griffis 1876. (2007). ed. .. 30 [13] ⼩松和彦 (Komatsu. p. 264–5 states that she wears tall clogs with only one support board (「⼀本⻭の⾼下駄」) . 567 • Voodoo doll [11] Mitford 1870. 2:00~2:30 AM). so does hell: the art of the Noh mask 1. Tokyo News Service.6.118 18. University of Hawaii Press.2 Citations togatashiro). (2004). p. Izuru). Kazuhiko)「いでたちは⽩い着 物を着て、髮を乱し、顔に⽩粉、⻭には鉄漿、⼝ 紅を濃くつくる、頭には鉄輪をかぶり、その三つ の⾜にろうそくを⽴ててともす。胸に鏡を掛け、 ⼝に櫛をくわえる。履き物は⻭の⾼い⾜駄であ る」quoted in: 松井. a wooden なふ。⼈を呪咀〔のろわ〕ば⽳⼆つほれとは、よ tag depcits a female figure. dig a second grave [for yourself]". 古語辞典. Stories behind noh and kabuki plays. Eisaburō (1962). Practically Religious: Worldly Benefits and the Common Religion of Japan. deducing from attire. ISBN 4947769025 http://books. 広辞苑 (Kojien (第 4 版 ed. [9] 新村. (1991). George Joji (1998).44 CHAPTER 18. quote: 「丑時まいりハ、胸に⼀ツの鏡 をかくし、頭に三つの燭〔ともしび〕を點じ、丑 such from the 8th century is held by the Nara National みつの⽐神社にまうでゝ杉の梢に釘うつとかや。 * * Research Institute for Cultural Properties.* [26]* [27] [4] Pfoundes 1875. a torch made with pine wood is tied and afired”in Kusano 1962. It is well said the proverb“curse someone. ISBN 0824820908. p.). 278. The fleeting jealousies of a woman.

II The Loves of Gompachi and Komurasaki”. L. 264–5. ⼤⾕祐司. 佳⼈ (1998). Enduring Identities: The Guise of Shinto in Contemporary Japan. Twenty Plays of the Nō Theatre (Columbia University Press): 193–194ff http://books. 375. pp. Harvard Univ Asia Center. Notes on Some Japanese Magical Methods for Injuring Persons”. new series 8: 139–. W. ".2. [27] 沢登. Donald. Japan Mail.co.. Retrieved April 2014. 272–. 133–142. (1915). 松華堂書店. 潔 (Umeya.0073. ⻄ 東 社. “Tales of Old Japan: No.co. London 9: 41– . Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. doi:10. (2000). 697 1.pdf [26] 飯塚. Harper & Brothers. ⻑峰康典. 22 [24] 梅屋. quoted in Murguia 2013 [22] Aston. BRILL. • Murguia. • Mitford. 法 理論 30 (4): 101–127 (107–111). 敏夫 (1934).1. 古代 教説話の 法: 霊異記から 記 . 18. REFERENCES 45 [17] Kato. [28] McDonald. “The Cursing Kit of Ushi no Koku Mairi”. 474. Keene. Japanese sources • 三 橋. ISBN 0674005163 [20] Kato 1970 [21] Kato. 島根県教育委員会. 靖 (Nagafuji. [23] 永藤. Man (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 15: 116–121. William Elliot (1876). Ⅲ④−10 および 19. 272–. p. A. p.7 References • Elisonas. 47.D. Writing Margins: The Textual Construction of Gender in Heian and Kamakura Japan. William George (1896). ed. p. 宮澤明久. • Nelson. ISBN 0838635024. John K. Keiko I. doi:10. • New Edition of 1883 • Hildburgh. • Nelson.google. p. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. ISSN 0286-1577.18. (2013). • Pfoundes. The Fortnightly. Hernri L. 柳浦俊⼀. ⽇ 本⺠俗学会編『⺠俗学事典』丸 、近刊予 .“Bakemono”. 三弥井書店. Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era (Cornell University Press): 290. “Freedom of Expression: The Very Modern Practice of Visiting a Shinto Shrine”(pdf). 健 (2011). Japanese Classical Theater in Films. タ チ ウ遺 書 III. (1870). (1994). 昭 (1990). pp. Salvador Jimenez (2013). University of Hawaii Press. (1996).7. London: Japan Society of London. 川原和⼈. pp. Terry (2001). 版知れば知るほど⾯ ⽩ い 神 道 の 本. Kiyoshi).jp/books?id=Ea1vu0-3FiUC& pg=PA193 |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) [18] Selinger. ISBN 080148183X http://books. B. Transactions and Proceedings of the Japan Society. Jurgis (1997). John K. " 許された危険の法理に基づく 因果関係論の克服 (Überwindung der Kausalitätslehre durch die Lehre vom erlaubten Risiko)". 130. " のろい (noroi)" (pdf). p. Vyjayanthi R. pp. pp. ISBN 0824822595. “65.google.5325/preternature. Eileen (1970). The Mikado's Empire. [25] 勝部.2307/2787870.jp/books?id= -qOuykzxhKUC&pg=PA290 |url= missing title (help) |chapter= ignored (help) • Griffis. • Joly. ISBN 4791618165 . ISBN 9004255338 [19] Kawashima. 19–20. pp. (1875). 109-. " 第六丑の刻詣りと不能犯學 法論 第 1 巻. Yasushi) (2003). Writing Margins: The Textual Construction of Gender in Heian and Kamakura Japan. Fu-so Mimo Bukuro: A Budget of Japanese Notes. (1912). 377 註 2 本編 (2). Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 23: 143–144. Preternature: Critical and Historical Studies on the Preternatural 2 (1): 73– 91. C.

2 Story As the most-adapted Japanese ghost story. Normally. the first play is staged in its entirety. the details of Yotsuya Kaidan have been altered over time. followed by the second play. with a Kabuki double-feature. Utagawa Kuniyoshi's portrait of Oiwa.* is a tale of betrayal. and loosely 19. Arguably the most famous Japanese ghost story Nakamuraza production. the prostitute Osode. in the case of Yotsuya Kaidan it was decided to interweave the two dramas. then came Act IV and Act V of Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan to conclude the program. The story tapped into peopleʼs fears by bringing the ghosts of Japan out of the temples and aristocrats' mansions and into the home of common people.* [1] It is now generally shortened. 19. with a full staging on two days: the first day started with Kanadehon Chushingura from Act I to Act VI. followed by Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan from Act I to Act III.sister.) Written in 1825 by Tsuruya Nanboku IV as a kabuki play.* [2] The play was incredibly successful. the intervening years. Tamiya Iemon. and forced the producers to schedule extra out-of-season performances to meet demand. and sometimes removing the ghostly element all together. murder and ghostly (Note: the following summary is of the original 1825 revenge. the ronin becomes enraged and murders Samon. despite her being already 46 .1 History and his daughter should separate. often bearing little resemblance to the original kabuki play. However. is having a heated exchange with his father-in-law. it has been adapted for film over 30 times. The following day started with the Onbo canal scene.1 Act 1 translates as Ghost Story of Yotsuya. it does not detail the of all time.2. the exact type of people who were the audience of his theater. a rōnin. Yotsuya Kaidan appeared at the character Naosuke who is sexually obsessed with Oiwa's Nakamuraza Theater in Edo (the former name of present. As such. Yotsuya Samon. the original title was Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan (東海道四 ⾕怪談). The next scene focuses on the First staged in July 1825. However. and numerous subplots and characters added to the story over continues to be an influence on Japanese horror today. the base story usually remains the same and Yotsuya Kaidan (四 ⾕ 怪 談). concerning Samon's daughter Oiwa. After it is suggested by Samon that Iemon 19. the story of Oiwa and recognizable.* Tamiya Iemon.Chapter 19 Yotsuya Kaidan day Tokyo) as a double-feature with the immensely popular Kanadehon Chushingura. followed by Kanadehon Chushingura from Act VII to Act XI.

The Bunsei era was a time of social unrest. runs towards the door. Oiwa went from a delicate victim to a powerful avenger. an honorable basis for divorce. as well as for the killing of his former master. The act closes with Yomoshichi slaying Iemon out of both vengeance and Oume.4 Popularity name. another popular kabuki ghost. Also. and her hair falling out in impossible amounts. They were caught and executed on the same day. to which she seems oddly averse. It is at this point that Iemon and Naosuke unite and conspire to mislead Oiwa and Osode into believing that they will exact revenge on the persons responsible for their father's death. For the shame of this. an eel vendor. and she is much more brutal.5 Act 5 Iemon. She leaves a farewell note from which Naosuke learns that Osode was his younger sister. Takuetsu moves to grab her but Oiwa. she doesn't think Iemon will ever want to become her husband. still haunted by the ghost of Oiwa. into the Onbô Canal and Omaki. Iemon kicks Oyumi. Yomoshichi appears and accuses Osode of adultery. 47 19.2. Iemon contemplates his prospects while fishing at the Onbô canal. she curses Iemon's 19. He asks Takuetsu to rape Oiwa so that he will have masters. and blackmails Iemon into handing over a valuable document. with her ruined face projecting magnificently from an onstage lantern.2 Act 2 and Oiwa's haunting intensifies. the performance of Yotsuya Kaidan was filled with fantastic special effects. a wooden board and thrown into the Kanda River. the mother of Oume. he commits suicide. Oiwa becomes hysterical and. he is mocked by both Yomoshichi and Osode and forcibly removed. Yotsuya Kaidan paired the conventions of kizewamono . Naosuke arrives in disguise as Gonbei. Takuetsu cannot bring The second murder was from a samurai who discovered himself to do this so. unbe. Act 2 closes with Iemon being tricked by Oiwa's ghost Yotsuya Kaidan's popularity is often accounted for by the into slaying both Oume and her grandfather on the night way it fit the mood of its time. On the embankment above the canal Iemon. Oiwa. Naosuke is at the local brothel making romantic advances toward Osode when Yomoshichi and the brothel's owner. Yomoshichi and Naosuke appear to fumble as they struggle for possession of a note which passes from hand to hand in the darkness.2. Realizing that she has been de.19. As she lies bleeding to death before a stunned Takuetsu. This added level of violence thrilled audiences. while Iemon trans19. 19. enter. As this scene begins.Nanboku incorporated two sensational and real-life murknown to her at the time. instead. believing herself to be less attractive than Oiwa. with Iemon. picking up a sword. who were seeking more and more violent forms of entertainment. In addition. attempting to evade him.2. Iemon decides he can no longer remain with volved two servants who had murdered their respective her. he simply shows Oiwa her his concubine was having an affair with a servant. Takuetsu. combining fact and fiction in when she applies it. is instantly scarred by the cream ders into Yotsuya Kaidan. The exchange of power for powerlessness was something audiences could relate to. Upon seeing his wife's ghastly new a manner that resonated with audiences. Unable to pay a fee demanded by Takuetsu. the servant of Oyumi drowns by accident. has fallen in love compassion.* [1] as well as its use of of the wedding. The remaining members of the Itô household are annihilated. flees to an isolated mountain retreat.4 Act 4 At the opening Naosuke is pressuring Osode to consummate their marriage. This is implied to occur at the precise time of the slaying of Samon.samurai had the faithless concubine and servant nailed to ceived. HISTORICAL BASIS married to another man. Not long after Iemon becomes engaged to Oume. However. Satô Yomoshichi. whom he mistakes for Yomoshichi.3 Act 3 forms from tormentor to tormented.3 Historical basis the Itôs scheme to have Oiwa disfigured by sending her a topical poison disguised as a facial cream. Osode resigns herself to death in atonement and convinces Naosuke and Yomoshichi that they should kill her.2. Sympathizing with Oume's plight. Shortly thereafter an intoxicated Naosuke murders Okuda Shôzaburô.3. and the repressed position of women in society was severe. accidentally punctures her own throat with the sword's tip. the granddaughter of Itô Kihei. The first incountenance. There he rapidly descends into madness as his dreams and reality begin to merge 19. The reflection in a mirror. 19. his former master. In return Osode agrees to marry Naosuke. Oiwa is much more direct in her vengeance than Okiku. universal themes.

This scene is a subversion of erotically. Myogyo-ji. A charged hair combing scenes in kabuki love plays. in his series One Hundred Ghost Stories. Sugamo. the television presenter is morphed into a woman with one small eye and one large eye.The first film adaptation was made in 1912. ragged hair and white/indigo face that marks a ghost Utagawa Kuniyoshi illustrated the scene at Hebiyama.* [6] Also in Ju-on when Hitomi is watching the television.one of the foremost Japanese directors of his time. 1636. Yotsuya Kaidan soon became a popular subject for ukiyo-e artists as well. drawing his sword.* [4] Several productions of Yotsuya Kaidan.surrounded by snakes and smoke. cally from other onryo. including the cascading hair and drooping. Prior to staging an adaptation of Yotsuya 19.* [5] This is considered especially important of the actor assuming the role of Oiwa. have reported mysterious accidents.* [6] In 1826. Sadako Yamamura from the film Ring is a clear homage to Oiwa.6 Yotsuya Kaidan and ukiyo-e Being a popular Kabuki play. 19. She is often shown as partially bald. Yotsuya Kaidan I & II. An unusual image featuring a still-living Oiwa was depicted as one of the New Forms of Thirty-Six Ghosts by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi. including Iemon as he turns to meet the apparition. Hokusai's image of Oiwa emerging from the Lantern. achieved by a Keisuke removed the ghostly elements and presented stage hand who sits under the stage and pushes more and Oiwa as an apparition of her husband's guilty psyche. to the poison. which comes falling out due adaptation was Shimpan Yotsuya Kaidan by Itō Daisuke. a 1956 .* [3] 1949 adaptation. Katsushika Hokusai created perhaps the most iconic image of Oiwa. Shunkosai Hokuei made a visual quotation of Hokusai's design in the illustration above. There are specific traits to Oiwa that set her apart physi. In a spectac. includOiwa is supposedly buried at a temple. She shares most of the common traits of this style of Japanese ghost. Her strong passion for revenge allows her to bridge the gap back to Earth. and it was ular scene in the kabuki play. in kabuki theater. She is recognizable by her drooping eyes and partial baldness. which looked at the lives of non-nobles. The date of her death and kaidanmono “ghost play”. by Kinoshita The hair piles up to tremendous heights. in ing Yotsuya Kaidan (四⾕怪談 Yotsuya Kaidan).48 CHAPTER 19. the long. including television and movie adaptations.possibly a reference to Oiwa. including the white dress representing the burial kimono she would have worn. which droops down her face due to poison given her by Iemon. another effect of the poison. Shunkosai Hokushu produced The Ghost of Oiwa.7 Film adaptations give Oiwa a distinct appearance. a ghost who seeks vengeance. Most famous is her left eye. in which he drew the face of her angry spirit merged with a temple lantern.* [7] This image of Oiwa appears to give Akari Ichijou a cup of tea in her victory pose in the arcade game The Last Blade. also being carved into netsuke. A notable a mirror and combs her hair.* [1] is listed as February 22. the living Oiwa sits before filmed some 18 times between 1913 and 1937. YOTSUYA KAIDAN “raw life play”. showing a still-lantern-headed Oiwa coming for Iemon. a neighborhood of Tokyo.* [6] The lantern scene is a favorite.* [8] more hair up through the floor while Oiwa is combing.5 Ghost of Oiwa Kaidan it is now a tradition for the principal actors and the director to make a pilgrimage to Oiwa's grave and ask her permission and blessing for their production. This feature is exaggerated in kabuki performances to 19. injuries and even deaths. The Shintoho studio produced several versions. malformed eye. the same year the play opened at Sumiza Theater in Osaka. Her final appearance is a direct adaptation of Oiwa. Oiwa is an onryō.

REFERENCES black and white film by Masaki Mōri. BRILL.10. George Braziller.9 Notes 1.. 19. Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays. Karen (1998). Paul. due to Hepburn's old romanization system that rendered e as ye. Catrien. Retrieved July 28. [2] “Yotsuya Kaidan”. Sara L. ISBN 90-04-08628-5. Columbia University Press. were also a retelling of the story. 1996. Utah State University Press 1994. • “Yotsuya Kaidan”. as an urban legend states that injuries and fatalities will befall the cast if they do not. This romanization gives a more archaic feel to the name (and also makes it less likely to be misread by Westerners as “Lemon”).com • Addiss.11 External links • Kaidan Hyaku Shosetsu (Story 1) (2002) at JDorama • Chushingura gaiden yotsuya kaidan (1994) at the Internet Movie Database . 2006. 2006. 49 19. ISBN 0-231-10872-9. ISBN 0-595-20181-4. • Vengeful ghost 19. Writers Club Press. Retrieved July 6.* [9] and episodes 1-4 of Ayakashi: Samurai Horror Tales. [7] Bush. Retrieved February 22. and Nobuo Nakagawa's 1959 Tokaido Yotsuya kaidan. Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference in Transcultural Aesthetics: 157. USA. Retrieved February 22. (2001). Chaos and Cosmos: Ritual in Early and Medieval Japanese Literature. ISBN 0-8076-1126-3 • Araki.8 See also [8] “Yotsuya-Kaidan on Film”. Wild Realm Review. [3] Brazell. 19. Supernatural and Mysterious Japan. Retrieved February 22. Japanese Ghosts and Demons. (1990). James T.19. 2006. 2. Tokyo to pay their respects. 2006. “Realism in Kabuki of the early nineteenth century. USA. [9] Kaidan Hyaku Shosetsu [怪談百物語] :: jdorama. which is often considered the finest screen adaptation of the story. Toshima-ku. Herbert E. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experience in Japanese Death Legends.. 2006. TOPICS online magazine.* [8] There have also been adaptations on television. Japan. Inc.10 References [1] Kennelly. Story 1 of the j-drama Kaidan Hyaku Shosetsu was a version of Yotsuya Kaidan. Asian Horror Encyclopedia. Tuttle Publishing. A case study”. [4] “Yotsuya Kaidan”. ISBN 4900737-37-2 • “Yotsuya Kaidan”. Tokyo. A Japanese Ghost Story”. By tradition. Kinji Fukasaku returned to the Kabuki roots and combined the stories of Chūshingura and Yotsuya Kaidan into the single Crest of Betrayal. 1986. Toho produced a version in 1966 directed by Shirō Toyoda and starring Tatsuya Nakadai that was released as Illusion of Blood abroad. USA. ^ Iemon is sometimes romanized as Iyemon. Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays. James T. Steven. Wild Realm Review. 1998 • Iwasaka. • “Yotsuya-Kaidan on Film”. 2006. In 1994. Retrieved 2010-12-04. “From scrolls to prints to moving pictures: iconographic ghost imagery from premodern Japan to the contemporary horror film” (PDF). [6] Sumpter. a 2006 anime TV series. 2006. ISBN 0-87421179-4 • Ross. ^ Yotsuya is a neighborhood in the southeastern section of Tokyo's Shinjuku ward. (2006). [5] Plutschow. Columbia University Press.). • Botan Doro • Bancho Sarayashiki • Kaidan • Onryō • Obake • Yūrei • Japanese mythology • Japanese Horror • Ayakashi: Samurai Horror Tales: an anime which animates the story. • “Yotsuya-Kaidan. Araki (trans. Retrieved July 28. Laurence C. Michiko. Retrieved July 6. production crews adapting the story for film or stage visit Oiwa's gravesite in Myogyoji Temple in Sugamo.

'Yotsuya kaidan' yori (1981) at the Internet Movie Database • Yotsuya kaidan . YOTSUYA KAIDAN • Masho no natsu .(Japanese) .50 CHAPTER 19.Oiwa no borei (1969) Internet Movie Database • Yotsuya kaidan (1966) Database at the at the Internet Movie • Kaidan Oiwa no borei (1961) at the Internet Movie Database • Tōkaidō Yotsuya kaidan (1959) Movie Database at the Internet • Yotsuya kaidan (1959) Database at the Internet Movie • Yotsuya kaidan (1949) Database at the Internet Movie • Shinpan Yotsuya kaidan (1928) Movie Database at the Internet • ⽥中貢太郎「南北の東海道四⾕怪談」& ⽥中貢 太郎「四⾕怪談」 online texts of Yotsuya Kaidan by Tanaka Kotaro at Aozora Bunko.

She sometimes wears a white kimono.* [3] but other legends describe her as nude. she was almost uniformly portrayed as evil.1 Appearance 20.2 Behaviour Yuki-onna appears on snowy nights as a tall. She is a popular figure in Japanese litA Yuki-onna from Gazu Hyakki Yakō by Toriyama Sekien erature. some tales say she has no feet.* [1] yuki anesa“snow sis'". Today.* [1] yuki-onago“snow wench”. yuki-omba“snow granny or snow nanny”. with only her face and hair standing out against the snow.* [2] across the snow. is the spirit of someone who perished in the snow. manga. Yuki-onna appears to travelers trapped 51 . snow woman) is a spirit or yōkai in Japanese folklore. and animation. emphasizing her ghost-like nature and ephemeral beauty. being associated with winter and snowstorms. 20.* [4] Despite her inhuman beauty.* [5] She is at the same time beautiful and serene.Chapter 20 Yuki-onna A Yuki-onna from Hyakkai-Zukan Yuki Onna (雪⼥. She floats Some legends say the Yuki-onna. leaving no footprints (in fact. yukijorō“snow harlot”. She may also go by such names as yuki-musume “snow girl”. Until the 18th century. a feature of many Japanese ghosts). her eyes can strike terror into mortals.* [6] In many stories. however.* [2] yukinba“snow hag”(Ehime). beautiful woman with long black hair and blue lips. yet ruthless in killing unsuspecting mortals.* [2] yukifuri-baba(?) “snowfall hag”* [1](Nagano). stories often color her as more human. and she can transform into a cloud of mist or snow if threatened. Her inhumanly pale or even transparent skin makes her blend into the snowy landscape (as famously described in Lafcadio Hearn's Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things).

If you tell anyone about me. times she is simply satisfied to see a victim die.No one saw her again. but stared at him for a while. who attempts to lure him to sleep and death. a 1990 Ameritims go for various reasons.”She occasionally takes on a succubus-like manner. speak of her. she manifests holding a child. features the story. but spares him again. One of not treat as a broken promise (technically. Mysteriously. and thus did not count). they are frozen in place. which she did youkai who hails from the Tono region. draining her victims' blood or“life force.1 Lafcadio Hearn's version A long time ago. Minokichi was young and Mosaku was very old. which is based on Lafcadio Hearn's “Yukiof his beauty and age. Yuki-Onna the most prominent members of the main characherself is not a human. there lived two woodcutters. who reveals herself to be the snow woman. You must not tell anyone about this incident. the last conscious man encounters a beautiful woman. Minokichi said to Oyuki: “Whenever I see you. She makes him promise never to Onna”story. One night. named Oyuki (yuki =“snow”) and married her. She reviles him for breaking his promise. In some versions. the character Reiha is a Yuki Onna. she will return with no mercy. They found a hut in the mountain and decided to sleep there. after the children were asleep. Banana class's substitute teacher is a Yuki Onna. the same as that old man. because you are young and beautiful. In one popular Yuki-onna can horror anthology film. However. After the other men lose consciousness. Instead of a Snow Woman.. Other legends make Yuki-onna much more aggressive.* [3] Parents searching for lost children are particularly susceptible to this tactic. not age. they could not come back home because of a snowstorm. treat their children.” After finishing his story.. she often invades homes.” Several years later. Lover's legend. but later in life. a 1964 Japanese anthology ghost film. Oyuki suddenly stood up. she is more vampiric. Some.. Minokichi and Mosaku. • In Vampire Princess Miyu. 20. I am reminded of a mysterious incident that happened to me. Like the snow and winter weather she represents. She then approached Minokichi to breathe on him. Other legends say she leads them astray so they simply die of exposure. Luckily for him. Take care of our children. who similar legend.52 CHAPTER 20. I can't kill you because of our children. he is a loving father). In these stories. she sets a young boy free because Vow. but I will not.* [3] • In Kwaidan. She breathed on old Mosaku and he was frozen to death. • In the Bleach anime.* [6] In a ter Rikuo Nura's Hyakki Yakō is a Yuki Onna.3 In popular culture them through sex or a kiss. this • In The Snow Woman (Kaidan yukijorou). blowing in the door with a gust of wind to kill residents in their sleep (some legends require her to be invited inside first). the character Mizore Shirayuki is a teenage Yuki Onna* [7] described as a snow fairy. a Yuki Onna is a type of chose not to kill him because he told her. and said. Other times.* [8] • In Akazukin ChaCha. Yukionna has a softer side. she • In Nurarihyon no Mago. a Zanpakuto spirit named Sode no Shirayuki (the sword is owned by Rukia Kuchiki) is depicted as a Yuki Onna with near total mastery of ice. What Yuki-onna is after varies from tale to tale. I do not know if it was a dream or if she was a Yuki-onna. a team of mountain climbers gets caught in a blizzard. for example. possibly Yuki Onna but never directly referenced as such. Minokichi and Oyuki had several children and lived happily for many years. " Then she melted and disappeared. I will kill you. On this particular evening. Minokichi met a beautiful young lady. and said “That woman you met was me! I told you that I would kill you if you ever told anyone about that incident. afterlife afterward the same way. however.2. he tells the story to his wife the protagonist's wife is secretly a Gargoyle. she did • In a segment of Akira Kurosawa's 1990 film Dreams.. “I thought I was going to kill you. When I was young. she departs to the the name Tsurara Oikawa. Mosaku woke up and found a beautiful lady with white clothes. When a well-intentioned soul takes the “child”from her. She sometimes lets would-be vic• Tales from the Darkside: The Movie. Teacher Oyuki. Other times. • In Rosario + Vampire. YUKI-ONNA in snowstorms. Yuki-onna melts away once her husband usually accompanies him at school undercover using discovers her true nature. She was a good wife. However. preying on weak-willed men to drain or freeze 20. One winter day. I met a beautiful young lady like you. a 1968 time out of concern for their children (but if he dares misJapanese film. . and uses her icy breath to leave them as frost-coated corpses.

Yuki Onna is also a demon in the "Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Children" spin off series. • In "Yume Nikki". • In Yu Yu Hakusho. Yuki-hime is a yuki-onna. the demon called Yuki Jyorou is based on Yuki Onna and in "Shin Megami Tensei: Strange Journey" she is referred to as “a type of Yuki Onna” . SEE ALSO • While clearly stated to be an alien princess. The controversial Pokémon Jynx is also based. the character Yukiko-Hime is a Yuki Onna. • In Shinobi 3D. • In the 7th Touhou Project game. Jin Kisaragi's weapon of choice is a nihontō called Yukianesa. Nobara Yukinokouji (Renshou Sorinozuka's secret service agent) is a Yuki Onna. Like Yuki-onna. she is responsible for a snow blizzard and is accompanied by a Snow Monster Guardian. Perfect Cherry Blossom. two characters mistake Itsuki Kannagi to be a Yuki-Onna because their space vessels frost as they pass near hers. the character Yukina (Hiei's younger sister) was born in an Snow Women onlyvillage. • In the Pokémon franchise. and will make it start to snow. • In the InuYasha anime. a 1990s Canadian TV show. who leaves behind Alexander Materia if defeated. YukiOnna appears as a witch in a zoku Realm. 20. she made an appearance in Episode 9“Fuzzy in Love”when Fuzzy Lumpkins mistook her for Ms. • In "The Causal Angel" by Hannu Rajaniemi. • In The Girl Who Leapt Through Space. • In "Hakkenden: Eight Dogs of the East". Jynx has ice-manipulation and no feet. Yuki Onna is featured in Episode 4 “Minokichi”. • In BlazBlue. Oyuki from Urusei Yatsura is based on yuki-onna. the first boss is Yuki Onna. • In Ranma ½. Monet (Caesar Clown's assistant) is nicknamed Yuki-onna by her use of the Snow Snow Fruit. • American progressive metal band Symphony X has a song entitled “Lady of the Snow”. • In Demashita! Powerpuff Girls Z. there are two cards based on a YukiOnna. based on the character Yuki-Onna.20.a woman living alone in Great Glacier. • In MythQuest. • In One Piece.4. The Snow from Seven Years Past. a Yuki Onna serves as the episode antagonist of Season 5.* [9] It can be found on the album Twilight in Olympus. one of the main characters. • In Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan. 53 • In Final Fantasy VII. “Mischief of the Yokai”and “Yuki-onna of the Ghostrick”. • The manga Jigoku Sensei Nube features a yuki-onna named Yukime who falls in love with and eventually marries the titular character. Yuki-Onna is herself • In Yu-Gi-Oh!. Bellum. the stage one boss Letty Whiterock is a Yukionna. a popular fighting game. which allows him to use ice attacks. • In "Megami Tensei". Also portrayed both as a child bearing a flute and a female adult. Froslass is based on the Yuki-onna. • In Inu x Boku SS. • In Dororon Enma-kun. in part in Yuki-onna. is most probably based on Yuki-Onna. Episode 2 (Epi#101). one of the effects Madotsuki can collect turns her into a Yuki-Onna. Snow . as a symbol for the pellegrini.4 See also • Ghosts in Mesopotamian religions • Jack Frost • Selkie • Shirahime-Syo • The Snow Queen (tale) • White Lady (ghost) • Yama-uba (“mountain crone") • Yeti (cryptid) • Yurei • Crane Wife • Swan maiden .

4–. p. • An article that references Yuki Onna in the movies Japanzine By Jon Wilks CHAPTER 20. Retrieved 29 September 2012. in Isamu Yoshinari(吉成勇)ed. ISBN 978-4404-02011-6 • Konno. pp. pp. ASIN B000J98U1S. Retrieved 201402-21. Shakai Shisho sha. ISBN 0-226-74614-3 [5] Smith. p. Seigo Seki (1963). Richard Gordon. Nobutaka (古橋信孝) (1992). Folktales of Japan. com [7] " ジャンプ SQ.5 References [1] Konno 1981. cited by Hirakawa.co. Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-390-11055-6 20. 歴史 読本特別増刊・事典シリーズ. YUKI-ONNA .Yuki-onna (Snow Woman) at www. 227.shueisha.54 20. Vol. Viz Media.. Jumpsq. quote:" 雪⼥の 名称は雪娘、雪⼥郎、雪婆、雪降婆、シッケンケン など. Gendai 集妖怪 Kyoiku bunko. " 雪⼥伝 説".[ロザリオとバンパイア seasonII ] 池⽥晃久" [Jump Square Rosario + Vampire season II] (in Japanese). “Symphony X FAQ”. 81.jp. Retrieved March 26.” [2] Furuhashi 1992 [3] Yuki-onna at japanese1-2-3. • Furuhashi. University of Chicago.com [4] Seki. Symphony X Official Website. 276–277. “The Snow Ghost” Chapter XLIX of Ancient Tales and Folk-lore of Japan at sacredtexts.com (English). Thomas et al. ⽇ 本 怪 談 (Nihon kaidanshū yōkai hen).sarudama.6 External references • Yuki Onnna – The Snow Woman at hyakumonogatari.. ⼩泉⼋ : と研究 (Koizumi Yakumo: kaisō to kenkyū) (snippet). Shinjinbutsu Orai sha (新⼈物往来社). 2013. Ensuke (今 野 円 輔) (1981). 5”. Nihon 'Shinwa Densetsu' Sōran (⽇本「神話・伝説」総覧). [8] “Rosario+Vampire.com [6] Kwaidan . Sukehiro (平川祐弘) (1992). [9] Miller.

21. or if they are influenced by powerful emotions such as a desire for revenge.1 Japanese afterlife According to traditional Japanese beliefs.2 Appearance In the late 17th century. where wigs are used for all actors. if the proper rites have not been performed. This is a misconception: Japanese women traditionally grew their hair long and wore it pinned up. Today. Ukiyo-e artist Maruyama Ōkyo created the first known example of the now-traditional yūrei. • Hitodama: Yūrei are frequently depicted as being accompanied by a pair of floating flames or will o' the wisps (hitodama in Japanese) in eerie colors such as blue. • Hands and feet: A yūrei's hands dangle lifelessly from the wrists. In Shinto. They typically lack legs and feet. all humans have a spirit or soul called a 霊魂 (reikon). in his painting The Ghost of Oyuki. instantly signalling the ghostly nature of the figure. the reikon is believed to be a protector of the living family and to return yearly in August during the Obon Festival to receive thanks. The yūrei then exists on Earth until it can be laid to rest. green. or purple. 21. These ghostly flames are separate parts of the ghost rather than independent spirits. either by performing the missing rituals. where it waits for the proper funeral and post-funeral rites to be performed. However. If this is done correctly. hatred or sorrow. they began to gain certain attributes to distinguish themselves from living humans. Like their Chinese and Western counterparts. the yūrei will persist in its haunting. they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife. which can then bridge the gap back to the physical world. • Black hair: Hair of a yūrei is often long. signifying the white burial kimono used in Edo period funeral rituals. At this time. The name consists of two kanji. white is a color of ritual purity. this lack of legs and feet is often represented by using a very long kimono or even hoisting the actor into the air by a series of ropes and pulleys. and kaidan increasingly became a subject for theater. or the more encompassing 妖怪 (Yōkai) or お化け (Obake). which is a small white triangular piece of cloth tied around the head. and it was let down for the funeral and burial. unlined kimono) or a kyokatabira (a white katabira inscribed with Buddhist sutras). This kimono can either be a katabira (a plain.. white. literature and other arts. and were quickly copied over to kabuki. meaning “faint”or “dim”and 霊 (rei).”Alternative names include 亡 霊 (Bōrei) meaning ruined or departed spirit. analogous to Western legends of ghosts. floating in the air. • White clothing: Yūrei are usually dressed in white. If the rituals are not completed or the conflict left unresolved. a game called Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai became popular. In kabuki. so that it may join its ancestors. which are held outstretched with the elbows near the body.“forehead cover”). love. black and disheveled. They sometimes have a hitaikakushi (lit. When a person dies. 死 霊 (Shiryō) meaning dead spirit. and assuring that it is culturally authentic. jealousy. the appearance of yūrei is somewhat uniform. These features originated in Edo period ukiyo-e prints. 幽 (yū). the reikon is thought to transform into a yūrei. or resolving the emotional conflict that still ties it to the physical plane. meaning “soul”or “spirit.3 Classifications 55 . which some believe to be a trademark carried over from kabuki theater.Chapter 21 Yūrei Yūrei (幽霊) are figures in Japanese folklore. traditionally reserved for priests and the dead. 21. making it easier to spot yūrei characters. if the person dies in a sudden or violent manner such as murder or suicide. the reikon leaves the body and enters a form of purgatory.

1 CHAPTER 21. to the afterlife. is said to be able to bring vengeance on any actress portraying her part in a theater or film adaptation. meaning“to change". the witching hour for Japan.1 Famous hauntings Some famous locations that are said to be haunted by yūrei are the well of Himeji Castle. Oiwa. often mis. these place until their purpose is fulfilled. However.Yūrei such as Okiku haunt a particular place ̶in Okiku's turns to care for her children.4 Obake Yūrei often fall under the general umbrella term of obake. not only the dead are able to manifest their reikon for a haunting. Kunio • Onryō: Vengeful ghosts who come back from Yanagita. haunted by the ghost of Okiku. They are different from other classifications of yūrei due to their wholly religious nature. some particularly strong yūrei. He claimed that yūrei haunt a particular person.3 Ikiryō 21. Lectures time. • Gaki 21. 21. the yūrei is satisfied and can move on.2 Buddhist ghosts There are two types of ghosts specific to Buddhism. . 21. the forest at the bottom of Mt. In Japanese folklore.56 21.3.4 Hauntings • Funayūrei: The ghosts of those who died at sea.murderer.3. such as their • Zashiki-warashi: The ghosts of children. on Monsters).5 Exorcism The easiest way to exorcise a yūrei is to help it fulfill its purpose. and Aokigahara. • Goryō: Vengeful ghosts of the aristocratic class.obake in his seminal Yokaidangi (妖怪談義. this is accomplished by family members enacting revenge upon the yūrei's slayer. One of Japan's earliest and foremost folklorists. from the novel The Tale of Genji. or looking at typical kaidan. but generally stay near a like humanoids and some may even have a form simspecific location.4. and they can move on ghosts are usually shown with legs. from the natural realm to the supernatural. When the reason for the strong emotion binding the spirit to Earth is gone. such as where they were killed or where ilar to that of a mermaid or merman. or follow a specific person.m. within that category there are several specific types of phantom. 21. Fuji. given a proper burial with all rites performed. this does not appear to be true. They usually appear between 2 and 3 a. died leaving young children behind.3. often bringing them case. when the veils chievous rather than dangerous. classified mainly by the manner they died or their reason for returning to Earth. A particularly powerful onryō. after the person who killed them has died. This yūrei re. or when its remains are discovered and Miyasundokoro. but when • Ubume: A mother ghost who died in childbirth. Traditionally. especially those who were martyred. between the world of the dead and the world of the living • Samurai Ghosts: Veterans of the Genpei War who are at their thinnest. Warrior Ghosts almost exclusively ap. both being examples of unfullfilled earthly hungers being carried on after death. derived from the verb bakeru.3.Yūrei will continue to haunt that particular person or pear in Noh Theater. while obake haunt a particular place. as seen in Botan Dōrō. thus obake are preternatural beings who have undergone some sort of change. • Jikininki 21. human. the well where she died ̶and continue to do so long sweets. YŪREI Yūrei While all Japanese ghosts are called yūrei. or a beloved. made a clear distinction between yūrei and purgatory for a wrong done to them during their life. which is a popular location for suicide. con• Seductress Ghosts: The ghost of a woman or man tinue to haunt long after their killers have been brought who initiates a post-death love affair with a living to justice. fell in battle. specifically onryō who are consumed by vengeance. a living ghost that can enact its will while still alive. Living creatures possessed by extraordinary jealousy or rage can release their spirit as an ikiryō ⽣き霊. These ghosts are sometimes depicted as scaly fishYūrei do not wander at random. their body lies. Unlike most other yūrei. or when the ghost consummates its passion/love with its The most famous example of an ikiryo is Rokujo no intended lover.

a musical interpretation of Japanese ghost stories by the Kitsune Ensemble. Buddhist priests and mountain ascetics were hired to perform services on those whose unusual or unfortunate deaths could result in their transition into a vengeful ghost. a practice similar to exorcism. Michiko and Toelken. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experiences in Japanese Death Legends. although they can be attached to a house's entry ways to prevent the yūrei from entering. On occasion. Sometimes these ghosts would be deified in order to placate their spirits.21. ISBN 0-87421-179-4 • Ghoul Power . holy Shinto writings containing the name of a kami.6 See also • Bancho Sarayashiki • Botan Doro • Hungry ghost • Inoue Enryo • Japanese mythology • Japanese Urban Legends • J-Horror • Kaidan • Kayako Saeki • Sadako Yamamura • Yokai • Yotsuya Kaidan • Yūrei zaka 21. malicious yūrei are repelled by ofuda (御札).8.Onryou in the Movies Japanzine By Jon Wilks • Tales of Ghostly Japan Japanzine By Zack Davisson • Japanese Ghosts Haunted Times by Tim Screech • Yūrei-ga gallery at Zenshoan Temple 57 • Information on The Kaidan Suite. EXTERNAL LINKS The emotions of the onryō are particularly strong.7 References • Iwasaka. 21. • Hyakumonogatari.com Translated yurei stories from Hyakumonogatari. Like many monsters of Japanese folklore. and they are the least likely to be pacified by these methods. Barre. The ofuda must generally be placed on the yūrei's forehead to banish the spirit. 1994.com 21. Utah State University Press.8 External links • What is the White Kimono Japanese Ghosts Wear? .

YŪREI Tukioka yositosi's “Yūrei” .58 CHAPTER 21.

as well as for violent chimidoro-e (“bloody pictures” .through late 19th Literally translatable as ʻfaint (yū .to late 19th century. They are considered to be a subgenre of fūzokuga.無残 絵) which were to become popular in Edo Japan. do not receive proper funerary rites.* [1] Scholars link the “per59 .* [3] Japanese ghosts are essentially spirits “on leave”from hell in order to complete an outstanding mission. do not pass peacefully to join the spirits of their ancestors in the afterlife. Imported sources include Buddhism. however.* [3] Yūrei by Sawaki Sūshi (1737) Yūrei-zu (幽霊図) are a genre of Japanese art consisting of painted or woodblock print images of ghosts. Other terms include: obake (お 化け). There is a long tradition of belief in the supernatural in Japan stemming from a variety of influences.あ の 世) takes 49 days.こ の 世) to that of the dead (anoyo .⾎みどろ絵) and muzan-e (“cruel pictures”. their reikon souls are transformed into ayurei souls.ghost tales (kaidan . “pictures of manners and customs. Instead. This tradition continued through the centuries. Taoism and Chinese folklore.* [8] Al22. a native Japanese animistic religion which presupposes that our physical world is inhabited by eight million omnipresent spirits.Chapter 22 Yūrei-zu fer to spirit beings. providing a foundation for yūreizu. The most notable influence.幽) spirit (rei .* [2] 22.怪談). yūrei-zu reached the pinnacle of their popularity in the mid.* [2] along with ghost themed kabuki plays and yūrei is just one of several Japanese words used to re.* [7] While their intentions are not always evil. and it is in this limbo-like phase that they can attend to unresolved issues.* [4] Belief held that a ghost could only receive release through the prayers of a living individual that his/her soul be allowed to pass into the underworld.”* [1] These types of art works reached the peak of their popularity in Japan in the mid. which can travel back to the physical world.* [6] There is a close relationship between the degree of an individualʼs suffering in life and the severity of their actions in the afterlife. or die while consumed by a desire for vengeance.* [5] According to Buddhist belief.* [4] The souls (reikon . is Shintō.1 Yūrei though there are prior examples. bōrei (亡霊). and shiryō (死霊).霊). as well as gory and grotesque scenes exist on Japanese painted scrolls going back to the medieval period. the journey from the world of the living (konoyo . demons and other supernatural beings.ʼ century. the results of their actions are almost always damaging for the humans involved.2 Historical background Images of supernatural beings.霊魂) of those who die violently. yōkai (妖怪).

a collection of laws governing many aspects of everyday life. In addition to the economy. particularly those involving vengeful female ghosts returning to punish their wrong-doers. and in the early eighteenth century these began artists invoked clever word. the Tokugawa regime in 1842 instituted the Tempō Reforms (Tempō no kaikaku .* [14] The intent of the Reforms was essentially to valorize frugality and loyalty.* [3] Kabuki.* [3] The Tempō Reforms were ultimately unsuccessful. which aimed to satisfy the dramatic tastes of a “proletarian clientele”: the rising working and middle classes in Edo (present-day Tokyo).”* [16] Such critiques led the government to subsequently ban both yūrei-zu and ghost plays.* [17] and the strict regulation of art works was Yoshitoshi ryakuga by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1882) no longer enforced after 1845.* [18] Japan has long had a vibrant folkloric tradition of ghost As long as the rules remained nominally in effect.* [15] thus ostentatious or morally dubious images such as depictions of geisha. 1865) sistent popularity”* [9] of the occult to the“unsettled social conditions”prevailing during the late Edo. oiran courtesans and kabuki actors were banned.”* [15] Given this climate of censorship. In future you are to select designs that are based on loyalty and filial piety and which serve to educate women and children.3 Yūrei-zu and theatre In an attempt to return Japan to its feudal. so too did the number of dramas based on ghost stories. YŪREI-ZU theatre.”and share the kabuki audience demographic.and picture-play to circumto be dramatized for the nō stage and bunraku puppet vent censorship. the Reforms reached into the world of art. the beginnings of westernization. 22. and depictions of celebrated actors (kabuki-e or shibai-e).60 CHAPTER 22.* [16] According to an 1842 decree aimed at print publishers: “To make woodblock prints of Kabuki actors. agriculture and religion. the supernatural and the grotesque were so frequently designed and distributed is for the most part a greater reflection of 19th century Japanese tastes than of the agenda of the artists. some artists used the yūrei-zu genre“to symbolically and humorously disguise …criticism of the social and political maladies of the day by having fantastic creatures appear as substitutes for real people. once the shogunal advisor who had initiated the Reforms left the government. agrarian roots.天保の改⾰).* [15] .”* [13] Artists produced images of ghosts as well as of actors in ghost roles. was a populist art form. like ukiyo-e. depictions of supernatural or macabre themes. especially the ruling elite. courtesans and geisha is detrimental to public morals. Henceforth the publication of new works [of this kind] as well as the sale of previously procured stocks is strictly forbidden.* [3] As kabuki began to flourish throughout the later 1700s. and a number of natural disasters. as woodblock artists attempted to tap into “the publicʼs ever-increasing appetite for tales of the bizarre and thrilling. the military.* [2] which included the oppressive Tokugawa regime.* [1] As Sarah Fensom notes. some stories. and you must insure that they are not luxurious. effecting a conflation of three prevailing trends in ukiyo-e of the period: depictions of the female form (bijin-ga).4 Censorship Shimobe Fudesuke and the Ghost of the Woman in the Waterfall by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (c. “that prints of the macabre. * [10]* [11] 22.* [12] Kabuki and ukiyo-e shared a close kinship.

”* [27] According to a scroll box inscription by a one-time owner. they:* [23] • are nocturnal • avoid running water • appear in true ghostly guise when reflected in a mirror or water surface 22. was “so freakishly popular. dragons and demons.* [19] Most of the ghosts featured. tend to be female. They can also be the discontent spirits of male warriors. the subject of the painting is Maruyamaʼs lover.6. his first series to feature ghosts.“specifically.”as Donald Richie notes.6. New Forms of 36 Ghosts (Shinkei sanjūrokuten). such as foxes. It has been described as an “image of haunting beauty.* [27] Her ghost is said to have visited the artist in a dream and inspired him to paint her portrait. only twenty-six were published.”* [16] nerary kimono Another major producer of yūrei-zu was Tsukioka Yoshi• long. They can appear as animal creatures both real and imagined.5 Yūrei-zu physical characteristics 61 • often accompanied by hitodama (⼈魂).6.* [28] a geisha who died young. cats. flowing sleeves toshi who reputedly had personal encounters with ghosts in 1865 and 1880.“that the blocks from which it was printed • no body below the waist wore out. green. blue or purple floating flames • transparent or semi-transparent By nature. however. who“designed the largest • white or pale-coloured kimono akin to the plain number of prints portraying ghosts as well as other white katabira (帷⼦) or kyōkatabira (経帷⼦) fu. fragile frame ages. including Kunisada. sometimes waving or beckoning final print series. included one hundred im• a thin. NOTABLE EDO EXAMPLES 22.”* [20] The earliest yūrei-zu is considered to be by Maruyama Ōkyo (円 ⼭ 応 挙).6 Notable Edo examples 22.”* [8] .* [24] The Ghost of Oyuki (Oyuki no maboroshi .* [30] His • outstretched arms. founder of the Maruyama school and one of the most significant artists of the 18th century. which was based on a popular game of the period involving ghost stories. straight black hair. however. Hokusai * [29] and Utagawa Kuniyoshi. which is often unkempt period produced yūrei-zu.* [26] it depicts a faintly coloured female ghost whose body tapers into transparency.2 Other Edo artists specific set of physical characteristics:* [21]* [22] All of the pre-eminent ukiyo-e artists of the later Edo • long. In 1865 he produced the series One • some are depicted with a triangular hitaikakushi (額 Hundred Ghost Stories of China and Japan (Wakan hyaku 隠) forehead cloth also associated with Japanese fumonogatari). The orignerary tradition inal series.22. unusual and fantastic creatures.strange.“dissatisfied females.1 The Ghost of Oyuki Kohada Koheiji by Hokusai (date unknown) The ghosts featured in Edo period ukiyo-e come in various forms.お 雪 の 幻) is a silk scroll painting dating to the second half of the 18th century * [25] In Maruyamaʼs naturalistic style.* [27] The subjects in yūrei-zu typically correspond to a very 22.”according to • hands hanging limply from the wrists Sarah Fensom.

22. Between 2004 and 2005. 178 [32] Liddell [3] Rubin 2000 [33] See image at http://www.jp/~{}tenmyoya/ paintings/0_paintings.ne. Maruyamaʼs dying aunt acted as his model (1983. and yet another source believes it to date from 1750 (Chin Music Press). Jason M. which were rendered in woodblocks by Edo artists. 1778.”* [32] Matsui has identified a goal of her works as imparting “a condition that maintains sanity while being close to madness.” and “disturbing and mesmerizing. 1974).html [4] Richie 1983.” * [32] Matsuiʼ s colour on silk hanging scroll“Nyctalopia” (2005) is particularly reminiscent of classic yūrei-zu such as Maruyamaʼs “The Ghost of Oyuki. 17 [11] In addition to floods and earthquakes.net/ . such as Tokaido Yotsuya Ghost Story and Kohata Koheiji Ghost Story. 33n).matsuifuyuko. (Art History Reference) • Satori (folklore) [27] Jordan 1985. 6 [21] Jordan 1985. 10) 22. Maruyama once painted such a realistic ghost image that it came to life and terrified him. According to Meyer. which of Shigeru Mizuki (b. 15 [35] http://matthewmeyer. yūrei-zu and contemporary variations continue to be produced by Japanese artists in various media. ing with traditional Japanese aspects of the supernatural. Rubin 2000. however. Tempō Reforms [15] The Fitzwilliam Museum [16] Harris 2010. Stevenson states that it 1980). Noel and Levine. 7 [5] Monstrous. 10).7 Contemporary examples Although patently no longer as pervasive as during the late Edo period.8 See also • Edo period in popular culture [26] Apocryphally. 2009 [1] Schaap 1998. the intention of his paintings is“to recreate the feeling of old Japanese woodblock prints while adding a contemporary illustrative touch. 140 [10] See Addis 1985.com/works-e/ index.”* [31] “dark [and] Gothic. The six images are reworkings of famous Japanese ghost stories. Tenmyouya completed a series of acrylic on wood paintings entitled New Version of Six Ghost Stories (新形六怪撰).62 22.html [6] Iwasaki and Toelken 1994.”* [35] CHAPTER 22.ocn. J. 1922) and Hiroshi Shiibashi (b. Harris 2010. The incident is immortalized in a painting by Taiso Yoshitoshi (1839-1892) entitled 'Yoshitoshi Ryakuga'. 27 [8] Fensom 2012 [9] Bell 2004. One prominent example is the nihonga painter Fuyuko Matsui (b. His Japanese Yōkai series is collected in his illustrated book The Night Parade of One Hundred Demons. 156 [17] Encyclopaedia Britannica. both of whom are renowned for their works dealwas completed for the shogun in or around 1760 (1983. Maruyama Ōkyo The influence of yūrei-zu is also evident in the manga [25] Jordan suggests the painting was produced when Maruyama was “in his mid-forties”(1985.”* [33] Another artist whose works echo yūrei-zu is Hisashi Tenmyouya (b. Japan was blighted by a series of droughts which led to twenty periods of famine between 1675 and 1837 (Dolan and Worden 1994) [12] Addis 1985. 17 [31] Japan Echo [2] Addis 1985. 25 [22] Davisson 2012 [23] Richie 1983.com [34] See images at http://www3. whose ghostly images are described as “beautiful and eerie. Schaap 1998. would make it c. 1966). 26 • List of legendary creatures from Japan [28] Stevenson suggests that in the absence of the subject. 6 [24] Encyclopaedia Britannica. Japanese-resident artist Matthew Meyer.* [34] Also creating contemporary yūrei-zu in a traditional style is American-born. 156. 178. 179 [13] 2013 [14] Encyclopedia Britannica. Tempō Reforms [18] Jesse 2012. YŪREI-ZU [7] Jordan 1985. 95 [19] Fensom 2013 [20] 1983.9 Notes [29] See the 1831 series One Hundred [Ghost] Tales (Hyaku monogatari) [30] Chiappa.

Zack. “Artwork: Japanese Yokai. 63 • Japan Echo. edited by Stephen Addis. http://www. “Tempō Reforms. Accessed September 14. monstrous. Matthew.“Ghosts. 2013. C. “Japanese Ghosts. Frederick. Ukiyo-e: The Art of the Japanese Print. 2013.jp/culture/2006/03/09/culture/ young-fresh-and-traditional-japanese-artists/#. edited by Stiftung Museum Kunstpalat. Accessed September 14. 2013. http://www. Accessed September 17. 2004. “What is the White Kimono Japanese Ghosts Wear?" April 2012. Noel and Levine. 2013.”June 22. 2013. Robert. David.net/artwork/ japanese-mythology/ • Monstrous.” Matthew Meyer.html • The Fitzwilliam Museum.yoshitoshi.. Kent. • Liddell.net. Robert L. Brenda. “Nihonga to Nihonga: Young. Leiden: Hotei Publishing.”In Samurai Stars of the Stage and Beautiful Women: Kunisada and Kuniyoshi Masters of the Color Woodblock Print. Fresh and Traditional Artists. • Rubin.html • Chin Music Press. edited by Stephen Addis.co. 1983.fitzmuseum.com. “Maruyama Okyo (17331795). • Schaap. Utah: Utah State University Press.”In Japanese Ghosts and Demons: Art of the Supernatural.asianart.com. 2012.”Japan Times.chinmusicpress. 177179. Düsseldorf: Hatje Cantz Verlag.htm • Richie. 1985. http://countrystudies. Ukiyo-e Explained.B. Tokyo: Tuttle. com/product/the-ghost-of-oyuki-chapbook • Davisson. edited by John Stevenson.10.” Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.”In Yoshitoshiʼs Thirty-six Ghosts. http://www. http://www. March 9.us/japan/21. 9. http://matthewmeyer.. Japan: A Country Study. • Iwasaki. http://www.org/trends/arts/art060622. 6-9. Accessed September 17. Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai. 2009. http://ghosts.”Art & Antiques Worldwide Media. Accessed September 17.” In Japanese Ghosts and Demons: Art of the Supernatural. http://hyakumonogatari. “The Golden Age of the Utagawa School: Utagawa Kunisada and Utagawa Kuniyoshi.com/articles/rubin/ • Stevenson. • Tenmyouya. “Yoshitoshi's 'One Hundred Ghost Stories of China and Japan(1865).”Accessed September 15. UK: Global Oriental. Ronald E. 1983. • Art History Reference. 25-33. Web Japan. Accessed Sept. 2013. Michiko and Barre Toelken. J. “Yūrei: Tales of Female Ghosts. http://www.”Fitzwilliam Museum Kunisada and Kabuki Web Site. 2013. http://store. Heroes and Ghosts: Japanese Prints by Kuniyoshi 1797-1861. Accessed September 16. http://www. 1994. 2013.htm . Gunda Luyken and Beat Wismer. • Chiappa. 93101. New York: Blue Tiger. 2013.britannica. Stephen.com/japanese_ghosts/all_pages. 2012. “The Japanese Ghost.net/ series/100ghosts. 2013. Ghosts and the Japanese Cultural Experience in Japanese Death Legends.10 References • Addis. Accessed September 2013.com/ EBchecked/topic/586929/Tempo-reforms • Fensom. editors. Accessed September 17. japantimes. “Lucid Dreams & Nightmares. New York: Blue Tiger. • Jordan. Hisashi. Jason M.22. Norman A.“The Ghost of Oyuki. 2013.cam.uk/gallery/japan/ gallery/info%20kun. 1998.ocn. Accessed September 14.com/2012/04/04/ what-is-the-white-kimono-japanese-ghosts-wear/ • Dolan. “Luxury and Censorship.britannica. 2013. " 天 明 屋 尚 [Tenmyouya Hisashi]. Donald. 2006.jp/~{}tenmyoya/biography/ biography. New York: George Braziller Inc. and Worden. 1985.”Yoshitoshi. John.”Asianart. http: //web-japan. 1994. Accessed September 16. Bernd.. LLC. http://www3. New York: George Braziller Inc. 2006. 2013. Sarah E.”Accessed September 14. Logan. Demons and Spirits in Japanese Lore. October 2012.”2011.html • Jesse. http:// arthistoryreference.ac. “Conclusion: The Supernatural in Japanese Art.“Beauty and the Ghosts: Young Painter Takes Japan's Art World by Storm.ne.htm • Bell. “Maruyama Ōkyo. Accessed September 17. 2013. 2013.htm • Encyclopædia Britannica.”Accessed September 13. 2010.artandantiquesmag. 2013.” Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Yoshitoshiʼs Thirty-six Ghosts. REFERENCES 22.com/2012/10/ japanese-woodblock-prints/ • Harris. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.com/a1/54567.com/ EBchecked/topic/367211/Maruyama-Okyo • Encyclopædia Britannica. UjUVUNJJ6s0 • Meyer.

link to YouTube video of interview with Mizuki Shigeru on Japan's ghosts CHAPTER 22. YŪREI-ZU .youtube.11 External links • http://www.64 22.com/watch?v=JnveMIhKnSA .

22. EXTERNAL LINKS Female Ghost by Kunisada (1852) 65 .11.

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Materialscientist. Xqbot. Repli cant. . Kyriosity. Happysmack. Saxbryn. Tadashie and Sianljones 22. Joyous!. Citation bot. TerryAlex and Anonymous: 82 • Yūrei-zu Source: http://en. win steak. MMTD. Ringbang. Ethereal Cheese. Ciphers. Sfan00 IMG and BG19bot • Onryō Source: http://en. M. Cydebot.wikipedia. Helpful Pixie Bot. Dream of Nyx. Hikui87. Jni. SmackBot. Ookmiueru. Unnecessary stuff. MightyAtom. TheFarix. Cuchullain. Martarius. CmdrObot. Haguremetaru. Fg2. DASHBotAV. GirasoleDE. Ecelius. Legobot. Yobot. Armagebedar. Nick Number.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾北斎) . Exairetos. Xufanc. Virgil1234. Cyrus XIII. AnomieBOT. AnomieBOT. Scott. Hit bull. Msml. Amcaja. Zahakiel. MaybeMaybeMaybe. MikeDockery. Evilgidgit. Xeno.org/wiki/Ushi%20no%20toki%20mairi?oldid=620505417 Contributors: BD2412.nix.wikipedia.wikipedia. R'n'B. Addbot. CALR. LonerXL. Erkan Yilmaz. Ngebendi. Adambiswanger1. LilHelpa. 12Shark. MississippiSouth. Magioladitis. Sameboat. Citation bot.roses. JonathanDP81. Cnilep. Woohookitty. Hao-sama. WhisperToMe. Trappist the monk. Joel7687. Moocowsrule. Jj137. Luckas-bot. MaybeMaybeMaybe. Octamo. Lisapollison. Outriggr. Gdrbot. Chitt66. Azukimonaka. Kruegerrands. Cameron1228. Bluebot. Monkbot and Anonymous: 13 • Ochimusha Source: http://en. Scott. Nehrams2020. Heavenwargod. Dominic. TheFarix.smith. Thijs!bot. Gwalla. DragonNJMB. Apostrophe. Bgwhite. StrangerAtaru. Eellee. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. 阿那之. Underbar dk. Sango123. Nekotripp. Fram. The Devil's Advocate. CONTRIBUTORS. SassoBot. Thayora. New questions. Nnh. Lividore.wikimedia. Cnilep. El bot de la dieta. Etacar11. Yobot.org/wiki/Shiry%C5%8D?oldid=589691093 Contributors: Rjwilmsi. Jonniewilks. Éspy On. SmackBot. Kevin Gorman. Whakum. Serpentnight. Shikino. Shosetsuka. TaBOT-zerem. Gtrmp.org/wiki/Ochimusha?oldid=620515173 Contributors: Fredbecker. Jjmorabrenes. Curiouskitten. Martarius. Fractyl. Helpful Pixie Bot. Lenoxus. MaybeMaybeMaybe. Badagnani. BOTarate. TheIncredibleEdibleOompaLoompa. Yobot. Doctor Sunshine. Tim Long. Michitaro. Pegase6969. Soulkeeper. Hmainsbot1. Cydebot. Gdrbot. BG19bot. From That Show!. Malkinann. Zahakiel. Fruitariannnwf607. PC78. Evilgidgit. Hijiri88. Duende-Poetry. Kotengu. Exairetos. Bnynms. Jarkeld.wikipedia. Shimeru. Kiyoweap. Angr. Tweisbach. Haaninjo. Toytoy. EmausBot. MER-C. Mafuyu. DumZiBoT. Callumojo. EvergreenFir. Ink Runner. DSisyphBot.jpg Source: http://upload. DopefishJustin. John. Cydebot. Surge79uwf. Amcaja. Halloween74. Commander Keane bot. Updatehelper. Caoimhequi. Grutness. Unknown Dragon. Exairetos.12. Esper Ranger. Bkkbrad.org/wiki/Onry%C5%8D?oldid=638410934 Contributors: Michael Hardy. Xufanc. Yobot. Diannaa. Pinnecco. Naniwako.

org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Kunisada_signature. and Jakub Steiner (although minimally). Japanese.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: English Wikipedia Original artist: Kuniyoshi • File:Kyosai_Funayurei.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Nuvola_filesystems_folder_home.jpg License: PD-US Contributors: ? 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Original artist: Utagawa Kunisada • File:Flag_of_Japan.jpg Original artist: redirect'>deerstop</a>.wikimedia.wikimedia.68 CHAPTER 22.jpg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload. †1784) • File:Commons-logo.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Kunisada_title.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Edit-clear.wikimedia. Original artist: Yosa Buson (与謝蕪村. Japanse.jpg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo. //upload.jpg Source: http://upload.svg License: CC BY-SA 4.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Masasumi_Rikonbyo.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Female_Ghost.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Benjamin Mako Hill • File:Kunisada_seals. *1831.png 1.gif License: PD-US Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Hokusai_Kohada_Koheiji.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: scanned from ISBN 4-3360-4636-0.png 1. 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Original artist: ? • File:Book_collection.thewalters.wikimedia.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.wikimedia. †1889) • File:Masasumi_Rikonbyo.JPG Source: http://upload. Original artist: Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾北斎) • File:Hokusai_Onryo. YŪREI-ZU • File:Amaterasu_cave_wide.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Walters Art Museum: <a href='http://thewalters.org/wikipedia/en/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan. <a href='//commons.wikimedia. Original artist: Kawanabe Kyōsai (河鍋暁斎.5x.svg/20px-Information_icon. Original artist: The people from the Tango! project.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Hokusai_Kohada_Koheiji.wikimedia.png' width='20' height='20' srcset='//upload.wikimedia.svg' src='//upload.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: scanned from 4-309-61382-9.svg. org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Nuvola_filesystems_folder_home.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Hokusai_Onryo.org/wikipedia/en/f/f1/Peony_lantern.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Book_collection. 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*1712. AND LICENSES 69 • File:Question_book-new.jpg Source: http://upload.31.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ISBN 4-0438-3001-7.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: scanned from ISBN 978-4-00-302572-7.0 .org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Shunkosai_Hokuei_Obake. Japanese.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Wikiquote-logo.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Yoshitoshi_Ogiku.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Tukioka_yositosi-yuurei.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: 瀬⽊慎⼀編『⽉岡芳年画集』講談社 Original artist: ⽉岡芳年 1839-1892 • File:Utamaro_Yama-uba_and_Kintaro_3. *1712.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Tosa_bakemonoehon_Funayurei. *1707. Original artist: Toriyama Sekien (⿃⼭⽯燕.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Suuhi_Yuki-onna.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Suushi_Yurei.svg Source: http://upload. 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Japanese.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fc/Toriyama_Ubume. Original artist: Toriyama Sekien • File:Shimobe_Fudesuke_and_the_Ghost_of_the_Woman_in_the_Waterfall_LACMA_M.wikimedia.wikimedia.svg from the Tango project.wikimedia.wikimedia.wikimedia. Original artist: Benjamin D. †1772) • File:Suushi_Yurei.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: • Image: http://collections. Original artist: Sawaki Suushi (佐脇嵩之.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: scanned from ISBN 4-336-03386-2.svg Source: http://upload. *1712.jpg Source: http://upload.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: scanned from ISBN 4-0440-5101-1.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist: Tkgd2007 • File:Ryoan_Mujina. based upon Text-x-generic.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/SekienHitodama.31.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.wikimedia.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: scanned from ISBN 4-3360-4187-3.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia. *1712.wikimedia.0 Contributors: Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. 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