Está en la página 1de 26

Alcance de la Práctica en Logopedia

(traducción)
Comité Ad Hoc sobre Alcance de la Práctica en Logopeda
Este documento fue aprobado por el Consejo
Legislativo de la ASHA en Abril de 2001 (LC 701). Los miembros del Comité Adhoc sobre
Alcance de Práctica en Logopedia que
desarrollaron este documento son Nicholas
Bankson (presidente), Allan Diefendorf, Roberta
Elman, Susan Forsythe, Elizabeth Gavett, Alex
Johnson
(vice
presidente
de
prácticas
profesionales en Logopedia), Lori Lombard,
Ninevah Murray, Arlene Pietranton (ex officio), y
Carmen Vega-Barachowitz.

individuales; un logopeda no practica asiduamente
todas las áreas de su campo. Como el Código
Ético de la ASHA especifica, un individuo sólo
puede practicar en áreas en las que posee
competencia de acuerdo a su educación,
entrenamiento y experiencia. Sin embargo, los
logopedas pueden ampliar su nivel de
conocimientos. Ciertas situaciones pueden
requerir que los logopedas lleven a cabo
educación o entrenamiento adicional para
expandir su alcance de práctica personal.

Declaración de Intenciones

Esta declaración de alcance de la práctica no
puede imponerse a la legislación actual ni afecta la
interpretación o implementación de dichas leyes.
Sin embargo, puede servir como un modelo para
el desarrollo o modificación de la legislación
sanitaria.

La misión de este documento es definir el alcance
de la práctica en Logopedia para:
1. Delinear las áreas de práctica profesional
en Logopedia proporcionadas por los
miembros de la American SpeechLanguage-Hearing Association (ASHA)
y clínicos certificados de acuerdo con el
Código Ético de la ASHA;
2. Educar a los profesionales de la salud, la
educación y otras profesiones; a los
consumidores, clientes, reguladores, y
miembros de la población en general
sobre
los
servicios
profesionales
ofrecidos por logopedas de manera
cualificada;
3. Ayudar a los miembros de la ASHA y a
los clínicos certificados en la provisión
de servicios de alta calidad y basados en
evidencias a aquellas personas que,
durante su ciclo vital, presentan
problemas de comunicación, deglución y
dificultades aerodigestivas superiores;
4. Proveer guía para programas de
educación en el currículum de
Logopedia.
El alcance de práctica definido aquí y las prácticas
detalladas más adelante describen el conjunto de
la práctica profesional que se ofrece dentro de
nuestra profesión. Los niveles de educación,
experiencia, habilidad y efectividad con respecto a
las actividades identificadas dentro de este alcance
de práctica varían entre los profesionales

El esquema de Figura 11 representa la relación
entre el alcance de la práctica y los documentos de
política de práctica, los estándares de
certificación, y el Código Ético de la ASHA.
Como se ha indicado, los particulares deben
completar los estándares de certificación en
Logopedia. Los documentos de política de
práctica (es decir, los patrones habituales de
práctica, las declaraciones de posición, las guías, y
las declaraciones de conocimiento y habilidad)
recogen las áreas de práctica en Logopedia, tanto
las actuales como las que están apareciendo. Estos
documentos se basan en los conocimientos,
habilidades y experiencias necesarias para la
certificación profesional. El Código Ético de la
ASHA fija los principios y reglas fundamentales
que se consideran esenciales para la presentación
de los estándares de integridad y conducta ética a
los que los miembros de la profesión logopédica
están obligados.
La Logopedia es una profesión dinámica y en
constante desarrollo; el recoger áreas específicas
dentro de este alcance de la práctica no excluye
que aparezcan nuevas áreas de práctica. Aunque
no se identifican específicamente en este
1

Ver las figuras en el documento original

documentos, en ciertas circunstancias los
logopedas puede ser requeridos para llevar a cabo
servicios (por ejemplos, “multihabilidades” en un
entorno sanitario, servicios de cooperación con
escuelas) para el bienestar de los individuos a los
que sirve. En esas ocasiones, es necesario ética y
legalmente que los profesionales determinar que
realmente poseen el conocimiento y las
habilidades necesarias para llevar a cabo esas
tareas. Por último, cabría señalar que factores
como los cambios en los sistemas de prestación de
servicios, el crecimiento proyectado en Estados
Unidos de los grupos cultural y lingüísticamente
minoritarios, y los avances tecnológicos y
lingüísticos requieren que una declaración sobre el
alcance de la práctica para la profesión logopédica
sea dinámica por naturaleza. Por esas razones, este
documento estará sujeto a una revisión periódica y
una posible modificación.

Marco para la Práctica
El dominio de la Logopedia incluye los
comportamientos de la comunicación humana y
sus alteraciones, así como la deglución y otras
funciones y trastornos aerodigestivos. El objetivo
general de los servicios logopédicos es optimizar
la habilidad de los individuos para comunicarse
y/o lleven a cabo la deglución en sus ambientes
naturales, y por tanto mejoren su calidad de vida.
Este objetivo se alcanza a través de la
administración de servicios integrados en los
contextos vitales relevantes. La Organización
Mundial de la Salud (OMS) está finalizando un
sistema
de
clasificación
multiobjetivo
denominado ICIDH-2 [ICF]que ofrece a los
profesionales clínicos un marco conceptual
reconocido internacionalmente para discutir y
describir el funcionamiento y la discapacidad
humanas (WHO, 2000). Este marco puede
emplearse para describir el papel de los logopedas
a la hora de mejorar la calida de vida mediante la
optimización de la comunicación humana, la
deglución y otras funciones aerodigestivas en
distintos ámbitos. El marco de la ICIDH-2 [ICF]
tiene dos partes. El primero se denomina
Funcionamiento y Discapacidad; el segundo se
refiere a Factores Contextuales. Funcionamiento y
discapacidad incluye los dos siguientes
componentes:

Funciones y Estructuras Corporales: las
Funciones Corporales se refieren a las
funciones fisiológicas o psicológicas de
los
organismos;
las
Estructuras
Corporales se refieren a las partes

anatómicas del cuerpo y a sus
componentes.
Actividad y Participación: la Actividad
se refiere al desempeño en una tarea o
acción de un individuo determinado; la
Participación se refiere a la implicación
de una persona en una situación vital.
Ambos componentes de actividad y
participación están modificados por los
calificadores
de
Capacidad
y
Rendimiento.
El
calificador
de
Capacidad describe la capacidad de una
persona de ejecutar una tarea o acción en
un ambiente estandarizado o uniforme. El
calificador de Rendimiento describe lo
que un individuo hace en el medio o
contexto actual en el que vive.

La Figura 2 ilustra los componentes de este marco
tal y como se aplican a la práctica logopédica.
Cada componente puede expresarse como un
continuo o función. Un extremo del continuo
indica un funcionamiento neutral o intacto; el otro
indica una función completamente comprometida
o una discapacidad (por ejemplo, incapacidad,
limitación de la actividad, o restricción en la
participación). Por ejemplo, el componente de
Funciones y Estructuras Corporales tiene un
continuo que comprende de la variación normal a
la incapacidad total; las Actividades varían de la
ausencia de limitación a la limitación completa; y
la Participación varía de ausencia de restricción a
restricción total.
La segunda parte del marco del ICIDH-2 [ICF] se
refiere a Factores Contextuales. Estos Factores
Contextuales puede interaccionar con las
Funciones y Estructuras Corporales, la Actividad
y la Participación como facilitadores o barreras al
funcionamiento. Los Factores Contextuales
incluyen los siguientes componentes:
• Factores Ambientales: definidos como el
medio físico, social y actitudinal en el
que las personas viven.
• Factores
Personales:
incluyen
características de la persona como edad,
raza, género, nivel educativo, y estilo de
vida. Aunque no están formalmente
clasificados en el ICIDH-2 [ICF], los
Factores Personales son reconocidos
como relevantes para los resultados de la
intervención.
El alcance de la práctica en logopedia reúne todos
los componentes y factores identificados en el
marco de la OMS. Es decir, que los logopedas

Como proveedores de cuidados primarios para los trastornos de la comunicación. la habilitación y la rehabilitación de los trastornos de la comunicación. la solución de problemas o la función ejecutiva). la deglución y las funciones aerodigestivas superiores. videofluoroscopia. • La conciencia sensorial relacionado con la comunicación. gráfica y manual. Utilizar instrumentación (por ejemplo. intervención. 2. Dar servicio a personas con pérdida auditiva y a sus familias/tutores (por ejemplo. entrenamiento en audición. la deglución y las funciones aerodigestivas superiores. y de las barreras ambientales de los individuos a los que sirven. licencias estatales. 3. personas que necesitan apoyo escolar o educación especial). asesoramiento y seguimiento para trastornos de: 4. Sin embargo. es decir. la habilitación. incluyendo la verificación del voltaje de batería apropiado). actividad y/o participación definidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (WHO. Sirven a personas que sufren enfermedades conocidas (por ejemplo. el procesamiento del lenguaje. la modificación específica de los comportamientos comunicativos. la deglución y las funciones aerodigestivas superiores. incluso en el caso de que dichas limitaciones o restricciones ocurran en ausencia de enfermedades o trastornos conocidos (por ejemplo. estroboscopia y tecnologías informáticas) . inspección visual y adaptación de sistemas de amplificación auditiva. resonancia y voz. y en ciertas ocasiones. incluyendo la comprensión y la expresión en las modalidades oral. tratamiento. de las limitaciones a la actividad. con personas que posean dialectos diferentes). articulación. de las restricciones a la participación. 2000). certificación de enseñanza). así como el screening de patologías del oído medio mediante timpanometrías con el objetivo de derivar a las personas para evaluación adicional. dispositivos de generación de voz). La práctica de la Logopedia implica: 1. afasia. la fonología. medición y diagnóstico. El papel del logopeda incluye la prevención de los trastornos de la comunicación. EMG. 5. y la mejora de la comunicación. la sintaxis. Educación y Cualificaciones Los logopedas deben poseer un título de grado. escrita. el diagnóstico. • El habla (por ejemplo. nasendoscopia. consultación. • Los aspectos cognitivos de la comunicación (por ejemplo. evaluación. en numerosas ocasiones se ayuda mejor a las personas cuando los logopedas trabajan en colaboración con otros profesionales. otra credenciales (por ejemplo. así como el diagnóstico. problemas en el paladar) así como a otras que sufren limitaciones en la actividad o restricciones en la participación (por ejemplo. selección y prescripción de dichos sistemas y dispositivos (por ejemplo. fluidez. Establecer técnicas y estrategias de comunicación aumentativa y alternativa incluyendo el desarrollo. Proveer servicios de prevención. habilidades de lectoescritura basadas en el lenguaje. intervención en habla y lenguaje secundarios a la pérdida. la atención. Alcance de Práctica La práctica de la Logopedia incluye la prevención. y los aspectos pragmáticos/sociales de la comunicación). • La deglución u otras funciones aerodigestivas superiores como la alimentación infantil y los aspectos aeromecánicos (la evaluación de la función esofagal debe realizarse por derivación a profesionales médicos). El screening de la audición de personas que pueden participar en métodos convencionales de conducción tonal aérea. la rehabilitación y la mejora de dichas funciones. lectura. que sus servicios no necesitan ser prescritos o supervisados por otros profesionales.trabajan para mejorar la calidad de vida mediante la reducción de déficits en las funciones y estructuras corporales. Eso incluye servicios que responden a las dimensiones de estructura y función corporal. • El lenguaje (por ejemplo. los logopedas son profesionales autónomos. la deglución y otras funciones aerodigestivas superiores. un Certificado de Competencia Clínica (CCC-SLP) de la American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). la morfología. incluyendo los componentes aeromecánicos de la respiración). la memoria. incluyendo la conciencia fonológica.

de acuerdo con los principios de la práctica basada en evidencias. de acuerdo con los principios de la evidencia basada en evidencia. 9. • Ofrecen servicios directos empleando una variedad de modelos para tratar o responder a problemas comunicativos. la deglución y las funciones aerodigestivas superiores (por ejemplo. 10. incluyendo la eliminación de barreras sociales. la adaptación y la toma de decisiones sobre problemas de comunicación. y ayudan en la localización y el diagnóstico de enfermedades y condiciones. el lenguaje. y otros problemas aerodigestivos superiores. y ajustar el tratamiento y la evaluación apropiadamente. así como de sus tratamiento. la audición y la deglución. y otros trastornos aerodigestivos. • Educan y proporcionan entrenamiento a familias. tutores y otros profesionales. y medir los parámetros de la comunicación. recoger datos. supervisan y tutorizan a futuros logopedas. Proporcionar servicios para modificar o mejorar el rendimiento comunicativo (por ejemplo. 11. Ellos: • Identifican. de deglución. Apoyar a las personas a través de la concienciación comunitaria. voz transexual. Seleccionar. acciones perseverantes o disruptivas) y entornos que afectan la comunicación. prótesis traqueoesofágicas. 12. 7. . Roles y Actividades Profesionales Los logopedas ayudan a personas. • Educan. adaptar y establecer el uso efectivo de dispositivos prostéticos o adaptativos para la comunicación. educadores y otras personas dentro de la comunidad respecto a la aceptación. • Apoyar a nivel local. el lenguaje y la comunicación. definen y diagnostican alteraciones de la comunicación y la deglución. Colaborar en la evaluación de alteraciones de la audición central y proporcionar intervención cuando existan evidencias de alteraciones del habla. válvulas de habla. la deglución. supervisan y controlan a ayudantes de logopedia y a otro personal de apoyo. para observar. • Participan en actividades de evaluación de resultados y utilizan datos para guiar la toma de decisiones clínicas y determinan la efectividad de los servicios proporcionados. Educar y aconsejar a individuos. • Promover la percepción pública de los trastornos del habla.6. 13. • Llevan a cabo investigación relacionada con las ciencias y alteraciones de la comunicación. • Administran y controlan programas clínicos y académicos. Colaborar con y proveer información para audiologistas. o aerodigestivos. 8. colegas. la educación y programas de entrenamiento para promover y facilitar el acceso a una participación total en la comunicación. familias. educadores y profesionales de la salud en función de las necesidades de las personas. la deglución u otras funciones aerodigestivas superiores. familias. grupos y el público general a través de un amplio conjunto de actividades profesionales. la audición. electrolaringes). efectividad comunicativa personal/profesional). Responder a comportamientos (por ejemplo. regional y nacional para conseguir el acceso y la subvención de servicios que permitan responder a problemas de la comunicación. No se incluyen aquí los dispositivos sensoriales utilizados por individuos con pérdida auditiva u otros déficits perceptuales auditivos. • Colaboran con audiologistas para identificar niños y neonatos en riesgo de pérdida auditiva. • Promueven prácticas saludables para la prevención de trastornos de la comunicación. • Sirven como testigos expertos. deglución y otras alteraciones aerodigestivas superiores. modificación de acentos. Reconocer la necesidad de proporcionar y acomodar servicios diagnósticos y de tratamiento para individuos de distintos marcos culturales. la deglución. la deglución y otras funciones aerodigestivas superiores. • Entrenan. cuidado y mejora de la voz profesional. la deglución y otras funciones aerodigestivas. la audición. • Sirven como gestores de casos y coordinadores de servicios.

Geneva. (1991). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 28. Asha. Asha. Code of ethics. • Unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. 12–15. 35 (Suppl. Unpublished report. disability and health: Prefinal draft. 13). Ofrecen servicios a través de medidas diagnósticas y metodologías de tratamiento tele-electrónicas (incluyendo aplicaciones remotas). MD: Author. • Entornos corporativos e industriales. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Guidelines for meeting the communication needs of persons withsevere disabilities. 10). (1994). 16). 17). . Scope of practice in audiology. Ámbitos de Práctica Los logopedas ofrecen servicios en una amplia variedad de ámbitos. (2000). (1994). Guidelines for caseload size and speechlanguage pathology service delivery in the school. 8. Asha. 38 (Suppl. 41–42. MD: Author. • Hogares de los pacientes. (1996). 13. Council on Professional Standards in SpeechLanguage Pathology and Audiology. Sedation and topical anesthetics in audiology and speech-language pathology. y centros de día. entornos de intervención temprana. • Agencias e instituciones comunitarias y estatales. Rockville. MD: Author. Inclusive practices for children and youths with communication disorders. Asha. (1986. 16). May). Definition of communication disorders and variations. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 39 (Suppl. 34 (Suppl. Rockville. Maximizing the provision of appropriate technology services and devices for students in schools. Admission/discharge criteria in speech- language pathology. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Referencias y Lista de Recursos Generales American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. International classification of functioning. 107–110. 5). Rockville. MD: Author. 5). (1998). World Health Organization. Asha. Asha. (1997). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. Asha. 10). Asha. 1–2. 35–44. under revision American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. instalaciones de salud conductual/mental). (2000). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. • Entornos médicos (por ejemplo hospitales. (1992). (1996). IDEA and your caseload: A template for eligibility and dismissal criteria for students ages 3 to 21. 33 (Suppl. 7). (1993). Asha. • Instalaciones de investigación. 34 (Suppl. 33–39. instalaciones de rehabilitación médica. 18). 36 (Suppl. 33 (Suppl. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 38 (Suppl. (1997). 35 (Suppl. National Joint Committee for the Communicative Needs of Persons with Severe Disabilities. (1999). instalaciones de ayuda a largo plazo. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Preferred practice patterns for the profession of speech-language pathology. 33–42. (1992). MD: Author. Switzerland: Author. agencias de atención a domicilio. • Hogares grupales y talleres. clínicas comunitarias. (2000). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. 7). Guidelines for the roles and responsibilities of the school-based speechlanguage pathologist. Comunicación Aumentativa y Alternativa American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Rockville. • Entornos de práctica privada. 9–12. 40–41. (1991). 31 (3). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 40 (Suppl. • Instituciones correccionales.• • Reconocen las necesidades especiales de poblaciones culturalmente diversas mediante la provisión de servicios que están libres de sesgos potenciales. guarderías. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. lo que incluye la selección y/o adaptación de los materiales para asegurar una sensibilidad étnica y lingüística. Asha. Rockville. 53–57. Position statement and technical report: Multiskilled personnel. • Universidades y clínicas universitarias. Report: Augmentative and alternative communication. (1989). 1–8. Competencies for speech-language pathologists providing services in augmentative communication. que puede incluir de forma no exclusiva los siguientes: • Escuelas públicas y privadas. Augmentative and alternative communication. The autonomy of speech-language pathology and audiology. Speech-language pathology certification standards. (1993). Asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

547– 553. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities curriculum guide for speech-language pathologists and audiologists.1-1991). MD: ASHA. 5). Issues in determining eligibility for language intervention. 32 (Suppl. (1997). (1989). Asha. 21–28. (1995). 3. (1990). (1984). 31 (3). (1982).Aspectos Cognitivos de la Comunicación American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Technical report on the roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in . Asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1995). 185–189. 1–12. sociocommunicative and/or cognitive-communicative impairments. 2). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1991). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 24 (8). 24 (11). (1994. as Amended (IDEA– Part H) to children who are deaf and hard of hearing ages birth to 36 months. Rockville. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. August). Guidelines for speech-language pathologists serving persons with language. Asha. 44. sociocommunicative and/or cognitive-communicative impairments. 33 (Suppl. (1982). (1988). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 33 (Suppl. 32 (Suppl. (1990). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Task Force on Central Auditory Processing Consensus Development. 14). (1991). Asha. Asha. and treatment of individuals with cognitive-communicative impairments. Rockville. Definition of language. Rockville. Competencies for aural rehabilitation. 9. vol. Clinical practice by certificate holders in the profession in which they are not certified. 33 (Suppl. 26 (5). 37–41. (2000). 5). New York: Acoustical Society of America. (1991). Asha. Asha. 53–55. (1990). 11–12. Screening de la Audición American National Standards Institute. American Journal of Audiology. 21–28. Asha. 113–118. Asha. Asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. A model for collaborative service delivery for students with language-learning disorders in the public schools. Interdisciplinary approaches to brain damage. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. Specifications for audiometers (ANSI S3. Lenguaje y Lectoescritura American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 1). Guidelines on the roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents. Maximum permissible ambient noise levels for audiometric test rooms (ANSI S3. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Service provision under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act–Part H. 30 (3). Asha. 29 (6). 36. (1988). 9– 29. American National Standards Institute. Asha. (1994). 36 (13). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. ASHA Desk Reference. 4. The role of speech-language pathologists and audiologists in service delivery for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities in community settings. Sordera y Pérdida Auditiva American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. diagnosis. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 79.6. Guidelines for audiologic screening. 5–6. Asha. (1996). Year 2000 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. 937–944. Asha. (2000). Guidelines for speech-language pathologists serving persons with language. (2000). (1987). 5). MD: Author. (2000). (1991). 24 (6). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. New York: Acoustical Society of America. Guidelines for the structure and function of an interdisciplinary team for persons with brain injury. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Central auditory processing: Current status of research and implications for clinical practice. Asha. Position statement on language learning disorders. The role of speech-language pathologists in the identification. 117–121. 32 (Suppl. (1982). Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. 37 (Suppl. Position statement on the roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents. The role of speech-language pathologists in the habilitation and rehabilitation of cognitively impaired individuals. 2). MD: Author.1996). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Serving the communicatively handicapped mentally retarded individual. 23. Aural rehabilitation: an annotated bibliography. Rockville. 44–50. MD: Author.

Asha. Knowledge and skills needed by speechlanguage pathologists providing services to dysphagic patients/ clients. language. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 29 (4). 9). (1993). Prevention of speech. 34 (Suppl. Asha. 18). 10). Asha. 425. vol. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. 18). 92–94. Asha. (1985). Ethics in research and professional practice. (1992). 35 (1). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Resonancia American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 35 (Suppl. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. Prevention of communication disorders. ASHA Desk Reference. 10). and supervision of speechlanguage pathology assistants. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Social dialects (and implications). March). Rockville: MD. Voz. (1989). 93. 34 (Suppl. March). Habla: Articulación. Position statement and guidelines on the use of voice prostheses in tracheotomized persons with or without ventilatory dependence. (1993). (1991). Asha. Knowledge and skills for supervision of speech-language pathology assistants. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 32. 31–40. 16). 21–34. 16–17. and their families. (in preparation). Investigación American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. Position statement and guidelines for evaluation and treatment for tracheoesophageal fistulization/puncture. 11–12. 6). The role of the speech-language . Asha. 24. 431. Asha. 90. (1983). Asha. Communication-based services for infants. 7). Preparation models for the supervisory process in speech-language pathology and audiology. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Provision of English-as-a-secondlanguage instruction by speech-language pathologists in school settings: Position statement and technical report. 14). 9). 29–32. 159–163. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. (1993). (1989). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1998). (1990). The prevention of communication disorders tutorial.gists. 63. 2). credentialing. Guidelines for practice in stuttering treatment.children and adolescents. The role of the speech-language pathologist and teacher of voice in the remediation of singers with voice disorders. toddlers. Asha. (1982). 26–35. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 35 (Suppl. (1995. 34 (Suppl. (1992). (1992). Prevención American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Clinical management of communicatively handicapped minority language populations. Aspectos Multiculturales American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 34 (Suppl. 97–106. 30. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 3. Report: Ad hoc committee on labiallingual posturing function. (1992). Bilingual speech-language pathologists and audiolo. 33 (Suppl. 17–21. (1989). (1991). Asha. (1992). (1988. Training guidelines for laryngeal videoendoscopy/stroboscopy. (1987). 31. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. Deglución/Función Aerodigestiva American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 24–27. ASHA Special Interest Division 3: Voice and Voice Disorders. Ad hoc committee on dysphagia report. Unpublished report. 57–58. Asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Position statement and guidelines for oral and oropharyngeal prostheses. 40 (Suppl. Asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 32 (Suppl. Clinical supervision in speech-language pathology and audiology. (1997). Asha. 8. 7). (1989). Clinical fellowship supervisor’s responsibilities. 31 (11). 28 (6). 34 (Suppl. Roles of otolaryngologists and speechlanguage pathologists in the performance and interpretation of strobovideolaryngoscopy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1998). Supervisión American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 7–12. (1996. Fluencia. Spring). 57–60. Position statement and guidelines for vocal tract visualization and imaging. MD: Author. 32 (3). 38 (Suppl. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Asha. Rockville. Asha. Supervision of student clinicians. 15–41. 40 (Suppl. Asha. 9). 37 (Suppl. 23–27. use. Asha. 14–16. Guidelines for the training. Asha. Asha. 17– 20. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1985). 27 (6). 25 (9). Author. hearing problems.

Asha. Graduate curriculum on swallowing and swallowing disorders (adult and pediatric dysphagia). Asha. (1992). 3. 35 (Suppl. 20. 17. 33 (Suppl. 25–33. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. ASHA Suppl. 10). 7. ASHA Suppl. 5). Roles of the speech-language pathologist and otolaryngologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic examination of swallowing (position statement). . (1997). Clinical indicators for instrumental assessment of dysphagia (guidelines): Executive summary. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. vol. 20. ASHA Desk Reference. 7). Asha. (2000). 34 (Suppl. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Orofacial myofunctional disorders: knowledge and skills. (2000). (1993). 21– 23. ASHA Special Interest Division 13: Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia). Position statement and guidelines for instrumental diagnostic procedures for swallowing. 248a– 248n. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.pathologist in assessment and management of oral myofunctional disorders. 18–9.

Available from www. Index terms: scope of practice doi:10.1044/policy. (2007).SP2007-00283 © Copyright 2007 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Ad Hoc Committee on the Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Reference this material as: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. or for any damages arising out of the use of the documents and any information they contain. . All rights reserved. or availability of these documents.org/policy.asha. Disclaimer: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association disclaims any liability to any party for the accuracy. completeness. Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology [Scope of Practice].

4. understanding. Hewitt. and Diane R. As part of the review process for updating the Scope of Practice in SpeechLanguage Pathology. members of the general public) about professional services offered by speech-language pathologists as qualified providers.. **** Introduction The Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology includes a statement of purpose. focus on emergency responsiveness. Shulman (vice president for professional practices in speech-language pathology). 2. Jennifer B. education. evidence-based services to individuals with concerns about communication or swallowing. Committee members were Kenn Apel (chair). Lynne E. marketing of services. Statement of Purpose The purpose of this document is to define the Scope of Practice in SpeechLanguage Pathology to 1. 1 . 2007 (LC 09-07). Riquelme. Paul (consultant). The speech-language pathologist is the professional who engages in clinical services. This document was approved by the ASHA Legislative Council on September 4. ASHA policy requires that these activities are conducted in a manner that takes into consideration the impact of culture and linguistic exposure/acquisition and uses the best available evidence for practice to ensure optimal outcomes for persons with communication and/or swallowing disorders or differences. 3. Ann W. communication wellness). and research in the discipline. the committee made changes to the previous scope of practice document that reflected recent advances in knowledge. Carole Zangari.g. professional roles and activities. The revised document also was framed squarely on two guiding principles: evidence-based practice and cultural and linguistic diversity.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology About This Document Scope of Practice This scope of practice document is an official policy of the American SpeechLanguage-Hearing Association (ASHA) defining the breadth of practice within the profession of speech-language pathology. support speech-language pathologists in the conduct of research. This document was developed by the ASHA Ad Hoc Committee on the Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology. delineate areas of professional practice for speech-language pathologists. a framework for research and clinical practice. regulators. administration. advocacy. funding issues. Lemmietta McNeilly (ex officio). Watson.g. prevention. Luis F. Theresa E. educators. 5. Kummer. and research in the areas of communication and swallowing across the life span from infancy through geriatrics. qualifications of the speech-language pathologist. Given the diversity of the client population. support speech-language pathologists in the provision of high-quality.. Brian B. health care providers. inform others (e. Brickell. consumers. and practice settings. payers. Bartolotta. other professionals. provide guidance for educational preparation and professional development of speech-language pathologists. Adam A. These changes included acknowledging roles and responsibilities that were not mentioned in previous iterations of the Scope of Practice (e.

transdisciplinary practice in early intervention settings) that are necessary for the well-being of the individual(s) they 2 . interdisciplinary work in a health care setting. other ASHA documents provide more specific guidance for practice areas. As shown. Further. Speech-language pathology is a dynamic and continuously developing profession.. skill. individuals may practice only in areas in which they are competent (i. Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between the ASHA Code of Ethics. the Scope of Practice.. and proficiency with respect to the roles and activities identified within this scope of practice document vary among individual providers. As the ASHA Code of Ethics specifies. In addition to this scope of practice document. and experience. the ASHA Code of Ethics sets forth the fundamental principles and rules considered essential to the preservation of the highest standards of integrity and ethical conduct in the practice of speech-language pathology. collaborative service delivery in schools. Conceptual Framework of ASHA Practice Documents This document describes the breadth of professional practice offered within the profession of speech-language pathology. based on their education. and specific practice documents. training.e. As such. listing specific areas within this Scope of Practice does not exclude emerging areas of practice. A speech-language pathologist typically does not practice in all areas of the field. individuals' scope of competency). Levels of education. experience. speech-language pathologists may provide additional professional services (e.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice Figure 1.g.

For example. 2005). and efficacy research base in communication sciences and disorders and related fields of study is essential to providing evidence-based clinical practice and quality clinical services. 2001). It may serve. information. 2005). The research base can be enhanced by increased interaction and communication with researchers across the United States and from other countries.S. speech-language pathologists have access to an abundant array of resources. and interdependent. as a model for the development or modification of licensure laws. integrated. and education in communication sciences and disorders can be a means to strengthen research collaboration and improve clinical services. This scope of practice document does not supersede existing state licensure laws or affect the interpretation or implementation of such laws. speech-language pathologists have a responsibility to be knowledgeable about the impact of these changes on clinical services and research needs. WHO. information technology. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a multipurpose health classification system known as the International Classification of Functioning. Census Bureau.g. thereby improving quality of life. to the extent possible. In such instances. Disability and Health (ICF. As our global society is becoming more connected. As the population profile of the United States continues to become increasingly diverse (U. applied. clinical decisions are based on best available evidence. an important characteristic of the practice of speech-language pathology is that. it is both ethically and legally incumbent upon professionals to determine whether they have the knowledge and skills necessary to perform such services. and diverse perspectives and influence (e. high-quality research evidence is integrated with practitioner expertise and the individual's preferences and values into the process of clinical decision making (ASHA. Additionally. The purpose of this classification system is to provide a standard language and framework for the description of functioning and health. ASHA has defined evidence-based practice in speechlanguage pathology as an approach in which current. A highquality basic.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice are serving but are not addressed in this Scope of Practice. Framework for Research and Clinical Practice The overall objective of speech-language pathology services is to optimize individuals' ability to communicate and swallow.. Increased national and international interchange of professional knowledge. one aspect of providing culturally and linguistically appropriate services is to determine whether communication difficulties experienced by English language learners are the result of a communication disorder in the native language or a consequence of learning a new language. however. Speech-language pathologists are committed to the provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate services and to the consideration of diversity in scientific investigations of human communication and swallowing. Lombardo. The ICF framework is useful in describing the breadth of the role of 3 . 1997).

activity limitations. enhancement. At the opposite end of the continuum is completely compromised functioning. social background. or the effects of premorbid literacy level on rehabilitation in an adult post brain injury. Participation is the involvement in a life situation. Demonstration of continued professional development is 4 . and language impairment. Relevant examples in speech-language pathology might include a person's background or culture that influences his or her reaction to a communication or swallowing disorder. and the impact of institutional dining environments on individuals' ability to safely maintain nutrition and hydration. participation restrictions. Speechlanguage pathologists may influence contextual factors through education and advocacy efforts at local. doctoral. It consists of two components: • Health Conditions º Body Functions and Structures: These involve the anatomy and physiology of the human body. vocal fold paralysis.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice the speech-language pathologist in the prevention. and national levels. cerebral palsy. ASHAcertified speech-language pathologists complete a supervised postgraduate professional experience and pass a national examination as described in the ASHA certification standards. On one end of the continuum is intact functioning. These factors may include. and habilitation/ rehabilitation. which requires a master's. but are not limited to. participating actively in class. and profession. and barriers created by contextual factors. º Personal Factors: These are the internal influences on an individual's functioning and disability and are not part of the health condition. age. gender. the influence of classroom acoustics on communication. hold the ASHA Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology (CCC-SLP). Qualifications Speech-language pathologists. º Activity and Participation: Activity refers to the execution of a task or action. ethnicity. • Contextual Factors º Environmental Factors: These make up the physical. and attitudinal environments in which people live and conduct their lives. Relevant examples in speech-language pathology include the role of the communication partner in augmentative and alternative communication. Relevant examples in speech-language pathology include difficulties with swallowing safely for independent feeding. The contextual factors interact with each other and with the health conditions and may serve as facilitators or barriers to functioning. Speechlanguage pathologists work to improve quality of life by reducing impairments of body functions and structures. educational level. Relevant examples in speechlanguage pathology include a user of an augmentative communication device needing classroom support services for academic success. The framework in speech-language pathology encompasses these health conditions and contextual factors. understanding a medical prescription. as defined by ASHA. and accessing the general education curriculum. and scientific investigation of communication and swallowing. The health condition component of the ICF can be expressed on a continuum of functioning. social. state. or other recognized postbaccalaureate degree. stuttering. assessment. Relevant examples in speech-language pathology include craniofacial anomaly.

teaching certification). mentorship and supervision.. Speech-language pathologists may engage in only those aspects of the profession that are within their scope of competence. individuals frequently benefit from services that include speech-language pathologist collaborations with other professionals. and continuing professional development. spelling) º prelinguistic communication (e.g.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice mandated for the maintenance of the CCC-SLP. and considering clients' individual preferences and values. state licensure. their services are not prescribed or supervised by another professional. speechlanguage pathologists hold other required credentials (e. communicative signaling) º paralinguistic communication 5 . However. Professional Roles and Activities Speech-language pathologists serve individuals.g. Speech-language pathologists address typical and atypical communication and swallowing in the following areas: • speech sound production º articulation º apraxia of speech º dysarthria º ataxia º dyskinesia • resonance º hypernasality º hyponasality º cul-de-sac resonance º mixed resonance • voice º phonation quality º pitch º loudness º respiration • fluency º stuttering º cluttering • language (comprehension and expression) º phonology º morphology º syntax º semantics º pragmatics (language use. these experiences define the scope of competence for each individual. families. social aspects of communication) º literacy (reading. speechlanguage pathologists are autonomous professionals. using expert clinical judgments. and groups from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. joint attention. writing. Where applicable. that is. Services are provided based on applying the best available research evidence. intentionality. Each practitioner must evaluate his or her own experiences with preservice education. As a whole. clinical practice. As primary care providers for communication and swallowing disorders. This document defines the scope of practice for the field of speech-language pathology..

fragile X syndrome. learning disabilities. planning. prematurity. management • counseling • collaboration • documentation • referral Examples of these clinical services include 1... pharyngeal. laryngeal. substance exposure). tracheostomy). • neurological disease/dysfunction (e.g. schizophrenia). • pharyngeal anomalies (e. and research.g. vocal fold pathology.g. dementia. prevention and advocacy. tracheal stenosis.... The professional roles and activities in speech-language pathology include clinical/ educational services (diagnosis. macroglossia. dental malocclusion. • respiratory compromise (e. Clinical Services Speech-language pathologists provide clinical services that include the following: • prevention and pre-referral • screening • assessment/evaluation • consultation • diagnosis • treatment.g. velopharyngeal insufficiency/incompetence)..g.g..g. attention deficit disorder). • developmental disabilities (e.. • genetic disorders (e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). • psychiatric disorder (e. and treatment). administration. cleft lip/palate.g.g. specific language impairment. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). traumatic brain injury. • oral anomalies (e. velocardiofacial syndrome). dyslexia. low birth weight. Rett syndrome. oralmotor dysfunction). using data to guide clinical decision making and determine the effectiveness of services.g.. bronchopulmonary dysplasia. and education. autism spectrum disorder. intervention. assessment. hearing loss or deafness). upper airway obstruction. 6 . psychosis..Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice • cognition º attention º memory º sequencing º problem solving º executive functioning • feeding and swallowing º oral. Parkinson's disease. • laryngeal anomalies (e. cerebral vascular accident. cerebral palsy. esophageal º orofacial myology (including tongue thrust) º oral-motor functions Potential etiologies of communication and swallowing disorders include • neonatal problems (e. • auditory problems (e. Down syndrome.

and/or consumer organizations.. documenting provision of services in accordance with accepted procedures appropriate for the practice setting.. and establishing effective use of prosthetic/adaptive devices for communication and swallowing (e. selecting. fitting. speech and language intervention secondary to hearing loss. speaking valves. 4. nasometry. and measure parameters of communication and swallowing or other upper aerodigestive functions. manual communication boards. 12. counseling individuals.g. screening individuals for hearing loss or middle ear pathology using conventional pure-tone air conduction methods (including otoscopic inspection). planning lessons with educators.g.g. nasendoscopy. addressing behaviors (e. discharge/dismissal) across the lifespan. this service does not include the selection or fitting of sensory devices used by individuals with hearing loss or other auditory perceptual deficits. 5. adaptation. serving on student assistance teams).g. coworkers.. providing intervention and support services for children and adults diagnosed with speech and language disorders. service delivery coordinators. communication opportunities) that affect communication and swallowing. 7 . otoacoustic emissions screening. school. and prescribing multimodal augmentative and alternative communication systems. 8. serving as case managers.. picture schedules). 14. auditory training for children with cochlear implants and hearing aids. using instrumentation (e. developing. tracheoesophageal prostheses.. speech-generating devices. and decision making about communication and swallowing.. manual signs. providing intervention and support services for children and adults diagnosed with auditory processing disorders.g. 6. 7. home. which falls within the scope of practice of audiologists.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice 2. 9. electrolarynges. 2004). stroboscopy.g. ASHA. admission/eligibility. videofluoroscopy.. 13.. including unaided strategies (e. transition planning teams).. families. community). and other persons in the community regarding acceptance. positioning for swallowing safety or attention.. agencies. 17. facilitating the process of obtaining funding for equipment and services related to difficulties with communication and swallowing. 3. 15. determining appropriate context(s) for service delivery (e.g.g. location. endoscopy.g. 11. and members of collaborative teams (e. classroom seating. 10.g. providing services to individuals with hearing loss and their families/ caregivers (e. educators. collaborating with other professionals (e. 16. duration. gestures) and aided strategies (e. selecting. participating in palliative care teams. making service delivery decisions (e. and/or screening tympanometry. perseverative or disruptive actions) and environments (e.g. computer technology) to observe. providing referrals and information to other professionals. speechreading. including verification of appropriate battery voltage). visual inspection and listening checks of amplification devices for the purpose of troubleshooting.. frequency. collect data. telepractice. identifying neonates and infants at risk for hearing loss. electromyography. individualized family service plan and individualized education program teams.

7. 3. 9. advising regulatory and legislative agencies on emergency responsiveness to individuals who have communication and swallowing disorders or difficulties. educating. educating. 3. public and private schools. and researchers. Prevention and Advocacy Speech-language pathologists engage in prevention and advocacy activities related to human communication and swallowing. which may include but are not exclusive to 1. administering and managing clinical and academic programs. Example activities for these roles include 1.. administrators. advocating at the local. and managing speech-language pathology assistants and other support personnel.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice 18. educating the public regarding communication and swallowing. 5. 8. and other professionals. 5. caregivers. 6. and linguistic barriers. accent modification. including the elimination of societal. and national levels for improved administrative and governmental policies affecting access to services for communication and swallowing. 8. Education. personal/professional communication effectiveness). and swallowing. state.. and mentoring current and future speech-language pathologists. cessation of smoking.g. supervising. advocating at the local. presenting primary prevention information to individuals and groups known to be at risk for communication disorders and other appropriate groups. cultural. operational procedures. participating actively in professional organizations to contribute to best practices in the profession. improving communication wellness by promoting healthy lifestyle practices that can help prevent communication and swallowing disorders (e. 6. 4. state. recruiting potential speech-language pathologists into the profession. Example activities include 1. 4. fostering public awareness of communication and swallowing disorders and their treatment. 10. wearing helmets when bike riding). and training programs to promote and facilitate access to full participation in communication. health literacy.g. 7. 2. 8 . care and improvement of the professional voice. and national levels for funding for research. promoting and marketing professional services. 9. serving as expert witnesses. advocating for individuals and families through community awareness. providing early identification and early intervention services for communication disorders. conducting basic and applied/translational research related to communication sciences and disorders. transgender voice. developing policies. and Research Speech-language pathologists also serve as educators. 2. educating and providing in-service training to families. Practice Settings Speech-language pathologists provide services in a wide variety of settings. and professional standards. education. supervising. Administration. providing services to modify or enhance communication performance (e.

org/policy. Available from www.dist.asha. (2004). research facilities. International classification of functioning. Available from www.mcli.org/policy.org/policy. Autonomy of speech-language pathology and audiology [Relevant paper]. state. (2004).asha. living. Lombardo.htm.asha. Definitions and Terminology American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005).. Available from www. T. community. correctional institutions. (2001). General Service Delivery Issues Admission/Discharge Criteria American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Autonomy American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. medical rehabilitation facilities.org/policy.census. disability and health. 3. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 11. (2005).asha.asha. Switzerland: Author. Admission/discharge criteria in speech-language pathology [Guidelines].asha. Evidence-based practice in communication disorders [Position statement]. Language [Relevant paper]. Scope of practice in audiology. Available from www.org/ about/membership-certification/handbooks/slp/slp_standards. Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Population profile of the United States: Dynamic version. World Health Organization.maricopa.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice 2. Race and Hispanic origin in 2005. early intervention settings.g. (2005). (2002). The Labyrinth: Sharing Information on Learning Technologies.edu/LF/Spr97/spr97L8. 4. 5 (2).org/policy. Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists and audiologists to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services [Knowledge and skills]. (2004). The impact of information technology: Learning. 5.S. individuals' homes and community residences. Available from www. Code of ethics (Revised). Spring). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. behavioral/mental health facilities).gov. Standards for the certificate of clinical competence in speech-language pathology.org/policy. Available from www. home health agencies. long-term care facilities. (2004). U. References Resources American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Available from www. Preferred practice patterns for the profession of speech-language pathology. corporate and industrial settings. Available from www. 7. Geneva. 9. 6. (1997. (2003). preschools. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. neonatal intensive care units. American English dialects [Technical report].asha. clinics. and federal agencies and institutions.asha. 8. health care settings (e. 9 . Available from www. Available from www. supported and competitive employment settings. 10. hospitals. private practice settings. Census Bureau.asha. and day care centers.org/policy. universities and university clinics. (1982). ASHA Cardinal Documents American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. (1986).html. and loving in the future. Available from www. Available from www.

asha.org/policy. Quality indicators for professional service programs in audiology and speech-language pathology [Quality indicators]. Available from www.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Drawing cases for private practice from primary place of employment [Issues in ethics]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Clinical supervision in speechlanguage pathology and audiology [Position statement]. (1986). Private Practice American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. 10 . Professional liability and risk management for the audiology and speech-language pathology professions [Technical report].asha. (2004). Available from www.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Speech-Language Pathology Assistants American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. use.org/policy.asha. and supervision of speech-language pathology assistants [Guidelines].asha. Private practice [Technical report]. Terminology pertaining to fluency and fluency disorders [Guidelines].asha. (2004). Available from www.asha. Available from www. (2005). Available from www. Available from www. (1990). (2001). (1991). Available from www.org/policy.asha. Available from www.org/policy. Evidence-Based Practice American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Professional Service Programs American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Definition of communication disorders and variations [Definition].org/policy. Private practice [Definition].asha. (1993). Available from www. and supervision of support personnel in speech-language pathology [Position statement]. Available from www.org/policy. (2004). Supervision American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). Available from www. (2004). Considerations for establishing a private practice in audiology and/or speech-language pathology [Technical report].asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. (2004).asha.asha. Clinical fellowship supervisor's responsibilities [Issues in ethics]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy.org/ policy. Evidence-based practice in communication disorders: An introduction [Technical report]. Knowledge and skills for supervisors of speech-language pathology assistants [Knowledge and skills]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. use.asha.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. (1998). Guidelines for the training. (2002). (1985). Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Available from www. Support personnel [Issues in ethics]. Available from www. Evidence-based practice in communication disorders: An introduction [Position statement].asha. Training. Available from www. Available from www.org/policy.org/policy. Supervision of student clinicians [Issues in ethics]. Available from www. (1994).org/policy.asha.

and treatment of autism spectrum disorders across the life span [Knowledge and skills]. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists in diagnosis. (2005). (1995). assessment. and treatment of autism spectrum disorders across the life span [Position statement]. (2006). Available from www. Available from www. (Central) auditory processing disorders [Technical report]. Principles for speech-language pathologists in diagnosis.asha. Auditory Processing American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Available from www.org/policy.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice Clinical Services and Populations Apraxia of Speech American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. assessment. Available from www. assessment. 11 .asha. Available from www.asha. Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2001).org/policy.asha.org/policy. (Central) auditory processing disorders—the role of the audiologist [Position statement].org/policy. Available from www. (2005).asha.org/policy. Available from www. (2006). Autism Spectrum Disorders American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2006). (2006). Central auditory processing: Current status of research and implications for clinical practice [Technical report]. and treatment of autism spectrum disorders across the life span [Technical report]. Available from www.org/policy. Aural Rehabilitation American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to augmentative and alternative communication [Technical report].org/policy. Knowledge and skills required for the practice of audiologic/aural rehabilitation [Knowledge and skills]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007). Maximizing the provision of appropriate technology services and devices for students in schools [Technical report].asha. Available from www. assessment. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha.asha. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to augmentative and alternative communication [Position statement]. Augmentative and alternative communication: Knowledge and skills for service delivery [Knowledge and skills]. Available from www.asha. and treatment of autism spectrum disorders across the life span [Guidelines].asha.asha.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Childhood apraxia of speech [Position statement]. (2004).org/policy. Available from www.asha.org/policy. Available from www. (2004).org/policy.org/policy. Available from www. (1998).org/policy. (2001). Childhood apraxia of speech [Technical report]. Guidelines for speech-language pathologists in diagnosis. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007). Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists for diagnosis. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

org/policy. Early Intervention American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/ policy. Available from www. (2005). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.. Roles of speech-language pathologists and teachers of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in the development of communicative and linguistic competence [Guidelines]. Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism—report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society Neurology. J.asha. G. Cook.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice Filipek. 468–479 Cognitive Aspects of Communication American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2003). Available from www. T. Dementia American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. and Knowledge and skills]. et al.asha.org/policy. Baranek. [Position statement.asha. G.asha. (2005). (2005). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Guidelines for the structure and function of an interdisciplinary team for persons with brain injury [Guidelines]. The roles of speech-language pathologists working with dementia-based communication disorders [Technical report].. E. (2003).asha. (2004).org/policy. Roles of speech-language pathologists and teachers of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in the development of communicative and linguistic competence [Technical report].asha. Roles of speech-language pathologists and teachers of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in the development of communicative and linguistic competence [Position statement]. (1995). Available from www. (2000). S..org/policy.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The roles of speech-language pathologists working with dementia-based communication disorders [Position statement]. Technical report. 55. Ashwal. Available from www.. 12 . Available from www. A.asha. Guidelines. Available from www. Available from www. Roles and responsibilities of speechlanguage pathologists in early intervention (in preparation). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Deaf and Hard of Hearing American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www. H. diagnosis. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy.org/policy. Available from www. (2004).. (1990). Evaluating and treating communication and cognitive disorders: Approaches to referral and collaboration for speech-language pathology and clinical neuropsychology [Technical report]. and treatment of individuals with cognitivecommunication disorders: Position statement.asha.org/policy.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www. (2004). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing services to individuals with cognitivecommunication disorders [Knowledge and skills].. Accardo. Roles of speech-language pathologists in the identification.org/policy. Dawson. Interdisciplinary approaches to brain damage [Position statement].org/policy. Available from www. (2005). P. P.asha. Rehabilitation of children and adults with cognitive-communication disorders after brain injury [Technical report].

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and the National Association of School Psychologists (1987).asha. Hearing Screening American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Available from www.ldonline. (2005). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.asha. Learning disabilities and young children: Identification and intervention Available from www. 13 . Available from www.asha. Available from www. (2000).org/article/ 11511?theme=print. Available from www.org/policy. Available from www.org/policy. Clinical practice by certificate holders in the profession in which they are not certified [Issues in ethics]. (1995).asha.org/policy. Identification of children and youths with language learning disorders [Position statement].asha. Language learning disorders [Position statement]. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents [Guidelines]. Available from www. Guidelines for practice in stuttering treatment [Guidelines]. (2005).asha. Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents [Knowledge and skills]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2002). (1989).asha. Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists serving persons with mental retardation/developmental disabilities [Knowledge and skills]. Available from www. Available from www. Available from www. Available from www.org/policy. Guidelines for audiologic screening [Guidelines]. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents [Technical report].org/policy.org/policy. Labial-lingual posturing function [Technical report]. (2000). (1991).org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Available from www. Available from www.org/policy.org/policy.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2006). (2000).org/policy. (1981).org/policy. Available from www.org/policy. (2004). The role of the speech-language pathologist in assessment and management of oral myofunctional disorders [Position statement].asha.org/policy. Principles for speech-language pathologists serving persons with mental retardation/developmental disabilities [Technical report]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents [Position statement]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1997).asha. Fluency American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Language and Literacy American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. (2005). Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists serving persons withmental retardation/developmental disabilities [Guidelines].org/policy.org/policy.asha. Available from www. Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists serving persons withmental retardation/developmental disabilities [Position statement].

National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of Persons With Severe Disabilities (2003).asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Knowledge and skills for speech-language pathologists performing endoscopic assessment of swallowing functions [Knowledge and skills].org/policy. Severe Disabilities National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of Persons With Severe Disabilities. Available from www. Prevention of communication disorders tutorial [Relevant paper]. Available from www. Access to communication services and supports: Concerns regarding the application of restrictive “eligibility” policies [Technical report]. Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists performing videofluoroscopic swallowing studies Available from www. (1991). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Roles of speech-language pathologists in swallowing and feeding disorders [Position statement]. 14 . American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Instrumental diagnostic procedures for swallowing [Position statement].asha.org/policy. Available from www.asha. Available from www. (1993). Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004).org/policy. Available from www.asha. socio-communicative and/or cognitivecommunicative impairments [Guidelines]. Clinical indicators for instrumental assessment of dysphagia [Guidelines].asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.html. [Guidelines].asha.asha.org/policy.org/policy.asha. Available from www. Social Aspects of Communication American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1987). Guidelines for meeting the communication needs of persons with severe disabilities. Access to communication services and supports: Concerns regarding the application of restrictive “eligibility” policies [Position statement]. (2001). Available from www. Available from www.asha.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/ policy.org/policy.asha.org/policy.org/docs/html/GL1992-00201. Prevention American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1987). Available from www.asha.asha. Available from www. Swallowing American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Guidelines for speech-language pathologists performing videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. Instrumental diagnostic procedures for swallowing [Guidelines]. (1992). (2001).asha. Orofacial myofunctional disorders [Knowledge and skills].org/policy. Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2000). Roles of speech-language pathologists in swallowing and feeding disorders [Technical report]. (2004). (1992). National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of Persons With Severe Disabilities (2002). Prevention of communication disorders [Position statement].asha. Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing services to individuals with swallowing and/or feeding disorders [Knowledge and skills].asha. Available from www. (1991).org/policy.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Guidelines for speech-language pathologists serving persons with language. (2001). Available from www. (2001).org/policy.

Available from www. (2005).org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.org/policy. Available from www.asha. Health Care Services Business Practices in Health Care Settings American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Use of voice prostheses in tracheotomized persons with or without ventilatory dependence [Guidelines].asha. 15 . American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Knowledge and skills in business practices needed by speech-language pathologists in health care settings [Knowledge and skills].org/policy. (2004). Available from www. (2005). Role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing [Position statement]. (1993). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy.org/policy.asha.Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Available from www. and the speaking voice trainer in voice habilitation [Technical report].asha. Available from www.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). The use of voice therapy in the treatment of dysphonia [Technical report]. Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Voice and Resonance American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Use of voice prostheses in tracheotomized persons with or without ventilatory dependence [Position statement]. (2004). Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Available from www.asha. Role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing [Guidelines]. Oral and oropharyngeal prostheses [Guidelines]. (1993). (1998). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha.org/policy.org/policy.org/policy. Vocal tract visualization and imaging [Position statement]. (1993). Speech-language pathologists training and supervising other professionals in the delivery of services to individuals with swallowing and feeding disorders [Technical report]. (2004).asha. Available from www. (2002).asha.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. The role of the speech-language pathologist.org/policy. Oral and oropharyngeal prostheses [Position statement].org/policy. Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Knowledge and skills for speech-language pathologists with respect to evaluation and treatment for tracheoesophageal puncture and prosthesis [Knowledge and skills]. Evaluation and treatment for tracheoesophageal puncture and prosthesis [Technical report].asha. (2004). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.asha. Available from www. the teacher of singing.org/policy. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to evaluation and treatment for tracheoesophageal puncture and prosthesis [Position statement]. (2004). Available from www.asha. (2004). Vocal tract visualization and imaging [Technical report]. The roles of otolaryngologists and speech-language pathologists in the performance and interpretation of strobovideolaryngoscopy [Relevant paper]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha. Role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing [Technical report].org/policy. (2004). (2004).asha. (1993). Available from www.

(1996).asha. Sedation and Anesthetics American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www. 16 . (2004). Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists in the neonatal intensive care unit [Technical report]. Available from www.org/policy. Available from www. Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.asha. (2004). Multiskilling American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Knowledge and skills in business practices for speech-language pathologists who are managers and leaders in health care organizations [Knowledge and skills]. Telepractice American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.org/policy.asha. (2004).org/policy. (2004). School Services Collaboration American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists in the neonatal intensive care unit [Guidelines]. Available from www.asha.org/policy. Available from www. Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing clinical services via telepractice [Technical report]. Speech-language pathologists providing clinical services via telepractice [Technical report]. Available from www. Available from www.asha. Available from www. (1992). (2004). Neonatal Intensive Care Unit American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Multiskilled personnel [Position statement]. Speech-language pathologists providing clinical services via telepractice [Position statement].org/policy.org/policy.org/policy.asha.asha.asha. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists in the neonatal intensive care unit [Position statement]. Available from www. (1991).org/policy. Considerations for developing and selecting standardized assessment and intervention materials [Technical report]. (2005). Evaluation American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available from www.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1996). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing services to infants and families in the NICU environment [Knowledge and skills]. Multiskilled personnel [Technical report].org/policy.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha.org/policy.asha. (2004).asha.org/policy.org/policy. A model for collaborative service delivery for students with language-learning disorders in the public schools [Relevant paper]. Sedation and topical anesthetics in audiology and speech-language pathology [Technical report]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. (2004). (1987).Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

17 .org/policy. Medicaid guidance for speechlanguage pathology services: Addressing the “under the direction of” rule [Knowledge and skills]. (2005). (2004).Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology Scope of Practice Facilities American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Medicaid guidance for speechlanguage pathology services: Addressing the “under the direction of” rule [Technical report].asha. (2005).asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Medicaid guidance for speechlanguage pathology services: Addressing the “under the direction of” rule [Guidelines]. (1999).org/policy. (2002). Available from www. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy.org/policy.asha. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. (2002). Available from www. (2004). Roles and Responsibilities for School-Based Practitioners American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy.asha.asha. Available from www. Workload analysis approach for establishing speech-language caseload standards in the schools [Position statement]. Available from www. Available from www. (2003). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Inclusive practices for children and youths with communication disorders [Position statement].asha. Available from www. “Under the Direction of” Rule American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.org/policy. Workload analysis approach for establishing speech-language caseload standards in the schools [Technical report]. Inclusive Practices American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Medicaid guidance for speechlanguage pathology services: Addressing the “under the direction of” rule [Position statement]. Available from www. Workload American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.asha.asha. Guidelines for the roles and responsibilities of the school-based speech-language pathologist [Guidelines]. Available from www.asha. Appropriate school facilities for students with speech-language-hearing disorders [Technical report]. (2002).org/policy. Available from www.org/policy. Workload analysis approach for establishing speech-language caseload standards in the schools [Guidelines]. (1996).asha. Available from www.