Está en la página 1de 16

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

SASC-S-12
PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT
This Section prescribes the public health requirements and specifications necessary to the maintenance of a
sanitary, safe workplace (the control of toxic materials in the workplace is regulated by Industrial Hygiene). NOTE:
All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with the appropriate referenced documents listed at the end
of this Section.
DEFINITIONS:
Available Chlorine: A measure of the total oxidizing power of chlorinated hypochlorites.
Backsiphonage: The flowing back of used, contaminated or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into a
water supply pipe due to negative pressure in that pipe.
Blackwater (Sanitary Sewage): Wastewater from toilets, urinals, etc. as distinguished from graywater from
laundries, car washes, etc..
Chlorinated: Water to which chlorine or hypochlorites have been added to disinfect, control taste and odor and
prevent the growth of algae or other organisms.
Chlorine Residual: The amount of chlorine in all forms (total) of HOCl (free) remaining in treated water to insure
disinfection for a certain period of time.
Decontamination: The removal of pathogenic microorganisms from objects so that they are safe to handle.
Free Chlorine Residual: The application of chlorine or chlorine compounds to water or wastewater to produce a
free available chlorine residual through the destruction of ammonia compounds.
Gray Water: Wastewater from laundries, car washes, etc.as distinguished from sewage from toilets, showers,
urinals, etc..
Hypochlorite: In its sodium form, the active bleaching ingredient in liquid chlorine bleach.
Potable Drinking Water: Water at the consumer tap that is wholesome and which meets the chemical, physical
and microbiological standard as outlined in SASC-S-01.
PPM (Parts Per Million): A unit of concentration replaced by mg/L in solution.
Residual Chlorine: The free chlorine which remains in solution after the demand has been satisfied.
RO Product water from reverse osmosis (RO) desalinization.
TDS (total dissolved solids): Total solids dissolved in water.
Unsanitary: One or more factors in a mans physical environment that affect ones health or survival that are not
being properly controlled.
Utility Water: In Saudi Aramco terminology, utility water systems are used in process facilities as opposed to raw
water systems used in domestic facilities. Water normally contains less than 5,000 mg/L TDS.
Vacuum Breaker: A device for relieving a vacuum formed in pipeline, thereby preventing backsiphonage.

301

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

INSPECTIONS
1.1

Proponent organizations shall inspect workplaces they control as often as is necessary to ensure
compliance with this Code Section. All inspections shall be recorded and such records shall be
made available to Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department (EPD) upon request.

1.2

Saudi Aramco EPD will routinely inspect places where persons are directly or indirectly engaged
in work for Saudi Aramco. Inspections will be conducted according to requirements outlined in Saudi
Aramco General Instructions 2.718 and 0151.006, as well as the Saudi Arab Government Labor
Law. A written report will be provided to the proponent organization.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
2.1

The site, if practicable, shall not be located in an area subject to periodic flooding or adjacent to
marshes, railroads, stockyards, industrial sites, pipelines or other such areas which would constitute
a health or safety hazard.

2.2

The walking and driving surfaces of all areas outside the physical facility shall be surfaced with
concrete, asphalt or similar material effectively treated to facilitate maintenance and to minimize
dust. These surfaces shall be well drained and kept clean.

2.3

All areas shall be kept free of nuisances and safety hazards (see Section SASC-S-18 of this
Code). Whenever a nuisance or violation of this Code is observed by any agency, employee or
individual other than the Saudi Aramco proponent, it shall be reported to Saudi Aramco EPD. Saudi
Aramco EPD will ensure that the Saudi Aramco proponent is aware of the problem and shall provide
assistance as required.

2.4

Housekeeping:
2.4.1

All places of employment, both inside and outside, including all furnishings, equipment and
fixtures shall be in good repair, in a clean and sanitary condition and free of insects,
rodents and other vermin.

2.4.2

The floor of every workroom shall be maintained in a clean and, so far as possible, a dry
condition. Where wet processes are used, drainage shall be maintained and dry standing
places shall be provided where practicable.

2.4.3

All dressing rooms, toilet rooms, shower rooms, handwashing facilities, utility rooms and
facilities shall be kept clean and in good repair at all times. They shall be free from flies
and objectionable odors. All fixtures and floors, as well as walls subject to splash, shall be
cleaned with an approved detergent, rinsed and then sanitized with a 0.3 to 0.6 percent
hypochlorite solution (3,000 to 6,000 milligrams per liter), or other equivalent disinfectant
approved by Saudi Aramco EPD, at least once daily. Materials, maintenance and cleaning
equipment shall be properly stored.

2.4.4

Cleaning and sweeping shall be conducted in such a manner as to minimize the


contamination of the air with dust and shall be done outside of working hours, if
practicable.

2.5

Expectorating upon the walls, floors, stairs or any other area within the workplace is prohibited.

2.6

Food shall not be cooked in any room unless such room was specifically designed for this
purpose and the use of such room for cooking is approved by Saudi Aramco EPD.

2.7

Noise levels shall conform to standards in SAES-A-105, Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards.

302

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

2.8

All entrances, exits, corridors and stairways shall be properly illuminated. Fire exits shall be
provided with lighted exit signs equipped with emergency power sources. Entrances, exits, corridors,
stairways, fire exits and fire escapes shall be kept free of obstructions.

2.9

Live animals, including those intended for slaughter, shall be excluded from the premises. Animals
shall not be slaughtered in a place other than a Saudi Arab Government approved slaughterhouse.

2.10

Every effort shall be made to prevent problems rather than solve them after they have
developed. For example, insects, rodents and vermin shall be controlled by elimination of breeding
and harborage sources, proper sanitary practices, vermin proofing of structures, proper storage of
materials and by other approved control methods. Desperate campaigns to rid buildings, structures
and premises of established infestations are undesirable and must be avoided.

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


3.1

3.2

Floors:
3.1.1

Floors shall be constructed of durable, smooth and easily cleanable materials. Carpeting, if
used, shall be designed for heavy use, shall be of closely woven construction, shall be
properly installed and shall be maintained in good repair and in a clean condition at all
times.

3.1.2

The floors of kitchens, lunch rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and
handwashing facilities shall have smooth, hard, easily cleanable surfaces which are
impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants (carpeting is prohibited in these areas).
These floors shall be sloped to properly trapped floor drains and the junctions between the
floors and the walls shall be coved and sealed.

3.1.3

Utility service lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on floors. If exposed,
they shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct cleaning.

3.1.4

Floor mats and duckboards are prohibited in wet areas, e.g. kitchens, shower rooms, toilet
rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities.

Walls and ceilings:


3.2.1

Walls and ceilings shall be constructed of durable materials and shall have light colored,
smooth, easily cleanable surfaces. In addition, the walls in toilet and shower rooms shall
be impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants to a minimum height of 1.2 meters (4
feet) in toilet rooms and 1.8 meters (6 feet) in shower rooms. The junctions between the
floors and walls in kitchens, lunch rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and
handwashing facilities shall be coved and sealed (see sub-section 3.1.2 of this Code
Section).

3.2.2

The use of rough or unsealed and unfinished building materials, such as brick, concrete
blocks and wooden beams is prohibited in kitchens, lunch rooms, shower rooms, toilet
rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities.

3.2.3

Studs, joists and rafters shall not be exposed in kitchens, lunch rooms, shower rooms,
toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities.

3.2.4

Covering materials, such as Formica, sheet metal, linoleum and vinyl, shall be attached
and sealed to wall and ceiling surfaces in a way that leaves no open spaces or cracks.

3.2.5

Utility service lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on walls and ceilings. If
exposed, they shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning.
303

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

3.3

3.2.6

Wall or ceiling mounted light fixtures, vent covers, decorative materials, fans, equipment
and appurtenances shall be designed to facilitate cleaning, shall be made of easily
cleanable materials, shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning
and shall be maintained in good repair.

3.2.7

Acoustical paneling may be utilized providing it is installed not less than 1.8 meters above
the floor. Any perforations shall not penetrate the entire depth of the panel, shall not be
greater than 3 millimeters in any dimension, and shall not comprise more than 25 percent
of the exposed panel surface. The paneling shall otherwise meet the requirements of this
Section.

3.2.8

The ceilings in all habitable rooms shall be at least 2.3 meters (7.5 feet) high as measured
to the lowest projection from the ceiling.

3.2.9

The ceilings in hallways, corridors, shower rooms, toilet rooms and utility rooms shall be at
least 2.1 meters (7 feet) high as measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.

3.2.10

the walls or partitions between toilet/shower compartments may be less than the height of
the room walls, but the tops shall not be less than 1.8 meters (6 feet) from the floor. If
partitions are used, the bottoms of the partitions shall be raised at least 20 centimeters (8
inches) above the floor. In situations where a raised partition is not desirable, such as
partitions separating eastern style toilet fixtures where a raised partition may not afford
suitable privacy, partitions shall be placed on a continuous raised masonry or concrete
base at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) high, or a properly designed and constructed wall
that joins the floor shall be provided.

Doors, Windows and Screening:


3.3.1

All exterior entrances to corridors, habitable rooms, kitchens, lunch rooms, shower rooms,
toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be provided with solid doors or
glazed windows which shall be kept tightly closed when not in use (excludes passageways
between rooms within an enclosed building). If outside openings are appropriately
protected from the entry by insects and rodents according to the requirements outlined in
sub-sections 3.3.2 and 3.3.4 of this Code Section, solid doors and glazed windows may be
considered to be "in use" if they are left open to ventilate the structure.

3.3.2

All exterior entrances to kitchens, lunch rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms
and handwashing facilities shall be fitted with self-closing screen doors which open
outwards (a screen door is not required if the solid door is self-closing and opens outward,
the area is fully air conditioned alleviating the need for propping the solid door open and
the operational nature of the facility is such that employees are required to keep doors
closed, e.g. facilities within industrial plants. The bottoms of screen doors shall be covered
with metal sheeting in accordance with sub-section 3.3.3 of this Code Section. Other
effective fly control devices, e.g. air curtains, may be used in lieu of screen doors.

3.3.3

All outer doors and screen doors shall be tight-fitting and self-closing. All doors and screen
doors, including sliding or folding types, shall be constructed so that the space between
the lower edge of the door and the threshold does not exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25
inches). The space between sections of folding and sliding doors, when closed, shall not
exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25 inches). All exposed edges of the lower 20.3 centimeters (8
inches) of doors and jambs that are made of materials through which rodents could gnaw,
especially outer doors and doors known to be accessible to rodents, shall be protected by
covering such edges of doors and jambs with metal sheeting that cannot be gnawed
through.

3.3.4

All openable windows which are not solidly closed and are accessible to insects and
rodents shall be appropriately screened by grills, hardware cloth or other material capable
304

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

of precluding the entry by insects and rodents. The effective mesh size of screening
material shall not be less than 6 mesh per centimeter (16 mesh per inch).
3.3.5

Doors, windows and appurtenances thereto, shall be designed and constructed to avoid
accumulation of dirt and shall be finished such that they are smooth, nonabsorbent and
easily cleanable. Doors, windows, as well as appurtenances thereto, shall be kept clean
and maintained in good repair.

VENTILATION
4.1

Ventilation shall be provided to remove gases, odors, steam, excessive heat, grease, vapors,
smoke and other contaminants from the workplace. Ventilation systems shall be installed and
operated according to standards equivalent to those outlined in Saudi Aramco Engineering
Standards (e.g. SAES-K-30).

4.2

Intake air ducts shall be designed and maintained to prevent the entrance of dust, dirt, and other
contaminating materials. All ventilation openings shall be appropriately screened by grilles,
hardware cloth or other material capable of precluding entrance of insects and rodents. Note that
automatic fan ventilation openings are acceptable for rodent stoppage if the fan covering is
maintained in good repair.

4.3

The temperature in all habitable and other rooms in which personnel work shall be maintained at
a level conducive to the healthful performance of the activity conducted in the area.

4.4

All habitable rooms and corridors shall be sufficiently ventilated by means of natural or
mechanical ventilation. The requirement is deemed satisfied in corridors, offices and similar areas
when it can be demonstrated that the ventilation system exchanges at least two volumes of air per
hour (if mechanical ventilation is used, at least one fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the
outside). The rate at which the air volume is exchanged in shops, high activity work areas and areas
subject to gases, odors, steam, excessive heat, grease, vapors, smoke and other contaminates will
be a function of the activity and degree of health risk.

4.5

All kitchens, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be
provided with mechanical ventilation systems capable of providing the equivalent of five air changes
per hour. At least 20 percent of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. If this is not feasible,
mechanical exhaust fans may be used in lieu of the required mechanical ventilation system. Exhaust
fans shall be capable of exhausting 1 cubic meter (35 cubic feet) of air per minute for each hand
washbasin/sink, shower, toilet and urinal installed.

4.6

All kitchens shall be provided with a mechanical ventilation system fitted inside a hood placed
over the stove, the design and specifications of which shall be compatible with the stove used.
Screening over exhaust openings shall be easily removable for cleaning.

ILLUMINATION
The following levels of light, whether from natural or artificial sources, shall be provided in workplaces. Light
shall be evenly distributed and of sufficient intensity to avoid discoloration, shadows and strong glare. Also
refer to Illumination requirements outlined in SAES-P-123, Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards.

305

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

TABLE 1
Illumination
Illumination Levels Required*
Area to be Illuminated
Lux
Footcandles
Dining room
320
30
Desk in dormitory living room
320
30
Dormitory living room - general
160
15
Eye level above hand washbasin
540
50
Food service area
540
50
Hallway
110
10
Kitchen
540
50
Shower/toilet block
215
20
Sleeping room
160
15
Stairway
110
10
All other indoor areas
110
10
* Measured at a distance of 76 centimeters (30 inches) above the floor
6

POTABLE WATER SYSTEM


6.1

Water shall be obtained, conveyed, treated, stored and distributed in a closed system. Design,
construction, maintenance and operational standards, as well as quality criteria, shall comply with
requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code and standards referenced in Saudi
Aramco Engineering Standards.

6.2

Enough potable water for the needs of the employees shall be obtained from the community
water supply. If a community water supply is not available, then water shall be obtained from an
adequate, easily accessible source which has been properly located and protected to ensure that
water obtained is of a safe and sanitary quality. The source shall be constructed in a way that
prevents underground or surface contamination from reaching the source. Facilities shall be
operated and maintained by competent individuals. No part of the system shall be used for any other
purpose.

6.3

Water wells (or other water source) and collection, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution
systems, or parts thereof, which are newly constructed, have been repaired or have otherwise
become contaminated, shall be thoroughly disinfected according to requirements outlined in Section
SASC-S-01 of this Code before being used. The supply shall be purged of all but normal residual
amounts of disinfectant (less than 3 milligrams per liter [3 parts per million] if chlorine is used to
disinfect the system) before a sample for bacteriological testing is collected.

6.4

All water not provided directly by pipe to the work place from the source shall be transported in
a bulk water transport system which is used for no other purpose. At the time water is obtained from
the approved source, enough chlorine shall be added to the water in the bulk water transport system
to create a 0.5 to 1.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 to 1.5 parts per million) free chlorine residual. Hauled
water shall be delivered directly to the closed water system at the work place. The bulk water
transport system shall comply with requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code.

6.5

Water storage tanks shall be enclosed from the filling inlet to the discharge outlet. Tanks shall be
designed with openings which permit visual inspection of the tank and provide access for cleaning
and disinfection. All openings shall be covered. Covers shall overlap openings, be sloped so they are
self-draining and shall be provided with gaskets and devices for securing them in place. All openings
in the top of the tank shall be flanged upward to form a curb that prevents surface water from
entering openings. Vents and overflows shall terminate in a downward direction and shall be
screened to prevent entry by birds and other animals. All water storage tanks shall be provided with
a sample tap.
306

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

6.6

Plumbing with emphasis on cross connection control:


6.6.1

Plumbing shall be designed, sized and installed according to standards outlined in Saudi
Aramco Engineering Standards. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall be operated and
maintained in a way which prevents contamination. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall
be kept clean and in good repair.

6.6.2

The potable water system shall be designed and constructed to prevent the possibility of
backflow. Devices to protect against backflow and backsiphonage shall be installed on all
water outlets and equipment where an air gap of at least twice the inner diameter of the
water outlet is not provided between the water outlet and the flood-level rim of the
receiving drain or receiving basin of the drain fixture, and wherever else backflow or
backsiphonage may occur. A hose shall not be attached to a faucet unless a backflow
prevention device is installed.

6.6.3

There shall be no cross connection between the potable water supply and any unsafe or
questionable water supply, sewerage system or any source of pollution which might
contaminate or otherwise degrade the potable water supply.

6.6.4

There shall be no direct physical connection between the sewerage system and any drain
originating from equipment which contains food or food equipment and utensils.

6.6.5

A non-potable water system is permitted only for purposes such as air conditioning and fire
protection. It shall not be directly or indirectly connected with the potable water system.
Water from the system shall not be used for any domestic purpose. The piping of the nonpotable water system shall be durably identified so that it is readily distinguishable from
piping that carries potable water.

6.7

All potable water supplied to places of employment shall be disinfected by chlorination or


other means or methods of equal efficiency in the killing or removal of organisms capable of causing
infection. When chlorination is employed, a sufficient amount of chlorine shall be added to the water
to maintain a chlorine residual of at least 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 parts per million) at all points in
the distribution system from which water may be withdrawn.

6.8

Hot and cold potable water shall be provided at all hand washbasins, showers and kitchen sinks.
The hot water heating system shall be capable of producing a constant flow of hot water at a
temperature of at least 49C (120F). Specific requirements pertinent to the hot and/or tempered
water discharged from each class of fixture are outlined in appropriate Standards.

6.9

If hoses are used for conveying potable water, they shall be constructed of safe materials, shall
have a smooth interior surface, shall be used for no other purpose and shall be clearly identified as
to its use. Caps and keeper chains shall be provided for water system inlet and outlet fittings, as well
as hose fittings. All such fittings shall be capped when not in immediate use. Hoses shall be stored
and used so as to be kept free of contamination. A hose shall not be attached to a faucet unless a
backflow prevention device is installed.

6.10

Drinking water fountains and associated requirements


6.10.1

Drinking fountains, if provided, shall be approved angle-jet type and shall be provided with
an adequate supply of water under pressure.

6.10.2

Spillage, overflow, drainage or wastewater from drinking fountains and faucets shall be
discharged to the sewerage system through approved drains to prevent impoundment of
water, creation of mud holes or other nuisance conditions.
307

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

6.10.3
6.10.4

Open containers from which water must be dipped or poured, such as barrels, pails or
tanks, whether or not they are fitted with a cover, are prohibited.
Where single service paper cups are provided, cups shall be dispensed from a sanitary
device designed for this purpose and a waste receptacle shall be provided for disposal of
used cups. The common drinking cup is prohibited.

6.11

Compressed air used to pressurize the potable water system shall be filtered or otherwise treated
to render it free of dust, insects and extraneous material. Air intakes shall be properly located and
maintained. Filters shall be located upstream from the compressor and shall be easily removable for
cleaning and replacement. The blower or compressor supplying air shall be designed so that it will
deliver oil- free air. Oil-free air shall be produced by a method equivalent to one of the following: a)
use of carbon ring piston compressor; b) use of an oil-lubricated compressor with effective provision
for removal of oil vapor; or c) high-pressure, water-lubricated or non-lubricated blowers.

6.12

If a water treatment plant is provided:


6.12.1

It is suggested that the following piping system be adopted. Non-toxic paints shall be used
(the use of paints containing lead shall be avoided.

TABLE 2
Piping System Color-Code
Piping System
Base Color
Identifying Color Stripe
Chilled Water
Blue
1-Gray
Chlorine, Gas and Liquid
Yellow
1-Oxide Red
Condensate Water
Blue
1-White
Distilled and Demineralized Water
Blue
1-Aluminum
Raw Water
Blue
1-Black
Sea, Salt or Brine Water
Blue
1-Yellow
Treated (any process)
Blue
1-Oxide Red
Note:
HVAC lines and electrical conduits are not color-coded but are
Painted the same color as the background construction.

6.12.2

Equipment, devices, filters, and all other water treatment or conditioning apparatus shall be
made of safe materials, shall be designed to be disassembled for periodic replacement of
active elements/media, cleaning and service, shall be operated, inspected and serviced
according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications, and shall not be operated
beyond their rated capacity. All such equipment shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary
condition and, if necessary, shall be sanitized by application of a chlorine solution or by
other approved means.

6.12.3

Records of equipment operation and maintenance, quantities of product water produced,


types and amounts of chemicals added to treated water, pH and chlorine residual
maintained shall be kept in a log book. The log book shall be available for review by
authorized Saudi Aramco representatives at all times.

6.12.4

The biological and chemical quality of the water after treatment shall be as good as, or
better than, it was before treatment.

SEWAGE
7.1

Sewage shall be collected, treated and disposed of in accordance with requirements outlined in
Section SASC-S-02 this Code and those outlined in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Where a
308

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

public sewer system is available, all plumbing fixtures, building sewers and vents shall be connected
to it. In no case shall sewage or liquid waste of any type be discharged or otherwise disposed of on
the surface of the ground, or into any well, cave, open ditch or reservoir until it has been properly
treated and the disposal method has been approved by Saudi Aramco EPD. Pit latrines, outhouses
and other non-water-carried sewage disposal methods are prohibited except as permitted in subsection 8.10 of this Code Section.

7.2

Floor drains and sewer pipes shall be large enough to carry off all wastewater and sanitary
sewage. Sufficient clean-out places shall be provided in sewer drain pipes.

7.3

Grease traps, if used, shall be located so they are easily accessible for cleaning.

7.4

All sewer pipes or drains through which rodents may pass shall be closed with a properly
secured, perforated metal or iron cover. Perforations shall not admit a cylinder 13 millimeters in
diameter.

7.5

Defective sewer pipes, traps, drains and vents shall be repaired or replaced promptly and
professionally. Crude repairs with wood, tape or metal strips are unsatisfactory.

TOILET ROOMS, SHOWER ROOMS, HANDWASHING FACILITIES AND UTILITY ROOMS -- GENERAL
8.1

Every place of employment shall be provided with properly designed and constructed toilet,
shower and hand washbasin facilities which are separate for each sex.

8.2

Toilet and handwashing facilities shall be readily accessible and open to personnel at all times.
Facilities are not considered to be readily accessible if an employee is required to climb more than
one floor-to- floor flight of stairs or if they are located more than 61 meters (200 feet) from the
location where the employee normally works.

8.3

Toilets, showers and hand washbasins shall be separately installed to be individually accessible
and to permit simultaneous use.

8.4

Shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be separated from
food preparation and sleeping rooms by a minimum of a double set of doors incorporating an
intervening vestibule which is exhausted to the outside through its own mechanical exhaust system
that is independent of the food preparation and sleeping rooms. Complete separation of these areas
is preferred.

8.5

Hand washbasins and other sinks, faucets and hydrants not specifically designed and approved for
such use, shall not be used for cleaning or preparing food or for washing dishes, utensils or clothing.

8.6

All facilities shall be well ventilated (see sub-section 4 of this Code Section).

8.7

Legible signs made of durable materials directing all users to wash their hands after using the
toilet/urinal shall be conspicuously posted in every toilet room (in Arabic, English and other
appropriate languages).

8.8

The following number of showers, toilets/urinals and hand washbasins shall be provided:

309

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

Number of
employees
1 to 15
16 to 30
31 - 45
46 - 60
61 - 75
76 - 90
91 - 105

>105
*
**

***

8.9

TABLE 3
Numbers and Types of Fixtures Required
Washbasins***
Showers*
Number
Toilets**
Number of
of
male
female employee
male
female employee
male
female
s
s
1
1
1 - 15
1
1
1 - 10
1
1
2
2
16 - 35
2
2
11 - 20
2
2
3
3
36 - 55
3
3
21 - 30
3
3
4
4
56 - 75
4
4
31 - 40
4
4
5
5
76 - 100
5
5
41 - 50
5
5
6
6
51 - 60
6
6
7
7
61 - 70
7
7
71 - 80
8
8
81 - 90
9
9
91 - 100
10
10
one per 15 additional
>100
one per 30 additional
>100
on per 10 additional
persons
persons
persons

One shower shall be provided for every 15 workers, or portion thereof, exposed to excessive heat
or to skin contamination with poisonous, infectious or irritating materials.
Where 10 or more men are employed, urinals should be provided. Urinals may be substituted for
toilets on a one to one basis, except that the number of toilets shall not be reduced to less than
two-thirds of the number specified in Table 3. This clause does not apply to facilities provided for
females.
At least one hand washbasin shall be provided for every 10 employees or portion thereof, up to
100 persons, and one hand washbasin for each additional 15 persons or portion thereof. Where
employees are exposed to skin contamination with poisonous, infectious or irritating materials,
the number of hand washbasins provided shall be increased to one for every 5 employees.
The minimum size of, and floor space allotted for, toilets, hand washbasins, urinals and showers
shall be as follows:

TABLE 4
Minimum Space Required for Each Type of Installation
Installation
Minimum
Minimum
Width
Depth
Hand washbasin
60 cm
105 cm
Shower cubical
75 cm
75 cm
Shower stall
75 cm
75 cm
Toilet compartment
80 cm
105 cm
Urinal
60 cm
105 cm
8.10
9

Minimum Space Per


Unit
1.1 m2
1.3 m2
1.3 m2
1.5 m2
1.1 m2

When chemical closets are required to support a transitory place of employment, they shall be of a
type approved by the Saudi Aramco EPD and shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.

TOILET ROOMS
9.1

Toilet rooms shall be completely enclosed. Each toilet fixture shall be individually enclosed within its
own compartment within the toilet room (does not apply to urinals). This is required to ensure that an
individual's need for privacy does not interfere with his commitment to personal hygiene.
310

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

9.2

The entrance to a toilet room shall be provided with a door(s) according to requirements outlined
in sub-section 3.3 of this Code Section.

9.3

Urinals shall be provided according to requirements outlined in Table 3 of this Code Section. Note
that 60 centimeters (24 inches) of trough urinal space is considered to be equivalent to one urinal.
Toilet bowls shall be set entirely free and open from all enclosing structures and shall be so
installed that the space around the fixture can be easily cleaned. This does not prohibit the use of
wall-hung toilets.

9.4

10

11

9.5

Every western-type toilet shall have a hinged, open-front seat made of substantial material having
a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. A holder supplied with toilet tissue shall be provided
in each toilet compartment.

9.6

Every eastern-type toilet shall be made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent,
easily cleanable finish. Each toilet shall be provided with a water tap for washing (and a supply of
toilet paper with holder, where indicated). Water taps provided for eastern-type toilets shall be fitted
with appropriate backflow prevention devices designed to protect the water distribution system from
contamination (see sub-section 6.6.2 of this Code Section).

9.7

Covered waste receptacles shall be provided in all toilet compartments used by women.

HANDWASHING
10.1

Adequate handwashing facilities shall be conveniently located adjacent to toilet facilities. When
trough sinks and circular wash basins are provided with individual faucets, 60 centimeters (24
inches) of lineal trough sink or 45 centimeters (18 inches) of a circular basin shall be considered as
equal to one hand washbasin. Also note that utility sinks are not acceptable substitutes for hand
washbasins.

10.2

Tempered running water shall be provided to each hand washbasin. Water shall be tempered by
means of a mixing valve or combination faucet. Water shall be delivered at a minimum pressure of at
least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at
least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute). The temperature of the water discharged from the
tap shall be at least 32C (90F). Any slow-closing faucet used shall provide a flow of water for at
least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

10.3

Handwashing cleanser and single-use paper towels shall be provided in dispensers at or next
to hand washbasins at all times (common towels are prohibited). Mechanical hot air blowers for
drying the hands may be substituted for paper towels.

10.4

A refuse container lined with a disposable plastic bag shall be provided next to hand washbasins.
The refuse container need not be covered.

SHOWER ROOMS
11.1

Showers shall be provided if employees are exposed to skin contamination with poisonous,
infectious or irritating materials.

11.2

Shower rooms shall be completely enclosed. Each shower fixture shall be individually enclosed in a
separate compartment within the shower room. The compartment should be composed of a cubical
with a bench and a clothes hook and a separated shower stall. The visual privacy of the bather
should be maintained. Privacy curtains, if used, shall be of an easily cleanable material and kept
clean.

11.3

Showers shall be designed and constructed to be self-draining and to preclude the flow of water
into adjacent areas.
311

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

11.4

Shower floors shall be skid-resistant. Floor racks (duckboards) are prohibited.

11.5 If individual shower compartments are not provided, the shower room shall include a dressing
area. The dressing area shall be equipped with benches and clothes hooks.
11.6

12

13

14

Showers shall be supplied with water through thermostatic, tempering or mixing valves at a
temperature of at least 32C (90F), but not more than 49C (120F), at a rate of at least 11.4 liters
(3 gallons) per minute. Any slow-closing faucet used shall provide a flow of water for at least 30
seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

CHANGING AREAS AND LOCKERS


12.1

Changing areas shall be provided wherever the work performed involves exposure to excessive
dirt, heat, fumes, vapor or moisture, or when employees are exposed to poisonous, infectious or
irritating materials.

12.2

Where employees' work clothes are exposed to contamination with poisonous, infectious or
irritating materials, facilities shall be provided in changing rooms so that street and work clothes will
not be stored in contact with each other.

12.3

Where the process in which the worker is engaged is such that his work clothing becomes wet or
has to be washed between shifts, provision shall be made to ensure that such clothing is dry before
reuse.

12.4

Lockers, if provided for the storage of employee's street clothing and personal belongings, shall be
constructed of easily cleanable, corrosion resistant materials and shall not have sharp edges.
Lockers shall be vented. Lockers shall be set either on solid masonry bases 13 centimeters (5
inches) high or on legs so that locker bottoms are at least 25 centimeters (10 inches above the floor).

12.5

Hooks or a rail fitted with captive hangers shall be provided for hanging wet reusable protective
clothing between uses. The hooks/hangers shall be sufficiently spaced to allow free air circulation
around all items when all hooks/hangers are used.

12.6

Shoe/boot racks shall be provided for proper air drying of wet shoes and boots between uses. The
racks shall be sufficiently spaced to allow free air circulation around all items when all hooks/racks
are used.

RETIRING ROOMS FOR WOMEN


13.1

Where 10 or more women are employed at any one time, at least one retiring room shall be
provided, with the understanding that it is to be used only for rest and emergencies and not for
smoking or recreational purposes. Where less than 10 women are employed and a formal retiring
room is not furnished, some equivalent space shall be provided which can be properly screened for
privacy and made suitable for use by female employees.

13.2

Retiring rooms shall be conveniently located, exclusively used by women, and open to them
during all working hours.

13.3

Retiring rooms shall be furnished with one bed or couch for the first 10 to 50 female employees.
One additional bed or couch shall be provided for every 100 female employees, or portion thereof, in
excess of the original 50 female employees.

GARBAGE AND REFUSE FACILITIES


14.1

Garbage and refuse storage facilities:


312

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

14.2

14.1.1

Prior to removal from the premises, garbage and other refuse shall be stored in a way that
makes it inaccessible to insects, rodents and other vermin. Outside storage of garbage or
refuse in open piles or in any container other than an approved garbage or refuse
container is prohibited, e.g. storage in paper bags or cardboard boxes. Inside storage of
waste in open piles on the floor of the garbage/refuse storage room is prohibited. Heavy
duty plastic bags may be stacked on the floor of a properly designed and constructed
refuse storage room if the waste contained therein is satisfactorily sealed in the bag, i.e.
the bag does not represent an "open pile".

14.1.2

The garbage/refuse storage room, if provided, shall be large enough to store all
garbage/refuse containers which accumulate between disposal periods. Walls, ceilings
and all attachments thereto, shall be made of substantial material having a smooth,
nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. The floor shall be constructed of a smooth, easily
cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, and shall be properly sloped
to a trapped, covered drain that is connected to the sewerage system. The structure shall
be insect- and rodent-proof, including the provision of a solid door designed to preclude the
entry by rodents. Additionally, a screen door that opens outward, an air curtain device or
other effective means of excluding flies shall be provided. The storage room shall be kept
clean and maintained in good repair.

14.1.3

Facilities shall be provided for cleaning garbage/refuse containers, lugger boxes and
compactor systems after they are emptied (this facility need not be provided on the
premises if the waste hauler provides this service at another location). As a minimum, the
facility shall be provided with hot running water delivered at a minimum pressure of at least
1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at
least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute). The floor shall be constructed of a smooth,
easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, and shall be properly
sloped to a trapped, covered drain that is connected to the sewerage system.

14.1.4

The floor of an outside garbage/refuse storage area shall be constructed of a smooth,


easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete or machine laid asphalt;
and shall be large enough to accommodate the garbage/refuse containers that accumulate
between disposal periods.

Garbage and refuse containers:


14.2.1

Approved garbage and refuse containers shall include standard 115 liters (30 gallons)
steel garbage cans, modified 210 liters (55 gallons) steel drums, purpose-built lugger
boxes and compactor systems.
All such containers shall be made of durable,
nonabsorbent, easily cleanable materials which are impervious to attack by insects,
rodents and other vermin. They shall be designed and constructed so that they do not
leak. Drain plugs, where required, shall be in place at all times except during cleaning.

14.2.2

Refuse equipment and containers shall be provided with tight- fitting lids, doors or covers.
14.2.2.1 The lids, doors or covers of outside refuse equipment and containers shall be
kept in the closed position when not in immediate use.
14.2.2.2 Refuse containers that are being actively used in the facility need not be
covered. Refuse containers shall be covered when not being actively used. Filled
refuse containers shall be covered and removed from the facility to the refuse
storage facility.

14.2.3

The cover and the outside surface of the 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and
smaller containers shall be labeled with the word "GARBAGE" or "REFUSE." Once used
as a garbage or refuse container, the lid and container shall not be used for any other
purpose, especially food preparation or storage.
313

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

14.3

15

14.2.4

The 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and smaller containers shall be lined with
heavy duty plastic bags to minimize cleaning requirements and facilitate removal of refuse.

14.2.5

Refuse containers shall be provided where refuse is generated. There shall be a sufficient
number of approved containers to hold all the garbage and refuse produced and to
accommodate the total amount accumulated in the refuse holding facility between disposal
periods.

14.2.6

Periodically, each container shall be thoroughly washed with hot water and detergent on
the inside and outside in a way that does not contaminate water, food or the environment.

14.2.7

Refuse equipment and containers shall not, by their location or installation, create a
nuisance or prevent cleaning of adjacent space.

Garbage and refuse disposal:


14.3.1

Refuse shall be disposed of often enough to prevent the development of odors and the
attraction of insects and rodents, but not less than twice per week.

14.3.2

Waste shall be removed to the disposal facility in a purpose- built refuse transport vehicle.

14.3.3

All refuse shall be disposed of in a municipal sanitary landfill. Open dumps and burn-pits
are prohibited.

INSECT AND RODENT CONTROL


15.1

The proponent is responsible for controlling insects, rodents and other vermin, including control of
breeding sites, e.g. artificial bodies of water.

15.2

The presence of fly larvae, rodents or other vermin, or the traces, droppings, trails, runs or other
evidence of the presence of such vermin, shall be evidence of filth and unsanitary conditions. Saudi
Aramco EPD will report such evidence to the proponent and the proponent shall take immediate
action to control the infestation. They shall report the results of their control activities to Saudi
Aramco EPD within 72 hours of receipt of the notification.

15.3

Buildings shall be designed, constructed, equipped, maintained and operated to prevent the
entry and harborage of insects, rodents, animals, birds and other vermin, as well as environmental
contaminants, such as smoke and dust. Effective measures, such as excluding, inspecting and
exterminating, shall be used to minimize the entry, presence and propagation of vermin, both inside
and outside of the building.

15.4

All buildings, structures and associated facilities shall be insect- and rodent-proofed, freed of
vermin before occupancy and shall be maintained in an insect, rodent and vermin free condition.

15.5

There shall be no openings in exterior walls, foundations, basements, ground or first floors,
or roofs which will admit insects, rodents or other vermin. Openings for pipes, conduits and
other utility services in foundations or exterior walls, floors or roofs accessible to insects and rodents
shall be closed solidly by metal, concrete or other impervious material. If metal sheeting is used to
seal holes around pipes, conduits and ducts, it shall extend at least 7.6 centimeters (3 inches)
beyond all sides of the opening.

15.6

All ventilation and other non-window openings that cannot be solidly sealed and that remain
accessible to insects and rodents shall be appropriately screened by grilles, hardware cloth or other
material capable of precluding the entry by insects, rodents and other vermin. Note that the swingtype louvered flaps that automatically close when an exhaust or ventilation fan is switched off are
deemed to be acceptable screening if they are kept clean and in good repair.
314

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

16

15.7

All sewer or drain openings shall be closed with a properly secured, perforated metal cover.
Perforations shall not admit a cylinder 13 millimeters (0.5 inches) in diameter.

15.8

Employees shall not place, leave, or permit to accumulate any refuse or trash in the structure or on
the premises in a manner which will afford food and harborage for insects, rodents or vermin.

15.9

Employees shall not accumulate, or permit the accumulation of lumber or other such material on
the premises unless such material is stored on racks 30 centimeters (12 inches) above the ground.

15.10

The pest control program shall encompass all areas outside and inside the place of employment.
Areas along fences, around buildings, under stored materials, in and around refuse facilities, as well
as floors, walls and ceilings in buildings, shall be inspected frequently to detect the presence of
insects, rodents and other vermin. Preventive control measures are preferable to eradication
campaigns.
15.10.1

Insects, rodents and other vermin shall be controlled by elimination of breeding and
harborage sources, proper sanitary practices, vermin proofing of buildings and structures,
proper storage of materials, extermination, and by other approved control methods.

15.10.2

Pesticides shall be dispensed and handled by authorized, properly trained personnel.


Restricted-use pesticides shall be applied by a qualified pest control operator.

15.10.3

Pesticides shall not be applied in areas where food handling, warewashing or other such
operations are in progress or in a way that contaminates food equipment, utensils or other
food contact surfaces.

LUNCH ROOMS AND KITCHENS


16.1

In all places where employees are permitted to lunch on the premises, an adequate space
suitable for that purpose shall be provided (note that a separate lunch room is required if employees
are exposed to injurious dusts, toxic materials or other hazardous substances and they cannot be
required to lunch away from the premises). The space provided for the lunch room shall conform to
the requirements outlined in Table 5 and shall be based on the maximum number of persons using
the room at any one time.
TABLE 5
Minimum Space Required For Lunch Rooms
Number of persons
Minimum space per person
25 and less
0.8 m2
26 to 74
0.7 m2
75 to 149
0.6 m2
150 to 499
0.5 m2
500 and more
0.4 m2

16.2

If a kitchen is permitted, the design, construction and materials of structure and equipment, as well
as the general operating methods and procedures used to store, handle and protect food, equipment
and utensils, shall comply with requirements equivalent to those specified in Section SASC-S-04 of
this Code.

16.3

An adequate number of waste receptacles shall be provided and shall be used by employees for
the disposal of all waste food and materials (refer to sub-section 14.2 of this Code Section).

16.4

Employees shall not be permitted to store, prepare or eat food in any location where there are
present any toxic materials or hazardous substances that may be injurious to their health.
315

Places of Employment, SASC-S-12

REFERENCES:
1. Freedman, B., Sanitarians Handbook
2. Salvato, J., Environmental Engineering and Sanitation

316