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Edited by Graeme Petterwood. 2008.

Please accept my invitation to make a contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of
interest and fulfills our stated editorial guidelines. I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.
However, not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication if common courtesy and acceptable moral standards are not upheld or
the subject matter is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, nor if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier
editions.
This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, in an entertaining way for the average hobbiest collector. G.E.P.

THE INVASION NOTES OF NIPPON 1938 - 1945


Observations of a collection that is still - 'In Progress'.
by Graeme Petterwood.
2008

The plethora of paper money that had travelled with the Japanese invaders during WWII, does not appear, at first glance, to be worth study time.
However, these currencies do tell quite a tale for those with the patience to listen.
All sorts of paper money was brought back from WWII, by the fistful, by the victorious Allied troops who liberated places like the Philippines, Burma
(now Myanmar) Sumatra (Indonesia) and the rest of the former Netherland Indies and the Pacific region.
There are many uncirculated notes still tucked away in family scrapbooks or old sideboard drawers - courtesy of those who served - most of it is only
worth a few cents per note, but, the price that some people paid to obtain it - or refuse it - came at a cost that included life itself.

Often refered to as Japanese Invasion Money, or J.I.M., by numismatists - the paper currency, headed 'The Japanese Government' - in English or a
major local language - flooded into areas that the armies of Japan conquered , invaded or threatened during its desperate and violent militaristic
thrust into Asia during the late 1930's - early 1940's. The reasons for Japanese invasion was basically for economic reasons - to seize resources
that were being denied to it because of the European conflict of that time. A proud nation, Japan, had been 'backed into a corner', economically -
and, in keeping with their Bushido tradition, the military leaders (who were the power-behind-the- throne of the Emperor Hirohito), came to the
conclusion that offence was a better weapon than 'losing face' or 'turning the other cheek' to former allies and powers who were treating Japan as
a second-rate neutral Oriental back-water.
The overtures and alliances that had been forged with Germany meant that Japan was viewed with a jaundiced eye by the Allies - particularly when
their armies invaded areas of China and proved themselves to be a bestial enemy with no mercy.
History took its course, and 'infamy' occured at Pearl Harbor - and Japan was at war with the rest of the world for 4 years and, like Germany, it was
eventually beaten down, destroyed, humiliated and occupied for years.

Occupied areas of China and Korea also had been forced into economic partnership with Japan and were using money produced by 'puppet' banks
since the late 1930's. All of these various occupied areas suffered loss of traditional or national currencies as the Japanese replaced the local
money with paper money that they could control - on pain of death in some instances. Some notes were adaptations of national Japanese currency
- often overprinted on resurrected residues.
We have told, previously, of the 'emergency monies' produced in the Philippines that was used in local areas until the Japanese arrived and took
over with their own J.I.M. - which eventually proved worthless - as it was backed by the lead of a bullet or steel of a bayonet or sword.
Accepting a few pieces of worthless paper for your possessions was better that having them taken - along with your life!
At the cessation of hostilities, much of the emergency money still in circulation was not honoured by the post-war interim military dominated
governments, and the J.I.M. or other Military issues - that the population had been forced to use - was just so much printed paper.

In 1967, an effort was made to redeem as much of the J.I.M. as could be gathered from the Philippines population by a Filipino organisation known
as JAPWANCAP (Japanese War Notes Claimants Association of the Philippines, Inc.).
Funds were sought from the United States, but it was not a successful claim due to the amount of J.I.M. that was being found, unissued, in storage
and which was being added to the pile. The notes - mainly featuring the Plantation and Rizal Monument series - were collected and were stamped
with an oval blue ink-stamp. This 'receipt' stamp apparently does not detract from, or add to, the value of the note as an interesting collectible which often appears in dealers' stocks.

Please note :- The illustrations shown below are not to scale and, occasionally, the scans I have readily available not quite in the correct order.
Unfortunately at this time, I do not have every denomination of every note series issued (still required - shown in Red) - some are now quite scarce
and valuable - but those shown will give readers an idea of the scope available as a collecting theme.. Catalogue numbers are from the Albert Pick
listings.
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Several varieties of the 'legs' of the initial 'M' in the block font are listed.
Often the plates - both front and back - were adapted to various regions and sections of each were also interchangeable. Most notes were produced
on quite good watermarked paper. It is often the most simple things that we spot within the designs that make any observations so interesting.
It should be noted that some counterfeit J.I.M. was printed in Australia during the war years for use by our friends in the occupied areas - and, it is
also interesting that, in recent years, some J.I.M. in various - 'not authentic' - colours have been printed in Asia for the 'tourist' trade.
There is still more than a passing interest in this currency - so don't treat it with utter disdain even it it is cheap.

(Illust. 1) - 'M' - The Japanese Government (Malaya) 1942:- 1 Cent, 5 Cents, 10 Cents, 50 Cents, 1 Dollar, 5 Dollars.
(Pick # M1b, M2a, M3, M4b, M5c, M6c)
(Malaya) - 1942 - 1944:- 10 Dollars, 100 Dollars. (Pick # M7b, M8b)
(Malaya) -1945:- 1000 Dollars. (Pick # M10)
Some of these notes incorporate either straight or 'fractional' block numbers.

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(Illust. 2) - 'S' - De Japansche Regeering (Sumatra -Indonesia) 1942:- 1 Cent, 5 Cents, 10 Cents, 1/2 Gulden, 1 Gulden,
5 Gulden, 10 Gulden.
(Pick # 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125)

(Illust. 3) - 'S' - Dai Nippon Teikoku Seihu (Sumatra -Indonesia) 1944:- 1 Roepiah,
5 Roepiah, 10 Roepiah, 1000 Roepiah .
(Pick # 129,
130, 131, 132)

(Illust. 4) - 'OC' - (Oceania - Br. Commonweath Pacific region) 1942:- 1/2 Shilling, One Shilling, Ten Shillings, One Pound.
(Pick # 1, 2, 3, 4)

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(Illust. 5) - 'B' - The Japanese Government (Burma) 1942:- 1 Cent, 5 Cents, 10 Cents, 1/4 Rupee, 1/2 Rupee, 1 Rupee.
(Burma) 1942 - 1944:- 5 Rupees, 10 Rupees, 100 Rupees. (Pick # 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17)
As with the Malayan issues, some of the Burmese note block numbers incorporate either straight or 'fractional' numbers

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(Illust. 6) - Japanese Military Issues (China) 1938:- 50 Sen, 5 Yen, 10 Yen, 100 Yen. Issued on Bank of Japan Convertible notes.
(Pick # M14, M25a, M27a, M28a)

There were other series issued in 1937, 1939, 1940 and 1945 - of which I have no examples.

Values from 1 - 50 Sen, 1 - 10 Yen and 100 Yen. In most denominations, 2 different issues were made in the year.

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(Illust. 7) - 'P' - The Japanese Government - (Philippines) Plantation series 1942:- 1 Centavo, 5 Centavos, 10 Centavos, 50 Centavos, 1 Peso,
5 Pesos. 10 Pesos. (Pick # 102a, 103, 104, 105b, 106, 107, 108b)
(NOTE: The 10 Pesos in this Plantation series has the JAPWANCAP ink-stamp applied to the reverse.)

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(Illust. 8) - Block and Serial Numbers - The Japanese Government (Philippines) Rizal Monument series 1943:- 1 Peso, 5 Pesos, 10 Pesos,
100 Pesos. (Pick # 109a, 110a, 111a, 112a)

Another issue was made in 1945:- 100 Pesos, 500 Pesos, 1000 Pesos (Pick # 113 - 115)
(NOTE: The 5 Pesos in this Rizal Monument series has the JAPWANCAP ink-stamp applied to the front.)

The majority of the J.I.M. you will encounter will have relatively plain reverses - mainly just the numeric value of the note which will usually be
enclosed withina scrollwork pattern. The reverses of smaller value notes will not have a written denomination as a rule, unless, it is from
somewhere the Japanese had become well entrenched such as the Philippines, Netherlands Indies - Sumatra (now Indonesia).
Higher denominations were still frugaly decorated and the plates were often adapted to other areas under Japanese control - a case of mix and
match.
If you study the illustrations provided, you many see fragments or whole design features that are
'generic' to several different notes from different
areas.
In China, where some unissued Japanese homeland notes had been adapted for use, the military issues usually had block numbers only.

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Typical scrollwork enclosed numeric values without denomination in low value notes..
The notes shown here are Netherlands - Indies 'S' 1942 - One Cent and One Gulden
The reverses of many low value notes were adapted for other areas - these were issued in Dark Blue for the Malaya One Cent and One Dollar.
In Burma, the colour was altered to Deep Red for the One Cent and One Rupee.
Identical reverse scrollwork on low value notes, used in the other dominated areas, were also treated the same - mainly by colour change.

left:- Malaya 'M'- 10 Dollar green reverse (showing a ship off-shore) was also adapted in purple for Sumatra 'S' 10 Gulden 1942.
right:- Netherlands Indies - Sumatra 'S' -10 Roepiah (issued in 1944)

Philippines - Block and serial numbers - 1943 - 10 Pesos (reverse of P111a shown above - bearing JAPWANCAP stamp)
The 1 and 5 Pesos notes in this Rizal Monument series had Blue and Brown simple scrollwork reverses, respectively.

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Philippines - Block and serial numbers - 1943- 100 Pesos (reverse of P112a shown above - note the poor paper alignment and smeared ink.)

The sizes of the majority of J.I.M. currency notes - no matter where they were issued - fit into certain tolerances, usually within 1 - 2 millimeters,
and, sometimes, they were sized to emulate the previous currency of the area.
Some of the 'average cut sizes' of the main J.I.M. currencies are listed herewith.:
One Cent, Een Cent = 94 x 44mm.
Five Cents, Vijf Cents = 100 x 50mm.
Ten Cents, Tien Cents, Ten Centavos = 104 x 50mm.

Quarter Rupee = 105 x 50mm.

Fifty Cents, Half Gulden, Fifty Centavos, Half Rupee,= 119 x 58mm.,

One Dollar, Een Gulden, One Peso, One Shilling, Satoe (1) Roepiah = 139 x 68mm.
Five Dollars, Five Rupees = 150 x 70mm.
Five Pesos = 160 x 68mm.
Ten Pesos = 162 x 70mm.
Ten Dollars, Tien Gulden, Ten Rupees, Sepoeloeh (10) Roepiah = 160 x 76mm.

One Hundred Pesos = 162 x 69mm.


One Hundred Dollars, One Hundred Rupees = 169 x 80mm.

During the period, Japan also controlled some of the local banks, or started new ones, in occupied areas of China - and authorised the issuance of
'official' banknotes very similiar to the bona-fide circulating Chinese currency. These issuing banks are now often refered to as 'puppet' banks - with
the strings being pulled by Japan.

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1944 - Block letters - The Central Reserve Bank of China 10,000 Yuan (Pick # J38)
China Puppet bank note issue. Front: Portrait of Sun Yat-sen. Reverse: Mausoleum of Sun Yat-sen and various depictions of clouds.

The Japanese controlled


Central Reserve Bank of China was the largest of the Chinese 'puppet' banks and it prolifically issued notes from 1940,
even though the bank was not officially inaugurated until January 1941. Its higher value notes all featured a portrait of the great Chinese nationalist
leader, Sun Yat-sen, in an endeavour to encourage the Chinese public to accept the currency.
Denominations in the initial 1940 release ranged from 1 Fen (Cent), 5 Fen (5 Cents) and 1, 5 and 10 Yuan - closely followed by denominations of 10
Cents (1 Chiao), 20 Cents (2 Chiao), and two lots
of 50 Cents (5 Chiao). In 1942, notes of higher denomination were issued - 100 and 500 Yuan.
Low value notes (cents) featured a depiction of Sun Yat-sen's mausoleum as an obverse and the reverse featured the value written within fancy
scrollwork. .
Again in 1943, a Yuan series including 1, 10, 100 (2 different notes), 500 (6 different notes), and a Cents series of 10, 20 and 50 Cents were issued.
With inflation running rampant as Japan was then starting to lose the war, the 1944 Yuan seies saw 100, 200, 1000 (5 different notes) and 10,000 (4
different notes) being issued. From mid 1944, it became practice not to use serial numbers and only apply block numbers to the notes because of
the quantities being issued. Finally, in 1945, the last Yuan issues of 5000 (3 different notes) and 100,000 (2 different notes) were issued by this
bank..
Numismatically speaking, most of these notes are quite reasonably priced in the market place, so do not expect to pay too much - (between $2 - $5
for small denominations would be a fair guess for a reasonable note in V.G. condition) - but like everything else there are exceptions both ways.
Do some homework - it's amazing what you will find out!

Main Reference:

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money'. - (Volume 2) - by Albert Pick, Colin R. Bruce II, Neil Shafer (Editor) - Krause Publication.

NUMERICS IN NUMISMATICS

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It was with some interest that I had read a brief article (on page 8) in the August 2008 issue of "The Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine"
The article, by Dr. Kerry Rodgers was entitled "Radar Notes Prove Popular at Downies RBA Public Auction", and gave some details and prices
realised at a recent auction for numerically interesting Australian polymer currency notes.

For those who wonder what a 'radar' serial number is - it's like the word - it can be read the same backward or forward - e.g. 123 321.
(Normally, the serial letters are ignored and the abbreviated date numbers are not taken into consideration - but, if the two numbers in the date do fit
in as well - you would be very pleased indeed to have an 8 number special.)
I must admit I have never felt like a 'compleat' collector - due to the fact I had nothing in my 17 y.o currency accumulation that fitted in with that
concept of 'really interesting arrangements' of serial numbers - I had gone close on several occasions but I had not quite clicked in a way that
satisfied me.
Last month, I was excited to find a $50 with the number 999919 - but, how happy I would have been - if it had been a 'solid' - 999999.
The note went the way of others - after a sigh for what might have been!
I usually checked my wallet each day - but, of late, I had slackened off and put the idea of finding a radar note on the back-burner, so to speak!
That is until a few weeks ago, when I saw Dr. Rodgers' 'CAB' article.. Out came the wallet again each night.
Suddenly, I found I was the possessor of 3 - yes three - interesting number arrangement notes that came in ' change'. - not all at once I must add.
They have turned up over the last month or so, and from various sources - and one was a radar number!

Boy! - that's made me feel sooo good !


All the notes have been in circulation for over 2 years, but, they are in Fine condition - or slightly better.
The $50.00 below - shown previously - features a 'drooling' Edith Cowan as an interesting bonus to its triple pairs repeater '646464' run of numbers
I still need a $20.00 and a $100.00 note of some sort to make up a nice mini-collection of nice numbers - so I'll be watching my polymer again from
now on, even if the $100's are few and far between.. They might not all be 'radar' numbers, but, I think that any geometrical sequence of arranged
numbers will make my day! - The Magpie strikes again!

'Numerically Noteworthy Numismatic Nicies!'

Australian 2006 - Polymer Five Dollars DE 06 102 102 - Double Repeater


Australian 2006 - Polymer Ten Dollars GF 06983 389 - Radar
Australian 2005 - Polymer Fifty Dollars CG 05646 464 - Triple pairs Repeater

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