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12 s

(b) 750 mJ
(c) 1.13 k

(d) 3.5 Gbits


(e) 6.5 nm
(f) 13.56 MHz

(g) 39 pA
(h) 49 k
(i) 11.73 pA

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

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1. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(a) 1 MW
(b) 12.35 mm
(c) 47. kW
(d) 5.46 mA

(e) 33 J
(f) 5.33 nW
(g) 1 ns
(h) 5.555 MW

(i) 32 mm

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

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2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

kW

(e) 285.410-15 s =
285.4 fs

kJ

25.4 mm

1055 J
(d) ( 67 Btu )
= 70.69
1 Btu

(c) 2.54 cm =

12 in 2.54 cm 1 m
(b) 12 ft = (12 ft)

= 3.658 m
1 ft 1 in 100 cm

( 400 Hp )

745.7 W
= 298.3
1 hp

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

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3. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(1.5 J/s)(3 hr)(60 min/ hr)(60 s/ min) = 16.2 kJ

3 hrs running at this power level equates to a transfer of energy equal to

(15 V)(0.1 A) = 1.5 W = 1.5 J/s.

Chapter Two Solutions

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4.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Motor power = 175 Hp


(a) With 100% efficient mechanical to electrical power conversion,
(175 Hp)[1 W/ (1/745.7 Hp)] = 130.5 kW
(b) Running for 3 hours,
Energy = (130.5103 W)(3 hr)(60 min/hr)(60 s/min) = 1.409 GJ
(c) A single battery has 430 kW-hr capacity. We require
(130.5 kW)(3 hr) = 391.5 kW-hr therefore one battery is sufficient.

Chapter Two Solutions

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5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

20

Pavg = (20 pulses)(400 mJ/pulse)/(1 s) = 8 W.

(b) At 20 pulses per second, the average power is

P = 40010-3/2010-9 = 20 MW.

400

Energy (mJ)

t (ns)

The 400-mJ pulse lasts 20 ns.


(a) To compute the peak power, we assume the pulse shape is square:

Chapter Two Solutions

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Then

6.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

75

Pavg = (100 pulses)(1 mJ/pulse)/(1 s) = 100 mW.

(b) At 100 pulses per second, the average power is

P = 110-3/7510-15 = 13.33 GW.

Energy (mJ)

t (fs)

The 1-mJ pulse lasts 75 fs.


(a) To compute the peak power, we assume the pulse shape is square:

Chapter Two Solutions

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Then

7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10

5
7

17

24

(b) The average power in Btu/hr is


(6900 J/24 min)(60 min/1 hr)(1 Btu/1055 J) = 16.35 Btu/hr.

(a) Total energy (in J) expended is


[6(5) + 0(2) + 0.5(10)(10) + 0.5(10)(7)]60 = 6.9 kJ.

P (W)

t (min)

10 March 2006

The power drawn from the battery is (not quite drawn to scale):

Chapter Two Solutions

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8.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

10 2
10

300 t + 10 dt = 600 t + 10t


0

300

= 1.5 kJ

(b) The energy transferred in the last five minutes is 1.5 kJ

(a) The total energy transferred is 288 + 1.5 = 289.5 kJ

300 s

The total energy transferred during the last five minutes is given by

(10 W)(8 hr)(60 min/ hr)(60 s/ min) = 288 kJ

The total energy transferred during the first 8 hr is given by

Chapter Two Solutions

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9.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

10 March 2006

0.5

1.5
tim e (s )

(d) See Fig. (a) and (b).

2.5

(c) The rate of charge accumulation at t = 8 s is


dq/dt|t = 0.8 = 36(0.8) 8(0.8)3 = 24.7 C/s.

(a)

-150

-100

-50

50

0.5

1.5
i (A )

2.5

(b)

f irst and

substituting t = 2.121 s into the expression for d2q/dt2, we obtain a value of


14.9, so that this root represents a maximum.
Thus, we find a maximum charge q = 40.5 C at t = 2.121 s.

dq/dt = 36t 8t3 = 0, leading to roots at 0, 2.121 s


d2q/dt2 = 36 24t2

(b) To find the m aximum charge within 0 t 3 s, we need to take the


second derivitives:

(a) q(2 s) = 40 C.

charge q = 18t2 2t4 C.

Chapter Two Solutions

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q (C)

10. Total

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

tim e (t)

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

= 33.91 C

= 2t e5t
5

-0.8

5 t
0.8 2 + 3e dt

i (t )dt

0.1

0.8 1

3t

0.1

2 + 3e3t dt

( 2t + e )

0.1

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q(t)

(d) The total charge passed left to right in the interval 0. 8 < t < 0.1 s is

Therefore, the current is never negative.

for t > 0, -2 + 3e3t = 0 leads to t = (1/3) ln (2/3) = 0.135 s (impossible)

for t < 0, - 2 + 3e-5t = 0 leads to t = -0.2 ln (2/3) = +0.0811 s (impossible)

(c) To determine the instants at which i1 = 0, we must consider t < 0 and t > 0 separately:

(b) i1 (0.2) = 3.466 A

(a) i1(-0.2) = 6.155 A

Thus,

t<0
t>0

Referring to Fig. 2.6c,

- 2 + 3e 5t A,
i1 (t ) =
3t
- 2 + 3e A,

11.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Referring to Fig. 2.28,

Chapter Two Solutions

= 800 mA

12

16
2
4

6
8

10

12
14

10 March 2006

16

t(s)

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-16

-8

q (C)

i (t )dt = -4(1) + 2(2) + 6(2) + 0(4) 4(2) = 4 C

(c) See Fig. below

qtotal =

(b) The total charge transferred over the interval 1 < t < 12 s is

iavg = [-4(2) + 2(2) + 6(2) + 0(4)]/10

(a) The average current over one period (10 s) is

12.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

3 pJ
1.602 10-19 C

=
=

2 pJ
-1.602 10-19 C

0
-1.602 10-19 C
18.73 MV

12.48 MV

10 March 2006

Hence,

VDB =

1 pJ
= 6.242 MV.
1.602 10-19 C

Thus, it requires 3 pJ + 2 pJ = 1 pJ to m ove +1.602x10 19 C from D to C to


B.

(d) It takes 3 pJ to move +1.602x1019 C from D to C.


It takes 2 pJ to move 1.602x1019 C from B to C, or 2 pJ to move
19
C from B to C, or +2 pJ to move +1.602x1019 C from C to B.
+1.602x10

(c) VDC =

(b) VED =

VBA =

Chapter Two Solutions

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13. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Voltmeter

Voltmeter

From the diagram, we see that V2 = V1 = +2.86 V.

V2
+

+
V1

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

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14.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Pabs = (+6 V)(-20 A) = 120 W

(b)

(or +6.4 mW supplied)

10 March 2006

= +12.11 W

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(e) Pabs = (4 sin 1000t V)(-8 cos 1000t mA)| t = 2 ms

(d) Pabs = (+6 V)(2 ix) = (+6 V)[(2)(5 A)] = +60 W

(or +120 W supplied)

Pabs = (+3.2 V)(-2 mA) = 6.4 mW

Chapter Two Solutions

15. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0.01655 W = 16.55 nW

t = 5 ms

]
W

Pabs dt

3t (6 600t ) e 200t dt

x n e ax dx

n!
a n +1

= 18/(200)2 - 1800/(200)3
= 0

10 March 2006

where n is a positive integer and a > 0,

we find the energy delivered to be

Making use of the relationship

(b) The energy delivered over the interval 0 < t < is

Pabs = (6 600t ) e 100t 3te 100t

(a) The power absorbed at t = 5 ms is

i = 3te-100t mA and v = [6 600t] e-100t mV

Chapter Two Solutions

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16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t = 8 ms

t = 8 ms

t = 8 ms

t = 8 ms

10 March 2006

= 72.68 W

= 27.63 W

= - 36.34 W

360 e 100t

t
= 90e 100t 3e 100t dt + 60e 100t
0

t
(c) Pabs = 30 idt + 20 3e 100t
0

di

(b) Pabs = 0.2 i = - 180 e 100t


dt

(a) Pabs = (40i)(3e-100t)| t = 8 ms =

Chapter Two Solutions

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17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Pmax is roughly (375 mV)(2.5 A) = 938 mW, or just under 1 W.

(c) We see that th e maximum current corres ponds to zero voltage , and likewise, the
maximum voltage occu rs at zero curren t. The m aximum power point, therefore,
occurs somewhere between these two points. By trial and error,

Reading from the graph, this corresponds to roughly 0.4875 V, estimating the curve as
hitting the x-axis 1 mm behind the 0.5 V mark.

(b) The open-circuit voltage is the value of the voltage at I = 0.

Reading from the graph, this corresponds to approximately 3.0 A.

(a) The short-circuit current is the value of the current at V = 0.

Chapter Two Solutions

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18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 0 mW

10 March 2006

(c) 36 (2)(0.001)(60)(60) = 21.6 J

(b) Energy = (5 V)(0.001 A)(2 hr)(60 min/ hr)(60 s/ min) = 36 J

P last 2 hours = ( 2 V )( 0.001 A ) = 2 mW

P next 30 minutes = ( ? V )( 0 A )

P first 2 hours = ( 5 V )( 0.001 A ) = 5 mW

Chapter Two Solutions

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19. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Absorbed Power
(2 V)(-2 A)
(8 V)(-2 A)
(10 V)[-(-4 A)]
(10 V)(-5 A)
(10 V)[-(-3 A)]

The 5 powe r quantities sum to 4 16 +


conservation of energy.

Source
2 V source
8 V source
-4 A source
10 V source
-3 A source

40 50 + 30 = 0, as de

Absorbed Power
-4W
- 16 W
40 W
- 50 W
30 W

manded from

Note that in the table below, only th e 4-A sou rce and the 3-A source are actually
absorbing power; the remaining sources are supplying power to the circuit.

Chapter Two Solutions

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20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= (40)( 12) =

P12A supplied

supplied power

= (40)(20)

P40V supplied

Check:

= (40)(16)

P16A supplied

480 W

800 W

640 W

256 W

64 W

40 V

(source of energy)

(source of energy)

(source of energy)

40 V

12 A

20 A

10 March 2006

= 64 + 256 640 + 800 480 = 0 (ok)

= (32)(8)

P32V supplied

= (8)(8)

16 A

P8V supplied

8V

32 V

Chapter Two Solutions

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21.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

yes, the su m of the power supplied = the sum of the power absorbed,
expect from the principle of conservation of energy.

(c) The sum of the supplied power = 5 + 40 = 45 W


The sum of the absorbed power is 45 W, so

(b) The power supplied by the 1-V source = (1 V)(5 A) = 5 W, and


the power supplied by the dependent source = (8 V)(5 A) = 40 W

(a) The power absorbed by element A = (9 V)(5 A) = 45 W

as we

We are told that V x = 1 V, and from Fig. 2.33 w e see that the current flowing through
the dependent source (and hence th rough each element of t he circuit) is 5V x = 5 A.
We will co mpute absorbed power by using the current flowing
into the po sitive
reference terminal of the a ppropriate voltage (p assive sign conven tion), and we will
compute supplied power by using the current flowing out of the pos itive reference
terminal of the appropriate voltage.

Chapter Two Solutions

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22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

and so
vs = v1 = -1 mV

This current is equal to i2.


Thus,
5 v1 = -i2 = - 5 mA
Therefore
v1 = -1 mV

We are asked to determine the voltage vs, which is identical to the voltage labeled v1.
The only remaining reference to v1 is in the expression for the current flowing through
the dependent source, 5v1.

Chapter Two Solutions

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23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

The voltage across the dependent source = v2 = 2ix = 2(0.001) = 2 mV.

Chapter Two Solutions

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24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

I = (57.6 W)/(12 V) = 4.8 A

(b) The current through the headlight is equal to the power it absorbs from the battery
divided by the voltage at which the power is supplied, or

(a) The power delivered to the headlight is therefore (460.8 W-hr)/(8 hr) = 57.6 W

The battery delivers an energy of 460.8 W-hr over a period of 8 hrs.

Chapter Two Solutions

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25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

therefore Imax = Pmax/V = (500 W)/(110 V) = 4.545 A

Although 495 W is less than the m aximum po wer allowed, this fuse will provid e
adequate protection for the app lication circuitry. If a faul t occurs and the application
circuitry attempts to draw too m uch power, 1000 W for example, the fuse will blow,
no current will f low, and the application c ircuitry will be p rotected. However, if the
application circuitry tries to draw its maximum rated power (500 W ), the fuse will
also blow. In practice, m ost equipm ent will not draw its m aximum rated powe r
continuouslyalthough to be safe, we typically assume that it will.

If we choose the 4.5-A fuse instead, we will hav e a m aximum current of 4.5 A. This
leads to a maximum power of (110)(4.5) = 495 W delivered to the application.

If we choose the 5-A fuse, it will allow up to (110 V)(5 A) = 550 W of power to be
delivered to the application (we must assume here that the fuse absorbs zero power, a
reasonable assumption in practice). This exceeds the specified maximum power.

P=VI

The supply voltage is 110 V, and the m aximum dissipated power is 500 W. The fuse s
are specified in te rms of current, so we need to determine the m aximum current th at
can flow through the fuse.

Chapter Two Solutions

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26.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

4.545 mA

imin = 5/ 1100 =

= 22.73 mW
= 27.78 mW

pmin = 25/ 1100


pmax = 25/ 900

p = v2 / R so

5.556 mA

imax = 5/ 900 =

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

27. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1.974 mW would be a correct answer, although power ratings are typically expressed
as integers, so 2 mW might be more appropriate.

p = i2 R, so
pmin = (0.002)2 (446.5) = 1.786 mW and (more relevant to our discussion)
pmax = (0.002)2 (493.5) = 1.974 mW

Chapter Two Solutions

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28.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

253.0 mW

8t 1.5 W

keep in mind we
are using radians

10 March 2006

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Pabs = v i=

230.9 mW

=
(c)

[40 cos 2] / 1200 W

Pabs = v2/R = [40 cos 20t] 2 / 1200 W

43.54 mW

= [20e-1.2] 2 (1200) W

Pabs = i2R = [20e-12t] 2 (1200) W

Chapter Two Solutions

(b)

29. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Two Solutions

-10

+10

v (V)

20

40
60

(d) pabs

1 (+10) 2
(10) 2

20
+
20 = 2 W

R
40 R

2
vmax
= (10)2 / 50 = 2 W
R

= 0

t (ms)

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avg

max

(c) iavg = vavg /R = 0

(b) vavg = [(+10)(2010-3) + (-10)(2010-3)]/(4010-3)

(e) pabs

10 March 2006

Its probably best to begin this problem by sketching the voltage waveform:

(a) vmax = +10 V

30.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

VR2 = Vs

Vs =

(R1

Q.E.D.

+ R2 )

R2
(R1 + R2 )

R2

VR2

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Solving for VR2 we find

so that

Since we know that the total power supplied is equal to the total power absorbed,
we may write:
Vs I = I2R1 + I2R2
or
Vs = I R1 + I R2
Vs = I (R1 + R2)
By Ohms law,
I = VR2 / R2

The power supplied by the voltage source is Vs I.


The power absorbed by resistor R1 is I2R1.
The power absorbed by resistor R2 is I2R2.

Since we are inform ed that the same current must flow through each com ponent, we
begin by defining a current I flowing out of the positive reference term inal of the
voltage
source.

31.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

-1

-0.5

0.5
voltage (V )

1.5

2.5

10 March 2006

-1.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5
voltage (V )

1.5

2.5

Using the last two points instead, we find Reff = 469 , so that we can state with some
certainty at least that a reasonable estimate of the resistance is approximately 470 .

Reff = [(2.5 (-1.5)]/[5.23 (-3.19)] k = 475

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(c)

-4
-1.5

-3

-2

-1

Chapter Two Solutions

(b) W e see from our answer to part (a ) that this device has a reasonably linear
characteristic (a not unreasonable degree of e xperimental error is evident in the data).
Thus, we choose to estimate the resistance using the two extreme points:

c urrent (m A )

32. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

c urrent (m A )

I = -(5/10) mA = -0.5 mA, and P10k = V2/10 mW = 2.5 mW

Top Right Circuit:

Bottom Right Circuit: I = -(-5/10) mA = 0.5 mA, and P10k = V2/10 mW = 2.5 mW

Bottom Left Circuit: I = (-5/10) mA = -0.5 mA, and P10k = V2/10 mW = 2.5 mW

I = (5/10) mA = 0.5 mA, and P10k = V2/10 mW = 2.5 mW

10 March 2006

Top Left Circuit:

Chapter Two Solutions

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33.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= - v

= -10-3 v (1000)

vout

= - v =

-0.01 cos 1000t V

v = vs = 0.01 cos 1000t V, we find that

vout

voltage vout is given by

Chapter Two Solutions

10 March 2006

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Since

34. The

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(use care to em ploy r adian m ode on your calculator or convert 1.57 radians to
degrees)

vout (t = 0.324 s) = -2sin (1.57) = -2 V

vout (t = 0) = 0 V

vout = -v = -vS = -2sin 5t V

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35.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Thus, we require 1000 (53) / 6.39 = 8294 ft of wire.


(Or 1.57 miles. Or, 2.53 km).

18 AWG wire has a resistance of 6.39 / 1000 ft.

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Note: This seems like a lot of wire to be washing up on shore. We may find we dont
have enough. In that case, perhaps we shoul d take our cue from Eq. [6], and try to
squash a piece of the wire flat so that it has a very small cross-sectional area..

(470 )/(71.0 10-3 /ft) = 6620 ft (1.25 miles, or 2.02 km).

Thus, to repair the transmitter we will need

We thus find that 28 AWG wire is (1.087)(65.3) = 71.0 m/ft.

R2/R1 = (234.5 + T2)/(234.5 + T1) = (234.5 + 42.22)/(234.5 + 20) = 1.087

Referring to Table 2.3, 28 AWG wire is 65.3 m /ft at 20 oC, and using the equation
provided we compute

We need to create a 47 0- resistor from 28 AWG wire , knowing that the am bient
perature is 108oF, or 42.22oC.

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37.
tem

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

I2R = (3)2 (156.7) mW = 1.410 W

A 3-A current flowing through this copper in the direction specified would
lead to the dissipation of

R = (15 cm)(1 m/100 cm)/[( 5.8107)( 1.6510-8)] = 156.7 m

So that

A = (33 m)(500 m)(1 m/106 m)( 1 m/106 m) = 1.6510-8 m2

The cross-sectional area of the foil is

(b) We assume that the conductivity value specified also holds true at 50oC.

Thus, R = (15.24 m)/[( 5.8107)( 8.23610-7)] = 319.0 m

A = r2 = (5.1210-4 m)2 = 8.23610-7 m2

so that

r = 0.5(1.024 mm)(1 m/1000 mm) = 5.1210-4 m

and

l = (50 ft)(12 in/ft)(2.54 cm/in)(1 m/100 cm) = 15.24 m

Converting the dimensional quantities to meters,

(a) 50 ft of #18 (18 AWG) copper wire, which has a diameter of 1.024 mm, will have
a resistance of l/( A) ohms, where A = the cross-sectional area and l = 50 ft.

We are given that the conductivity of copper is 5.8107 S/m.

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which is in fact consistent with the representative data for copper in Table 2.3.

= 1.723 .cm

or

Thus, = (65.3)(0.0804)/304800 = 17.23 / mm

A = 0.0804 mm2.

l = (1000 ft)(12 in/ft)(2.54 cm/in)(10 mm/cm) = 304,800 mm.

R = 65.3 .

Since R = l / A, it follows that = R A/ l .


From Table 2.4, we see that 28 AWG soft copper wire (cross-sectional area = 0.080 4
mm2) is 65.3 per 1000 ft. Thus,

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(b) The energy is dissipated by the resistor, converted to heat which is transferred to
the air surrounding the resistor. The resistor is unable to store the energy itself.

This last on e requires a few facts to be put together. We have st ated that temperature
can affect resistancein other words, if the temperature changes during operation, the
resistance will not rem ain constant and hence nonlinear behavior will be observed.
Most discrete resistors are rated for up to a sp ecific power in o rder to ensure th at
temperature variation during operation will no t significantly change th e res istance
value. Light bulbs, however, become rather warm when operating and can experience
a significant change in resistance.

(a)
From the text,
(1) Zener diodes,
(2) Fuses, and
(3) Incandescent (as opposed to fluorescent) light bulbs

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40.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

106

)
= 0.5619

10 March 2006

cm (1 m/100 cm )(100 m )

And P = I2R = (1.5)2 (0.5619) = 1.264 W.

(1.7654 10
Thus, R = l / A =

The quoted resistivity of B33 copper is 1.7654 .cm.


A = r2 = (103)2 = 106 m2. l = 100 m.

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Rotating sh ort
wire de
termines length
of long wire
used in circuit.

Copper wire

But this is s omewhat impractical, as the l eads may turn out to have alm ost the sam e
resistance unless we have a very long wi
re, which can also be im practical. One
improvement would be to replace the coppe r wire shown with a coil of insulated
copper wire. A s mall amount of insulation would then need to be removed from
where the moveable wire touches the coil so that electrical connection could be made.

Leads to
connect to
circuit

A simple variable resistor concept, then:

If we keep fixed by choosing a material, and A fixed by choosing a wire gauge (e.g.
28 AWG), changing l will change the resistance of our device.

We know that for any wire of cross-sectional area A and length l , the resistan ce is
given by R = l / A.

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42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

x 10

-2
-0.7

10

12

14

16

10 March 2006

-0.6

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3
-0.2
voltage (V )

-0.1

0.1

10

10

10

10

10

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

0.03
0.04
voltage (V)

0.05

pute the

0.06

I = 514.3 mA

Using a scientific calculator or the tried-and-true trial and error approach, we find that

I = 10-9 [e39I 1]

(c) R = 1 corresponds to V = I. Thus, we need to solve the transcendental equation

R(0.55 V) = 0.55/2.068 = 266 m

0.02

V = 550 mV, we com

0.01

I = 10-9 [e39(0.55) 1] = 2.068 A

(b) To dete rmine the resist ance of the device at


corresponding current:

-6

0.07

(a) We need to plot the negative and positive voltage ranges separately, as the positive
voltage range is, after all, exponential!

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Thus,

c urrent (A)

43.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

c urrent (A )

10 March 2006

The best (but not the only) choice for a portable application is clear: 28-AWG wire!

Would the 28-AW G wire weight less? Again referring to T able 2.3, we see that the
cross-sectional area of 28-AWG wire is 0.0804 mm 2, and that of 12-AWG wire is
3.31 mm2. The volume of 12-AWG wire required is therefore 6345900 mm 3, and that
of 28-AWG wire required is only 3750 mm3.

(10 ) / (65.3 m/ft) = 153 ft.

Using 12-AWG wire would require (10 ) / (1.59 m/ft) = 6290 ft.
Using 28-AWG wire, the narrowest available, would require

We require a 10- resistor, and are told it is f or a portable application, implying that
size, weight or both would be im portant to consider when selecting a wire gauge. W e
have 10,000 ft of each of the gaug es listed in Table 2.3 w ith which to work. Quick
inspection o f the values listed e liminates 2, 4 a nd 6 AW G w ire as the ir respec tive
resistances are too low for only 10,000 ft of wire.

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R
A=

contact

100 m

80.1 m

Wafer surface

contact

250 m

(Note: this is som ewhat atypical; in the semiconductor industry contacts are typically
made to the top and/o r bottom surface of a wafer. So, theres more than one solu tion
based on geometry as well as doping level.)

Contact

ND = 1015 cm-3
L = 80.1 m
width
= 100 m

(100 )(100
m )(250
m )
= 80.1 m
4
( 3.121 cm ) 10 m/cm

Design summary (one possibility):

L=

We choose a geometry as shown in the figure; our contact area is arbitrarily chosen as
100 m by 250 m, so that only the length L remains to be specified. Solving,

Since R = L/A, where we know R = 100 and = 3.121 -cm for a phosphorus
concentration of 1015 cm-3, we need only define the resistor geom etry to complete the
design.

Thus, we s ee that the lower doping level cl


early provides m aterial with higher
resistivity, requiring less of the available area on the silicon wafer.

At ND = 1018 cm-3, n ~ 230 cm2/ V-s, yielding a resistivity of 0.02714 -cm.

Our target is a 100- resistor. We see from the plot that at ND = 1015 cm-3, n ~ 2x103
2
/V-s, yielding a resistivity of 3.121 -cm.

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45.
cm

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

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1.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(a) six nodes; (b) nine branches.

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2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(a) Four nodes; (b) five branches; (c) path, yes loop, no.

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3.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(c) path, yes loop, no.

(b) seven branches;

(a) Five nodes;

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4.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(c)

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
does not return to starting point
point B is crossed twice

does not return to starting point

(b) The number of nodes is increased by one to five (5).

(a) The number of nodes remains the same four (4).

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5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

2 3 + iZ 5 3 = 0

10 March 2006

R=

3
= 600 m .
(5)

(b) If the left-most resistor has a value of 1 , then 3 V appears across the parallel
network (the + reference terminal being the bottom node) Thus, the value of the
other resistor is given by

(a) By KCL at the bottom node:


So
iZ = 9 A.

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6.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(c) 0.

(b) 3 A;

(a) 3 A;

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7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

5 + iy + iz = 3 + ix

(c) 5 + iy + iz = 3 + ix

Thus, we find that iy = 0.

(b) iy = 3 + ix 5 iz
iy = 2 + 2 2 iy

10 March 2006

5 + ix + ix = 3 + ix so ix = 3 5 = -2A.

(a) ix = 2 + iy + iz = 2 + 2 + 0 = 4 A

By KCL, we may write:

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Focusing our attention next on the top right node, we see that iy = 5 A.

Focusing our attention on the bottom left node, we see that ix = 1 A.

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Thus, the total current draw is 1.739 A.

I40W = 347.8 mA

I60W = 60/115 = 521.7 mA

I100W = 100/115 = 896.6 mA

We obtain the current each bulb draws by dividing its power rating by the operating
voltage (115 V):

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The DMM is connected in parallel with the 3 load resistors, across which develops the
voltage we wish to measure. If the DMM appears as a short, then all 5 A flows
through the DMM, and none through the resistors, resulting in a (false) reading of 0 V
for the circuit undergoing testing. If, instead, the DMM has an infinite internal
resistance, then no current is shunted away from the load resistors of the circuit, and a
true voltage reading results.

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Still, in the parallel-connected case, at least 10 (up to 11) of the other characters will
be lit, so the sign could be read and customers will know the restaurant is open for
business.

In either case, a bulb failure will adversely affect the sign.

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12.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Solving, we find that vx = (6 0.5)/3 = 2.167 V.

(b) vy = 1(3vx + iz) = 6 = 3vx + 0.5

vy = 3(5) 3 = 12 V

vx = 5 V and given that iz = 3 A, we find that

(a) vy = 1(3vx + iz)

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13.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v1 = 25 V.

10 March 2006

iy = 2.5 A.

(c) no value this is impossible.

Since we have found that iy = 0.5 ix,

ix = 6/10 = 600 mA.


iy = 300 mA.

(b) From part (a), ix = 2 v1/ 10. Substituting the new value for v1, we find that

Thus,

ix = v2/10 + v2/10 = iy + iy = 5 A

also, using Ohms law in combination with KCL, we may write

By Ohms law, we see that iy = v2/10

so

2v1 = 50

(a) ix = v1/10 + v1/10 = 5

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14.

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10 March 2006

VG = 150 V

So G = 13.5/ 150

or

G = 90 mS

I x = G VG

Ix = 18.5 5 = 13.5 A
By Ohms law,

Then,

KCL provides us with the means to find this current: The current flowing into the +
terminal of the 110-V source is 12.5 + 6 = 18.5 A.

Now that we know the voltage across the unknown conductance G, we need only to
find the current flowing through it to find its value by making use of Ohms law.

So

(2) By KVL, -VG (-110) + 40 = 0

Thus, R = 34 .

(1) By KVL, 40 + (110) + R(5) 20 = 0

We begin by making use of the information given regarding the power generated by
the 5-A and the 40-V sources. The 5-A source supplies 100 W, so it must therefore
have a terminal voltage of 20 V. The 40-V source supplies 500 W, so it must therefore
provide a current IX of 12.5 A.

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15.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i = 125 mA

Solving, we find that 4i = -4 or i = - 1 A.

(b) +10 + 1i - 2 + 2i + 2 6 + i = 0

Solving,

(a) -1 + 2 + 10i 3.5 + 10i = 0

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16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

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(no current flows through either the -3 V source or the 2 resistor)

Solving, we find that i = 9/8 A = 1.125 A.

-9 +4i + 4i = 0

Again starting with the bottom node and proceeding in a clockwise direction, we write
the KVL equation

Circuit II.

Which results in i = 0.

+7 5 2 1(i) = 0

Starting at the bottom node and proceeding clockwise, we can write the KVL equation

Circuit I.

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17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Q.E.D.

so

vS = v1 + v2 = i(R1 + R2)

R1
R2
vS and v2 = R2i =
vS .
R1 + R2
R1 + R2

vS
.
R1 + R2

Thus, v1 = R1i =

and hence i =

-vS + v1 + v2 = 0

Begin by defining a clockwise current i.

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18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

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[1]

Vout = -23.5 V

(hence, the circuit is acting as a voltage amplifier.)

-5 + 570(5/100) + Vout = 0 or

Making use of the fact that no current flows into the input terminals of the op amp,
i1 = i2. Thus, Eq. [2] reduces to

Making use of the fact that in this case Vd = 0, we find that i1 = 5/100 A.

-5 + 100i1 + 470i2 + Vout = 0 [2]

-5 + 100i1 + Vd = 0

Begin by defining current i1 flowing right through the 100 resistor, and i2 flowing
right through the 470 resistor.

Calculate Vout by writing two KVL equations.

Given: (1) Vd = 0 and (2) no current flows into either terminal of Vd.

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19.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vx = -6 V.

iin = 23 A

IS = 29.5 A.

10 March 2006

(d) The power provided by the dependent source is 8(4vx) = -192 W.

So

IS + 4 vx = 4 - vx/4

(c) By KCL at the top right node,

or

iin = 1 + IS + vx/4 6

(b) By KCL at the top left node,

so that

(a) By KVL, -2 + vx + 8 = 0

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20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v1 = 60 V
v2 = 60 V
v3 = 15 V
v4 = 45 V
v5 = 45 V

i1 = 27 A
i2 = 3 A
i3 = 24 A
i4 = 15 A
i5 = 9 A

10 March 2006

= -v1i1
= v2i2
= v3i3
= v4i4
= v5i5

= -(60)(27)
= (60)(3)
= (15)(24)
= (45)(15)
= (45)(9)

= -1.62 kW
= 180 W
= 360 W
= 675 W
= 405 W

and it is a simple matter to check that these values indeed sum to zero as they should.

p1
p2
p3
p4
p5

(b) It is now a simple matter to compute the power absorbed by each element:

i5 = v5/5 = 45/5 = 9 A
i3 = i4 + i5 = 15 + 9 = 24 A
i1 = i2 + i3 = 3 + 24 = 27

By KVL, -60 + v3 + v5 = 0
v5 = 60 15 = 45 V
v4 = v5 = 45

(a) Working from left to right,


v1 = 60 V
v2 = 60 V
i2 = 60/20 = 3 A
i4 = v1/4 = 60/4 = 15 A
v3 = 5i2 = 15 V

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21.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

therefore p1.5 = (v1.5)2/ 1.5 = 24 W.

10 March 2006

-v4 + v2.5 + vIS = 0


pIS = -VIS IS = 5.5 W.
A quick check assures us that these power quantities sum to zero.

so VIS = v4 v2.5 = 8 2.5 = 5.5 V and

KVL allows us to write

I2.5 = - IS, thefore IS = -1 A.

p2.5 = (2.5)2/2.5 = 2.5 W.

p4 = 82/4 = 16 W

Therefore v2.5 = (2.5)(1) = 2.5 V and so

i2.5 = v2.5/ 2.5 = v2/2 v4/4 = 3 2 = 1 A

v4 = v14 v2 = 14 6 = 8 V therefore

Therefore v2 = 2(3) = 6 V and p2 = 62/2 = 18 W.

i2 = v2/2 = v1.5/1.5 v14/14 = 6/1.5 14/14 = 3 A

v14 = 20 v1.5 = 20 6 = 14 V therefore p14 = 142/ 14 = 14 W.

v1.5 = 4(1.5) = 6 V

p20V = -(20)(4) = -80 W

Beginning from the left, we find

Refer to the labeled diagram below.

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22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 8V
= -4 V
= -12 V
= 14 V
= 2V
= -6 V
= 2V
= -10 V
= -18 V

v13 = v43
v23 = -v12 v34 = -12 + 8
v24 = v23 + v34 = -4 8

(b) v14 = 6 V. v13 = v14 + v43 = 6 + 8


v23 = v13 v12 = 14 12
v24 = v23 + v34 = 2 8
(c) v14 = -6 V. v13 = v14 + v43 = -6 + 8
v23 = v13 v12 = 2 12
v24 = v23 + v34 = -10 8

(a) v14 = 0.

Sketching the circuit as described,

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23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

VDS = 12 7(1.5) = 1.5 V.

Therefore,

VGS = VG 2(2) = -1 V.

(b) By KVL, - VG + VGS + 2000ID = 0

Therefore,

(a) By KVL, -12 + 5000ID + VDS + 2000ID = 0

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24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

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ix = 500 mA and

px = vx ix = 25 W.

vx = 100ix so we find that 100 ix + 100 ix = 100.

px = vx ix = 24 W

px = vx ix = 16 W.

px = vx ix = 0.8(40)(0.7576)2 = 18.37 W.

so that vx = 100 + 200 = 300 V and

px = vx ix = -600 W

100(-2) + vx = 100

(e) If X is a 2-A independent current source, arrow up,

or ix = 100/132 = 757.6 mA and

(d) If X is a dependent voltage source so that vx = 0.8v1,


where v1 = 40ix, we have
100 ix + 0.8(40ix) = 100

ix = 100/125 = 800 mA and

(c) If X is a dependent voltage source such that vx = 25ix,

ix = (100 40) / 100 = 600 mA and

(b) If X is a 40-V independent voltage source such that vx = 40 V, we find that

Thus

(a) if X is a 100- resistor,

To solve further we require specific information about the element X and its
properties.

where vx is defined across the unknown element X, with the + reference on top.
Simplifying, we find that 100ix + vx = 100

-120 + 30ix + 40ix + 20ix + vx + 20 + 10ix = 0

Applying KVL around this series circuit,

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25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Solving, i1 = - 2A.

(c) Applying KVL,

i1 = 1 A.

-20 + 10i1 + 90 + 40i1 - 15 i1 = 0

Using either expression in Eq. [1], we find

v3 = 40i1 + 1.5v3 = -80i1

v3 = -90 10i1 + 20 = -70 10 i1

-20 + 10i1 + 90 + 40i1 + 1.5v3 = 0

alternatively, we could write

where

(b) Applying KVL,

i1= -1 A.

70 + 70 i1 = 0
or

where v2 = 10i1. Substituting,

(a) We first apply KVL:


-20 + 10i1 + 90 + 40i1 + 2v2 = 0

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[1]

10 March 2006

Therefore, none of the conditions specified in (a) to (d) can be met by this circuit.

The 90-V source is absorbing (90)(i1) = 157.5 W of power and the dependent source
is absorbing (1.8v3)(i1) = -275.6 W of power.

Since v3 = -50i1 = -87.5 V, no further information is required to determine its value.

or i1 = -70/-40 = 1.75 A.

50i1 1.8(50)i1 = -70

v3 = -50i1

v3 = 40i1 + 1.8v3
So that we may write Eq. [1] as

Also, KVL allows us to write

-20 + 10i1 + 90 + 40i1 + 1.8v3 = 0

Applying KVL, we find that

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R = [13 10.5 0.055(14.29)]/ 14.29 = 119.9 m

From part (a), this means we need

0.035i + 10.5 = 11 so that i = 14.29 A

(c) To obtain a voltage of 11 V across the battery, we apply KVL:

R = [13 10.5 0.055(2.362)]/ 2.362 = 1.003

In order to determine which of these two values should be used, we must recall that
the idea is to charge the battery, implying that it is absorbing power, or that i as
defined is positive. Thus, we choose i = 2.362 A, and, making use of the expression
developed in part (a), we find that

which has the solutions i = -302.4 A and i = 2.362 A.

0.035i2 + 10.5i = 25

(b) The total power delivered to the battery consists of the power absorbed by the
0.035- resistance (0.035i2), and the power absorbed by the 10.5-V ideal battery
(10.5i). Thus, we need to solve the quadratic equation

R = [13 10.5 0.055(4)]/ 4 = 570 m

We know that we need a current i = 4 A, so we may calculate the necessary resistance

-13 + 0.02i + Ri + 0.035i + 10.5 = 0

(a) Define the charging current i as flowing clockwise in the circuit provided.
By application of KVL,

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and Vbattery = 13 (0.02 + 0.5)i = 10.43 V.

or that i = (13 10.5)/0.505 = 4.951 A

-13 + (0.02 + 0.5 0.05)i + 0.035i + 10.5 = 0

By KVL, we find that

Drawing the circuit described, we also define a clockwise current i.

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= (40)(-i)
= 5i2
= 25i2
= 20i2
= (2v3 + v2)(-i) = (40i + 25i)
= (4v1 - v2)(-i) = (20i - 25i)

= 80 W
= 20 W
= 100 W
= 80 W
= -260 W
= -20 W

[1]

and we can easily verify that these quantities indeed sum to zero as expected.

p40V
p5
p25
p20
pdepsrc1
pdepsrc2

Computing the absorbed power is now a straightforward matter:

so that i = 40/-20 = -2 A

50i - (40i + 25i) + (20i 25i) = 40

Performing the necessary substition, Eq. [1] becomes

where we have defined i to be flowing in the clockwise direction, and


v1 = 5i, v2 = 25i, and v3 = 20i.

-40 + (5 + 25 + 20)i (2v3 + v2) + (4v1 v2) = 0

Applying KVL about this simple loop circuit (the dependent sources are still linear
elements, by the way, as they depend only upon a sum of voltages)

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12

25 = 2
40 + R

10 March 2006

(c)

(b) We require i 12 = 3.6 or i = 0.3 mA


From the circuit, we also see that i = 12/(15 + R + 25) mA.
Substituting the desired value for i, we find that the required value of R is

R = 0.

which has the solutions R = -82.43 k and R = 2.426 k. Only the latter is a
physical solution, so
R = 2.426 k.

R2 + 80R 200 = 0

Rearranging, we find a quadratic expression involving R:

or

We want i2 25 = 2

(a) i = 12/(40 + R) mA, with R expressed in k.

We begin by defining a clockwise current i.

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12 + (1 + 2.3 + Rwire segment) i = 0

10 March 2006

Thus,
i = 12/(1 + 2.3 + 48.6) = 231.2 mA

which is certainly not negligible compared to the other resistances in the circuit!

(16.2 m/ft)(3000 ft) = 48.6

The wire segment is a 3000ft section of 28AWG solid copper wire. Using Table
2.3, we compute its resistance as

By KVL,

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= 50103 (10103 cos 5t) / (300 + 50103)

= 9.940103 cos 5t V

v = 50103 i

vo

= 248.5 cos 5t mV

= 1000(25103)( 9.940103 cos 5t )

and we by substitution we find that

Thus,

where i is defined as flowing clockwise.

10103 cos 5t + (300 + 50103) i = 0

We do not have a value for v, but KVL will allow us to express that in terms of vo,
which we do know:

vo = 1000(gm v)

We can apply Ohms law to find an expression for vo:

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3 + 100 ID + VD = 0

10 March 2006

GUESS
0
1
0.5
0.25
0.245
0.248
0.246

RESULT
3
3.6481012
3.308104
0.4001
0.1375
0.1732
0.0377

At this point, the error is


getting much smaller, and
our confidence is increasing
as to the value of VD.

better

oops

Lets assume such software-based assistance is unavailable. In that case, we need to


guess a value for VD, substitute it into the right hand side of our equation, and see
how close the result is to the left hand side (in this case, zero).

VD = 246.4 mV

This is a transcendental equation. Using a scientific calculator or a numerical


software package such as MATLAB, we find

3 + 300106(eVD / 2710 1) + VD = 0

Substituting ID = 3106(eVD / 2710 1), we find that

By KVL, we find that

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[1]

3.087 kW
= 2.470 kW

= vx(0.8 iy)

Pdep

963.5 W
= 428.1 W

A quick check shows us that the calculated values sum to 0.3, which is reasonably
close to zero compared to the size of the terms (small roundoff errors accumulated).

= (vx) / 25
P25

240.9 W

= (vx)2 / 100
P100

= 776.0 W

= 5 vx

P5A

Solving, we find that vx x = 155.2 V and iy = 3.448 A


So that

[2]

5 vx / 100 vx / 25 + 0.8(5) 0.8 (iy) / 100 =

Thus, Eq. [2] becomes

where iy = 5 vx/100

5 vx / 100 vx / 25 + 0.8 iy = 0

(b) Again summing the currents into the righthand node,

A quick check assures us that the calculated values sum to zero, as they should.

= vx(0.8 ix) = 0.8 (vx) / 25

Pdep

= (vx) / 25

P25

771.7 W

= (vx)2 / 100

P100
2

= 1.389 kW

= 5 vx

P5A

Solving for vx, we find vx = 277.8 V. It is a simple matter now to compute the power
absorbed by each element:

5 vx / 100 vx / 25 + 0.8 (vx / 25) = 0

ix = vx /25 so that Eq. [1] becomes

This represents one equation in two unknowns. A second equation to introduce at this
point is

5 vx / 100 vx / 25 + 0.8 ix = 0

(a) Applying KCL, we sum the currents flowing into the righthand node:

Define a voltage vx, + reference on the right, across the dependent current source.
Note that in fact vx appears across each of the four elements. We first convert the 10
mS conductance into a 100 resistor, and the 40mS conductance into a 25
resistor.

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i1

=
v/40,000

3 i1 + v/2,000

Since ix = i1, we find that ix = 571.4 A.

i1 = 571.4 A

v = 22.86 V

Solving, we find that

and

[2]

v/5,000 + 4103 3v/40,000 + v/20,000 = 0

Upon substituting Eq. [2] into Eq. [1], Eq. [1] becomes,

or

i1

This, unfortunately, is one equation in two unknowns, necessitating the search for a
second suitable equation. Returning to the circuit diagram, we observe that

v/5,000 + 4103 + 3i1 + v/20,000 = 0 [1]

Define a voltage v with the + reference at the top node. Applying KCL and
summing the currents flowing out of the top node,

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= (vx) / 4

= (vx) / 12

150 W

225 W

75 W

= 210 W

= 240 W

and a quick check verifies that the computed quantities sum to zero, as expected.

P4

P12

= 7 vx

P8A
2

= (vx) / 6

= 8 vx

P6

P8A

It is now a straightforward matter to compute the power absorbed by each element:

Solving, vx = 30 V.

8 vx /6 + 7 vx /12 vx /4 = 0

Define a voltage vx with its + reference at the center node. Applying KCL and
summing the currents into the center node,

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P4k = v2/4000 = 400 mW

v = (50103)(4106 / 5103) = 40 V

P20mA = v 20103 = 600 mW

v = 30 V

Pdep = v 2ix

= 555.8 mW

v = 50103 (1000)/3 = 16.67 V

80103 30103 = 2v/1000 + v/1000

ix = v/1000

and

P60V = 60(10) mW = 600 mW

Thus, is = 10 mA

80 30 + is = ix = 60

(d) We note that ix = 60/1000 = 60 mA. KCL stipulates that (viewing currents
into and out of the top node)

Thus,

and

so that

where

80103 30103 2ix = v/1000

(c) Once again, we first define a voltage v across the 1k resistor with the +
reference at the top node. Applying KCL at this top node, we find that

and

Solving,

80103 30103 20103 = v/1000

(b) Once again, we first define a voltage v across the 1k resistor with the +
reference at the top node. Applying KCL at this top node, we find that

and

Solving,

80103 30103 = v/1000 + v/4000

(a) Define a voltage v across the 1k resistor with the + reference at the top node.
Applying KCL at this top node, we find that

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[1]

We are seeking a value for vS such that vS iS = 0. Clearly, setting vS = 0 will achieve
this. From Eq. [1], we also see that setting vS = 50 V will work as well.

50 - vS + 103 iS = 0

Simplifying slightly, this becomes

8010-3 - 3010-3 - vS/1103 + iS = 0

Summing the currents flowing into the top node and invoking KCL, we find that

(b) Define a current is flowing out of the + reference terminal of the independent
voltage source. Interpret no power to mean zero power.

iS = 50 mA.

(a) To cancel out the effects of both the 80-mA and 30-mA sources, iS must be set to

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ix = 3 A.

(c) p5A = (v9 v8) 5 = 15 W.

Since we know from part (a) that ix = 3 A, we may calculate v8 = 24 V.

2 v8 / 8 + 2ix 5 = 0

(b) Again, we apply KCL, this time to the top left node:

Solving, we find that v9 = 27 V. Since ix = v9 / 9,

5 + 7 = v9 / 3 + v9 / 9

(a) Summing the currents into the right-hand node and applying KCL,

Define a voltage v9 across the 9- resistor, with the + reference at the top node.

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5 + 5(2 vx / 3) vx / 3 vx / 5 = 0

[1]

The power absorbed by the 5- resistor is then simply (vx)2/5 = 638.0 mW.

or 75 + 50 vx 5 vx 3 vx = 0, which, upon solving, yields vx = -1.786 V.

Thus, Eq. [1] becomes

where v1 = 2[vx /(1 + 2)] = 2 vx / 3.

5 + 5v1 - vx/ (1 + 2) vx/ 5 = 0

Applying KCL at the top node then yields

Define a voltage vx across the 5-A source, with the + reference on top.

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The power absorbed by each resistor is simply v2/5 = 67.22 W for a total of 201.67 W,
which is the total power supplied by all sources. If instead we want the power
supplied by the resistors, we multiply by -1 to obtain -201.67 W. Thus, the sum of
the supplied power of each circuit element is zero, as it should be.

p2A = -v(2) = 36.67 W


p6A = -v(6) = 110 W
p3A = -v(3) = 55 W

or v = -55/3 = -18.33 V. The power supplied by each source is then computed as:

2 + 6 + 3 + v/5 + v/5 + v/5 = 0

Summing the currents leaving the top node and applying KCL, we find that

Despite the way it may appear at first glance, this is actually a simple node-pair
circuit. Define a voltage v across the elements, with the + reference at the top node.

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Vx = 5 = 5(0.5 + Rsegment)

500 m
(65.3 m/ft)(5280 ft/mi)

= 1.450 10-3 miles

From Table 2.3, we see that 28-AWG solid copper wire has a resistance of 65.3
m/ft. Thus, the total number of miles needed of the wire is

with Rsegment = 500 m.

So, we need to solve

Solving, we find that I1 = 5 A, so that Vx = (1)(5) = 5 V.

Defining a voltage Vx across the 10-A source with the + reference at the top node,
KCL tells us that 10 = 5 + I1, where I1 is defined flowing downward through the
1- resistor.

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By KCL, 6 + 3 + 1.2 + iS = 0

or

iS = -10.2 A.

Since v = 6 V, we know the current through the 1- resistor is 6 A, the current


through the 2- resistor is 3 A, and the current through the 5- resistor is 6/5
= 1.2 A, as shown below:

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so i = 1 A.

10 March 2006

42+7i = 0

or

i = 9A

(b) Looking at the left part of the circuit, we see 1 + 3 = 4 A flowing into the
unknown current source, which, by virtue of KCL, must therefore be a 4-A current
source. Thus, KCL at the node labeled with the + reference of the voltage v gives

(a) Applying KCL, 1 i 3 + 3 = 0

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From which we see clearly that v = (9)(1) = 9 V.

Further simplification is possible, resulting in

At this point we have reduced the circuit to

The new 1-A source and the 3-A source combine to yield a 4-A source in series with
the unknown current source which, by KCL, must be a 4-A current source.

(b) We may combine all sources to the right of the 1- resistor into a single 7-A
current source. On the left, the two 1-A sources in series reduce to a single 1-A
source.

Then, we see that v = (1)(1) = 1 V.

(a) We may redraw the circuit as

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Thus,

i = 19/5 = 3.8 A.

(b) No current flows through the 6-V source, so we may neglect it for this calculation.
The 12-V, 10-V and 3-V sources are connected in series as a result, so we replace
them with a 12 + 10 3 = 19 V source as shown

i = 10/1000 = 10 mA.

(a) Combine the 12-V and 2-V series connected sources to obtain a new 12 2 = 10 V
source, with the + reference terminal at the top. The result is two 10-V sources in
parallel, which is permitted by KVL. Therefore,

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47.

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14.06 W.

abs

= -10(6.875) = -68.75 W
which sum to -0.01 W, close enough to zero compared to the size of the terms
(roundoff error accumulated).

P10V

Thus,
P5V abs = -5(6.875) = -34.38 W

30/16 + 5 = 6.875 A flowing through them.

Each resistor draws 15/16 A, so the 5 V and 10 V sources each see a current of

P7 A abs = -15(-7) = 105 W

P2 A abs = -15(2) = -30 W

Returning to the original circuit, we see that the 2 A source is in parallel with both 16
resistors, so that it has a voltage of 15 V across it as well (the same goes for the 7 A
source). Thus,

P16 = v2/16 =

we see that v = 15 V (note that we can completely the ignore the 5-A source here,
since we have a voltage source directly across the resistor). Thus,

Redrawing our circuit,

We first combine the 10-V and 5-V sources into a single 15-V source, with the +
reference on top. The 2-A and 7-A current sources combine into a 7 2 = 5 A current
source (arrow pointing down); although these two current sources may not appear to
be in parallel at first glance, they actually are.

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48.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Therefore

i = 0.

(c) vS = -3 + 1.5 (-0.5) 0 = -1 V


Therefore
i = -1/14 = -71.43 mA.

(b) vS = 3 + 2.5 3 2.5 = 0

(a) vS = 10 + 10 6 6 = 20 12 = 8
Therefore
i = 8/14 = 571.4 mA.

i = vS/ 14

We can combine the voltage sources such that

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49.

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By KVL, then, we find that

v1 = 2 + 3 = 5 V.

We first simplify as shown, making use of the fact that we are told ix = 2 A to find the
voltage across the middle and right-most 1- resistors as labeled.

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50.

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10 March 2006

or

v = -515 V.

(12 3.5) 10-3 + 0.03 vx = v/10103

Returning to the left-hand side of the circuit, and summing currents into the top node,
we find that

vx = 1000(1 3) 10-3 = -2 V.

We see that to determine the voltage v we will need vx due to the presence of the
dependent current soruce. So, lets begin with the right-hand side, where we find that

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= -2(-5)
= -(-4)(4)
= -(-9)(-3)

= +(-5)(6)
= -(-4)(4)
= -(3)(7)
= -(12)(-3)

= -30 W
= 16 W
= -21 W
= 36 W

= 10 W
= 16 W
= -27 W

(b) We need to change the 4-V source such that the voltage across the 5-A source
drops to zero. Define Vx across the 5-A source such that the + reference terminal is
on the left. Then,
-2 + Vx Vneeded = 0
or Vneeded = -2 V.

A quick check assures us that these absorbed powers sum to zero as they should.

P-5A
P-4A
P3A
P12A

So that the absorbed power is

For the current sources,

P2V
P4V
P-3V

Then the power absorbed by each voltage source is

(a) We first label the circuit with a focus on determining the current flowing through
each voltage source:

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Thus, from the indicated terminals, we only see the single 1-k resistor, so that
Req = 1 k.

We begin by noting several things:


(1) The bottom resistor has been shorted out;
(2) the far-right resistor is only connected by one terminal and therefore does
not affect the equivalent resistance as seen from the indicated terminals;
(3) All resistors to the right of the top left resistor have been shorted.

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53.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Thus, Req = [1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + + 1/N]-1

(b) 1/Req = 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + + 1/N

(a) We see 1 || (1 + 1 ) || (1 + 1 + 1 )
= 1 || 2 || 3
= 545.5 m

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54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(c) 29.5 k = 47 k || 47 k + 10 k || 10 k + 1 k

(b) 57 333 = 47 k + 10 k + 1 k || 1k || 1k

(a) 5 k = 10 k || 10 k

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55.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

5
1A

1A

2.917

and then notice that the 0-V source is shorting out one of the 5- resistors, so a
further simplification is possible, noting that 5 || 7 = 2.917 :

0V

(b) We first simplify the circuit to

(a) no simplification is possible using only source and/or resistor combination


techniques.

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56.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Req

= 5.5 k.

= 1 k + 2 k || 2 k + 3 k || 3 k + 4 k || 4 k
= 1 k + 1 k + 1.5 k + 2 k

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

100
100

100
100

100
100

250

20

14.4

19.85 .

20

30

10

50

50

16.67

where the equivalent resistance is seen to be 2 + 50 || 16.67 + 8 = 22.5 .

We now see we have (10 + 15 ) || 50 = 16.67 . Redrawing once again,

15

(c) First combine the 10- and 40- resistors and redraw the circuit:

Thus, Req = 10 + 20 || (5 + 14.4 ) =

Req

10

(b) First, we combine 24 || (50 + 40 ) || 60 = 14.4 , which leaves us with

Next, we see 100 + 100 || 250 + 100 = 271.4 ,


and subsequently 100 + 100 || 271.4 + 100 = 273.1 ,
and, finally,
Req = 100 || 273.1 = 73.20 .

Req

100

(a) Working from right to left, we first see that we may combine several resistors as
100 + 100 || 100 + 100 = 250 , yielding the following circuit:

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58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Solving, we find R = -61.79 or R = 51.79 .


Clearly, the first is not a physical solution, so

R = 51.79 .

(c) R = [(40 + 20 ) || 30 + R] || 100 + 10


R 10 = [20 + R] || 100
1/(R 10) = 1/(R + 20) + 1/ 100
3000 = R2 + 10R 200

(b) Req = 80 = [(40 + 20 ) || 30 + R] || 100 + 10


70 = [(60 || 30 ) + R] || 100
1/70 = 1/(20 + R) + 0.01
20+ R = 233.3
therefore R = 213.3 .

60 .

10 March 2006

(a) Req = [(40 + 20 ) || 30 + 80 ] || 100 + 10

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59.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(c) 40 = (100 + 100 ) || 100 || 100

(b) 60 = [(100 || 100 ) + 100 ] || 100

(a) 25 = 100 || 100 || 100 || 100

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60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

We check our results by verifying that the absorbed powers in fact add to 1000 W.

V20 = V5 = 30 V
P20 = 302/20 = 45 W

V5 = 75 6(7.5) = 30 V
P5 = 302/ 5 = 180 W

I6 = 10 V30 /30 = 10 75/30 = 7.5 A


P6 = (7.5)2 6 = 337.5 W

V30 = 100 - 2.5(10) = 75 V


P30 = 752/ 30 = 187.5 W

P2.5 = (10)2 2.5 = 250 W

Req = [(5 || 20 ) + 6 ] || 30 + 2.5


= 10
The source therefore provides a total of 1000 W and a current of 100/10 = 10 A.

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61.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Next, we note that (14 + 6 ) || (4 + 6 ) = 6.667


so that
vx = 9(6.667) = 60 V
and
ix = -60/10 = -6 A.

+
6

vx

14

9A

Also, the 4-A, 1-A and 6-A current sources are in parallel, so they can be combined
into a single 4 + 6 1 = 9 A current source as shown:

To begin with, the 10- and 15- resistors are in parallel ( = 6 ), and so are the
20- and 5- resistors (= 4 ).

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62.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

= {[(6 || 2 || 3) + 0.5] || 1.5 || 2.5 + 0.8} || 4 || 5 mS


= {[(1) + 0.5] || 1.5 || 2.5 + 0.8} || 4 || 5 mS
= {1.377} || 4 || 5
= 0.8502 mS
= 850.2 mS

100 mS

we see that Gin = 10 + 22.22 + 13.64 = 135.9 mS.

Gin

22.22 mS
13.64 mS

(b) The 50-mS and 40-mS conductances are in series, equivalent to (50(40)/90 =
22.22 mS. The 30-mS and 25-mS conductances are also in series, equivalent to 13.64
mS. Redrawing for clarity,

Gin

(a) Working from right to left, and borrowing x || y notation from resistance
calculations to indicate the operation xy/(x + y),

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63.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

P13 = 0 since no current flows through that resistor.

P10 = (Vx)2 / 10 = 117.6 W.

To compute P10, consider that since the 10- and 40- resistors are in parallel, the
same voltage Vx (+ reference on the left) appears across both resistors. The current I
= 4.286 A flows into this combination. Thus, Vx = (8)(4.286) = 34.29 V and

P1 = I2 1 = 18.37 W

I = (150 30)/(2 + 8 + 12 + 3 + 1 + 2) = 4.286 A

Define a clockwise current I through the 1- resistor:

The bottom four resistors between the 2- resistor and the 30-V source are shorted
out. The 10- and 40- resistors are in parallel (= 8 ), as are the 15- and 60-
(=12 ) resistors. These combinations are in series.

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64.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

R1i1 R2i2
[1]
=
R3i3 RiR

And since i1 = i3, and i2 = iR, Eq [1] becomes

R1i1 = R2i2
R3i3 = RiR

R
R1 R2
, or R = R2 3 . Q.E.D.
=
R3 R
R1

With the meter being a short circuit and no current flowing through it, we can write

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65.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V47 = 10

V2.2 = 10

47
= 6.267 mV
75

2.2
= 293.3 mV
75
and the voltage dropped across the 47 resistor is

The voltage dropped across the 2.2 resistor is

The total resistance in the series string sums to 75 .

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66.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

By voltage division, then, and noting that V47k is the same voltage as that across the
19.39 k resistance,
19.39
V47k = 2
= 607.0 mV
10 + 1.5 + 33 + 19.39

We first note that the 4.7 k and 2.2 k resistors can be combined into a single 1.5
k resistor, which is then in series with the 10 k resistor. Next we note that the 33
k / 47 k parallel combination can be replaced by a 19.39 k resistance, which is
in series with the remaining 33 k resistor.

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67.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

571.4/2 = 285.7 mA

(by current division).

(b) The resistor flowing downward through either 134 resistor is simply

I 33

1
100
= 12
= 571.4 mA
1 +1 +1
10 10 100

(a) The current downward through the 33 resistor is calculated more easily if we
first note that 134 || 134 = 67 , and 67 + 33 = 100 . Then,

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68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

I15

1
10 + 15
= ( 30 8 )
= 22.12 A
1
1
+
10 + 15 8.479

Using current division on the simplified circuit,

Finally, we are left with two current sources, the series combination of 10 + 15 ,
and 10 || 55.75 = 8.479 .

We first note that 20 || 60 = 15 , and 50 || 30 = 18.75 .


Then, 15 + 22 + 18.75 = 55.75 .

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69.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vS = 2(5.5) = 11 V
R1 = R2 = 1 k.

One possible solution of many:

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70.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iS = 11 mA
R1 = R2 = 1 k.

One possible solution of many:

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71.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Therefore v15 = -25714 V and p15 = 44.08 kW.

where v1 = [4 (5)/ (5 + 2)] 2 = 5.714 V

v15 = 15103 (-0.3 v1)

p15 = (v15)2 / 15103 A

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72.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

v15 = 5 1.391 = 3.609 V and p15 = (v15)2/ 15103 = 868.3 W.

ix = vx/ 10 mA = 139.1 A

vx = 5 (10 k || 13.69 k) / (15 k + 10 || 13.69 k) = 1.391 V

Define vx across the 10 k resistor with its + reference at the top node: then

Replace the top 10 k, 4 k and 47 k resistors with 10 k + 4 k || 47 k =


13.69 k.

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73.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

and px = (4.147)2 3 = 51.59 W

ix = 4.147 . 13/ (13 + 6) = 2.837 A

We must now return to the original circuit. The current into the 6 , 13 parallel
combination is 7 iy = 4.147 A. By current division,

By current division, iy = 7 (7.105)/(7.105 + 10.33) = 2.853 A

We may combine the 12-A and 5-A current sources into a single 7-A current source
with its arrow oriented upwards. The left three resistors may be replaced by a 3 +
6 || 13 = 7.105 resistor, and the right three resistors may be replaced by a 7 + 20 || 4
= 10.33 resistor.

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74.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

47
47 + 100 || 20

0.5(2.5)(47)
47 + 16.67

So that p47k = (0.9928)2 / 47103 = 18.12 W

0.5v1

= 0.9228 V

Voltage division gives the voltage across the 47-k resistor:

v1 = 3000[510-3 (2000)/ (2000 + 3000 + 7000)] = 2.5 V

By current division, then, in combination with Ohms law,

The controlling voltage v1, needed to obtain the power into the 47-k resistor, can be
found separately as that network does not depend on the left-hand network.
The right-most 2 k resistor can be neglected.

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75.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

20
20 + 20

10 March 2006

Voltage division only applies to resistors connected in series, meaning that the same
current must flow through each resistor. In this circuit, i1 0 , so we do not have the
same current flowing through both 20 k resistors.

must be fought!

v1 = 10

The temptation to write an equation such as

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76.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

v
R2

(c) i4 = 1
+
+
R
R
R
R
3
4
1 2
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) R 2
= VS
R 1 [R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )(R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )]
R2
= VS
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )

(b) v1 = VS

R1
R 1 + [R 2 || (R 3 + R 4 )]
R1
= VS
R 1 + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 ) (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
= VS
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )

(a) v2 = VS

R 2 || (R 3 + R 4 )
R 1 + [R 2 || (R 3 + R 4 )]
R 2 (R 3 + R 4 ) (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
= VS
R 1 + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 ) (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
= VS
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )

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77.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i3 =

500
500 + 3000 || 6000

400 A

10 March 2006

= 600 A

1/3000
1/ 500 + 1/3000 + 1/6000

( 3 10 )

i2 = ( 3 103 )
=

500
= -8V
500 + 3000 || 6000

(b) With the voltage source short-circuited, we find that

v1 = 40

(a) With the current source open-circuited, we find that

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78.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1
1 + (2 + R)

IS = 42 A.

IS
5.25

(c)

vx
IS

5IS 3
5.25 3 + 9

=
= 0.2381
IS

Thus, vx = 5(2.381) = 11.90 V

IS 3

= 2.381 A
5.25 3 + 9

(b) Given that IS is now 50 A, the current through the 5- resistor becomes

so that

IS 3

= 2A
5.25 3 + 9

The current through the 5- resistor is

IS

(a) The current through the 5- resistor is 10/5 = 2 A. Define R as 3 || (4 + 5)


= 2.25 . The current through the 2- resistor then is given by

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79.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

so

9 =

10 March 2006

or Rx = 2250 W. Thus,

2000
2000 + R x + 750

PRx = 92/ Rx = 36 mW.

9 Rx + 24750 = 20 Rx

20 R x
2750 + R x

and we know that Rx IRx = 9

IRx = 10 10 3

First combine the 1 k and 3 k resistors to obtain 750 .


By current division, the current through resistor Rx is

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80.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v5

Thus,

R 3 (R 4 + R 5 )

= VS
R
(R
+
R
+
R
)
+
R
(R
+
R
)
4
5
3
4
5
2 3

= VS
R + R2
R 3 (R 4 + R 5 ) (R 3 + R 4 + R 5 )

= VS
(
)
R
(R
R
)
R
R
R
R
+
+
+
+
5
3
4
5
2
3 4

R5

= vR
R
R
+
5
4

R3 R5

= VS
R 2 (R 3 + R 4 + R 5 ) + R 3 (R 4 + R 5 )

Then vR

Define R = R3 || (R4 + R5)

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81.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Thus, Ix = I1 15/ 45 = 12 mA.

(d) I1 = IS R2/ (R1 + R2) = 60 (30)/ 50 = 36 mA

Thus, Ix = I1 . 15/ 45 = 7.5 mA

(c) I2 = IS R1 / (R1 + R2) and I1 = IS R2 / (R1 + R2)


So I1/I2 = R2/R1
Therefore
I1 = R2I2/R1 = 30(15)/20 = 22.5 mA

(b) I1 = Ix . 45/15 = 36 mA

(a) Ix = I1 . 15 / (15 + 30) = 4 mA

Define R1 = 10 + 15 || 30 = 20 and R2 = 5 + 25 = 30 .

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82.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Thus, vout = -56.02 sin 10t V

where v = (3 sin 10t) 15/(15 + 0.3) = 2.941 sin 10t

vout = -gm v (100 k || 100 k) = -4.762103 gm v

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83.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

therefore

15 || 3
(15 || 3) + 0.3
= 2.679 sin 10t V

10 March 2006

vout = -(2.679)(1000)(3810-3) sin 10t = -101.8 sin 10t V.

where v = 3 sin 10t

vout = -1000gm v

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84.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0.1
-0.5

-0.3
0.1
-0.3

-0.4
0
0.4
v1
=
v2
v3

0
4
6

10 March 2006

(b) Using a scientific calculator, the determinant is equal to 32.

Solving this matrix equation using a scientific calculator, v2 = -8.387 V

a)

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-0.2

1. (

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
2
0

1
3
4
vA
=
vB
vC

27
-16
-6

11
2
0
3=
4

16

(b) Using a scientific calculator,

vA = 19.57
vB = 18.71
vC = -11.29

Solving this matrix equation using a scientific calculator,

a)

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10 March 2006

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-1

2. (
-1

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123600/311

ans =

>> a.vx

57200/311

ans =

>> a.v2

82200/311

ans =

10 March 2006

We may solve the matrix equation d irectly using MATLAB, but a be tter check is to
invoke the symbolic processor:

obtain v1 = 264.3 V, v2 = 183.9 V and v3 = 397.4 V.

0.08 -0.05 -0.02 v1 4


-0.02 -0.025 0.045 v = 8

2
-0.05 0.115 -0.025 v3 2

Then, we can solve the matrix equation:

2 = 0.05v1 + 0.115v2 0.025v3

8 = 0.02v1 0.025v2 + 0.045v3

4 = 0.08v1 0.05v2 0.02v3

We begin by simplifying the equations prior to solution:

Chapter Four Solutions

>> e1 = '4 = v1/100 + (v1 - v2)/20 + (v1 - vx)/50';


>> e2 = '10 - 4 - (-2) = (vx - v1)/50 + (vx - v2)/40';
>> e3 = '-2 = v2/25 + (v2 - vx)/40 + (v2 - v1)/20';
>> a = solve(e1,e2,e3,'v1','v2','vx');
>> a.v1

(b)

to

(a)

3.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

3 =

Node 2:

v2 v2 v1
+
1
3

5v1 2v2 = 6
-v1 + 4v2 = -9

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Solving, we find that v1 = 333.3 mV.

Which may be simplified to:


and

1=

Node 1:

v1 v1 v2
+
2
3

Next, we write the two required nodal equations:

Ref.

4. We select the bottom node as our reference terminal and define two nodal voltages:

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Ref.

VB

3VA 2VB = 40 [1]


8VA + 13VB = 240 [2]

[1]

VA = 43.48 V and VB = 45.22 V, so v1 = 1.740 V.

Simplifying,

VB VB VA
[2]
+
8
5

VA VA VB
+
10
5

At node B: (6) =

At node A: 4 =

We note that after completing nodal analysis, we can find v1 as v1 = VA VB.

VA

We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference term inal, and defining
two nodal voltages V A and V B, as shown. (Note if we cho ose the upp er right
v1 becomes a nodal voltage and falls directly out of the solution.)

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Solving,

node,

5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Ref.

2]

VB

[1]
[2]

Solving, VA = 0.8571 V and VB = -0.8571 V, so v1 = 1.714 V.

4VA 3VB = 6
A + 4VB = 6

Simplifying Eqs. [1] and [2],

Note this y ields V A and V B, not v1, due to our choice of reference node. So, we
v1 by KVL: v1 = VA VB.

At node A: 2 =

VA VA VB
[1]
+
3
1
V V V VA
At node B: 2 = B + B + B
6
6
1

VA

We next designate the bottom node as the reference term inal, and define V A and
VB as shown:

By inspection, no current flows through the 2 resistor, so i1 = 0.

Chapter Four Solutions

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3V

obtain

6.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

5 2 = v3/ 200 + (v3 v2)/ 10

NODE 3:

-50

[4]

[3]

[2]

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vP = 171.6 V

60v1 - 20vP
= 8000
v1 + 110 vP - 40v2
=0
- vP
+ 6v2 - 5v3
= -25
-200v2 + 210v3 = 6000

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

-2.5 + 2 = (v2 vP)/ 50 + (v2 v3)/ 10

NODE 2:

Simplifying,

0 = (vP v1)/ 40 + vP/ 100 + (vP v2)/ 50

NODE P:

[1]

10 = v1/ 20 + (v1 vP)/ 40

NODE 1:

The bottom node has the largest number of branch connections, so we choose that as
our reference node. This also m akes vP easier to find, as it will be a nodal voltag e.
Working from left to right, we name our nodes 1, P, 2, and 3.

Solving,

7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

10 4 (-2) = (vx v1)/ 50 + (vx v2)/ 40


-2 = v2 / 25 + (v2 vx)/ 40 + (v2 v1)/ 20

NODE x:
NODE 2:

[3]

[2]

[1]

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vx = 397.4 V.

4 = 0.0800v1 0.0500v2 0.0200vx [1]


8 = -0.0200v1 0.02500v2 + 0.04500vx [2]
-2 = -0.0500v1 + 0.1150v2 0.02500vx [3]

Simplifying,

4 = v1/ 100 + (v1 v2)/ 20 + (v1 vx)/ 50

NODE 1:

The logical choice for a reference node is the bottom node, as then vx will
automatically become a nodal voltage.

Solving,

8.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(b)

(vX vY)2 / 6 = 543.4 W

The power absorbed by the 6- resistor is

v2 = vY 60 =

vY = 124.4 V

v1 = 240 vX = 58.50 V and

vX = 181.5 V and

Simplifying, -180 + 1440 = 9 vX 3 vY [1]


10800 = - 360 vX + 612 vY [2]

(a) Writing the two nodal equations, then


NODE X:
10 = (vX 240)/ 3 + (vX vY)/ 6 [1]
NODE Y:
0 = (vY vX)/ 6 + vY/ 30 + (vY 60)/ 12

64.40 V

[2]

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Thus,

Chapter Four Solutions

Designate the node between the 3- and 6- resistors as node X, and the right-hand
node of the 6- resistor as node Y. The bottom node is chosen as the reference node.

Solving,

9.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[1]

[3]
[4]
[2]
[1]

Solving, we find that v1 = -103..8 V and i2 = -377.4 mA.

v1 0.2v3
= -100
v3 + 50 i2 = 0
vx
+ 0.2v3 50 i2 = 0
0.07556vx 0.02v1 0.004v3 0.111i2 = 33.33

Simplifying,

[4]

[3]

v1 = 0.2 v3 - 100
v3 = 50i2

[2]

i2 = (0.2 v3 - vx) / 50

This, however, is one equation in four unknow ns, the other three resulting from the
presence of the dependent sources. Thus, we require three additional equations:

0.02v1 = (vx 5 i2) / 45 + (vx 100) / 30 + (vx 0.2 v3) / 50

Only one nodal equation is required: At the node where three resistors join,

Chapter Four Solutions

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10.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

40

+
v1 = 0
-

10

4 - 6 = v1/ 40 + (v1 96)/ 20 + (v1 V2)/ 10

so that V2 = -28 V.

-2 = -96 / 20 - V2/ 10

v1 = 0, this simplifies to

At NODE 1:

20

v1 = 0, the dependent source is a short circuit and we may redraw the circuit as:

Chapter Four Solutions

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Since

11. If

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

-6
= 24
315
0

Solving, we find that v3 = 6.760 V and so

3v1 2v=
2
v1 + 19v2 4v3 3v4
35v2 + 71v3 15v4=
-42v2 24v3 + 94v4=
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

[2]
[3]
[4]

i5 = v3/ 5 = 1.352 A.

- 3 = v1/2 + (v1 v2)/ 1


[1]
2 = (v2 v1)/ 1 + (v2 v3)/ 3 + (v2 v4)/ 4
3 = v3/ 5 + (v3 v4)/ 7 + (v3 v2)/ 3
0 = v4/ 6 + (v4 v3)/ 7 + (v4 v2)/ 4

Rearranging and grouping terms,

NODE 1:
NODE 2:
NODE 3:
NODE 4:

We choose the bottom node as ground to make calculation of i5 easier. The left-most
node is named 1, the top node is nam ed 2, the central node is nam ed 3 and the
node between the 4- and 6- resistors is named 4.

Chapter Four Solutions

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-12

12.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

7 mA
0.2 v1

+ v1 -

10 k

vx

-3

0.2v1 = (vx v2)/ 10103

[2]

[1]

Solving, we find

and

vx = 8.086 V.

1999 v2 1999 vx = 50

10,470 v2 470 vx = 89,518

Eliminating the variable v1 and grouping terms, we obtain:

v1 = v2 vx

[3]

The additional equation required by the presence of the dependent source and the fact
that its controlling variable is not one of the nodal voltages:

At NODE x: 510

At NODE 2: 710-3 510-3 = (v2 + 9)/ 470 + (v2 vx)/ 1010-3

9V

470

v2

5 mA

We can redraw this circuit and eliminate the 2.2-k resistor as no current flows
through it:

Chapter Four Solutions

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13.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

v = -100 V.

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We find that

14.
We need concern ourselves with the bottom part of this circuit only. W riting a single
nodal
equation,
-4 + 2 = v/ 50

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

2:
3:
4:

5:
6:
7:
8:

Node
Node
Node

Node
Node
Node
Node

[1]

[5]

v8 v8 v6 v8 v7
[8]
+
+
6
10
4

v7 v5 v7 v6 v7 v8
[7]
+
+
1
2
4

v6 v6 v7 v6 v8
[6]
+
+
5
2
10

v5 v5 v7
+
2
1

v4 v4 v3 v4 v2
[4]
+
+
6
10
4

v3 v2 v3 v3 v4
[3]
+ +
2
5
10

4v5

3v5

3v1
4v1

8v6
2v6
6v6

2v2
+7v2
5v2
15v2

plifying,

2v7
5v7
+7v7
15v7

2v3
+8v3
6v3

v8
v8
+31v8

v4
v4
+31v4

= 2
= 10
=8
=0

= 4
= 16
= 20
=0

[5]
[6]
to yield
[7]
[8]

[1]
[2]
to yield
[3]
[4]

v5 = 1.685 V
v6 = 3.759 V
v7 = 3.527 V
v8 = 2.434 V

v1 = 3.370 V
v2 = 7.055 V
v3 = 7.518 V
v4 = 4.869 V

10 March 2006

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and

0=

2=

1=

v1 v1 v2
+
2
1

v2 v1 v2 v3 v2 v4
[2]
+
+
1
2
4

1 =

0=

2=

4=

2 =

Note that Eqs. [1-4] may be solved independently of Eqs. [5-8].

1:

Sim

Chapter Four Solutions

We choose the bottom node as the reference terminal. Then:

Node

15.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

-10 = VD/ 25 + (VD VA)/ 10

At node D:

= 5
= 150
-2500
100 [4]

v4 = 63.06 V.

Solving, we find that VD = -63.06 V. Since v4 = - VD,

0.15 VA + 0.08 VB - 0.08 VC 0.1 VD


VC
-25 VA
+ 35 V=
D
- VA
+ VB =

Simplifiying and grouping terms,

Our supernode-related equation is VB VA = 100

VC = 150

At node C:

[1]
[2]
[3]

[4]

[3]

5 = (VA VD)/ 10 + VA/ 20 + (VB VC)/ 12.5

At the supernode:

[2]

[1]

We choose the center node for our common terminal, since it connects to the largest
number of branches. W e na me the left node A, the top node B, the right node
C, and the bottom node D. We next form a supernode between nodes A and B.

Chapter Four Solutions

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16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

At the supernode,
At node 2,

5 8 = (v1 v2)/ 2 + v3/ 2.5


8 = v2 / 5 + (v2 v1)/ 2

[1]
[2]
[3]

vA = 25.91 V

= -3
= 8
= 0

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(b) The power absorbed by the 2.5- resistor is


= 82.66 mW.
(v3)2/ 2.5 = (-0.4546)2/ 2.5

(a) Solving for v2 = vA, we find that

0.5 v1 - 0.5 v2 + 0.4 v3


-0.5 v1 + 0.7 v2
v1 - 0.8 v2
- v3

Simplifying and collecting terms,

[1]
[2]

Choosing the bottom node as the reference terminal and naming the left node 1, the
center node 2 and the right node 3, we next form a supe rnode about nodes 1 and
2, encompassing the dependent voltage source.

Chapter Four Solutions

Our supernode equation is v1 - v3 = 0.8 vA


[3]
Since
vA = v2, we can rewrite [3] as v1 v3 = 0.8v2

17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

3:

NODE

[1]
[2]
[3]

[3]

[2]

[1]

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(0.01 v1) v3 = 177.4 W.

The power supplied by the dependent current source is therefore

Solving, we find that v1 = 148.2 V, v2 = 59.26 V, and v3 = 120.4 V.

Since our choice of r eference ter minal m akes the contr olling var iable of both
dependent sources a nodal voltage, we have no need for an additional equation as we
might have expected.

0.07 v1 0.05 v2 0.02 v3


0.4 v1
=
v2
-0.03 v1 0.03333 v2 + 0.05333 v3=

=5
0
0

0.01 v1 = (v3 v2)/ 30 + (v3 v1)/ 50

v2 = 0.4 v1

5 = (v1 v2)/ 20 + (v1 v3)/ 50

Simplifying and collecting terms, we obtain

2:

NODE 1:

Selecting the bottom node as the reference terminal, we name the left node 1, the
middle node 2 and the right node 3.

NODE

18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vx/ 4 + (vx vy)/ 2 + (vx 6)/ 1


(vy kvx)/ 3 + (vy vx)/ 2

=0
=2

[1]
[2]

10 March 2006

k = (12 + 3 vx)/ (-2 vx)

= -3.250

Since Eq. [1] yields vx = 48/14 = 3.429 V, we find that

vx = 48
[1]
vx - 3 vx = 12 [2]

Our additional constraint is that vy = 0, so we may simplify Eqs. [1] and [2]:

At node x:
At node y:

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14
-2k

19.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[1]
[2]
[3]

Solving these last two equations, we find that v2 = 727.3 mV. Making use of Eq. [3],
we therefore find that
i1 = 1.636 A.

[1]
[4]

v1 + 2 v2
4 v1 3 v=
2

Equation [1] simplifies to


Combining Eqs. [2] and [3,
= 0
8

2 = v1/ 4 + (v2 4)/ 2


v1 v2 = 3 0.5i1
i1 = (v2 4)/ 2

At the supernode:
Our remaining equations:
and

Choosing the bottom node joining the 4- resistor, the 2-A current sourcee and the
4-V voltage source as our reference node, we next nam e the other node of the 4-
resistor node 1, and the node joining the 2- r esistor and t he 2- A c urrent s ource
node 2. Finally, we create a supernode with nodes 1 and 2.

Chapter Four Solutions

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20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[1]

[3]

v1 v3 = 400 + 4v20
v20 = v3 v4 = v3 200

Supernode KVL equation:


Where the controlling voltage

v1 5 v3 = -400

[3]

50
0
-1

20
-5

v1
4
v = - 400
2

v3
400

v20 = -90.9 V.

Solving, we find that


v1 = 145.5 V, v2 = -254.5 V, and v3 = 109.1 V. Since v20 = v3 200, we find that

1
40
1

Eqs. [1], [3], and [5] are not sufficient, however, as we have four unknowns. At this
point we need to seek an additi onal equation, possibly in terms of v2. Referring to the
circuit,
v1 - v2 = 400
[5]
Rewriting as a matrix equation,

and Eq. [3] becomes

4 = v1/ 40 + v2/ 50 + v3/ 20 [1]

Thus, Eq. [1] becomes -6 = v1/ 40 + v2/ 50 + (v3 200)/ 20 or, more simply,

[4]

[2]

v4 = 200

At node 4:

Note that since both ends of the 10- resistor are connected to the supernode, the
related terms cancel each other out, and so could have been ignored.

-4 8 + 6 = v1/ 40 + (v1 v3)/ 10 + (v3 v1)/ 10 + v2/ 50 + (v3 v4)/ 20

At the supernode,

We first number the nodes as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 moving left to right. We next select
node 5 as the reference terminal. To simplify the analysis, we form a supernode from
nodes 1, 2, and 3.

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21.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[2]

v1 - v3 = 6

v1 = 4.091 V

Solving Eqs. [1] and [2], we find that


and

v3 = -1.909 V.

v4 = 4.333 V.

[1]

v1 + 10 v3 = -20 + 5 = -15

Eq. [3] may be directly solved to obtain

and

Rearranging, simplifying and collecting terms,

v1 v3 = 6

2 = v4/ 2 + (v4 5)/ 4

At node 4:
Our supernode KVL equation:

-2 = v3/ 1 + (v1 5)/ 10

At the supernode:

Forming a supernode with nodes 1 & 3, we find

By inspection, v2 = 5 V.

[3]

[2]

[1]

We begin by naming the top left node 1, the top right node 2, the bottom node of
the 6-V source 3 and the top node of the 2- resistor 4. Th e reference node has
already been selected, and designated using a ground symbol.

Chapter Four Solutions

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22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

v1

1V

v4 = 4 V.

4
4V

v4

2 A
2

v5

therefore,

[1]

3V

v5 - v6 = 3 [2]

v3 = 3 V.

v6

v1 = 12 V.

or

The power supplied by the 2-A source therefore is (v6 v2)(2) = 45.33 W.

v5 = 4.667 V and v6 = 1.667 V.

Solving Eqs. [1] and [2], we find that

Our supernode KVL equation is

v2 = -21 V

-4 2 = (v2 3)/ 4

At node 2,
Solving, we find that

4 = v1/ 3

2 = v6/ 1 + (v5 4)/ 2

At node 1,

At the supernode,

By KVL, v3 v4 = 1 so v3 = -1 + v4 = -1 + 4

By inspection,

4A

v2

v3

We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference, naming the nodes as shown
below, and forming a supernode with nodes 5 & 6.

Chapter Four Solutions

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23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

v7

v5

-4 2 = (v2 v3)/ 4
or
or

0
0
0

2
0

- 1

v2 -v3 = -24

[2]

[1]

[5]
[6]

-v5 + v6 + 2v8 = 4

v2
- 24
v
0
3

v4
48
=

v5
4
v
-1
6

3
v8

or

The power generated by the 2-A source is therefore (v8 v6)(2) = 133.2 W.

[4]

-14v4 + 68v5 42v6 = 48 [3]

-6v2 + 6v3 + 4v4 4v5 = 0

or

v8

Voltages in
volts.
Currents in
amperes.
Resistances
in ohms.

Solving, we find that


v2 = -68.9 V, v3 = -44.9 V, v4 = -43.9 V, v5 = -7.9 V, v6 = 700 mV, v8 = -2.3 V.

0 0 0
1 - 1
- 6 6
4 -4 0

0
0 - 14 68 - 42

0
0 -1 1
0
0
1 -1 0
0

0 0
1
0 0

Rewriting Eqs. [1] to [6] in matrix form,

v3 - v4 = -1
v6 v8 = 3

At the 6-8 supernode: 2 = (v6 v5)/ 2 + v8/ 1

At node 5:
0 = (v5 v4)/ 6 + (v5 4)/ 7 + (v5 v6)/ 2
3-4 supernode KVL equation:
6-8 supernode KVL equation:

v6

and v1 = (3)(4) = 12 V.

v4

At the 3-4 supernode:


0 = (v3 v2)/ 4 + (v4 v5)/ 6

At node 2:

By inspection, v7 = 4 V

v1

v2

v3

We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference, naming each node as shown
below, and forming two different supernodes as indicated.

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24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[2]

0 = (v2 v1)/ 2.2103 + (v2 v3)/ 4.7103

1103 + 3103 = (v3 v2)/ 4.7103 + v3/3.3103 [3]


v1 = -8.614 V, v2 = -3.909 V and v3 = 6.143 V.

At node 2:
At node 3:
Solving,

Note that we could also have made use of the supernode approach here.

[1]

-310-3 = v1/ 10103 + (v1 v2)/ 2.2103

At node 1:

Since we know that 1 mA flows through the top 2.2-k resistor, v5 = -2.2 V.
Also, we see that v4 v5 = 9, so that v4 = 9 2.2 = 6.8 V.
Proceeding with nodal analysis,

With the reference terminal already specified, we name the bottom terminal of the
3-mA source node 1, the left term inal of the bottom 2.2-k resistor node 2, the
top term inal of the 3-mA source node 3, the + reference term inal of the 9-V
source node 4, and the - terminal of the 9-V source node 5.

Chapter Four Solutions

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25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

i2 = -2.846 mA.

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i1 = 5.923 mA and

Mesh 1: 4 + 400i1 + 300i1 300i2 1 = 0 or 700i1 300i2 = 5


Mesh 2: 1 + 500i2 300i1 +2 2 = 0
or 300i1 + 500i2 = 3.2

Solving,

26.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b) The power supplied by the 10 V source is (10)(i1) = 10(1.613) = 16.13 W.

7 2 0 i1 10
2 5 0 i = 0 to find that i = 1.613 A, and i = 143.4 mA.
1
y

2
0 2 9 i y 0

Solve the resulting matrix equation:

Mesh 1: -10 + 7i1 2i2 = 0


Mesh 2:
-2i1 + 5i2 = 0
Mesh
y:
-2i2 + 9iy = 0

27.
(a) Define a clockwise m esh current i1 in th e lef t-most m esh; a clockw ise m esh
curren
t i2 in the central m esh, and note that iy can be used as a m esh current for the
rem
aining mesh.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

or 5i1 3i2
= 0
or -3i1 +8i2
= 212
or
5i2 + 8i3 = 122

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*** Note: since the problem statement did not specify a directi on, only the current
magnitude is relevant, and its sign is arbitrary.

(b) The current through the 5 resistor is i3, or 6.121 A.

i1 = 20.52 A, i2 = 34.19 A and i3 = 6.121 A.

Mesh 1: 5i1 3i2 = 0


Mesh 2: 212 +8i2 3i1 = 0
Mesh 3: 8i3 5i2 + 122 = 0

(a) The current through the 2 resistor is i1.

Define three mesh currents as shown:

Solving,

28.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

P25 = 25 (i1 i2)2 = 25 (5 1.133)2 = 373.8 W.

(b) The power absorbed by the 25 resistor is

ix = i2 i3 = 1.133 (2) = 3.133 A.

+ 75i2 + 40= 0 so that i2 = 1.133 A.

2: 25i1 + 75i2 20i3 = 0, or, making use of the above,

Mesh 1: i1 = 5 A (by inspection)


Mesh 3: i3 = 2 A (by inspection)

Note that ix = i2 i3.

We begin by defining three clockwise m esh currents i1, i2 and i3 in the lef t-most,
central, and right-most meshes, respectively. Then,

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Thus,

125

Mesh

(a)

29.

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Chapter Four Solutions

Mesh 1:
Mesh 2:
Mesh 3:

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we find that i2 = 25.81 mA and i3 = 19.35 mA. Thus, i = i3 i2 = 6.46 mA.

80 40 30 i1 2

0 i2 = 0
40 70
30 0
70 i3 0

2 + 80i1 40i2 30i3 = 0


=0
40i1 + 70i2
+70i3 = 0
30i1

Define three mesh currents as shown. Then,

Solving,

30.

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10 March 2006

-3 i2 + 18 i3 = -80
i2 =

ix = 2.791 A.

Solving this system of three (independent) equations in three unknowns, we find that

MESH 3:

-4 i1 + 9 i2 - 3 i3 = 0

MESH 2:

= 100

12 i1 - 4 i2

MESH 1:

Moving from left to right, we name the bottom three meshes, mesh 1, mesh 2,
and m esh 3. In each of these th ree meshes we define a clockwise curren t. The
remaining mesh current is clearly 8 A. We may then write:

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or

MESH 2: -6i4 + v4A + 4i2 4(5) = 0

= 60

+ 10i4 - v4A = 15

4i2 - 6i4 + v4A = 20

+ 4i4

[3]

[2]

[1]

2
0

- 2

0
4
0
1

4
-6
10
-1

0
1
-1

i1
60
i

2 = 20
i4
15


4
v 4 A

Collecting these equations and writing in matrix form, we have

i2 i4 = 4

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(i1 i4)2 (2) = 210.0 W

[4]

At this point, we are short an equation. Returning to the circuit diagram, we note that

MESH 4: 2i4 2i1 + 5i4 + 3i4 3(5) v4A = 0 or -2i1

or 2i1

i3 = 5 A and ia = i4.

MESH 1: -60 + 2i1 2i4 + 6i4 = 0

By inspection,

We define four clockwise mesh currents. The top mesh current is labeled i4. The
bottom left mesh current is labeled i1, the bottom right m esh current is labeled i3, and
the remaining mesh current is labeled i2. Define a voltage v4A across the 4-A current
source with the + reference terminal on the left.

Chapter Four Solutions

Solving,
i1 = 16.83 A, i2 = 10.58 A, i4 = 6.583 A and v4A = 17.17 V.
Thus, the power dissipated by the 2- resistor is

32.

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10 March 2006

i2 = -0.01 v1

50 i3 + 30 i3 30 i2 + 20 i3 20 i1 = 0
-20 i1 30 i2 + 100 i3 = 0 [3]

and

[2]

Thus, v1 = 148.1 V, i2 = -1.481 A, and the power generated by the dependent voltage
source is
0.4 v1 (i2 i1) = -383.9 W.

Solving, we find that i3 = (100 50)/ 90 = 555.6 mA

-20(5) 30(-0.01)(20)(5)/0.6 + 30(-0.01)(20) i3/ 0.6 + 100 i3 = 0

Substituting Eq. [4] into Eq. [2] and then the modified Eq. [2] into Eq. [3], we find

These three equations are insufficient, how ever, to solve for the unknow ns. It would
be nice to be able to express the dependent source cont rolling variable v1 in term s of
the mesh currents. Returning to the diagra m, it can be seen that KVL around m esh 1
will yield
- v1 + 20 i1 20 i3 + 0.4 v1 = 0
or v1 = (20(5)/ 0.6 - 20 i3/ 0.6 [4]
or
v1 = 20 i1/ 0.6 20 i3/ 0.6

MESH 3:
or

By inspection, i1 = 5 A [1]

We begin our analysis by defining three clockwise mesh currents. We will call the top
mesh current i3, the bottom left mesh current i1, and the bottom right mesh current i2.

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33.

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[1]
[2]

+ vdep = 20
30 i3 vdep = -25

[2]

[3]

ix = i1 i2 = 8.333 A.

30 0 1 i2
20
0 30 - 1 i = - 25

- 0.5 - 1 0 vdep
- 3

Solving, we find that i2 = -6.333 A so that

In matrix form,

Thus, 1.5ix = i3 - i2 where ix = i1 i2 so -0.5 i2 - i3 = -3

This is only two equations but three unknowns , however, so we require an additional
equation. Returning to the circuit diagram , we note that it is pos sible to express th e
current of the dependent sour ce in term s of m esh currents. (W e might also choose to
obtain an expression for vdep in term s of m esh currents using KVL around m esh 2 or
3.)

30 i2

Collecting terms, we rewrite Eqs. [1] and [2] as

- vdep + 25 i3 + 5 i3 5(-5) = 0

[1]

i4 = -5 A.

At Mesh 3:

and

10 i2 - 10(2) + 20 i2 + vdep = 0

i1 = 2A

At Mesh 2:

By inspection,

We begin by defining four clockwise mesh currents i1, i2, i3 and i4, in the meshes of
our circuit, starting at the left-m ost m esh. W e also define a voltage vdep acros s th e
dependent current source, with the + on the top.

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34.

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Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

2:

MESH

4:

=
0

9400 i4 4700 i1 4700 i3 + 0.1 ix = 0

9 + 9400 i3 4700 i4

9400 i2 4700 i1 9 = 0

-0.1 va + 4700 i1 4700 i2 + 4700 i1 4700 i4 = 0

[4]

[3]

[2]

[1]

i1 = 239.3 A, i2 = 1.077 mA, i3 = -1.197 mA and i4 = -478.8 A.

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Solving,

0
9400 - 4700 - 470 - 4700 i1
i
9

- 4700 9400
0
0 2

=
- 9

0
0 9400 - 4700 i3

0.1 - 4700 9400 i4


0
- 4700

Referring to the circuit diagram, we see that ix = i2 (easy enough) and that
va = 4700 i3 (also straightforward). Thus, subs tituting these express ions into our
four mesh equations and creating a matrix equation, we arrive at:

The presen ce of the two de pendent sources has led to the in troduction of tw o
additional unknowns (ix and va) besides our four m esh currents. In a perfect world, it
would simplify the solution if we could e xpress these tw o quantities in term s of the
mesh currents.

MESH

MESH 3:

1:

We define a clockwise mesh current i1 in the bottom left mesh, a clockwise mesh
current i2 in the top left mesh, a clockwise mesh current i3 in the top right mesh, and a
clockwise mesh current i4 in the bottom right mesh.

MESH

35.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

[3]
i1 = 1.333 A.

[2]

[1]

i2 = [-0.5 + 12(0.1333)]/ 15 = 73.31 mA.

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As a result, Eq. [1] reduces to

i3 = 0.1 vx = 0.1 i1 = 133.3 mA.

It would help in the solution of Eqs. [2] and [3] if we could express the dependent
source controlling variable vx in term s of m esh curren ts. Referring to the circuit
diagram, we see that vx = (1)( i1) = i1, so Eq. [3] reduces to

Eq. [1] may be solved directly to obtain

i3 = 0.1 vx

2 + 15 i2 12 i3 1.5 = 0

MESH 2:
3:

-6 + 6 i1 - 2 = 0

MESH 1:

We define a clockwise mesh current i3 in the upper right mesh, a clockwise mesh
current i1 in the lower left m esh, and a clockwise m esh current i2 in th e lower right
mesh.

MESH

36.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

R =

5 + 47(1.5)
mA = 1.127 mA
67

9 - 47(1.5) + 47(1.127)
= -5687 .
1.5 10-3

i2 =

(b) This value of R is unique; no other value will satisfy both Eqs. [1] and [2].

so

[2]

MESH 2: 67000 i2 47000 i1 5 = 0


that i1 = 1.5 mA, we may solve Eq. [2] to find that

[1]

MESH 1: -9 + R i1 + 47000 i1 47000 i2 = 0

(a) Define a mesh current i2 in the second mesh. Then KVL allows us to write:

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and

Given

37.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

[1]
[2]
[3]

1.189 mW
641.9 W
60.12 W
58.76 W
0
1.317 W
152.0 W
202.7 W
176.3 W

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Check: The sources supply a total of


4(487.6) + (3 2.2)(242.4) + 1.5(225.1) = 2482 W.
The absorbed powers add to 2482 W.

2
P5k
=
5000 (i=
1)
2
=
2700 (i=
P2.7k
1)
1000 (i1 i2)2 =
P1ktop =
2
= 1000
(i=
P1kmiddle
2)
P1kbottom
= 0
=
=
4400 (i2 i3)2 =
P4.4k
2
3000 (i=
P3ktop =
3)
2
=
4000 (i=
P4k
3)
2
= 3000
(i=
P3kbottom
2)

The power absorbed by each resistor may now be calculated:

i1 = 487.6 A, i2 = 242.4 A and i3 = 225.1 A.

Solving,

8700 i1 1000 i2
= 4
i1 + 9400 i2 4400 i3 = 0.8
4400 i2 + 11400 i3 = 1.5

Combining terms,

(4400 + 4000 + 3000) i3 - 4400 i2 1.5 = 0

MESH 3:

[3]

(1000 + 1000 + 4400 + 3000) i2 1000 i1 4400 i3 + 2.2 3 = 0 [2]

MESH 2:

[1]

-4 + (2700 + 1000 + 5000) i1 1000 i2 = 0

MESH 1:

Define three clockwise mesh currents i1, i2 and i3. The bottom 1-k resistor can be
ignored, as no current flows through it.

1000

38.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

[2]

[1]

10 March 2006

= 0

0.03 v = v / 300 + v / 4700 + v /1700

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(c) V s/ I x has units of resistance. It can be t hought of as the resistance seen by the
voltage source Vs. more on this in Chap. 5.

Ix = 333.3 A as found in part (a).

Solving, we find that v = 0, therefore no current flows through the dependent source.

(b) At node :

Ix = 333.3 A.

= 0
= 0
=
= 1

[4]

v = 4700(i1 i2) [3b]

5000 i1 4700 i2
i1 + 6400 i2 1700 i3
141 i1 + 141 i2 i3
3000 i3 + 3000 i4
Solving, we find that i4 = -333.3 mA, so

Hence,

4700

3000 i4 3000 i3 + 1

where

Simplifying and combining Eqs. 3a and 3b,

4:

i3 = -0.03 v [3a]

Since we have a current source on the perimeter of mesh 3, we do not require a KVL
equation for that mesh. Instead, we may simply write

(4700 + 1700) i2 4700 i1 1700 i3 = 0

MESH 2:

= 0

(4700 + 300) i1 - 4700 i2

MESH 1:

Proceeding with mesh analysis, then, keeping in mind that Ix = -i4,

(a) We begin by naming four mesh currents as depicted below:

MESH

39.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Vy 7i1

MESH 4:

3i3 + 10i4 = 0

5i2 + 8i3 3i4 = 0

= 0

7i4 = 0

= Vz
= 0
= - Vx
= - Vy
Vz
0
-Vx
-Vy

=
=
=
=

0
0
0
0

This is a unique solution. Therefore,


the request that nonzero values be
found cannot be satisfied.

i1 = i2 = i3 = i4, these equations produce:

9i1 - 2i2
-7i4
-2i1 + 7i2 - 5i3
-5i2 + 8i3 3i4
-7i1 -3i3 + 10i4

Rearranging and setting i1 i2 = 0, i2 i3 = 0, i1 i4 = 0 and i4 i3 = 0,

Vx

2i1 + 7i2 5i3

Vz + 9i1 2i2

MESH 3:

MESH 2:

MESH 1:

We begin by naming each mesh and the three undefined voltage sources as shown
below:

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Since

40.

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10 March 2006

i4 = -0.5i2

MESH 4:

[3]

[2]

[1]

P2mA = 5000(i1 i2)(i1)


P4V
= 4 (-i2)
= 6 (-i3)
P6V
1000 i3 (i3 i2)
PdepV =
10,000(i3 i4)(0.5 i2)
PdepI=

The power generated by each source is:


= 5 mW
= -6 mW
= 9 mW
= 4.5 mW
= -5.625 mW

i1 = 2 mA, i2 = 1.5 mA, i3 = -1.5 mA and i4 = -0.75 mA.

We could either subtitute Eq. [3] into Eq. [2] to reduce the number of equations, or
simply go ahead and solve the system of Eqs. [1-3]. Either way, we find that

5000 i2 + 1000 i3
= 6
9000 i3 10,000 i4 = -6
+
i4 = 0
0.5 i2

[1]
[2]
[3]

-1000i3 + 6 + 10,000 10,000i4 = 0

MESH 3:

Reorganising, we find

-10 + 5000i2 + 4 + 1000i3 = 0

MESH 2:

The supermesh concept is not required (or helpful) in solving this problem, as there
are no current sources s hared between m eshes. Starting with the left-most m esh and
moving right, we define four clockwise m esh currents i1, i2, i3 and i4. By inspection,
we see that i1 = 2 mA.

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41.

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Chapter Four Solutions

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3:

MESH

[3]

-2.5 iA + 7 i3 3 i2

= 0

[2]

2 i 2 + 3 i 2 + i 2 3 i 3 i1 = 0

[1]

iA

i3

i2

-20 + i1 i2 + 2.5 iA = 0

2.5 iA

iA = 1.936 A.

i1 = 30.97 A, i2 = 6.129 A, and i3 = 1.936 A. Since iA = - i3,

[1]
[2]
[3]

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Solving,

i1 i2 2.5 i3 = 20
- i1 + 6i2 3 i3 = 0
3 i2 + 9.5 i3 = 0

Combining terms and making use of the fact that iA = - i3,

2:

MESH 1:

20 V

i1

This circuit does not require the supermesh technique, as it does not contain any
current sources. Redrawing the circuit so its planar nature and m esh structure are
clear,

MESH

42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i2
i4

i1
i3

Chapter Four Solutions

i4 - i3 = 2

3 i 4 + 9 i4 9 i1 + 4 i3 4 i2 + 6 i3 + i3 3 = 0

[3]

[2]

[1]

10 March 2006

= -7.2
= -37.5
= 2

[1]
[2]
[3]

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The power supplied by the 2.2-V source is then 2.2 (i1 i2) = -3.654 W.

Solving, we find that i2 = -2.839 A, i3 = -3.168 A, and i4 = -1.168 A.

7 i2 4 i3
-4 i2 + 11 i3 + 12 i4
- i3 + i4

Simplifying and combining terms, we may rewrite these three equations as:

Superm

SH:

2.2 + 3 i2 + 4 i2 + 5 4 i3 = 0

esh KCL equation:

MESH 2:

We form a supermesh with meshes 3 and 4 as defined above.

By inspection, i1 = -4.5 A.

Define four mesh currents

SUPERME

43.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i4

[6]

i4 i3 = 210-3

3, 4 Supermesh KCL equation:

(4700 + 10,000 + 1000) (540.810-6) = 8.491 V

Solving, we find that i4 = 540.8 mA. Thus, the voltage across the 2-mA source is

We can simplify these equations prior to solution in several ways. Choosing to retain
six equations,
-2200 i5
= 0
[1]
15,700 i1 + 7900 i2 - 1000 i3
-2200 i6 = 0
[2]
- 1000 i2 + 7900 i3 + 15,700 i4
- 2200 i2
+ 6900 i5
= -1.7
[3]
[4]
- 2200 i3
+ 11,600 i6 = -1.5
-3
i2
= 310 [5]
i1
+ i4
= 210-3 [6]
- i3

[5]

1.5 + (4700 + 4700 + 2200) c 2200 i3 = 0

MESH 6:

i1 i2 = 310-3

[3]

(2200 + 4700) i5 2200 i2 + 3.2 1.5 = 0

MESH 5:

1, 2 Supermesh KCL equation:

[2]

3, 4 Supermesh:
(4700 + 1000 + 2200) i3 1000 i2 2200 i6 + (4700 + 10,000 + 1000) i4 = 0

[4]

[1]

We form a supermesh with meshes 1 and 2 since they share a current source.
We form a second supermesh with meshes 3 and 4 since th ey also share a curren t
source.

i3

i2

10 March 2006

1, 2 Supermesh:
(4700 + 1000 + 10,000) i1 2200 i5 + (2200 + 1000 + 4700) i2 1000 i3 = 0

i1

i6

i5

We begin by defining six mesh currents as depicted below:

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Solving, we find that i1 = -413.7 mA and the voltage across the 2.5 res istor
(arbitrarily assuming the left terminal is the + reference) is 2.5 i1 = -1.034 V.

2.5 i1 + 7 i2 = 3
-i1 + i2 = 0.99

Thus, we have two equations to solve:

and the supermesh KCL equation: i2 i1 = 0.5 va = 0.5(1.98) = 0.99

-3 + 2.5 i1 + 3 i2 + 4 i2 = 0

Forming one supermesh from the remaining two meshes, we may write:

Thus, -1.8 + 3 ia 1.5 + 2 ia = 0, which may be solved to find ia = 0.66 A. Hence,


va = 3 ia = 1.98 V.

The left-most mesh can be analysed separately to determine the controlling voltage va,
as KCL assures us that no current flows through either the 1- or 6- resistor.

We define a mesh current ia in the left-hand mesh, a mesh current i1 in the top right
mesh, and a mesh current i2 in the bottom right mesh (all flowing clockwise).

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-11.8 + 1010-3 i1 + 2210-3 i2 + 1010-3 i2 + 1710-3 i1 = 0

The final mesh current is easily found: i3 = 13103/ (14 + 11.6 + 15) = 320.2 A.

Solving, we find that i1 = 254.2 A and i2 = 154.2 A.

2710-3 i1 + 3210-3 i2 = 11.8


i2 = 100
i1

Combining terms and simplifying, we obtain

i1 i2 = 100

and applying KCL to obtain an equation containing the current source,

Thus,

We next create a superm esh from meshes 1 and 2 (note that m esh 3 is independent,
and can be analysed separately).

There are only three meshes in this circuit, as the botton 22-m resistor is not
connected connected at its left term inal. Thus, we define three m esh currents, i1, i2,
and i3, beginning with the left-most mesh.

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46.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 7
=
=7

[1]
[2]
0
[3]

10 March 2006

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x = (7 + 3 i2 5 i3)/ i3 = 4.498 .

This, unfortunately, is four unknowns but only three equations. However, we have not
yet made use of the fact that we are trying to obtain i2 = 2.273 A. Solving these four
equations, we find that

i1 i2
-i1 + 6i2 3i3
-3i2 + (5 + x)i3

[1]
[2]
[3]

Chapter Four Solutions

-7 + i1 i2 = 0
i2 i1 + 2i2 + 3i2 3i3 = 0
3i3 3i2 + xi3 +2i3 7 = 0

Grouping terms, we find that

47.
MESH 1:
MESH
2:
MESH
3:

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

i3

-i1 + 6i2 = 21 [2]

i1 i2 = 7 [1]

Solving, we find that

i1 = 12.6 A, i2 = 5.6 A and i3 = 7 A.

There is no need for supermesh techniques for this situation, as the only current
source lies on the outside perimeter of a mesh- it is not shared between meshes.

(1 + 2 + 3) i2 i1 3(7) = 0 or

MESH 2:

or

7A

-7 + i1 i2 = 0

7V

i1

300 m

MESH 1:

y inspection, i3 = 7 A.

i2

We begin by redrawing the circuit as instructed, and define three mesh currents:

Chapter Four Solutions

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48.

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10 March 2006

v1 vx = 22
11(18) = 9 v1 + 2 vx
22 = v1 vx [2]

and the KVL Eqn:


Rearranging,

[1]

[2]

[1]

6 + 9 = vx / 10 + vy/ 20
vy vx = 12

[1]
[2]

[1]

and a little algebra yields vx = -38.46 V.

0.1 vx = (vx + 100 50)/ 2 + vx / 4

referring to the circuit w e see tha t vx = v1 100. Rearranging so that we m


eliminate v1 in Eq. [1], we obtain v1 = vx + 100. Thus, Eq. [1] becomes

0.1 vx = (v1 50) / 2 + vx / 4

ay

(c) W e are asked for a voltage, but would ha ve to subtract two nodal voltages (not
much harder than invoking Ohm s law). On the other hand, the dependent current
source depends on the desired unknown, whic h would lead to the need for another
equation if invoking mesh analysis. Trying nodal analysis,

Solving, we find that vx = 96 V.

Rearranging, 15(20) = 2 vx + vy [1]


and
12 = - vx + vy [2]

At the supernode:
and the KVL Eqn:

Name the top left node x, the top right node y and designate the bottom node as
the reference node. Forming a supernode from nodes x and y,

(b) We are asked for a voltage, and so may suspect that nodal analysis is preferrable;
with two current sources a nd only one voltage source (eas ily dea lt w ith using the
supernode technique), nodal analysis does seem to have an edge over m esh analysis
here.

Solving, vx = 0

11 = v1/ 2 + vx/ 9

At the supernode:

Name the top left node 1 a nd the top right node x; designate the bottom node as
the reference terminal. Next, form a supernode with nodes 1 and x.

a) We are asked for a voltage, and have one current source and one voltage source.
Nodal analysis is probably best then- th e nodes can be nam ed so that the desired
voltage is a nodal voltage, or, at worst, we have one supernode equation to solve.

Chapter Four Solutions

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49. (

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v1

Ref.

(a) (b)

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

Both ends of the


resistor are
connected to the
supernode, so we
could actually just
ignore it

vd vb = 30

0.1 vb + 0.03333 vc + 0.025 vd = 80


-vb
+
vd = 30
vd = 9
vc -

vc vd = 9

0 = (vb 80)/ 10 + vd/ 40 + vc/ 30

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v3 = 40 i3 = 189 V.

-80 + 10 i1 + 20 i1 20 i2 + 30 i1 30 i3 = 0
20 i2 20 i1 30 + 40 i3 + 30 i3 30 i1 = 0
i2 - i3 = 5 i1
i1 20 i2 30 i3 = 80
-50 i1 + 20 i2 + 70 i3 = 30
5 i1 i2 + i3 = 0
Solving, i3 = 4.727 A
so

60

Mesh 1:
2, 3 supermesh:

(c) We are now faced with a dependent current source whose value depends on a
mesh current. Mesh analysis in th is situation requires 1 superm esh, 1 KCL equation
and Ohms law. Nodal analysis requires 1 supernode, 1 KVL equation, 1 other nodal
equation, and one equation to express
i1 in term s of nodal voltages. Thus, m esh
analysis has an edg e here. Define th e left m esh as 1, the top m esh as 2, and the
bottom mesh as 3.

Solving, vd (= v3) = 67.58 V

Simplify and collect terms:

and:

At the b, c, d supernode:

(b) Mesh analysis would be straightforward, requiring 3 equations and a (trivial)


application of O hms law to obta in the f inal answer. Nodal analysis, on the other
hand, would require o nly two equations, and the desired voltage will be a nodal
voltage.

Solving, we find that v3 = 69.48 V

We simplify these two equations and collect terms, yielding


0.1 v1 + 0.05833 v3 = 8
- v1 + v3 = 30

(a) We begin by noting that it is a voltage that is required; no current values are
requested. This is a three- mesh circuit, or a four-node circuit, depending on your
perspective. Either app roach requires th ree equations. Except that applying the
supernode technique reduces the number of needed equations by one.
At the 1, 3 supernode:
0 = (v1 80)/ 10 + (v1 v3)/ 20 + (v3 v1)/ 20 + v3/ 40 + v3/ 30
v3 - v1 = 30

Rewriting,

and:

and

50.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[1]
[2]
[3]

i1 = ia = 3.549 A

and i2 = ia ic = 1.686 A.

Solving, we find that ia = 3.549 A, ib = 3.854 A, and ic = 1.863 A. Thus,

60 ia 20 ib 30 ic = 80
-20 ia + 32 ib 12 ic = 30
-30 ia 12 ib + 82 ic = 0

[1]
[2]
[3]

-80 + (10 + 20 + 30) ia 20 ib 30 ic = 0


-30 + (12 + 20) ib 12 ic 20 ia = 0
(12 + 40 + 30) ic 12 ib 30 ia = 0

Simplifying and collecting terms,

Mesh a:
Mesh b:
Mesh c:

Define three clockwis e m esh currents: ia in the lef t-most m esh, ib in the top r ight
mesh, and ic in the bottom right mesh. Then our mesh equations will be:

This circuit consists of 3 meshes, and no dependent sources. Therefore 3 simultaneous


equations and 1 subtraction operation would be required to solve for the two desired
currents. On the other hand, if we use nodal analysis, form ing a supernode about the
30-V source would lead to 5 1 1 = 3 sim ulataneous equations as well, plus several
subtraction and division opera tions to find the currents. Thus, m esh a nalysis has a
slight edge here.

Chapter Four Solutions

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51.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

0.6

i2 + 0.4 i3 = 510-3 [2]


-10000 i2 + 35000 i3 = 25

[3]

-5000 i1 10000 i2 + 35000 i3 = 0 [3]

[2]

[1]

i10 = -4 mA.

Solving, we find i2 = 6.6 mA and i3 = 2.6 mA. Since i10 = i3 i2, we find that

plify:

3:

i1 i2 = 0.4 i10
i1 i2 = 0.4(i3 i2)
i1 0.6 i2 0.4 i3 = 0

i1 = 5 mA by inspection

SUPERMESH:

MESH 1:

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Sim

Chapter Four Solutions

Approaching this problem using nodal analysis would require 3 separate nodal
equations, plus one equation to deal with the dependent source, plus subtraction and
division steps to actua lly find the current i10. Mesh analy sis, on the o ther hand, w ill
require 2 mesh/supermesh equations, 1 KCL equation, and one subtraction step to find
i10. Thus, mesh analys is has a clear edge. Define three clockwise m esh currents: i1 in
the bottom left mesh, i2 in the top mesh, and i3 in the bottom right mesh.

MESH

52.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

- ia + ib = 2
ib + ic = 3 i3 = 3 ia

KCL:
and

i3 = ia = 120.6 mA and i10 = ic id = 4.693 A.

ia = 0.1206 A, ib = 2.121 A, ic = 2.482 A, and id = -2.211 A. Thus,

Solving,

6 ia + 20 ib + 14 ic 10 id = 100
-10 ic + 34 id = -100
- ia + ib
= 2
= 0
-3 ia ib + ic

Collecting terms & simplifying,


[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

100 + 10 id 10 ic + 24 id = 0

Mesh d:
-

-100 + 6 ia + 20 ib + 4 ic + 10 ic 10 id = 0 [1]

At the a, b, c supermesh:

[3]
[4]

[2]

For this circuit problem, nodal analysis will require 3 simultaneous nodal equations,
then subtraction/ division steps to obtain th e desired curren ts. Mesh analysis requ ires
1 mesh equation, 1 superm esh equation, 2 simple KCL equations and one subtraction
step to dete rmine the currents. If either te chnique has an edge in this situa tion, its
probably mesh analysis. Thus, define four clockwise mesh equations: ia in the bottom
left mesh, ib in the top lef t mesh, ic in the top right m esh, and id in the bottom right
mesh.

Chapter Four Solutions

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53.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

v5

-210-3 = (v1 1.3)/ 1.8103

v2

v4

v1 = -2.84 V.

0 = (v5 v2)/ 1x103 + (v5 v4)/ 1.3x103 + (v5 2.6)/ 6.3x103

-v2 + v4 = 5.2

Solving, we find the voltage at the central node is v4 = 3.460 V.

14.235 v2 + 22.39 v4 25.185 v5 = 35.275 [1]


-v2 +
v4
= 5.2
[2]
-8.19 v2
6.3 v4 + 15.79 v5 = 3.38
[3]

Simplifying and collecting terms,

Node 5:

KVL equation:

2, 4 Supernode:
2.310-3 = (v2 v5)/ 1x103 + (v4 1.3)/ 7.3103 + (v4 v5)/ 1.3103 + v4/ 1.5103

NODE 1:

v1

v3

v6

With 7 nodes in this circuit, nodal analysis will require the solution of three
simultaneous nodal equations (assum ing we make use of the supernode technique)
and one KVL equation. Mesh analysis will require the solution of three simultaneous
mesh equations (one m esh current can be found by inspecti
on), plus several
subtraction and m ultiplication oper ations to f inally de termine the voltage a t th e
central nod e. Either will probab ly requi re a com parable am ount of algebraic
manoeuvres, so we go with nodal analysis, as the desired unknown is a direct result of
solving the simultaneous equations. Define the nodes as:

Chapter Four Solutions

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54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

7 i 3 4 i4 = 3
-4 i3 + 7 i4 = 5

[3]
[4]

-322.6 mA

-242.0 mA

182.0 mA

-1.424 A

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677.4 mA

677.4 mA

Solving, we find that i3 = 1.242 A and i4 = 1.424 A. A map of individual branch


currents can now be drawn:

Thus, [3] and [4] become:

i1 1) + 7 i1 5(1) = 0 yields i1 = 677.4 mA

Simplify and collect terms, noting that ix = i1 i2 = i1 1

[4]

(4 + 3) i4 4 i3 5 = 0

[2]

Mesh 4:

i2 = 1 A by inspection
(3 + 4) i3 3(1) 4(i4) = 0 [3]

2:

Mesh

-0.8ix + (2 + 5) i1 5 i2 = 0 [1]

Mesh 3:

1:

-0.8(

Chapter Four Solutions

Mesh analysis yields current values directly, so use that approach. We therefore
define four clockwise mesh currents, starting with i1 in th e left-most mesh, then i2, i3
and i4 moving towards the right.

Mesh

55.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

2000 i1 + 6000 i2 3 + 5000 i2 = 0


i1 i2 = 210-3

[1]
[2]

i1 = 1.923 mA and

i2 = -76.92 A.

[1]
[2]

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v = -2000 i1 6000 (i1 i2) = -15.85 V.

Thus, the voltage across the 2-mA source (+ reference at the top of the source) is

Solving,

2000 i1 + 11000 i2 = 3
i1 - 1000 i2 = 2

by inspection,
i4 = -1 m A. However, this as well as any equation for mesh
four are unnecessary: w e already have two equations in two unknowns and i1 and i2
are sufficient to enable us to find the voltage across the current source.

At the 1,2 supermesh:


and

If we choose to perform mesh analysis, we require 2 simultaneous equations (there are


four m eshes, but one m esh current is known, and we can em ploy the superm esh
technique around the left two m eshes). In order to find the voltage across the 2-m A
source we will need to write a KVL equation, however. Using nodal analysis is less
desirable in this case, as there will be a large num ber of nodal equations needed.
Thus, we de fine four clockwise m esh currents i1, i2, i3 and i4 star ting w ith the lef tmost mesh and moving towards the right of the circuit.

Simplifying, we obtain
1000

56.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

ia - ib = 3
ic - id = 2

and

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

[2]

[1]

i1 = 350 mA.

Solving, we find ia = 3.35 A, ib = 350 mA, ic = 1.15 A, and id = -850 mA. As i1 = ib,

2 ia + 5 ib 3 ic
= 5
-3 ib + 3 ic + 4 id = -1
ia - ib
= 3
ic - id = 2

Simplifying and collecting terms, we obtain

3 ic 3 ib + 1 + 4 id = 0

At the c, d supermesh:
[3]
[4]

-5 + 2 ia + 2 ib + 3 ib 3 ic = 0

At the a, b supermesh:

Nodal analysis will require 2 nodal equations (one being a supernode equation), 1
KVL equation, and subtraction/division operations to obtain the desired current. Mesh
analysis s imply requ ires 2 supermesh equations and 2 KCL equations, with the
desired current being a m esh current. Thus , we define four cl ockwise mesh currents
ia, ib, ic, id starting with the left-most mesh and proceeding to the right of the circuit.

Chapter Four Solutions

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Thus, we choose I1 = I2 = 500 mA and v1 = 3.1415 V.

so our requirement is I1 + I2 = 1. There is no constraint on the value of v1 other than


we are told to select a nonzero value.

I1 + I2 = (vx v1)/ 6 = 1

We want 6 W dissipated in the 6- resistor, which leads to the requirement ib = 1 A.


Applying nodal analysis to the circuit,

Define a voltage vx at the top node of the current source I2, and a clockwise mesh
current ib in the right-most mesh.

Chapter Four Solutions

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58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(2000 + 1000 + 5000) i1 6000 i2 2 = 0 [1]

[1]
[4]
[2]

[4]

i1 = 2.653 A, i2 = 3.204 A, i3 = -3.796 A, i4 = -1 mA

Solving, we find that

6000 i2
1000 i2 1000 i3
i1 + 17000 i2 + 12000 i3

i1

= 2
= 7
= -7

i4 = -1 mA by inspection

Simplifying and combining terms,

Mesh 4:

2, 3 Supermesh:
2 + (5000 + 5000 + 1000 + 6000) i2 6000 i1 + (3000 + 4000 + 5000) i3 5000 i4
= 0 [2]
[3]
and
i2 - i3 = 710-3

Mesh 1:

Inserting the new 2-V source with + reference at the bottom, and the new 7-mA
source with the arrow pointing down, we define four clockwise mesh currents i1, i2, i3,
i4 starting with the left-most mesh and proceeding towards the right of the circuit.

Chapter Four Solutions

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-6000

8000

59.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Four Solutions

10 March 2006

[2]
[3]

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V4 = 2i3 = 1.5 V
V3 = 2 + V4 = 3.5 V
V2 V3 = 2 i1 or V2 = 2 i1 + V3 = 3 V
V1 V2 = 2 ix or V1 = 2 ix + V2 = 5.5 V

Nodal voltages are straightfoward to find, then:

i1 = 250 mA and i3 = 750 mA.


ix = -5 i1 = 1.35 A and i2 = i1 2 = 2.25 A

i1 + 2i3 = 2
i1 + i3 = 1

Substituting Eq. [1] into Eq. [2] and simplifying,

At the left-most mesh, ix = 5 i1


[1]
For the supermesh, we can write 4i1 2ix + 2 + 2i3 = 0
and the corresponding KCL equation: i3 i1 = 1

First, define clockwise m esh currents ix, i1, i2 and i3 starting from the lef t-most mesh
and moving to the right. Next, com bine the 2 A and 3 A sources tem porarily into a 1
A source, arrow pointing upwards. Th en, define four nodal voltages, V 1, V 2, V 3 and
V4 moving from left to right along the top of the circuit.

This circuit is e asily analyzed by mesh analysis; its planar, and af ter combining the
2A and 3 A sources into a single 1 A source, supermesh analysis is simple.

Solving,
Then,

14

60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

0.6

i2 + 0.4 i3 = 510-3 [2]


-10000 i2 + 35000 i3 = 25

[3]

-5000 i1 10000 i2 + 35000 i3 = 0 [3]

[2]

[1]

i10

Summary: The current entering the right-hand node of the 10-k resistor R2 is
equal to 4.000 mA. Since this current is i10, i10 = -4.000 mA as found by hand.

PSpice simulation results:

i10 = -4 mA.

Solving, we find i2 = 6.6 mA and i3 = 2.6 mA. Since i10 = i3 i2, we find that

plify:

3:

i1 i2 = 0.4 i10
i1 i2 = 0.4(i3 i2)
i1 0.6 i2 0.4 i3 = 0

i1 = 5 mA by inspection

SUPERMESH:

MESH 1:

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Sim

Chapter Four Solutions

Define three clockwise m esh currents: i1 in the bottom left mesh, i2 in the top m esh,
and i3 in the bottom right mesh.

Hand analysis:

MESH

61.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v5

-210-3 = (v1 1.3)/ 1.8103

v2

v4

v6

v1 = -2.84 V.

10 March 2006

0 = (v5 v2)/ 1x103 + (v5 v4)/ 1.3x103 + (v5 2.6)/ 6.3x103

-v2 + v4 = 5.2

Summary: The voltage at the center node is found to be 3.460 V, which is in


agreement with our hand calculation.

PSpice simulation results:

Solving, we find the voltage at the central node is v4 = 3.460 V.

14.235 v2 + 22.39 v4 25.185 v5 = 35.275 [1]


-v2 +
v4
= 5.2
[2]
-8.19 v2
6.3 v4 + 15.79 v5 = 3.38
[3]

Simplifying and collecting terms,

Node 5:

KVL equation:

2, 4 Supernode:
2.310-3 = (v2 v5)/ 1x103 + (v4 1.3)/ 7.3103 + (v4 v5)/ 1.3103 + v4/ 1.5103

NODE 1:

v1

v3

Hand analysis:
Define the nodes as:

Chapter Four Solutions

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62.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

2000 i1 + 6000 i2 3 + 5000 i2 = 0


i1 i2 = 210-3

Chapter Four Solutions

[1]
[2]

10 March 2006

i1 = 1.923 mA and

i2 = -76.92 A.

[1]
[2]

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Summary: Again arbitrarily selecting the + reference as the top node of the
2-mA current source, we find the voltage across it is 5.846 10 = -15.846 V, in
agreement with our hand calculation.

PSpice simulation results:

v = -2000 i1 6000 (i1 i2) = -15.85 V.

Thus, the voltage across the 2-mA source (+ reference at the top of the source) is

Solving,

2000 i1 + 11000 i2 = 3
i1 - 1000 i2 = 2

by inspection,
i4 = -1 m A. However, this as well as any equation for mesh
four are unnecessary: w e already have two equations in two unknowns and i1 and i2
are sufficient to enable us to find the voltage across the current source.

Hand analysis:
At the 1,2 supermesh:
and

Simplifying, we obtain
1000

63.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Summary: We see from the labeled schematic above that our choice for I1, I2 and
V1 lead to 1 A through the 6- resistor, or 6 W dissipated in that resistor, as desired.

PSpice simulation results:

Thus, we choose I1 = I2 = 500 mA and v1 = 3.1415 V.

so our requirement is I1 + I2 = 1. There is no constraint on the value of v1 other than


we are told to select a nonzero value.

I1 + I2 = (vx v1)/ 6 = 1

We want 6 W dissipated in the 6- resistor, which leads to the requirement ib = 1 A.


Applying nodal analysis to the circuit,

Hand analysis:
Define a voltage vx at the top node of the current source I2, and a clockwise mesh
current ib in the right-most mesh.

Chapter Four Solutions

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64.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

v1 = 3.143 V and v2 = 1.714 V.

[1]
[2]

Summary:

The simulation results agree with the hand calculations.

PSpice simulation results:

ia = -5 i1 = 714.3 mA
ib = -142.9 mA
ic = i1 2 = -2.143 A
id = 3 + ic = 857.1 mA

Defining clockwise m esh currents i a, i b, i c, i d starting with the left-most m esh and
proceeding right, we may easily determine that

Solving, we find that

v1 + v2 = 10
-v1 + 3 v2 = 2

Simplifying and collecting terms,

i1 = (v2 2)/ 2

and,

[3]

0 = (v2 v1)/ 2 + v2/ 2 + (v2 2)/ 2 [2]

Node 2:

[1]

-5 i1 = (v1 v2)/ 2

Node 1:

Hand analysis:
Define node 1 as the top left node, and node 2 as the node joining the three 2-
resistors. Place the + reference term inal of the 2-V source at the righ t. The rightmost 2- resistor has therefore been shorted out. Applying nodal analysis then,

Chapter Four Solutions

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65.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

v1 + 80 v2 = 15000

2970

[2]

[1]

[2]

[1]

10

20

2 vx

The simulated results agree with the hand calculations.

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Summary:

(b) PSpice simulation results

Solving, we find that v1 = 1.036 V and v2 = 149.1 V.


The current through the 100- resistor is simply (5 v1)/100 = 39.64 mA
The current through the 50- resistor is (v1 v2)/ 50 = -2.961 A,
and the current through the 20- and 10- ser ies com bination is v2/ 30 = 4.97 A.
Finally, the dependent source generates a current of 2 vx = 7.928 A.

v1 100 v2 = -14750

Simplifying and collecting terms,

vx = 5 v1 [3]

2 vx = (v2 v1)/ 50 + v2/ 30

At node 2:

50

-3 = (v1 5)/ 100 + (v1 v2)/ 50

3A

At node 1:

5V

+ vx

100

Chapter Four Solutions

(a) One possible circuit configuration of many that would satisfy the requirements:

150

and,

66.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

V1

-3.000E+00

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT

**** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION


TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C
******************************************************************************
NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE
( 1) 10.0000 ( 2) 7.0000 ( 3) 6.0000 ( 4) 5.0000

.END

V1 1 0 DC 10
I1 0 4 DC 3
R1 1 2 1
R2 2 3 1
R3 2 3 1
R4 2 3 1
R5 3 4 1
R6 3 4 1
R7 3 4 1

.OP

* Solution to Problem 4.57

5/3 = 1 + 2/3 = 1 + 1 || 1 || 1 + 1 || 1 || 1

R = 5/3 . To construct this from 1- resistors, note that

Choose R so that 3R = 5; then the voltage across the current source will be 5 V, and
so will the voltage across the resistor R.

+ 5V -

One possible solution of many:

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67.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R5

R8

R9

We see from this simulation result that the voltage v5 = 2.847 V.

And obtain the following output:

.END

V1 1 0 DC 20
R1 1 2 2
R2 2 0 3
R3 2 3 4
R4 2 4 10
R5 3 0 5
R6 3 4 6
R7 3 5 11
R8 4 0 7
R9 4 5 8
R10 5 0 9

.OP

* Solution to Problem 4.58

We next write an appropriate input deck for SPICE:

V1

R2

We first name each node, resistor and voltage source:


R7
R4
R6
R3
R1
2
1
3

Chapter Four Solutions

R10

10 March 2006

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68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R1

v3

v2

R5

R4

R3

R2

v1

All resistors are


1 , except R1,
which represents
5 1- resistors
in series.

10 March 2006

( 5) 1.0000

( 1) 9.0000 (

2)

NODE VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE

VOLTAGE

NODE

R1

R4

R3

R5

R2

4.0000 ( 3) 3.0000 ( 4) 2.0000

NODE

VOLTAGE

NODE

* Solution to Problem 4.59


**** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION
TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C
***********************************************************************
*******

**** 07/29/01 21:36:26 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) **************

.END

V1 1 0 DC 9
R1 1 2 5
R2 2 3 1
R3 3 4 1
R4 4 5 1
R5 5 0 1

.OP

* Solution to Problem 4.59

v1 = 9(4/9) = 4 V
v2 = 9(3/9) = 3 V
v3 = 9(2/9) = 2 V

SPICE INPUT DECK:

Verify:

One possible solution of many:

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69.

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.END

.AC LIN 1 60 60
.PRINT AC VM(1)IM(V1)

V1 1 0 AC 115 60
R1 1 0 33.22

.OP

* Solution to Problem 4.60

1/Req = 1/13.22103 + 1/13.22103 + . + 1/13.22103 (400 2 = 398 terms)


or Req = 33.22 . We expect the source to provide 398 W.

(b) In a parallel connected circuit, each bulb sees 115 VAC. Therefore, the
individual bulb current is 1 W / 115 V = 8.696 mA. The resistance of each good
bulb is V/I = 13.22 k . A sim plified, elec trically-equivalent m odel f or this cir cuit
would be a 115 VAC source connected in parallel to a resistor Req such that

NODE VOLTAGE

NODE VOLTAGE

This calculated power is not the value


sought. It is an artifact of the use of
an ac s ource, which re quires that we
perform an ac analysis. T he supplied
power is th en separately computed as
(1.15102)(3.462) = 398.1 W.

NODE VOLTAGE

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(c) The in herent serie s res istance of th e wire connection s leads to a voltage dro p
which increases the f urther one is from the voltage source. Thus, th e furthest bulbs
actually have less than 115 VAC across them , so they draw slightly less current and
glow more dimly.

FREQ
VM(1)
IM(V1)
6.000E+01 1.150E+02 3.462E+00

**** AC ANALYSIS
TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C
******************************************************************************

**** 07/29/01 21:09:32 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) **************


* Solution to Problem 4.60

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 0.00E+00 WATTS

0.000E+00

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT

NODE VOLTAGE
( 1) 0.0000

**** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION


TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C
******************************************************************************

* Solution to Problem 4.60

V1

10 March 2006

(a) If only two bulbs are not lit (and thinking of each bulb as a resistor), the bulbs
must be in parallel- otherwise, the burne d out bulbs, acting as short circuits, would
prevent current from flowing to the good bulbs.

Chapter Four Solutions

**** 07/29/01 21:09:32 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) **************

70.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1+x
1.001
1.005
1.01
1.05
1.10
1.50
2.00
6.00

ex
1.001
1.005
1.010
1.051
1.105
1.649
2.718
148.4
% error
510-5
110-3
510-3
0.1
0.5
9
26
96

10 March 2006

Of course, reasonable is a very subjective term. However, if we choose x < 0.1, we


ensure that the error is less than 1%.

x
0.001
0.005
0.01
0.05
0.10
0.50
1.00
5.00

Define percent error as 100 [ex (1 + x)]/ ex

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3.333
= 0.5556 A .
6

2
= 3.333 V
6

(c) i1 = i1 + i2 = -259.3 mA

So that i1 =

10

(b) Short-circuit the 4 V source.


Note that 3 || 6 = 2 . By voltage division, the voltage across the 6
resistor is then

1.778
= 0.2963 A .
6

2.4
= 1.778 V
3 + 2.4

So that i1 =

(a) Short-circuit the 10 V source.


Note that 6 || 4 = 2.4 . By voltage division, the voltage across the 6
resistor is then

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2.

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14.21/7 = 2.03 A.

We may now find the total current flowing downward through the 7 resistor as

Then, v1 = (1.053)(9) = 9.477 V. Hence, v1 = v1 + v1 = 14.21 V.

To find the total current flowing through the 7 resistor, we first determine the total
voltage v1 by continuing our superposition procedure. The contribution to v1 from the
4 A source is found by first open-circuiting the 1 A source, then noting that current
division yields:
5
20
4
=
= 1.053 A
5 + (5 + 7 + 2) 19

(7 + 2) || (5 + 5) = 4.737 , we can calculate v1 = (1)(4.737) = 4.737 V.

Open circuit the 4 A source. Then, since

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= 10

=0

Thus, iy = iy + iy = 203.3 mA.

Solving, iy = 0.4222 A.

3 iy + 16i4 = -20

10i1 + 15 iy 3i4 = 0

18i1 10 iy

** Set Vx = 0 V, i3 = 4 A. Our mesh equations then become:

Solving, iy = 0.6255 A.

3 iy + 16i4 = 0

10i1 + 15 iy 3i4 = 0

18i1 10 iy

** Set Vx = 10 V, i3 = 0. Our mesh equations then become:

-Vx + 18i1 10iy = 0


10i1 + 15iy 3i4 = 0
3iy + 16i4 5i3 = 0

Our general mesh equations are then:

We first rename the voltage source as Vx. We next define three clockwise mesh
currents in the bottom three meshes: i1, iy and i4. Finally, we define a clockwise mesh
current i3 in the top mesh, noting that it is equal to 4 A.

One approach to this problem is to write a set of mesh equations, leaving the voltage
source and current source as variables which can be set to zero.

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Thus, 4 V 40 V and 10 V 100 V.

We may not change K1 or K2, as only the source voltages may be changed. If we
increase both sources by a factor of 10, then i1 increases by the same amount.

This may be written as i1 = 4K1 + 10K2, where K1 and K2 are constants that depend
on the circuit topology and resistor values.

We may solve this problem without writing circuit equations if we first realise that the
current i1 is composed of two terms: one that depends solely on the 4 V source, and
one that depends solely on the 10 V source.

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5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

with iA on only, the response ix = ix = 3 A.


with vB on only, the response ix = ix = 17 A.
with vC on only, the response ix = ix = -8 A.
iA and vC doubled, vB reversed: 2(3) + 2(-8) + (-1)(17) = -27 A.

In matrix form,

ix + ix + ix = 12
ix + ix
= 20
ix
+ ix = - 5

so, we can write

12
1 1 1 ix
1 1 0 i = 20

x

- 5
1 0 1 ix

ix = 20 A
ix = -5 A
ix = 12 A

iA, vB on, vC = 0:
iA, vC on, vB = 0:
iA, vB, vC on :

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20
20
= 24
= 10 V
10 + 20 + 45 || 30
10 + 20 + 18

= v30/ 20 + v30/ (10 + 20) + (v30 45)/ 45

Adding the individual contributions, we find that vx = vx + vx + vx = 10.83 V.

solving, v30 = 11.25 V and hence vx = -11.25(20)/(10 + 20) = -7.5 V

Finally, the contribution from the 45-V source is found by open-circuiting the 2-A
source and shorting the 24-V source. Defining v30 across the 30- resistor with the
+ reference on top:

10

vx = 20 2
= 8.333 V
10 + 20 + 18

We find the contribution of the 2-A source by shorting both voltage sources and
applying current division:

vx = 24

One source at a time:


The contribution from the 24-V source may be found by shorting the 45-V source and
open-circuiting the 2-A source. Applying voltage division,

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50
= -5A
50 + 30

100
= 6.25 A
(50 + 30) || 60 || 30

The total response is i3 = i3' + i3" + i3"' = -750 mA.

The contribution of the 60-V source is found in a similar way as i3"' = -60/30 = -2 A.

i3" =

The contribution of the voltage sources may be found collectively or individually. The
contribution of the 100-V source is found by open-circuiting the 8-A source and
shorting the 60-V source. Then,

i3' = 8

The contribution of the 8-A source is found by shorting out the two voltage sources
and employing simple current division:

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Check: 60 + 18 + 32 + 20 = +130.

(b) P1A = (1) [(200)(1 1.3)] = 60 W


P200 = (1 1.3)2 (200) = 18 W
P100V = -(1.3)(100) = -130 W
P50 = (1.3 0.5)2 (50) = 32 W
P0.5A = (0.5) [(50)(1.3 0.5)] = 20 W

Thus, i2 = i2 + i2 + i2 = 1.3 A

i2 = 0.5 (50)/ 250 = 100 mA

The contribution of the 0.5-A source is found by current division once the 1-A source
is open-circuited and the voltage source is shorted. Thus,

The contribution of the 100-V source is i2 = 100/ 250 = 400 mA.

(a) By current division, the contribution of the 1-A source i2 is


i2 = 1 (200)/ 250 = 800 mA.

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[1]
[2]

"

Thus, V = V' + V" = 82.5 V.

Solving, we find that ia = 1.25 A and so V" = 30(ia ib) = 22.5 V.

30 ia 60 + 30 ia 30 ib = 0 [1]
ib = -0.4 i1" = +0.4 ia
[2]

"

"

Solving, we find that V' = 60 V. Proceeding to the contribution of the 60-V source, we
analyse the following circuit after defining a clockwise mesh current ia flowing in the
left mesh and a clockwise mesh current ib flowing in the right mesh.

Simplifying & collecting terms, we obtain

'

30 V1' 20 V' = 800


-7.2 V1' + 8 V' = 0

[2]

0.4 i1' = V1'/ 30 + (V' V1')/ 10


where i1' = V1'/ 20

[1]

4 = V1' / 20 + (V1' V')/ 10

'

'

We find the contribution of the 4-A source by shorting out the 100-V source and
analysing the resulting circuit:

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iA' = 10 A, iB' = 25 A
iA" = 10 A, iB" = 25 A
iA = 20 A, iB = -10 A

v4' = 100 V
v4" = -50 V
v4 = ?

a = -4.286 and b = 5.714, so that 20a 10b leads to v4 = -142.9 V

10 25 a 100
Writing in matrix form,
=
, we can solve to find
25 10 b - 50

We can view this in a somewhat abstract form: the currents iA and iB multiply
the same circuit parameters regardless of their value; the result is v4.

(b)

v3 = 25v3'/ 10 = 25(80)/ 10 = 200 V

25 iA'/ 10 + 25 iB'/ 10 = 25 v3'/ 10

(a) Linearity allows us to consider this by viewing each source as being scaled by
25/ 10. This means that the response (v3) will be scaled by the same factor:

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Adding, we find that V = 0.9286 + 3.814 + 72.75 = 77.49 V.

V5mA = (510-3) ( 47k || 100k || 26.7k) = 72.75 V.

Finally, the contribution of the current source to the voltage V across it is:

V7V = 7 (31.97) / (31.97 + 26.7) = 3.814 V

In a similar fashion, we find that the contribution of the 7-V source is:

Thus, V3V = 3 (21.07)/ (21.07 + 47) = 0.9286 V.

With the current source open-circuited and the 7-V source shorted, we are left with
100k || (22k + 4.7k) = 21.07 k.

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dissipated power is (43.7410-9)2 (500103) = 956.6 W.

The total current through the 500-k resistor is then i60A + i1.5V = 43.74 A and the

i1.5V = 0.6919 (1.753)/ (1.753 + 3.5) mA = 230.9 nA.

The contribution from the voltage source is found by first noting that 2.7M || 5M =
1.753 M. The total current flowing from the voltage source (with the current source
open-circuited) is 1.5/ (3.5 || 1.753 + 1) A = -0.6919 A. The current flowing
through the 500-k resistor due to the voltage source acting alone is then

i60A = 60 10 6
= 43.51 A
0.5 + 3 + 0.6368

The contribution from the current source may be calculated by first noting that
1M || 2.7M || 5M = 636.8 k. Then,

We must find the current through the 500-k resistor using superposition, and then
calculate the dissipated power.

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'

10 March 2006

Vx"

[1]
[2]

maximum positive value is 92 V; past this value, and the resistor will overheat.

The maximum power is V2/ 17103 = V2/ 17 mW = 250 mW, so


= 83.3 V.
V = (17)(250) = 65.19 = V - ( -18.11) . Solving, we find Vmax
The 5-V source may then be increased by a factor of 83.3/ 4.527, so that its

Solving, we find that V" = -18.11 V. Thus, V = V' + V" = -13.58 V.

Via supernode: -2010-3 = Vx"/ 22103 + V"/ 0.9444103


and
V" Vx" = 6Ix" or V" Vx" = 6 Vx"/ 22103

V"

Solving, we find I1' = 472.1 mA and Ix' = 205.8 mA, so V' = 17103 (I1' - Ix')
= 4.527 V. We proceed to find the contribution of the current source:

Via mesh analysis, we write: 5 = 18000 I1' 17000 Ix'


-6 Ix' = -17000 Ix' + 39000 Ix'

I1'

'

We first determine the contribution of the voltage source:

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Thus,

i =

P2 = i2 . 2 = 76.15 mW

5
2.1
- 2
= 195.1 mA
2 + 2.1
2 + 2.1

Via superposition in one step, we may write

Simplifying the circuit, we may at least determine the total power dissipated in the
resistor:

It is impossible to identify the individual contribution of each source to the power


dissipated in the resistor; superposition cannot be used for such a purpose.

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vx'

-20 IB = (V2 15)/ 1000

V1 V3 = 0.7

[3]

[2]

V1/ 100 + V1/ 17103 + (V1 15)/ 33103 + V3/ 103 = 20 IB [1]

IB

V3

IB

[4]

= 15

= 0.7

[4]

[3]

[2]

[1]

[1]
[2]

Solving, we find that iB' = 798.6 cos 6t mA. Thus, adding our two results, we find the
complete current is
iB = iB' + IB = -31.04 + 798.6 cos 6t A.

20 iB' = vx' / 1000 + (vx' 16.85 cos 6t)/ 99.12


20 iB' + iB'' = vx'/ 1000

To analyse the right-hand circuit, we first find the Thvenin equivalent to the left of
the wire marked iB', noting that the 33-k and 17-k resistors are now in parallel. We
find that VTH = 16.85 cos 6t V by voltage division, and RTH = 100 || 17k || 33k =
99.12 . We may now proceed:

Solving, we find that IB = -31.04 A.

-V3 + 21103 IB = 0

V2 + 20103 IB

V1 - V3

10.08912 V1 + V3 20103 IB = 0.4545

Simplifying and collecting terms,

20 IB + IB = V3/ 1000

We require one additional equation if we wish to have IB as an unknown:

Node 2:

and:

1, 3 supernode:

V1

V2

We will analyse this circuit by first considering the combined effect of both dc
sources (left), and then finding the effect of the single ac source acting alone (right).

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The DC
sweep
results
below
confirm
that Vx' =
1.765 V

(b) PSpice verification (DC Sweep)

Thus, Vx = Vx' + Vx" = 17.65 V.

9
Vx" = 5 6
= 15.88 V
9 + 8

Next we consider the effect of the 6-A source on its own using the right circuit:

Vx' = 5 2
= 1.765 V
3 + 14

We first consider the effect of the 2-A source separately, using the left circuit:

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(b) PSpice verification.

Thus, Vx = Vx' + Vx" = 9.926 mV.

which leads to Vx" = 0.

4Vx =

Vx Vx
+
100 50

As can be seen from the two


separate PSpice simulations,
our hand calculations are
correct; the pV-scale voltage in
the second simulation is a result
of numerical inaccuracy.

The circuit on the right yields the contribution of the 6-A source to Vx:

(a) Beginning with the circuit on the left, we find the contribution of the 2-V source to
Vx:
Vx Vx 2
4Vx =
+
100
50
which leads to Vx' = 9.926 mV.

'

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Adding, we find that Vx' + Vx" = 2.455 V = Vx as promised.

Vx 6 Vx Vx + 5
=0
+
+
1
3
2
so Vx = 1.909 V

Vx 6 Vx Vx + 10
=0
+
+
1
3
2
so Vx = 0.5455 V

Vx 12 Vx Vx + 15
=0
+
+
1
3
2
so Vx = 2.455 V

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(b) This circuit requires several source transformations. First, we convert the 8 V
source and 3 resistor to an 8/3 A current source in parallel with 3 . This yields a
circuit with a 3 and 10 parallel combination, which may be replaced with a
2.308 resistor. We may now convert the 8/3 A current source and 2.308 resistor
to a (8/3)(2.308) = 6.155 V voltage source in series with a 2.308 resistor. This
modified circuit contains a series combination of 2.308 and 5 ; performing a
source transformation yet again, we obtain a current source with value (6.155)/(2.308
+ 5) = 0.8422 A in parallel with 7.308 and in parallel with the remaining 5
resistor. Since 7.308 || 5 = 2.969 , our solution is:

(a) We first recognise that the two current sources are in parallel, and hence may be
replaced by a single 7 A source (arrow directed downward). This source is in parallel
with a 10 k resistor. A simple source transformation therefore yields a 10 k
resistor in series with a (7)(10,000) = 70,000 V source (+ reference on top):

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(c) Once the 10 resistor is involved in a source transformation, it disappears, only


to be replaced by a resistor having the same value but whose current and voltage can
be different. Since the quantity v appearing across this resistor is of interest, we
cannot involve the resistor in a transformation.

(b) By voltage division, v = 42(10)/16 = 26.25 V.

+
v

(a) First we note the three current sources are in parallel, and may be replaced by a
single current source having value 5 1 + 3 = 7 A, arrow pointing upwards. This
source is in parallel with the 10 resistor and the 6 resistor. Performing a source
transformation on the current source and 6 resistor, we obtain a voltage source
(7)(6) = 42 V in series with a 6 resistor and in series with the 10 resistor:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(20)(4.5) = 90 V.

(b) 2k || 3k + 6k = 7.2 k.

1.6 cos 400t A

8 k

4.5 k

3.5 k

7.2k || 12k = 4.5 k

25

[80 cos 400t]/ 50 = 1.6 cos 400t A. 50 || 50 = 25 .

[2 cos 400t] (40) = 80 cos 400t V. 40 + 10 = 50 .

(a) [120 cos 400t] / 60 = 2 cos 400t A. 60 || 120 = 40 .

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4.7
= 1.343 mA
4.7 + 5.8

(Note that we did not transform either source, but rather drew on the relevant
discussion to understand why the 1-k resistor could be omitted.)

The power dissipated by the 5.8-k resistor is then i2 . 5.8103 = 10.46 mW.

i = 3 10-3

We can ignore the 1-k resistor, at least when performing a source transformation on
this circuit, as the 1-mA source will pump 1 mA through whatever value resistor we
place there. So, we need only combine the 1 and 2 mA sources (which are in parallel
once we replace the 1-k resistor with a 0- resistor). The current through the 5.8k resistor is then simply given by voltage division:

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I = 43/ 15.8 mA = 2.722 mA. Therefore, P5.8 = I2. 5.8103 = 42.97 mW.

We may ignore the 10-k and 9.7-k resistors, as 3-V will appear across them
regardless of their value. Performing a quick source transformation on the 10-k
resistor/ 4-mA current source combination, we replace them with a 40-V source in
series with a 10-k resistor:

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24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

183.1

-2.197 V

0.6 V

P1M = I2 . 106 = 33.06 W.

Solving, 9 + 1183.1103 I 2.197 = 0, so I = -5.750 A. Thus,

470 k || 300 k = 183.1 k


(-3 0.6)/ 300103 = -12 A
(183.1 k)(-12 A) = -2.197 V

(100 k)(6 mA) = 0.6 V

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Solving, we find that I1 = -247/ (60.3103 4) = -4.096 mA.

47 + 47103 I1 4 I1 + 13.3103 I1 + 200 = 0

Using KVL on the simplified circuit above,

(1)(47) = 47 V. (20)(10) = 200 V. Each voltage source + corresponds to its


corresponding current sources arrow head.

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[1]

and V1 = 2 I

(b)

V1 is the top-labelled voltage (12.77 mV).

V1 = 2 I = 12.77 mV

[2]

10 March 2006

Substituting, we find that I = 0.6/ (68 + 7 + 2 + 17) = 6.383 mA. Thus,

34 V1 0.6 + 7 I + 2 I + 17 I = 0

Analysing the simplified circuit above,

34

(a) (2 V1)(17) = 34 V1

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473.9 k

10 k

11.793 k

(b)

Ix = 0.1085/ 28.793103 = 3.768 A.

0.1085 V

17 k

473.9 k || 10 k = 9.793 k. (11.08 mA)(9.793 k) = 0.1085 V

11.08 A

5.249/ 473.938103 = 11.08 A

5.249 V

3.938

Ix

(a) 12/ 9000 = 1.333 mA. 9k || 7k = 3.938 k. (1.333 mA)(3.938 k) = 5.249


V.

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3.75 M

(2.333)(3.75) = 8.749 V. Req = 6.75 M


Ix = 8.749/ (6.75 + 4.7) A = 764.1 nA.

2.333

First, (-7 A)(2 M) = -14 V, + reference down. 2 M + 4 M = 6 M.


+14 V/ 6 = 2.333 A, arrow pointing up; 6 M || 10 M = 3.75 M.

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2.222

10 March 2006

The above circuit may not be further simplified using only source transformation
techniques.

15

To begin, note that (1 mA)(9 ) = 9 mV, and 5 || 4 = 2.222 .

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7.25 A

Label the terminal of the 9-V source node x and the other terminal node x'. The
9-V source will force the voltage across these two terminals to be 9 V regardless of
the value of the current source and resistor to its left. These two components may
therefore be neglected from the perspective of terminals a & b. Thus, we may draw:

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Thus,
P1M = (978.310-9)2 (106) = 957.1 nW.

I = 1.8/ 1.840 + 0 + 0 A = 978.3 nA.

Instead, define a current I flowing into the bottom terminal of the 1-M resistor.
Using superposition to compute this current,

Beware of the temptation to employ superposition to compute the dissipated power- it


wont work!

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Current (mA)
1.6681
6.599
12.763

Solving, Vsrc = 1.568 V and Rs = 811.2 m. It should be noted that depending on the
line fit to the experimental data, these values can change somewhat, particularly the
series resistance value.

1.567 = Vsrc Rs (1.668110-3)


1.558 = Vsrc Rs (12.76310-3)

Modeling this system as an ideal voltage source in series with a resistance


(representing the internal resistance of the battery) and a varying load resistance, we
may write the following two equations based on the linear fit to the data:

We see from the figure that we cannot draw a very good line through all data points
representing currents from 1 mA to 20 mA. We have therefore chosen to perform a
linear fit for the three lower voltages only, as shown. Our model will not be as
accurate at 1 mA; there is no way to know if our model will be accurate at 20 mA,
since that is beyond the range of the experimental data.

Voltage (V)
1.567
1.563
1.558

Least-squares fit results:

Lets begin by plotting the experimental results, along with a least-squares fit to part
of the data:

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Current (mA)
1.6681
6.599
12.763

Solving, Isrc = 1.933 A and Rs = 811.2 m. It should be noted that depending on the
line fit to the experimental data, these values can change somewhat, particularly the
series resistance value.

12.76310-3 = Isrc 1.558/ Rp

1.668110-3 = Isrc 1.567/ Rp

Modeling this system as an ideal current source in parallel with a resistance Rp


(representing the internal resistance of the battery) and a varying load resistance, we
may write the following two equations based on the linear fit to the data:

We see from the figure that we cannot draw a very good line through all data points
representing currents from 1 mA to 20 mA. We have therefore chosen to perform a
linear fit for the three lower voltages only, as shown. Our model will not be as
accurate at 1 mA; there is no way to know if our model will be accurate at 20 mA,
since that is beyond the range of the experimental data.

Voltage (V)
1.567
1.563
1.558

Least-squares fit results:

Lets begin by plotting the experimental results, along with a least-squares fit to part
of the data:

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The final circuit is an 8.515 V voltage source


in series with a 2.011 M resistor, as shown:

Then, 0.82 V/ 6.1 M = 134.4 nA, arrow up.


6.1 M || 3 M = 2.011 M
4.1 A + 134.4 nA = 4.234 mA, arrow up.
(4.234 A) (2.011 M) = 8.515 V.

A transformation to a voltage source yields (200 nA)(4.1 M) = 0.82 V in series with


4.1 M + 2 M = 6.1 M, as shown below:

2 A 1.8 A = 200 nA, arrow up.


1.4 M + 2.7 M = 4.1 M

Working from left to right,

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2 || 5
= -0.4167 V.
2 || 5 + 2

-1 V

Thus, the power dissipated by the 5- resistor is (-0.4167)2 / 5 = 34.73 mW.

(-1)

By voltage division, the voltage across the


5- resistor in the circuit to the right is:

The left-hand resistor and the current


source are easily transformed into a
1-V source in series with a 1-
resistor:

Next, noting that 3 V/ 1 = 3 A, and 4 A 3 A = +1 A (arrow down), we obtain:

To begin, we note that the 5-V and 2-V sources are in series:

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(b)

We see from simulating both circuits simultaneously that the


voltage across RL is the same (4 V).

(a) We may omit the 10 resistor from the circuit, as it does not affect the voltage or
current associated with RL since it is in parallel with the voltage source. We are thus
left with an 8 V source in series with a 5 resistor. These may be transformed to an
8/5 A current source in parallel with 5 , in parallel with RL.

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2(2.857)
= 0.4444 A
2.857 + 10

(c) Neither does. No current flows through the 7 resistor; the 1 resistor is in
parallel with a voltage source and hence cannot affect any other part of the circuit.

(b) We note that PSpice will NOT allow the 7 resistor to be left floating! For both
circuits simulated, we observe 987.6 mW of power dissipated for the 5 resistor,
confirming our analytic solution.

The power dissipated in either of the 5 resistors is then I2R = 987.6 mW.

I=

(a) We may begin by omitting the 7 and 1 resistors. Performing the indicated
source transformations, we find a 6/4 A source in parallel with 4 , and a 5/10 A
source in parallel with 10 . These are both in parallel with the series combination of
the two 5 resistors. Since 4 || 10 = 2.857 , and 6/4 + 5/10 = 2 A, we may
further simplify the circuit to a single current source (2 A) in parallel with 2.857
and the series combination of two 5 resistors. Simple current division yields the
current flowing through the 5 resistors:

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Solving, we find that v3 = 2 V.

0.75v3 = Vx/4 + (Vx Vy)/3


3 = Vy/2 + (Vy Vx)/3
v3 = Vy Vx

We obtain a 5v3/4 A current source in parallel with 4 , and a 3 A current source in


parallel with 2 . We now have two dependent current sources in parallel, which may
be combined to yield a single 0.75v3 current source (arrow pointing upwards) in
parallel with 4 . Selecting the bottom node as a reference terminal, and naming the
top left node Vx and the top right node Vy, we write the following equations:

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39.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

12.5 1
P12.5 = 75

= 112.5 W
12.5 + 12.5 12.5

(c) If Rab = 12.5 ,

50 1
P50 = 75
= 72 W
50 + 12.5 50

(b) If Rab = 50 ,

25

15 + 10
VTH = Vab = 50
+ 100
= 75 V.
10 + 15 + 25
15 + 10 + 25

(a) RTH = 25 || (10 + 15) = 25 || 25 = 12.5 .

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(c)
We see from the PSpice simulation that keeping four significant digits in
calculating the Thvenin equivalent yields at least 3 digits agreement in the results.

P5 = (0.4307)2 . 5 = 927.5 mW

(b) I5 = 9.333/ (5 + 16.67) = 0.4307 A. Thus,

Thus, our Thevenin equivalent is a 9.333 V source in series with a 16.67 resistor,
which is in series with the 5 resistor of interest.

Next, we find VTH by determining VOC (recognising that the right-most 10 resistor
carries no current, hence we have a simple voltage divider):
10 + 10
VTH = VOC = 14
= 9.333 V
10 + 10 + 10

(a) Shorting the 14 V source, we find that RTH = 10 || 20 + 10 = 16.67 .

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v1 = 120(1)/17 = 7.059 V.

(d) Employing the more convenient Thvenin equivalent model,

As expected, the results are equal.

10
v1 = 7 12 = 49.41 V
17

Using the Norton equivalent circuit and a combination of current division and
Ohms law, we find

v1 = 120 (7)/17 = 49.41 V.

(c) Using the Thvenin equivalent circuit, we may find v1 using voltage division:

(b) As found above, IN = ISC = 12 A, and RTH = 10 .

Our Thvenin equivalent is therefore a 120 V source in series with 10 .

Thus, VTH = ISCRTH = (12)(10) = 120 V.

RTH = 2 + 8 = 10 .

Removing the short circuit, and open-circuiting the 15 A source, we see that

ISC = 15 (8)/ 10 = 12 A.

(a) Replacing the 7 resistor with a short circuit, we find

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(c) Increased current leads to increased filament temperature, which results in a


higher resistance (as measured). This means the Thvenin equivalent must apply to
the specific current of a particular circuit one model is not suitable for all operating
conditions (the light bulb is nonlinear).

(b) RTH = 110 V/ 363.6103 A = 302.5

(a) RTH = 10 mV/ 400 A = 25

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(c) As we can see from simulating the original circuit simultaneously with its
Thevenin and Norton equivalents, the 1 resistor does in fact dissipate 40 mW, and
either equivalent is equally applicable. Note all three SOURCES provide a different
amount of power in total.

Switching to the Norton equivalent, we find I1 by current division:


I1 = (0.2125)(16)/(16+1) = 200 mA. Once again, P1 = 40 mW (as
expected).

(b) Working with the Thvenin equivalent circuit, I1 = VTH/(RTH + 1) = 200 mA.
Thus, P1 = (0.2)2.1 = 40 mW.

we find isc = 0.2125 A, so IN = 212.5 mA and VTH = INRTH = (0.2125)(16) = 3.4 V.

>> e1 = '-4 + 9*i1 - 9*i2 + 3 = 0';


>> e2 = '-9*i1 + 34*i2 - 10*isc = 0';
>> e3 = '-3 + 20*isc - 10*i2 = 0';
>> a = solve(e1,e2,e3,'i1','i2','isc');

Solving using MATLAB:

+3=0
4 + 9i1 9i2
=0
9i1 + 34i2 10isc
3
10i2 + 20isc = 0

To continue, we return to the original circuit and replace the 1 resistor with a short
circuit. We define three clockwise mesh currents: i1 in the left-most mesh, i2 in the
top-right mesh, and isc in the bottom right mesh. Writing our three mesh equations,

RTH = (5 + 10) || 10 + 10 = 16 .

(a) We begin by shorting both voltage sources, and removing the 1 resistor of
interest. Looking into the terminals where the 1 resistor had been connected, we see
that the 9 resistor is shorted out, so that

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(b) Removing terminal a, we again find RTH = 6.667 , and only need write a single
nodal equation; in fact, it is identical to that written for the circuit above, and we once
again find that Vb = 4 V. In this case, VTH = Vbc = 4 5 = -1 V, so IN = -1/ 6.667
= 150 mA (arrow pointing upwards).

= -300 mA (arrow pointing upwards).

0.1 =

Vb 2 Vb 5
, which may be solved to
+
12
15
yield Vb = 4 V. Therefore, Vab = VTH = 2 4
= -2 V.
RTH = 12 || 15 = 6.667 . We may then
calculate IN as IN = VTH/ RTH

(a) Removing terminal c, we need write only one nodal equation:

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= 59.52 V

27.27 40

Vyy' = VTH = (1)(RTH) + 88

10 + 27.27 20 + 40

Using superposition to determine the voltage Vyy' across the 1-A source, we find

RTH = 40 || [20 + (10 || 50)] = 16.59

(b) Shorting out the 88-V source and open-circuiting the 1-A source, we see looking
into the terminals y and y' a 40- resistor in parallel with [20 + (10 || 50 )]:

40
27.27

= 88
+ (1)(8.333)

= 69.27 V
37.27
40 + 20 + 8.333

50 || (20 + 40)
40
Vxx' = VTH = 88
+ (1)(50 || 10)

10 + [50 || (20 + 40)]


40 + 20 + (50 || 10)

Using superposition to determine the voltage Vxx' across the 50- resistor, we find

(a) Shorting out the 88-V source and open-circuiting the 1-A source, we see looking
into the terminals x and x' a 50- resistor in parallel with 10 in parallel with
(20 + 40 ), so
RTH = 50 || 10 || (20 + 40) = 7.317

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[1]
[2]

[2]

1.75 V1 Vin = -100

[4]

(b) Adding a 100- load to the original circuit or our Thvenin equivalent, the
voltage across the load is
100

2
V100 = VTH
= 14.00 V , and so P100 = (V100) / 100 = 1.96 W.
100 + 177.8

Solving Eqs. [1] & [4] then results in Vin = 177.8 V, so that RTH = Vin/ 1 A = 177.8 .

Combining Eqs. [2] and [3] yields

Ref.

1A

Solving, we find that VTH = 38.89 V. To find RTH, we short the voltage source and
inject 1 A into the port:
V Vin V1
V
V1
0 = 1
[1]
+
+ 1
100
40 200
+
Vin V1
1.5 i1 + 1 =
[2]
100
Vin
i1 = V1/ 200
[3]

(0.25 + 0.1 + 0.05) V1 0.1 VTH = 5


(1 + 15/ 20) V1 VTH = 0

Simplifying and collecting terms, these equations may be re-written as:

where i1 = V1/ 200, so Eq. [2] becomes

[2]

[1]

150 V1/ 200 + V1 - VTH = 0

V1 20 V1 VTH
V
+
+ 1
40
100
200

1.5 i1 = (VTH V1)/ 100

0 =

(a) Select terminal b as the reference terminal, and define a nodal voltage V1 at the
top of the 200- resistor. Then,

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1 = V1/ 100 + (V1 Vx)/ 50


-0.1 V1 = Vx/ 200 + (Vx V1)/ 50

[1]
[2]

[1]
[2]

Since there are no independent sources present in the original network, IN = 0.

Solving, we find that V1 = 10.64 V, so RTH = V1/ (1 A) = 10.64 .

3 V1 2 Vx = 100
0
16 V1 + 5 Vx =

which may be simplified to

Then,

We inject a current of 1 A into the port (arrow pointing up), select the bottom terminal
as our reference terminal, and define the nodal voltage Vx across the 200- resistor.

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Ref.

vf

0.01 vab = vx/ 200 + (vx vf)/ 50


1 = vab/ 100 + (vf vx)
vab vf = 0.2 vab

[1]
[2]
[3]

[1]
[2]
[3]

10 March 2006

Solving, we find that vab = 192.3 V, so RTH = vab/ (1 A) = 192.3 .

-2 vab + 5 vx 4 vf = 0
vab 2 vx + 2 vf = 100
- vf = 0
0.8 vab

Rearranging and collecting terms,

Node x:
Supernode:
and:

vx

We decide to inject a 1-A current into the port:

With no independent sources present, VTH = 0.

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[2]

12103 = VTH/ 10103 + (VTH V1)/ 47103

Solving, we find that VTH = 83.48 V.

0.1146 V1 - 0.02128 VTH = -11.88 [1]


[2]
-0.02128 V1 + 0.02128 VTH = 12

Rearranging and collecting terms,

[1]

-12103 = (V1 12)/ 100103 + V1/ 12103 + (V1 VTH)/ 47103

Returning to the original circuit, we decide to perform nodal analysis to obtain VTH:

Looking into the terminals a & b, we see


RTH = 10 || [47 + (100 || 12)]
= 8.523 .

We first find RTH by shorting out the voltage source and open-circuiting the current
source.

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(a) RTH = 4 + 2 || 2 + 10 = 15 .
(b) same as above: 15 .

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51.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

For Fig. 5.78b, VTH = (2)(~) V in series with ~ .

For Fig. 5.78a, IN = 12/ ~0 A in parallel with ~ 0 .

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52.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

The Norton equivalent is 0 A in parallel with 1.333 .

RTH = 1/ I = 1.333 .

I = 0.5 Vx + 0.25 Vx = 0.5 + 0.25 = 0.75 A.

I
+
-

Connecting a 1-V source to the port and measuring the current that flows as a result,

With no independent sources present, VTH = 0.

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53.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Vx Voc = 5 ix

[1]

10 March 2006

or
[2]

and Vx Vab = 5 ix = 5Vx/ 250


-Vab + (1 5/ 250) Vx = 0

[2]

Finally, IN = VTH/ RTH = 100 mA.

Solving, we find that Vab = 237.2 V. Since RTH = Vab/ (1 A), RTH = 237.2 .

[1]

=1

Vab/ 7.5103 + Vx/ 250

In order to determine RTH, we inject 1 A into the port:

Solving, we find that Voc = VTH = 23.72 V.

0.98 Vx Voc = 0

where ix = Vx/ 250. Thus, we may write the second equation as

and

10010-3 = Vx/ 250 + Voc/ 7.5103

Performing nodal analysis to determine VTH,

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54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(Assuming RTH 0)

which has the solution Vx = 0 V.

Solving, we find that Vx = 197.9 mV, so that RTH = RN = 197.9 m.

-5 Vx + 1 = Vx/ 19

To find RTH, we inject 1 A into the port, noting that RTH = Vx/ 1 A:

Thus, VTH (and hence IN) = 0.

-5 Vx = Vx/ 19

We first note that VTH = Vx, so performing nodal analysis,

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55.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[1]
[2]

0.01667 vgs + 0.00433 V = 1

[2]

[1]

Solving, we find that vgs = V = 47.62 V. Hence, RTH = V/ 1 A = 47.62 .

vgs

V = 0

Simplifying & collecting terms,

1 0.02 vgs = V/ 1000 + (V vgs)/ 300

0 = (vgs V)/ 300

Noting that 300 || 2 M 300 ,

1A

Shorting out the voltage source, we redraw the circuit with a 1-A source in place of
the 2-k resistor:
Ref.

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56.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1 = V1/ 2106

V2

so V1 = 2106 V.

Ref.

Since V = V1, we have Rin = V/ 1 A = 2 M.

By nodal analysis,

1A

V1

We replace the source vs and the 300- resistor with a 1-A source and seek its
voltage:

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1A
Ref.

Thus,

RTH = 2106 || (666.7 + 14.33 r) .

666.7 + 14.33 r
Solving, we find that V1 = V = 2 106
6
2 10 + 666.7 + 14.33 r

-(2000 + 40 r) V1 + (2000 + 43 r) V2 = 0 [2]

(2106 + r) V1 2106 V2 = 2106 r

Simplifying & collecting terms,


[1]

[2]

0.02 v = (V2 V1)/ r + V2/ 1000 + V2/ 2000


where v = V1 V2

[1]

1 = V1 / 2106 + (V1 V2)/ r

We select the bottom node as our reference terminal, and define nodal voltages V1
and V2. Then,

Removing the voltage source and the 300- resistor, we replace them with a 1-A
source and seek the voltage that develops across its terminals:

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58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

vd ( vd vin ) ( vd vo )
+
+
Ri
R1
Rf

[1]

and

vin Ri ( Ro AR f )

Ro

[2]

vd vd ( vd vT )
+
Ri
R1
Rf

[1]

and

1=

Rf

+
vout

Since VT/1 = VT, this is our Thvenin equivalent resistance (RTH).

Ro

( vT + vd ) + ( vT Avd )

Ro (Ri Rf + R1 Rf + R1 Ri)
-------------------------------------------------------------Ri Ro + R1 Ro + Ri Rf + R1 Rf + R1 Ri + A R1 Ri

>> e1 = 'vd/R1 + vd/Ri + (vd + VT)/Rf = 0';


>> e2 = '1 = (VT + vd)/Rf + (VT - A*vd)/Ro';
>> a = solve(e1,e2,'vd','VT');
>> pretty(a.VT)

Solving using MATLAB:

0=

[2]

To find RTH, we short out the independent source vin, and squirt 1 A into the terminal
marked vout, renamed VT. Analyzing the resulting circuit, we write two nodal
equations:

R1 Ro + Ri Ro + R1 R f + Ri R f + R1 Ri + AR1 Ri
approaches Rf/R1.

Thus, VTH =

Rf

( vo + vd ) + ( vo Avd )

, which in the limit of A ,

0=

Ri vin (Ro + Rf A)
----------------------------------------------R1 Ro + Ri Ro + R1 Rf + Ri Rf + R1 Ri + A R1 Ri

>> e1 = 'vd/Ri + (vd + vin)/R1 + (vd + vo)/Rf = 0';


>> e2 = '(vo + vd)/Rf + (vo A*vd)/Ro = 0';
>> a = solve(e1,e2,'vo','vd');
>> pretty(a.vo)

Solving using MATLAB, we obtain:

0=

(a) We first determine vout in terms of vin and the resistor values only; in this case,
VTH = vout. Performing nodal analysis, we write two equations:

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59.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Such a scheme probably would lead to maximum or at least near-maximum power


transfer to our home. Since we pay the utility company based on the power we use,
however, this might not be such a hot idea

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60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

V2 = -2 (6) = -12 V.

+ VTH -

PRL|max

2
VTH
400
=
=
= 6.329 W
4 RL
4(15.8)

Ref.

V2

We define VTH = V1 V2 = 8 + 12 = 20 V. Then,

V1 = 20 8/ 20 = 8 V;

V1

Analyzing the original circuit to obtain V1 and V2 with RL removed:

RTH = 12 || 8 + 5 + 6 = 15.8

We need to find the Thvenin equivalent resistance of the circuit connected to RL, so
we short the 20-V source and open-circuit the 2-A source; by inspection, then

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61.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Pload =

2
VTH
752
=
= 112.5 W
4 R TH
4 (12.5)

(c) Connecting a 12.5- resistor,

Pload

10 March 2006

25
15 + 10
= 75 V.
+ 100
15 + 10 + 25
50

2
VTH
752
=
=
= 90 W
R TH + R load
12.5 + 50

(b) Connecting a 50- resistor,

Using superposition, Vab = VTH = 50

(a) RTH = 25 || (10 + 15) = 12.5

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62.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Vx

(b) Pmax =

2
VTH
4 R TH

652
= 70.42 W
4(15)

We thus find the Thevenin equivalent resistance is 15/1 = 15 .

A simple KVL equation yields Vx = 2(1) + 3i10 + 10 i10.


Since i10 = 1 A in this circuit, Vx = 15 V.

1A

To find RTH, we open-circuit the 5-A source, and connect a 1-A source between
terminals a & b:

(a) By inspection, we see that i10 = 5 A, so


VTH = Vab = 2(0) + 3 i10 + 10 i10 = 13 i10 = 13(5) = 65 V.

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63.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

i1 ix = 1

V
= 16
1A

[2]

[2]

[1] 30i1 + 20ix = 0 [1]

Thus, if

0=

VRL = VTH

RL
V
= TH = 5 V
RL + RTH
2

RL = RTH = 16 ,

or VTH = 10 V

5VTH = 50

VTH 10i1 VTH 50


+
[1]
20
40
V 50
where i1 = TH
40
1 V 50 VTH 50
V
so [1] becomes 0 = TH TH
+

20 2 40 40
V
V 50
0 = TH + TH
20
80
0 = 4VTH + VTH 50

VTH

Removing the resistor RL from the original circuit, we seek the resulting open-circuit
voltage:

So V = 40i1 = 16 V and RTH =

Solving, i1 = 400 mA

and i1 ix = 1

10i1 + 20ix + 40i1 = 0

Replacing the resistor RL with a 1-A source, we seek the voltage that develops across
its terminals with the independent voltage source shorted:

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(b)

64.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

RN

20

2A

RL = RTH = 80

(c)

20i 2 = 80
i = 2A

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Pmax =

VTH
2002
=
= 125 W
4 RTH 4 80

Thus, VTH = VOC = 2.5 80 = 200 V

2 = 2.5

RN
RN + 20
Solving, RN = RTH = 80

By current division,

I N = 2.5 A

(b)

(a)

65.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[2]

RN
80 + RN

0.5 = I N

20 W to 80 corresp to 500 mA.

RN
; max when RL = 0
RN + RL
vL = 0 V

So iL = 1.7A

iL = iN

If iL is a maximum

Then iL = 0 and vL = 1.7 RN = 56.66 V

So vL is a maximum when RN RL is a maximum, which occurs at RL = .

VL = I N ( RN RL )

If vL is a maximum

iL = 1.7

33.33
= 850 mA
33.33 + 33.33
vL = 33.33iL = 28.33V

RL = RN = 33.33

If vLiL is a maximum,

10 March 2006

10 W to 250 corresp to 200 mA.

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(c)

(b)

(a)

[1]

RN
R + RN

RN
250 + RN

IR = IN

RN

0.2 = I N

IN

Solving, I N = 1.7 A and RN = 33.33

So

By Voltage ,

66.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

There is no conflict with our derivation concerning maximum power. While a dead
short across the battery terminals will indeed result in maximum current draw from
the battery, and power is indeed proportional to i2, the power delivered to the load is
i2RLOAD = i2(0) = 0 watts. This is the minimum, not the maximum, power that the
battery can deliver to a load.

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67.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[2]

80 103
31

70 103

[3]

[3]

0 i1 vs

RE i2 = 0
1 i3 0

10 March 2006

1A

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This is maximized by setting RE = .

11.35 106 (331.9 + RE )2


=
vs 2
6
3
2
(7.24 10 + 21.79 10 RE )

8 vs 2
21.7 103 RE
P8 = 8 TH =

2
6
3
RTH + 8 7.24 10 + 21.79 10 RE 331.9 RE
331.9 + R

21.7 103 RE
= RE i3 =
vs
7.24 106 + 21.79 103 RE

21.7 103 vs
i3 =
7.24 106 + 21.79 103 RE
So VOC = VTH

We seek i3:

70.3 103

3
70 10

or i3 i2 = 3 10 (10 10 )i2
or i3 i2 = 30i2
or
31i2 + i3 = 0

i3 i2 = 3 10 v

Solving :

and:

[2]

80 103 i2 70 103 i1 + RE i3 = 0
3

[1]

vs + 70.3 103 i1 70 103 i2 = 0

Next, we determine vTH using mesh analysis:

solving, V = 331.9V So RTH = RE 331.9

or 69.7 103V + 72.4 103 v = 0

0 = 2100v + 70 103 v 70 103V + 300v 300V

210105 = 70103 V + 300V + 63000 v 70x103 v - 300 v


or 70.3 103V 7300v = 210 105 [1]

Simplifying and collecting terms,

at other node:

Chapter Five Solutions

V v V v
+
[1]
300
70 103
v
v V
v V
[2]
+
+
0=
3
10 10
300
70 103

Remove RE: RTH = RE Rin

bottom node: 1 3 103 v =

68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Select R1 = RTH = 8 k.

RTH = 1 k + 7 k = 8 k

So VTH = Vx oc = 280 V

Thvenize the left-hand network, assigning the nodal voltage Vx at the free end of
right-most 1-k resistor.
Vx oc
A single nodal equation: 40 103 =
7 103

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69.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

850 M

R1 =

RA RB 106 105
=
= 117.5
D
D
R R
105 850 106
= 99.87 k
R2 = B C =
D
851.1106
RC RA 850 106 106
=
= 998.7 k
R3 =
D
851.1106

D = RA + RB + RC = 1 + 850 + 0.1 = 851.1 106

1 M

100 k

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70.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R2

N
= 544.4 m
R3
N
= 4.9
R1

RB =
RC =

= 0.49
N
= 1.225
RA =
R2

= 0.1 0.4 + 0.4 0.9 + 0.9 0.1

N = R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1

R3

R1

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71.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

3.598 6 = 2.249

0.9982 + 0.6 + 2 = 3.598

1.3 4.3 = 0.9982

5 1
1 4
5 4
= 0.5 ,
= 0.4 ,
=2
10
10
10
1.8 + 2 + 0.5 = 4.3
0.3 + 0.6 + 0.4 = 1.3

6 1
63
3 1
= 0.6,
= 1.8 ,
= 0.3
10
10
10
2 : 5 + 1 + 4 = 10

1 : 1 + 6 + 3 = 10

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72.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Five Solutions

96

10 March 2006

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Rin = 5 + 4.899 = 9.899

(15 + 20) 5.696 = 4.899

100 25 = 20

4 + 3 + 18 = 25
18
3 = 2.16
25
18
4 = 2.88
25
3
4 = 0.48
25
9.48 2.16 + 9.48 2.88 + 2.88 2.16 = 54 2
54
54
= 18.75
= 5.696
2.88
9.48
54
= 25
2.16
75 18.75 = 15

36
36
36
= 6,
= 18 ,
= 12
6
2
3
12 4 = 3 , 6 12 = 4

6 2 + 2 3 + 3 6 = 36 2

73.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

RB
RC

1.846

= 7.347

Rin = 12 [13.846 + (19.385 6.9231)]

Then we may write

D = 6 + 4 + 3 = 13
R R
6 4
= 1.846
R1 = A B =
D
13
R R
43
= 923.1m
R2 = B C =
D
13
R R
3 6
= 1.385
R3 = C A =
D
13
Then network becomes:

RA

1.385

0.9231

We begin by converting the -connected network consisting of the 4-, 6-, and 3-
resistors to an equivalent Y-connected network:

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74.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0.5

0.25
0.5

10 March 2006

1+1+ 2 = 4
1 2 1
R1 =
=
4
2
2 1 1
=
R2 =
4
2
1 1
= 0.25
R3 =
4

Chapter Five Solutions

12 1.458
= 5.454 V
1.75 + 1.458
= 0.25 + 1.458 1.75
RTH

= 1.045

Voc =

1.458

0.25

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This circuit may be easily analysed to find:

1.75

After this procedure, we have a 3.5- resistor in parallel with the 2.5- resistor. Replacing
them with a 1.458- resistor, we may redraw the circuit:

RA =

3.5
= 7
0.5
3.5
= 1.75
RB =
2
3.5
= 3.5
RC =
1

1 0.5 + 0.5 2 + 2 1 = 3.5 2

Next, we convert the Y-connected network on the left to a -connected network:

75.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Analysing this final


circuit,

R1 =

0.75 3
= 0.3333
6.75
3 3
= 1.333
R2 =
6.75
3 0.75
= 0.3333
R3 =
6.75

0.75 + 3 + 3 = 6.75

I N = I SC = 1

1/ 3
1/ 3 + 1 + 1/ 3
1
1
=
=
1+ 3 +1 5
= 0.2 A
= 200 mA

= 1.667

RN = 1.333 + 0.3333

1A

converted to a Y-connected network:

Next, we note that 1 3 = 0.75 , and hence have a simple -network. This is easily

N = 1.1 + 1.1 + 1.1 = 3 2


3
RA = = 3
1
3
RB = = 3
1
3
RC = = 3
1

We begin by converting the Y-network to a -connected network:

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76.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

-1 + (10 + 10 + 10) ia 10 (0.5) = 0

RTH = 10 +

10 +

10 || 20 = 26.67 .

To determine RTH, we first recognise that with the 1-V source shorted, I1 = 0 and
hence the dependent current source is dead. Thus, we may write RTH from inspection:

We next find that VTH = Vab = 10(-0.5) + 10(ia 0.5) + 10(-0.5) = -13 V.

so that ia = 200 mA.

Then, we may write:

0.5 A

Since 1 V appears across the resistor associated with I1, we know that I1 = 1 V/ 10
= 100 mA. From the perspective of the open terminals, the 10- resistor in parallel
with the voltage source has no influence if we replace the dependent source with a
fixed 0.5-A source:

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77.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

89/ 17 = 5.236 k;

89/4 = 22.25 k

233.6 k

27.49 k

27.49 k

3.912 k

(b)

(23.81)(233.6)/ 260.8 = 21.33 k


(233.6)(3.425)/ 260.8 = 3.068 k
(3.425)(23.81)/ 260.8 = 312.6

= 23.81 + 233.6 + 3.425 = 260.8 k

21.33 k

3.068 k

312.6

Noting that 178 k || 27.49 k = 23.81 k and 27.49 || 3.912 = 3.425 k, we are left
with a simple -connected network. To convert this to the requested Y-network,

611.6/ 22.25 = 27.49 k; 611.6/ 2.618 = 233.6 k

= (22.25)(22.25) + (22.25)(2.618) + (2.618)(22.25) = 611.6106 2

We next attack the Y-connected network in the center:

178 k

Following this conversion, we find that we have two 5.235 k resistors in parallel,
and a 178-k resistor in parallel with the 4-k resistor. Noting that 5.235 k || 5.235 k
= 2.618 k and 178 k || 4 k = 3.912 k, we may draw the circuit as:

89/0.5 = 178 k;

= (17)(10) + (1)(4) + (4)(17) = 89106 2

(a) We begin by splitting the 1-k resistor into two 500- resistors in series. We then
have two related Y-connected networks, each with a 500- resistor as a leg.
Converting those networks into -connected networks,

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78.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(b) See (a).

(a) Although this network may be simplified, it is not possible to replace it with a
three-resistor equivalent.

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79.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

2.609 V

13.04 k

IB =
= 376.4 A

2.609 0.7
= 1.505 A
13.04 103 + 251 5000
I C = 250 I B = 3.764 104 A

2.609 + 13.04 103 I B + 0.7 + 5000( I B + 250 I B ) = 0

Analysing the new circuit to find IB, we note that IC = 250 IB:

Redraw:

RTH

VTH = 20

15
= 2.609 V
100 + 15
= 100k 15k = 13.04 k

First, replace network to left of the 0.7-V source with its Thvenin equivalent:

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80.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[2]
[3]

0 = V2/ 1000 + (V2 5 Vx)/ 10.6


Vx = V1 5 Vx

[1]
[2]

PSpice verification.

The lamp current does not exceed 36 mA in the range of operation allowed
(i.e. a load power of < 1 W.) The simulation result shows that the load will dissipate
slightly more than 1 W for a source current magnitude of 224 mA, as predicted by
hand analysis.

(b)

IS| max = (7)(38.35)/ 1200 = 223.7 mA.

Substituting V2 max = 31.62 V into Eq. [2] then yields V1 = 38.35 V, so that

7 V1 = 1200 IS
-5000 V1 + 6063.6 V2 = 0

Substituting Eq. [3] into Eqs. [1] and [2], we find that

or Vx = V1/ 6

[1]

IS = V1/ 200 + (V1 5 Vx)/ 200

Proceeding with nodal analysis, we may write:

of 32.62 mA, so we may treat the lamp as a 10.6- resistor.

then V2 max = 31.62 V . This corresponds to a load resistor (and hence lamp) current

(a) Define a nodal voltage V1 at the top of the current source IS, and a nodal voltage
V2 at the top of the load resistor RL. Since the load resistor can safely dissipate 1 W,
and we know that
V22
PRL =
1000

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81.

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10 March 2006

[1]
[2]
[3]

[1]
[2]
[3]

We may now compute the power delivered to each of the three 8- speakers:

Solving, we find that iA(t) = -584.5 cos 103 t A


iB(t) = -1.185 cos 103 t mA
iC(t) = -24.87 cos 103 t mA

608 iA 300 iB
=
0
-300 iA + 316 iB 8 iC = 0
-8 iB + 322 iC = -8 cos 104 t

Next, short out all but the source operating at 103 rad/s, and define three clockwise
mesh currents iA, iB, and iC starting with the left-most mesh. Then

Solving, we find that ia(t) = -1.084 sin 200t mA


ib(t) = 21.14 sin 200t mA
ic(t) = 525.1 sin 200t A

608 ia 300 ib
= -7 sin 200t [1]
-300 ia + 316 ib 8 ic = 7 sin 200t [2]
[3]
-8 ib + 322 ic = 0

Next, short out all but the 7 sin 200t V source, and and define three clockwise mesh
currents ia, ib, and ic starting with the left-most mesh. Then

Solving, we find that i1(t) = 10.84 cos 104 t mA


i2(t) = 10.29 cos 104 t mA
i3(t) = 255.7 cos 104 t A

608 i1 300 i2
= 3.5 cos 104 t
-300 i1 + 316 i2 8 i3 = 0
-8 i2 + 322 i3 = 0

Short out all but the source operating at 104 rad/s, and define three clockwise mesh
currents i1, i2, and i3 starting with the left-most mesh. Then

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p1 = 8[i1 + ia + iA]2 = 8[10.8410-3 cos 104 t -1.08410-3 sin 200t -584.510-6 cos 103 t]2
p2 = 8[i2 + ib + iB]2 = 8[10.2910-3 cos 104 t +21.1410-3 sin 200t 1.18510-3 cos 103 t]2
p3 = 8[i3 + ic + iC]2 = 8[255.710-6 cos 104 t +525.110-6 sin 200t 24.8710-3 cos 103 t]2

82.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

[2]

[2]

[1]

Solving, we find that Vin = 1.429 V; in other words, the DMM sees 1.429 V across its
terminals in response to the known current of 1 A its supplying. It therefore thinks
that it is connected to a resistance of 1.429 .

22.1 V1 + 1.001 Vin = 33

(275103 + 33) V1 - 275103 Vin = 0

[1]

1 - 0.7 V1 = Vin/ 106 + Vin/ 33103 + (Vin V1)/ 33

Simplifying and collecting terms,

and

0 = (V1 Vin)/ 33 + V1/ 275103

We begin by noting that 33 || 1 M 33 . Then,

Vin

1A

Replacing the DMM with a possible Norton equivalent (a 1-M resistor in parallel
with a 1-A source):

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83.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

This corresponds to a temperature of absolute zero using the equation given.

Thus, if we are in fact delivering the maximum possible power to the resistor from the
120-V source, the resistance of the cylinder must be zero.

120
PR = 10 i = 10

Rcylinder + 10

We know that the resistor R is absorbing maximum power. We might be tempted to


say that the resistance of the cylinder is therefore 10 , but this is wrong: The larger
we make the cylinder resistance, the small the power delivery to R:

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84.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Note: construct the 18-V source from 12 1.5-V batteries in series, and the two 400-
resistors can be fabricated by soldering 400 1- resistors in series, although theres
probably a much better alternative

We note that the buzzer draws 15 mA at 6 V, so that it may be modeled as a 400-


resistor. One possible solution of many, then, is:

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85.

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10 March 2006

New wiring scheme

213.3

60 Rs + 213.3

320

= 30
Solving, we find that we require Rs = 106.65 , as confirmed by the PSpice
simulation below, which shows that both wiring configurations lead to one lamp with
80-V across it, and two lamps with 40 V across each.

213.3

120 Rs + 213.3

+2
320

In other words,

There are several ways to accomplish this, but the simplest may be to just use one
120-Vac source connected to the left port in series with a resistor whose value is
chosen to obtain 30 W delivered to the three lamps.

In the original wiring scheme, Lamps 1 & 2 draw (40)2 / 320 = 5 W of power each,
and Lamp 3 draws (80)2 / 320 = 20 W of power. Therefore, none of the lamps is
running at its maximum rating of 45 W. We require a circuit which will deliver the
same intensity after the lamps are reconnected in a configuration. Thus, we need a
total of 30 W from the new network of lamps.

Original wiring scheme

To solve this problem, we need to assume that 45 W is a designation that applies


when 120 Vac is applied directly to a particular lamp. This corresponds to a current
draw of 375 mA, or a light bulb resistance of 120/ 0.375 = 320 .

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86.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Maximum current rating for the LED is 35 mA.


Its resistance can vary between 47 and 117 .
A 9-V battery must be used as a power source.
Only standard resistance values may be used.

10 March 2006

Rlimiting = 220 .

to obtain Rlimiting 210.1 to ensure an LED current of less than 35 mA. This is not a
standard resistor value, however, so we select

The maximum value of this current will occur at the minimum LED resistance, 47 .
Thus, we solve
9
3510-3 =
R limiting + 47

One possible current-limiting scheme is to connect a 9-V battery in series with a


resistor Rlimiting and in series with the LED.
From KVL,
9
ILED =
R limiting + R LED

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87.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

100
3 = 30V
10
1M
=
2.5 = 2.5V
1M
4.7
=
1 = 1.42V
3.3

c) Vout

b) Vout

a) Vout =

So:

This is an inverting amplifier, therefore, Vout =


R1

Rf
Vin

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1.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

b) Vout
c) Vout

a) Vout =

47
1.5 = 7.05V
10
= 9V
= 680mV

This is also an inverting amplifier. The loading resistance Rs only affects the output
current drawn from the op-amp. Therefore,

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2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

-5

10

15

20

25

2 / 5

4 /5

2 / 5

4 /5

6 / 5

8 / 5

8 / 5

-15 V

-10 V

-5 V

10k
vin = 10vin . Therefore,
1k

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-16

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

6 / 5

a) vout = 10vin = 20 sin 5t

For this inverting amplifier, vout =

b) vout = 10vin = 10 5 sin 5t

-25

-20

-15

-10

3.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

-2

-1.8

-1.6

-1.4

-1.2

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

/2

b) vout = 0.1vin = 1.5 0.4 cos 4t

/2

a) vout = 0.1vin = cos 4t

R1

Rf

3 / 2

-1.9 V

-1.5 V

-1.1 V

vin = 0.1vin , hence,

3 / 2

For this inverting amplifier, v out =

Chapter Six Solutions

10 March 2006

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4.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

R in

Rf

V out
9
=
V in
5

Rf
V in
R in

Using standard resistor values, we can have Rf=9.1k and Rin=5.1k

V out =

One possible solution is by using an inverting amplifier design, we have

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5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Giving possible resistor values Rf = 20 k and Rin = 5.1 k

The resistance values are given by:


R f 20
=
Rin
5

One possible solution is by using an inverting amplifier design, and a -5V input to
give a positive output voltage:

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6.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Giving possible resistor values Rf = 1.5 k and Rin = 5.1 k

The resistances are given by:


R f 1.5
=
Rin
5

To get a positive output that is smaller than the input, the easiest way is to use
inverting amplifier with an inverted voltage supply to give a negative voltage:

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7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Giving possible resistor values Rf = 3.0k and Rin = 9.1 k

The resistances are given by:


Rf 3
=
Rin 9

Similar to question 7, the following is proposed:

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8.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

47
) 300m = 1.71 V
10
1M
= (1 +
) 1.5 = 3 V
1M
4.7
= (1 +
) 1 = 2.42 V
3.3

c) Vout

b) Vout

a) Vout = (1 +

So:

This circuit is a non-inverting amplifier, therefore, Vout = (1 +

Chapter Six Solutions

R1

Rf
)Vin

10 March 2006

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9.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Six Solutions

10 March 2006

This is again a non-inverting amplifier. Similar to question 9, we have:

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a) Vout = 200m (1 + 4.7) = 1.14 V


b) Vout = (1 + 1) 9 = 18 V
c) Vout = 7.8 100m = 0.78 V

10.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

4 /5

2 / 5

4 /5

b) vout = 2vin = 2 + 0.5 sin 10t

2 / 5

6 / 5

6 / 5

8 / 5

8 / 5

1.5 V

2V

2.5 V

1
vout = (1 + )vin = 2vin for this non inverting amplifier circuit, therefore:
1
a) vout = 2vin = 8 sin 10t

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1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2

2.4

2.6

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

11.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Rin

Rf

/2

/2

5.5 V

6V

7.5 V

10 March 2006

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Chapter Six Solutions

)vin = 1.5vin for this non inverting op-amp circuit. Hence,

a) vout = 1.5vin = 3 cos 2t

vout = (1 +

b) vout = 1.5vin = 6 + 1.5 cos 2t

-4

-3

-2

-1

12.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Then, vout =

2200
(0.15) = - 2.2 V
150

The first step is to perform a simple source transformation, so that a 0.15-V source in
series with a 150- resistor is connected to the inverting pin of the ideal op amp.

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13.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Using vout = 38.73, we find that R = 148.2 .

(0.15)(10 103 ) = 38.73 V. Writing a nodal equation at the inverting input,


we find
5 5 vout
0 =
+
R 1000

In order to deliver 150 mW to the 10-k resistor, we need vout =

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14.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

One possible solution of many: a non-inverting op amp circuit with the microphone
connected to the non-inverting input terminal, the switch connected between the op
amp output pin and ground, a feedback resistor Rf = 133 , and a resistor R1 = 1 .

Since the 670- switch requires 100 mA to activate, the voltage delivered to it by our
op amp circuit must be (670)(0.1) = 67 V. The microphone acts as the input to the
circuit, and provides 0.5 V. Thus, an amplifier circuit having a gain = 67/0.5 = 134 is
required.

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15.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Solving,

or
0 =

0 =

vout = -220 vS

- vS
- vout
+
100
22000

(v- - vS )
(v - v )
+ - out
100
22000

Writing a single nodal equation at the non-inverting input then leads to

We begin by labeling the nodal voltages v- and v+ at the inverting and non-inverting
input terminals, respectively. Since no current can flow into the non-inverting input,
no current flows through the 40-k resistor; hence, v+ = 0. Therefore, we know that
v- = 0 as well.

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16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

4 - 3 4 - Vo
+
1000 17000

Solving, we find that Vo = 21 V. Since no current can flow through the 300-k
resistor, V1 = 21 as well.

0 =

We first label the nodal voltage at the output pin Vo. Then, writing a single nodal
equation at the inverting input terminal of the op amp,

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17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

V2

Thus,

V2 = -38.14(3.975) = -151.6 V.

This is now a simple inverting amplifier with gain Rf/ R1 = -75.33/ 1.975 = -38.14.

A source transformation and some series combinations are well worthwhile prior to
launching into the analysis. With 5 k || 3 k = 1.875 k and (1 mA)(1.875 k) =
1.875 V, we may redraw the circuit as

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18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Six Solutions

vout =

- 2000
(2 + 2 sin 3t ) = - 4(1 + sin 3t ) V
1000

This is a simple inverting amplifier, so we may write

10 March 2006

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vout(t = 3 s) = -5.648 V.

19.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

vout = (3.074) vin = 18 so

vin = 5.856 V.

We are left with a simple non-inverting amplifier having a gain of


1 + 518.5/ 250 = 3.074. Thus,

We first combine the 2 M and 700 k resistors into a 518.5 k resistor.

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20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

This is a simple non-inverting amplifier circuit, and so it has a gain of 1 + Rf/ R1.
We want vout = 23.7 cos 500t V when the input is 0.1 cos 500t V, so a gain of 23.7/0.1
= 237 is required.
One possible solution of many: Rf = 236 k and R1 = 1 k.

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21.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

0 =

VV -V
+ - out
R6
R7

vout =

[2]

R7
(4.5) - 4.5 = - 4.5 R 7 + 1 V
R6

R6

Solving and making use of the fact that V- = -4.5 V,

At the inverting input:

Thus, V+ = -4.5 V, and we therefore also know that V- = -4.5 V.

Define a nodal voltage V- at the inverting input, and a nodal voltage V+ at the noninverting input. Then,
V+
At the non-inverting input: -310-6 =
[1]
1.5 106

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22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(c) A is the inverting input since it has the feedback connection to the output pin.

(b) R1 = , RA = 0. We need a gain of 20/10 = 2, so choose R2 = RB = 1 .

(a) B must be the non-inverting input: that yields a gain of 1 + 70/10 = 8 and an
output of 8 V for a 1-V input.

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23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

2V

2 k
V+

V-

13 k

vout

10 March 2006

which yields vout = -11 V.

0 =

2 - 3 2 - vout
+
1000 13000

Since no current can flow into the non-inverting input pin, we know that V+ = 2 V,
and therefore also that V- = 2 V. A single nodal equation at the inverting input yields:

3V

1 k

(1 mA)(2 k) = 2 V.

It is probably best to first perform a simple source transformation:

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24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1000 vS
= -9 vS
1100

vout

10 March 2006

For vS = 5 sin 3t mV, vout = 1.364 sin 3t V, and vout(0.25 s) = 0.9298 V.

Thus, vout = (-30.3)( -9 vS) = 272.7 vS

which is simply a classic inverting op amp circuit with gain of -100/3.3 = -30.3.

-9 vS

3.3 k

100 k

Rth = 3.3 k, so we can redraw the circuit as:

Vth = -3.3(3) v = -9.9 v = 9.9

We begin by find the Thvenin equivalent to the left of the op amp:

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25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1.8 k

-6 V

370

vout

Solving,

vout = 1.826 V

23.899 10-3
23.899 10-3 - vout
+
0 =
500
37.7 103

Since no current flows through the 1.8 k resistor, V+ = 23.899 mV and hence
V- = 23.899 mV as well. A single nodal equation at the inverting input terminal yields

23.899 mV

500

37.7 k

We first combine the 4.7 M and 1.3 k resistors: 4.7 M || 1.3 k = 1.30 k.
Next, a source transformation yields (310-6)(1300) = 3.899 mV which appears in
series with the 20 mV source and the 500- resistor. Thus, we may redraw the circuit
as

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26.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

55.1 mV

500
1.8 k

37.7 k

-6 V

370

vout

We first combine the 4.7 M and 1.3 k resistors: 4.7 M || 1.3 k = 1.30 k.
Next, a source transformation yields (2710-6)(1300) = 35.1 mV which appears in
series with the 20 mV source and the 500- resistor. Thus, we may redraw the circuit
as

Chapter Six Solutions

vout = 4.21 V

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Solving,

55.1 10-3
55.1 10-3 - vout
+
0 =
500
37.7 103

Since no current flows through the 1.8 k resistor, V+ = 55.1 mV and hence
V- = 55.1 mV as well. A single nodal equation at the inverting input terminal yields

27.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

- vout
RIGH OPAMP

= 14.29 + 50 = 64.29 V.

100
= 14.29 V
21
100
= - (5)
= - 50 V
10

= - (-3)

LEFTOPAMP

RIGH OPAMP

vout
vx = vout

LEFTOPAMP

vout

The 3 mA source, 1 k resistor and 20 k resistor may be replaced with a 3 V


source (+ reference up) in series with a 21 k resistor. No current flows through
either 1 M resistor, so that the voltage at each of the four input terminals is
identically zero. Considering each op amp circuit separately,

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28.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v2

vN

R2

RN

vb

va

Rf

va vout
v v
v v
v vN
+ a 1 + a 2 + ... + a
Rf
R1
R2
RN

vout

10 March 2006

Thus,

1
R
f

or simply

vout
Rf

i =1

vi

v1
v
v
+ 2 + ... + N
R1
R2
RN
vout = - R f

v1 N
v2 N
vN N
v
R
=
R
+
R
+
...
+
Ri

i
i
i out
R
R
R
i =1
i
=
i
=
i
=
1
1
1
N
2
1

Simplifying and making use of the fact that va = 0, we may write this as

0 =

1. va = vb = 0
2. A single nodal equation at the inverting input leads to:

v1

R1

A general summing amplifier with N input sources:

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29.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v2

R2

R3

R4

and hence
vout = -

R2 + R3

(R f + R1 )R 3 v

Rf
R R + R1
v2
v1 + 3 f
R1
R1 R 2 + R 3

R 1 vout = R f v1

Since va = vb, we can now rewrite Eqn. [1] as

R3
v2
R2 + R3

[2]

(R2 + R3) vb = R3 v2
From Eqn. [2], we have vb =

[1]

vout

(Rf + R1) va R1 vout = Rf v1

Writing a nodal equation at the inverting input,


v -v
v -v
0 = a 1 + a out
R1
Rf
Writing a nodal equation at the non-inverting input,
v
v -v
0 = b + b 2
R3
R2
Simplifying and collecting terms, we may write

v1

R1

A general difference amplifier:

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30.

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Pick R1 = 10 k. Then vS = -0.2143 V.

Thus, vout(2 candela) = -RCdS vS/ R1 = -70 VS/ R1 = 1.5

(R1 in k).

Our design requirement (using the standard inverting op amp circuit shown) is that the
voltage across the load is 1.5 V at 2 candela, and less than 1.5 V for intensities greater
than 2 candela.

In total darkness, the CdS cell has a resistance of 100 k, and at a light intensity L of
6 candela it has a resistance of 6 k. Thus, we may compute the light-dependent
resistance (assuming a linear response in the range between 0 and 6 candela) as RCdS =
-15L + 100 .

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31.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

vocals
microphone

instruments
microphone

Rinstruments = 2

Rvocal = 1

Rf = 2

vout

We want Rf/ Rinstrument = 2K, and Rf/ Rvocal = 1K, where K is a constant not specified.
Assuming K = 1, one possible solution of many is:

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32.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vS

2V

1 k

One possible solution of many:


99 k

Chapter Six Solutions

vout

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33.

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10 March 2006

v1 + v 2 + v 3
R

vout =

R f 2 R f1 v1 + v2 + v3
R4
R
v1 + v2 + v3 v1 + v2 + v3
=
3
R
I.e. Rx/R = 3. Therefore, the circuit can be completed with R1 = R2= R3 = 30 k and
Rf2 = Rf1 = R4 = 10 k

vout = Rx

For simplicity, we can take Rf2 = Rf1 = R4= Rx, then, to give a voltage average,

Or,

vout vo R f1 v1 + v2 + v3
=
=
Rf2
R4
R4
R

Using the nodal equation at the inverting input of the second op-amp, we have:

v 0 = R f1

If we assume R1=R2=R3=R, then

The nodal equation at the inverting input of the first op-amp gives
v1 v2 v3 vo
+
+
=
R1 R2 R3 R f1

To get the average voltage value, we want vout =

v1 + v2 + v3
. This voltage stays
3
positive and therefore a one stage summing circuit (which inverts the voltage) is not
sufficient. Using the cascade setup as shown figure 6.15 and modified for three inputs
we have:

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34.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

R f 2 R f1 v1 + v2 + v3 + v4
Rin
R
Therefore, to get the sum of the voltages v1 to v4, we only need to set all resistances to
be equal, so setting Rf2 = Rf1 = Rin = R =10 k would give an output that is
proportional to the total weight of the items

vout =

The output is given by:

The output voltage of the differential amps from each of the scale, V1 V4 (now gives
the weight of the items only), is then added by using a two stage summing amplifier:

The resistance of R can be arbitary as long as they resistances of each resistor is the
same and the current rating is not exceeded. A good choice would be R = 10 k.

The first stage is to subtract each voltage signal from the scale by the voltage
corresponding to the weight of the pallet (Vtare). This can be done by using a
differential amplifier:

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35.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Rin

Rf

)vin = 1.609vin

This gives Rf/Rin =0.609 61/100, i.e. Rf = 6.2 k and Rin = 10 k

vout = (1 +

b) To convert to kph (km per hour) from mph (miles per hour), it is noted that 1 mph
= 1.609 kph. Therefore, the voltage output from each device must be multiplied by
1.609. This can be done by using a non-inverting amplifier, which has an output given
by:

Again, R can be arbitary as long as they are equal and doesnt give an excessive
current. 10 k is a good choice here.

a) Using a difference amplifier, we can provide a voltage that is the difference


between the radar gun output and police speedometer output, which is proportional to
the speed difference between the targeted car and the police car. Note that since a
positive voltage is required which the police car is slower, the police speedometer
voltage would be feed into the inverting input:

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36.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Note: in reality, the output voltage will be limited to a value less than that used to
power the op amps.

vout of stage 2 is (-10)(-1000/ 10) = 1000 V

vout of stage 1 is (1)(-20/ 2) = -10 V.

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37.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Vout = Vout
Stage 1

R
R3
= f + 1
V2
R1
R2 + R3

1 R3
1 R3
- V1 +
- Vout
V2
V2
R f R 2 + R 3
R 1 R 2 + R 3

which may be solved to obtain:

0 =

Rf
V1
R1

Stage 1

and this is the voltage at the inverting input terminal also. Thus, we may write a
single nodal equation at the inverting input of the first op amp:

R3

V2
R2 + R3

We have a difference amplifier as the first amplifier stage, and a simple voltage
follower as the second stage. We therefore need only to find the output voltage of the
first stage: vout will track this voltage. Using voltage division, then, we find that the
voltage at the non-inverting input pin of the first op amp is:

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38.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

47

0 - Vout
stage 1

0-2
0-3
+
which leads to Vout
1
7
steage 1

= -114.1 V

Thus, the output of the circuit is 156.7(1141) = -178.8 kV, which is completely and
utterly ridiculous.

This voltage appears at the input of the second op amp stage, which has a gain of
3/ 0.3 = 10. Thus, the output of the second op amp stage is 10(-114.1) = 1141 V.
This voltage appears at the input of the final op amp stage, which has a gain of
47/ 0.3 = -156.7.

0 =

The output of the first op amp stage may be found by realising that the voltage at the
non-inverting input (and hence the voltage at the inverting input) is 0, and writing a
ingle nodal equation at the inverting input:

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39.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R
( 5 10 15) = 10
100

Solving, we find that R = 33.33 .

Vout =

These three voltages are the input to a summing amplifier such that

The output of the top left stage is 1(10/ 2) = -5 V.


The output of the middle left stage is 2(10/ 2) = -10 V.
The output of the bottom right stage is 3(10/ 2) = -15 V.

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40.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

50
= 1.667 V
100 + 50

The second stage is wired as a voltage follower also, so

vout = 1.667 V.

Stage 1 is configured as a voltage follower: the output voltage will be equal to the
input voltage. Using voltage division, the voltage at the non-inverting input (and
hence at the inverting input, as well), is

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41.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

It can be seen that all voltage values are very close to what was calculated. The
voltage output V3 is 9.88Vinstead of 9.87 V. This can be explained by the fact that the
operating voltage is slightly higher than the breakdown voltage, and also the non-ideal
characteristics of the op-amp.

b) PSpice simulation gives:

Solving this gives V3 = 9.87 V

4.7 V3 4.7
=
1k
1.1k

a) Since the voltage supply is higher than the Zener voltage of the diode, the diode is
operating in the breakdown region. This means V2 = 4.7 V, and assuming ideal opamp, V1 = V2= 4.7 V. This gives a nodal equation at the inverting input:

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42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V1 = V2 = Vdiode

Rf
)V1
Rin

10 March 2006

R2 =

Vs Vdiode
I ref
At a voltage of 5.1 V, the current is 76 mA, as described in the problem. This gives
R2 51 using standard resistor values.

The resistor value of R2 is determined by:

Since the diode voltage is 5.1 V, and the desired output voltage is 5.1 V, we have
Rf/Rin = 0. In other words, a voltage follower is needed with Rf = 0, and Rin can be
arbitary Rin =100 k would be sufficient.

And

V3 = (1 +

The circuit is governed by the equations:

The following circuit can be used:

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43.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Rin

Rf

Vin

The resistance R is given by R = (18-10) V /25 mA = 320 = 330 using standard


values.

Here, the input voltage is the diode voltage = 10 V, and the desired output voltage is 2.5 V. This gives Rf/Rin = 25 / 100 = 50 / 200, or Rf = 51 k and Rin = 200 k using
standard values. Note that large values are chosen so that most current flow through
the Zener diode to provide sufficient current for breakdown condition.

Vout =

For the Zener diode to operate in the breakdown region, a voltage supply greater than
the breakdown voltage, in this case 10 V is needed. With only 9 V batteries, the
easiest way is the stack two battery to give a 18 V power supply. Also, as the input is
inverted, an inverting amplifier would be needed. Hence we have the following
circuit:

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44.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

The resistance R is then given by R = (-20 - -27) V / 12.5 mA = 560 using standard
resistor values.

In this circuit, the diode is flipped but so is the power supply, therefore keeping the
diode in the breakdown region, giving Vin = -20 V. Then, using the inverting amp
equation, we have Rf / Rin = 12/20 giving Rf = 120 k and Rin = 200 k using
standard resistor values.

For a 20 V Zener diode, three 9 V batteries giving a voltage of 27 V would be needed.


However, because the required voltage is smaller than the Zener voltage, a noninverting amplifier can not be used. To use a inverting amplifier to give a positive
voltage, we first need to invert the input to give a negative input:

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45.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Correspondingly, the resistor values needs to be changed:


Rf / Rin = 3.3/2.2 giving Rf = 33 k and Rin = 22 k. R would be the same as before
as the voltage difference between supply and diode stays the same i.e. R = 75 .

b) To give a voltage output of +2.2 V instead, the same setup can be used, with supply
and diode inverted:

Rf/Rin = 5/3.3 giving Rf = 51 k and Rin = 33 k. R = (9-3.3) V / 76 mA = 75 using


standard resistor values.

a) using inverting amplifier:

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46.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Is

10 March 2006

Is = I = 10 V / R = 25 mA assuming ideal op-amp. This gives R = 400 . Again,


taking half of max current rating as the operating current, we get R1 = (12 10) V / 25
mA = 80 = 82 using standard values.

The following setup can be used:

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47.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Is

10 March 2006

Is = I = 12.5 mA = 20 V / R, assuming ideal op-amp. This gives R = 1.6 k and R1 =


(27 20) / 12.5 mA = 560 .

Using the following current source circuit, we have:

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48.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Is

Now look at the range of possible loads. The maximum output voltage is
approximately equal to the supply voltage, i.e. 15 V. Therefore, the minimum load is
given by RL = (20 15) V / 75 mA = 66.67 . Similarly, the maximum load is given
by RL = (20 - -15) V/ 75 mA = 466.67 . i.e. this design is suitable for
466.67 > RL > 66.67 .

Here, we have Is = I = (27-20)/ R = 75 mA, assuming infinite op-amp input


resistance. This gives R = 93.3 91 using standard values. We also have R1 = (2720)/ 12.5 mA = 560 .

In this situation, we know that there is a supply limit at 15 V, which is lower than the
zener diode voltage. Therefore, previous designs need to be modified to suit this
application. One possible solution is shown here:

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49.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

P8 = 0 W.

10 March 2006

(c) va = 50 V, vb = -4 V vd = 54 V
8
vout = (2105)(5410-6)
= 1.041 V.
75 + 8

Thus, P8 =

2
vout
= 135.5 mW.
8

(c) va = 2 pV, vb = 1 fV vd = 1.999 pV


v2
8
vout = (2105)(1.99910-12)
= 38.53 nV. Thus, P8 = out = 185.6 aW.
75 + 8
8

(b) va = 0, vb = 1 nV vd = -1 nV
v2
8
= -19.28 V. Thus, P8 = out = 46.46 pW.
vout = (2105)(-110-9)
75 + 8
8

(a) va = vb = 1 nV vd = 0 and vout = 0. Thus,

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50.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(R1Rf + RinRf + RinR1) vd + RinR1vout = -RinRfVS

-v -v
- vd - vd - VS
+
+ d out
Rf
R1
R in

[1]

10 March 2006

(b) 27.78 mV;

(c) 3.704 V.

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(a) 3.704 mV;

where for this circuit, A = 106, Rin = 10 T, Ro = 15 , Rf = 1000 k, R1 = 270 k.

0 =

v - (-vd )
- vout - Avd
+ out
[2]
Rf
Ro
Eqn. [2] can be rewritten as:
- (R f + R o )
vd =
vout
[2]
R o - AR f
so that Eqn. [1] becomes:
R in (AR f - R o ) VS
vout = AR in R 1 + R f R 1 + R in R f + R in R 1 + R o R 1 + R o R in

Writing a nodal equation at the vout node,

or

0 =

[1]

Chapter Six Solutions

Writing a nodal equation at the -vd node,

51.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Ri
80 1015 sin 2t V
16 + R i

(b) A = 106, Ri = 1 T, Ro value irrelevant. vout = 80 sin 2t nV

(a) A = 105, Ri = 100 M, Ro value irrelevant. vout = 8 sin 2t nV

vout = Avd = A

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52.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

-v -v
- vd - vin
+ d out
100
1

[1]

10 March 2006

A = 9999

(b) We want the value of A such that vout/ vin = -99 (the ideal value would be 100
if A were infinite). Substituting into Eqn. [2], we find

At the output, with Ro = 0 we may write vout = Avd so vd = vout/ A. Thus, Eqn. [1]
becomes
v
v
v
0 = out + vin + out + out
A
100A 100
from which we find
vout
- 100A
=
[2]
vin
101 + A

0 =

The nodal equation at the inverting input is

(a) Find vout/ vin if Ri = , Ro = 0, and A is finite.

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53.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(b) = 1 nV, so vd = 5 (5 + 10-9) = -10-9 V


Thus,
8
= -19.28 V and P8 = (vout)2/ 8 = 46.46 pW.
vout = (2105)vd
8 + 75
(c) = 2.5 V, so vd = 5 (5 + 2.510-6) = -2.510-6V
Thus,
8
= -48.19 mV and P8 = (vout)2/ 8 = 290.3 W.
vout = (2105)vd
8 + 75

(a) = 0 V vd = 0, and P8 = 0 W.

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54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vout - vin
v - Avd
+ out
Ro
Ri
[1]

vout =

R o + ( A + 1) R i

(R o + AR i )

vin

0 = (vout vin) Ro + (vout Avin + Avout) Ri

10 March 2006

To within 4 significant figures (and more, actually), when vin = -16 mV, vout = -16 mV
(this is, after all, a voltage follower circuit).

and

Also, vin vout = vd, so Eqn. [1] becomes

0 =

Writing a single nodal equation at the output, we find that

AD549

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55.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

This is the expression for the voltage follower in non-ideal situation. In the case of
ideal op-amp, A , and so A+1 A. This means the denominator and the
numerator would cancel out to give Vout = Vin, which is exactly what we expected.

RoVout + Ri ( A + 1)Vout = RoVin + Ri AVin


Ro + Ri A
Vout =
Vin
Ro + Ri ( A + 1)

Further rearranging gives:

Vout Vin A(Vin Vout ) Vout AVin ( A + 1)Vout


=
=
Ri
Ro
Ro

Vout Vin AVd Vout


=
Ri
Ro
But in this circuit, Vd=Vin Vout. Substitution gives:

Nodal equation at the op-amp output gives:

The Voltage follower with a finite op-amp model is shown below:

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56.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

so

va =

50000v2 + v1
(105 + 2)
Giving va=0.49999v2+9.9998010-6v1. The output equation becomes
vout = 105 vd = 105 (v2 / 2 va ) =0.99998v2-0.99998v1 = 1.99996 sin t

c) If the common mode gain is 0, than the equation for va becomes

in this case, v1 = 5 + 2 sin t, v2 = 5. This gives va=0.50004v2+9.9998010-6v1. Thus


vout = 105(-0.00004v2 - 9.9998010-6v1)+5v2 = 1.00008v2 - 0.99998v1 = 0.0005
1.99996 sin t

vout = 105 vd + 10vb = 105 (v2 / 2 va ) + 5v2

Then, the output is given by:

50000v2 105 va + 5v2 va = va v1


50005v2 + v1
va =
(105 + 2)

105 (v2 / 2 va ) + 10(v2 / 2) va = va v1

Rearranging gives:

vd = vb va

105 vd + 10vb va va v1
=
R
R
vb = v2 / 2 (from voltage divider)

The circuit is governed by the following equations:

b) The voltage source in the circuit now becomes 105vd+10v2. Assuming Ro = 0, the circuit in figure 6.25 becomes:

This model relies on that fact that ACM is much smaller than the differential gain A, and therefore when the inputs
are different, the contribution of ACM is negligible. When the inputs are the same, however, the differential term
Avd vanishes, and so vout = ACMv2, which is correct.

a) By definition, when the op-amp is at common mode, vout = ACMvin. Therefore, a model that can represent this is:

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Slew rate is the rate at which output voltage can respond to changes in the input. The
higher the slew rate, the faster the op-amp responds to changes. Limitation in slew
rate i.e. when the change in input is faster than the slew rate, causes degradation in
performance of the op-amp as the change is delayed and output distorted.

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58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

It can be seen that the diode


voltage started dropping when
batteries drop below 10 V.
However, the diode can still be
considered as operating in the
breakdown region, until it hit
the knee of the curve. This
occurs at Vsupply = 5.28 V

c) By using a DC sweep, the voltage from the diode (i.e. V2) was monitored as the
battery voltage changes from 12 V to 4V.

There are considerable discrepancies between calculated and simulated voltages. In particular, V1 = 3.090 V is
considerably lower than the expected 4.7 V. This is due to the non-ideal characteristics of uA741 which has a finite
input resistance, inducing a voltage drop between the two input pins. A more severe limitation, however, is the
supply voltage. Since the supply voltage is 18V, the output cannot exceed 18 V. This is consistent with the
simulation result which gives V3 = 17.61 V but is quite different to the calculated value as the mathematical model
does not account for supply limitations.

b) The simulation result is shown below

Solving gives V3 = 26.79 V

a) V2 = 4.7 V from the Zener diode, V1 = V2 = 4.7 V assuming ideal op-amp, and V3
is given by the nodal equation at the inverting input:
V3 V1 V1
=
4.7k 1k

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59.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

vin (V)

From the PSpice simulation result shown below, we see that the ideal op amp model
is reasonably accurate for |vin| 100 < 15 V (the supply voltage, assuming both have
the same magnitude), but the onset of saturation is at 14.5 V, or |vin| ~ 145 mV.
Increasing |vin| past this value does not lead to an increase in |vout|.

-100

vout (V)

The ideal op amp model predicts a gain vout/ vin = -1000/ 10 = -100, regardless of the
value of vin. In other words, it predicts an input-output characteristic such as:

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60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Positive voltage supply, negative voltage supply, inverting input, ground, output pin.

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61.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

-92 V
41.3 V
-31.77 V

A 741
LM 324
LF 411

of
negat
ive
satur
ation

onset

op amp

-14.32 V
-14.71 V
-13.81 V

negative
satur
ation
volta
ge

positi
ve
satur
ation

54.4 mV
337.2 mV
39.78 mV

onset of

14.34 V
13.87 V
13.86 V

positive

satur
ation
volta
ge

From the simulation results below, we see that all three op amps saturate at a voltage
magnitude of approximately 14 V, corresponding to a differential input voltage of 50
to 100 V, except in the interest case of the LM 324, which may be showing some
unexpected input offset behavior.

This op amp circuit is an open-loop circuit; there is no external feedback path from
the output terminal to either input. Thus, the output should be the open-loop gain
times the differential input voltage, minus any resistive losses.

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62.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Using the cursor tool, we see that the linear region is in the range of
68.2 mV < Vin < 68.5 mV.
The simulation predicts a gain of 7.103 V/ 32.87 mV = 216.1, which is reasonably
close to the value predicted using the ideal op amp model.

This is a non-inverting op amp circuit, so we expect a gain of 1 + 1000/4.7 = 213.8.


With 15 V DC supplies, we need to sweep the input just above and just below this
value divided by the gain to ensure that we see the saturation regions. Performing the
indicated simulation and a DC sweep from 0.1 V to +0.1 V with 0.001 V steps, we
obtain the following input-output characteristic:

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63.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

For LF411, a current of 25.34 mA is drawn from the op-amp. This gives a output
resistance of 38.4 . This value is quite different to the 1 figure given in the table.

As can be seen, a current of 18.57 mA is drawn from the uA741. Assuming the output
voltage from the op-amp before Ro is 0, we have Ro = (1-18.57m)/18.57m = 52.9 .
This is close to the value given in table 6.3. There is difference between the two as
here we are still using the assumption that the voltage output is independent to the
loading circuit. This is illustrated by the fact that as the supplied voltage to the 1 ohm
resistor changes, the voltage at the output pin actually increases, and is always higher
than the voltage provided by the battery, as long as the supplied to the op-amp is
greater than the battery voltage. When the supply voltage drops to 1V, the output
current increased greatly and gave an output resistance of only 8 . This suggests that
the inner workings of the op-amp depend on both the supply and the loading.

To give a proper simulation, the inputs are grounded to give an input of 0. This gives:

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64.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

- vd
v -v
Av - v
+ x 4 d + 6d d
R in
10
10 + R o

- 106
vx
199.9 106
= -

vx
199.9

For vx = -10 mV, PSpice predicts vd = 6 V, where the hand calculations based on the
detailed model predict 50 V, which is about one order of magnitude larger. For the
same input voltage, PSpice predicts an input current of -1 A, whereas the hand
calculations predict 99.5vx mA = -995 nA (which is reasonably close).

With a gain of 1000/10 = -100 and supply voltage magnitudes of 15 V, we are


effectively limited to values of |vx| < 150 mV.

vd =

Substituting values for the LF 411 and simplifying, we make appropriate


approximations and then solve for vd in terms of vx, finding that

0 =

Based on the detailed model of the LF 411 op amp , we can write the following nodal
equation at the inverting input:

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65.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(b) The peak input voltage is 75 mV. Therefore, 15/ 7510-3 = 200, and we should set
the resistance ratio Rf/ R1 < 199 to ensure the op amp does not saturate.

(a) The gain of the inverting amplifier is 1000. At a sensor voltage of 30 mV, the
predicted output voltage (assuming an ideal op amp) is +30 V. At a sensor voltage of
+75 mV, the predicted output voltage (again assuming an ideal op amp) is 75 V.
Since the op amp is being powered by dc sources with voltage magnitude equal to 15
V, the output voltage range will realistically be limited to the range
15 < Vout < 15 V.

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66.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

current of

40.61 mA, slightly larger than the expected 35 mA, but not too far off.

(b) Using a 1 p resistor between the output pin and ground, we obtain an output

We see from the simulation result that negative saturation begins at Vin = 4.72 V,
and positive saturation begins at Vin = +4.67 V.

(a)

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67.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

One possible solution of many (all resistances in ohms):

We assume that the strength of the separately-broadcast chaotic noise signal is


received at the appropriate intensity such that it may precisely cancel out the chaotic
component of the total received signal; otherwise, a variable-gain stage would need to
be added so that this could be adjusted by the user. We also assume that the signal
frequency is separate from the carrier or broadcast frequency, and has already been
separated out by an appropriate circuit (in a similar fashion, a radio station
transmitting at 92 MHz is sending an audio signal of between 20 and 20 kHz, which
must be separated from the 92 MHz frequency.)

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68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

This circuit produces an output equal to the average of V1, V2, and V3, as shown in the
simulation result: Vaverage = (1.45 + 3.95 + 7.82)/ 3 = 4.407 V.

One possible solution of many:

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69.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

-5

10

15

20

-5

10

15

20

Chapter Six Solutions

-5

-5

-3

-3

1
V active (V)

-1

V active (V)

-1

18 V

18 V

Assuming ideal situations (ie slew rate = infinite)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition


10 March 2006

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b)

a)

70.

V out (V)
V out (V)

71.

-2

-1

-12 V

V active (V)

12 V

Chapter Six Solutions

10 March 2006

It can be seen that the sweep is very much identical to what was expected, with a
discontinuity at 0V. The only difference is the voltage levels which are +11.61V and
11.61 V instead of 12 V. This is because the output of an op-amp or comparator can
never quite reach the supplied voltage.

Where RL = load resistor which is needed for the voltage probe to perform properly.
The battery is swept from -2V to +2 V and the voltage sweep is displayed on the next
page.

b) The simulation is performed using the following circuit:

-15

-10

-5

10

15

a)

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V out (V)

-15

-10

-5

10

15

-15

-5

-5

-3

-3

-1

V 2 (V)

V active (V)

-1

Chapter Six Solutions

10 March 2006

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b)

-5

10

15

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

-10

72. a)

V out (V)

V out (V)

10 March 2006

The following comparator setup would give a logic 0 for voltages below 1.5 V and
logic 1 for voltages above 1.5 V

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73.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R4 1 + R2 / R1
R
(
) v + 2 v
R3 1 + R4 / R3
R1

10 March 2006

If v+ and v- are different, it turns out that it is impossible to separate vout and vd
completely. Therefore, it is not possible to obtain A or CMRR in symbolic form.

b) If R1, R2, R3 and R4 are all different, then when v+ = v- = v,


R 1 + R2 / R1
R
vout = ( 4 (
) 2 )v
R3 1 + R4 / R3
R1
Simplifying the algebra gives
R R R3 R4
vout = 1 4
v
R1 R3 + R1 R4

a) When R1 = R3 and R2 = R4, the equation reduces to


R
vout = 4 (v+ v )
R3
When v+ = v-, vout = 0, thus ACM = 0. Hence CMRR =

vout =

The voltage output of the circuit is given by

Chapter Six Solutions

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74.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

12 R
R + 5000.05

Giving a gain of 5.388. This means a resistor value of R = 50.5/(5.388 1) = 11.5 k


or 11k using standard value is needed between pin 1 and pin 8 of the amplifier.

4.7k
1

Vout = 12
= 0.1855
2 4.7k + 5k + 50m

If we take R = 4.7 k, then

This gives 4998.38 > R > 4230. Using standard resistor values, the only possible
resistor values are R = 4.3 k and R = 4.7 k.

4230 R

Similarly, the lower gain limit gives: 5.5

4998.38 R

Using this we can set up two inequalities according to the two limits. The first one is:
12 R

6
0.001
R + 5k + 50m

Solving gives
12 R
5.999
R + 5000.05

To simplify the situation, let R1 = R2 = R3 = R, then at maximum loading,


R

R
R

= 12 1

Vout = Vref

R+R R+R

2 R + 5k + 50m
Gauge + R

c) The amplifier has a maximum gain of 1000 and minimum gain of 2. Therefore to
get a voltage of 1V at maximum loading, the voltage input into the amplifier must fall
between 0.001 and 0.5, i.e. 0.5 > Vout > 0.001.

b) If R1 = R2 = R3 = Rgauge then the two terms in the bracket cancels out, giving Vout =
0.

by treating it as a voltage divider. Similarly, the voltage at node between RGauge and
R3 is:

R3

V2 = Vref
R +R

3
Gauge

Therefore, the output voltage is


R2

R3

Vout = V1 V2 = Vref
R +R R +R

2
3
Gauge
1

R2
V 1 = V ref
R1 + R 2

a) The voltage at node between R1 and R2 is

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75.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i=C

(c)

)(

10 March 2006

dv
= (10 106 )( 4 103 ) e t = 40e t nA
dt

dv
= 10 106 115 2 (120 ) sin120 t = 613sin120 t mA
dt

(DC)

Chapter Seven Solutions

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i=C

(b)

dv
dt

i=0

i=C

(a)

1.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v=

dv
dt

4.7

i (A)

t (s)

60
dv
t + 6 = 6 t , therefore i = C
= 4.7 106 A
06
dt

i=C

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

dv
dt
therefore i = 103

dv
= 30 (1 t ) e t mA
dt

dv
= 4 5e 5t sin100t + 100e 5t cos100t
dt
dv
therefore i = 103
= 4e 5t (100 cos100t 5sin100t ) mA
dt

dv
= 30 e t te t
dt

i=C

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

(a)

3.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
3
2.2 10 ( 2500 ) = 2.75 J
2
2
1
( 55 )( 2.5 ) = 171.9 J
2
2
1
3
4.8 10 ( 50 ) = 6 J
2

(d)

(e)

(f)

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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2
1 4
10 ( 63) = 198 mJ
2

(c)

2
1
3
25 10 ( 35 ) = 15.3 J
2

(b)

1
6
2000 10 1600 = 1.6 J
2

1
W = CV 2
2

(a)

4.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

A
=

636.62 1012
=
= 71.9
0 8.854 1012

Cd (500 10 12 )(100 10 6 )
= 636.62 pF .m 1
=
6
A
(78.54 10 )

1
2 E 2(2.5 10 6 )
= 500 pF
CV 2 C = 2 =
2
(100 2 )
V

\Relative permittivity :

C=

E=

10 March 2006

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(c)

(b)

2 1103
1
2E
2
=
= 16.96 kV
Energy, E = CV V =
2
6.954 1012
C

8.854 10 12 (78.54 10 6 )
= 6.954 pF
100 10 6

C=

Chapter Seven Solutions

5. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

W=

)(

= 45.281 10

45.281 10

11.8 8.854 10 12 1 10 12

)(

)
)

) = 2.307 fF

)(

)
)

2K s 0
10 12
(Vbi V A ) = 2(11.8) 8.854
(0.57 + 1)
qN
1.6 10 19 1 10 24

10 March 2006

)(

)(

)
)

) = 1.225 fF

Cj =

)(

117.491 10

11.8 8.854 10 12 1 10 12

= 117.491 10 9 m

) = 889.239aF

2K s 0
10 12
(Vbi V A ) = 2(11.8) 8.854
(0.57 + 10)
qN
1.6 10 19 1 10 24

85.289 10

11.8 8.854 10 12 1 10 12

For VA = 10V,

Cj =

= 85.289 10 9 m

2K s 0
2(11.8) 8.854 10 12
(Vbi V A ) =
(0.57 + 5)
For VA = 5V, W =
qN
1.6 10 19 1 10 24

Cj =

For VA = 1V, W =

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(c)

(b)

6. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Side view with no


overlap between plates

Side view with a small


overlap between plates.

Constructed as shown, the half-plates are in parallel, so that each of the 10 pairs must
have a capacitance of 1000/ 10 = 100 pF when rotated such that they overlap completely.
If we arbitrarily select an area of 1 cm 2 for each half-plate, then the g ap spacing between
each plate is d = A/C = (8.85410-14 F/cm)(1 cm2)/ (10010-12 F) = 0.8854 mm. This is
tight, but not impossible to achieve. The final step is to determine the amount of overlap
which corresponds to 100 pF fo r the total capacitor structure. A capacitance of 100 pF is
equal to 10% of the capacitance when all of the plate areas are aligned, so we need a pieshaped wedge having an area of 0.1 cm 2. If the m iddle figure above corresponds to an
angle of 0 o and the case of perfect alignm ent (maximum capacitance) corresponds to an
angle of 180o, we need to set out minimum angle to be 18o.

Top view

fixed

We require a capacitor that may be manually varied between 100 and 1000 pF by rotation
of a knob. Lets choose an air di electric for simplicity of cons truction, and a series of 11
half-plates:

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7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
CV 2 = 1.35mJ 37% E max = 499.5J
2
V at 37% Emax = 1.825 V

t
5

t = 2.486s 2 s

P = vi = 2.011 120.658 10 6 = 242.6W

1.2

dv
6 3
= 300 10
e 5 = 141.593A
i =C
5

dt

v (t ) = 1.825 = 3e

Max. energy at t=0, =

10 March 2006

2103
3 t
dv
= C
3e 5 e 5 dt = 1.080 J
0
dt
5

Chapter Seven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d)

(c)

Vmax = 3 V

(b)

t0

Energy stored = v C

8. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v=

v=

(b)

(c)

(
47 10 6

)2 + 4 (1 10 3 )2 =

10 March 2006

47 10 6

3
1 10 3
.
4

)2 = 50.132mV

(3.14159 ) (1 10 3 )2 = 33.421mV

(3.14159) (1 10 3 )2 = 33.421mV

1
. 1 10 3
C 2

47 10 6

)2 + 0 =

)2 =

1
. 1 10 3
C 2

1
. 1 10 3
C 2

Chapter Seven Solutions

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v=

9. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

E=

1 7 10 3
cos t
idt =

200ms

0.426
C

10 March 2006

1
181.086 10 9
181.086 10 9
CV 2 = 3 10 6 =
C =
= 30181F
2
2C
2 3 10 6

200ms

Chapter Seven Solutions

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10.

1
V=
C

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

vc = 500 400e 100t V

(d)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

vc =

t
1
106 8e 100t 103 dt = 103 40(0.01) (e100t 1) = 400(1 e100t )V
0
0.2

1
1
wc = cvc2 = 2 107 (5 + 3cos 2 200t ) 2 wc max = 107 64 = 6.4 J
2
2

ic = 0.12sin 400tmA

c = 0.2 F, vc = 5 + 3cos 2 200tV; ic = 0.2 106 (3) (2) 200 sin 200t cos 200t

(c)

(b)

(a)

11.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vc = 2100 = 2000 + 5000(t2 0.9) t2 = 0.92 0.9 < t < 0.92s

0.9

0.9 < t < 1: vc = 2000 + 500 10dt = 2000 + 5000(t 0.9)

vc (0.6) = 1750V, vc (0.9) = 2000V

0.1

vc (0.1) = 500V; vc (0.2) = 500 10dt = 1000V

0.2

vc (0) = 250V, c = 2mF (a) vc (0.1) = 250 + 500 5dt

0.1

Chapter Seven Solutions

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12.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

WR = 20e 1000t dt = 0.02e 1000t

= 0.02J

PR = i 2 R = 0.01 2000e 1000t = 20e 1000t W

1
1
wc = Cv 2 = 106 v 2 = 2 102 e 1000t v = 200e 500t V
2
2
6
i = Cv = 10 (200) (500)e500t = m0.1e500t
v 200
R =
=
= 2k
0.1
i

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

(a)

13.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b)

1k
(5) = 0.877V
4.7k + 1k

1
1
Voltage Division, V2 = V VC = V
3
3

circuit:

Voltage division, VC =
2
V1 = 1(1 // 2 ) = V
3

(a) Left circuit:

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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By

Right

By

14.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

di
dt

(c)

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

v = 108 115 2 ( 24 103 ) e6t = 240e 6t pV

v = 108 115 2 (120 ) sin120 t = 613sin120 t V

v = 0 since i = constant (DC)

v=L

(b)

(a)

15.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

di
dt

v (aV)

t (s)

( 6 0 ) 109
i=
t + 6 109 = 6 109 106 t , therefore
3
( 0 6 ) 10
di
v = L = (1012 )(106 ) = 1018 V = 1 aV
dt

v=L

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(a)

)(

di
= 5 106 4 103 5e 5t sin100t + 100e 5t cos100t
dt
therefore v = 100e 5t ( 20 cos100t sin100t ) pV
L

di
= 5 106 30 109 e t te t = 150 (1 t ) e t fV
dt

di
dt

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

v=L

17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1
2
5 103 (1.5 ) = 5.625 mJ
2

1 2
LI . Maximum energy corresponds to maximum current flow, so
2

Wmax =

W=

Chapter Seven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

PL min = 100(5) = 500W at t = 20+ and 40+ ms


1 2
1
Li L WL (40ms) = 0.2(5) 2 = 2.5J
2
2

(c)
(d)

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WL =

PL = vLiL PL max = (100) (5) = 500W at t = 40 ms

Chapter Seven Solutions

(b)

(a)

19.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Seven Solutions

0.8
= 0.02 s
40
= 0.004V at t=0

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v = e 2 (0.004 0.008) = 0.5413mV this is minimum v max

v = e 100t (0.4) 100e 100t (0.004 0.4t ) 0.4 = 0.4 40t , t =

i max = 0.2943mA; v = 0.05i = e 100t (0.004 0.4t )

i= 0.08e-100t 8te 100t 0.08 = 8t , tm , = 0.01s, i max = 0.08 0.01e 1

L = 50 103 , t < 0 : i = 0; t > 0 i = 80te 100t mA = 0.08te 100t A

20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iin = 0.1vs +

1 t
40tdt + 5 = 4t + 4t 2 + 5A
5 0

t > 0 : is = 0.4t 2 A vin = 10is + 5is = 4t 2 + 4tV

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(b)

(a)

21.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
w = 25 103 0.64sin 2 1000t = 8sin 2 1000t mJ
2

(b)

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iL = 40 20 cos 1000tdt = 0.8sin 1000tA p = 8sin 2000t W

vL = 20 cos1000tV, L = 25mH, iL (0) = 0

Chapter Seven Solutions

(a)

22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0.02

104 (0.02 t )dt

8
(100V ) = 80V
2+8
20V
= 10 A
2
80V
= 1A
80

V8 =
I 2 =
i x =

If the circuit has been connected for a long time, L appears like short circuit.

1
wL = 0.2 7.52 = 5.625J
2

4
iL (20ms) = 5 + 5 104 (0.02t 0.5t )0.02
0.01 = 5 + 5 10 (0.0002 0.00015) = 7.5A

0.01

iL (0) = 0 iL (10ms) = 500 0.01 = 5A iL (20ms) = 5 + 5

10 March 2006

0 < t < 10 ms: iL = 2 + 5 100dt = 2 + 500t iL (10ms) = 3A, iL (8ms) = 2A

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(c)

(b)

(a)

23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

80

100
And we find that ix = 9
= 1A
80 + 80 2 + 8
9

After a very long time connected only to DC sources, the inductors act as short circuits.
The circuit may thus be redrawn as

Chapter Seven Solutions

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24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b)

iL () = 1.08A

iL = 0.08 + 2(e t + 0.5e 2t + 1 0.5) = 1.08 + e 2t 2e t iL (1) = 0.4796A

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(c)

vL (1) = 10(e 1 e2 ) = 2.325+ V

(a)
iL = 0.08 + 0.2 10(e t e 2t ) dt = 0.08 + 2(e t + 0.5e 2t )t0

L = 5H, VL = 10(e t e 2t )V, iL (0) = 0.08A

Chapter Seven Solutions

25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

15 12
120
15

40 + 40 5
12 + 15 60 15 + 60
15 12 + 60

120
1
6.667
40 + 200
12 + 12 5
66.667
= 40 + 20 = 60V

vx =

40
12
+ 40 5
12 + 20 + 40
12 + 20 + 40
200 100
=
+
= 100V
3
3

vx = 120

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(b)

(a)

26.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Left to right (magnitudes): 100, 0, 100, 116, 16, 16, 0 (V)


Left to right (magnitudes): 0, 0, 2, 2, 0.4, 1.6, 0 (A)

(c)
(d)

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1
wc = 20 106 1002 = 0.1J
2

1
wL = 5 1.62 = 6.4J
2

Chapter Seven Solutions

(b)

(a)

27.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iR = 4t 2 , PR = 100 16t 4 wR = 1600t 4 dt = 320 0.45 = 3.277J

0.4

0.4
1
iL = 0.5 + 0.1 400t 2 dt = 0.5 + 40 0.43 = 1.3533A
0
3
1
wL = 10 1.35332 = 9.1581J
2

1
vc = 400 0.16 = 64V, wc 105 642 = 20.48mJ
2

vs = 400t 2 V, t > 0; iL (0) = 0.5A; t = 0.4s

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(c)

(b)

28.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

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Both results agree with


the hand calculations.

Chapter Seven Solutions

V 2 (2 )2
=
= 0.4W
10
R

PSpice verification
We see from the PSpice
simulation that the
voltage across the 10-
resistor is 2 V, so that
it is dissipating 4/10
= 400 mW.

P7 = 0W ; P10 =

7- resistor has
zero volts across its
terminals, and hence
dissipates
zero power.

The

(b)

29. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL = 7.408/4.06 = 1.825 A (inductor acts like a short circuit to DC).

V3 = 1.592 V, therefore VTH = 9 V3 = 7.408 V.

V3

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(c)

(b)

9)/3 + V1/6 + (V1 V2)/4 = 0


V1)/4 + V2/7 + (V2 V3)/5 = 0
V3/8 + (V3 V2)/5 = 0

Solving,

(V
(V

REF

V2

Writing the nodal equations required:

V1

+ VTH

plifying the network from the right, 3 || 6 + 4 = 6 , which is in parallel with 7 .


6 || 7 + 5 = 8.23 . Thus, RTH = 8.23 || 8 = 4.06 . To find VTH, we remove the inductor:

Sim

10 March 2006

(a) We find RTH by first short-circuiting the voltage source, removing the inductor, and
looking into the open terminals.

Chapter Seven Solutions

30.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

4.286F

1
1

in series with 10 in series with 10 +


10 +
1
1
1
1
10 + 10
10 + 10

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C equiv

31.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Lequiv (77 p // (77 p + 77 p )) + 77 p + (77 p // (77 p + 77 p )) = 179.6& pH

Chapter Seven Solutions

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32.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

At dc, 20F is open circuit; 500H is short circuit.


10k
(9 ) = 3.6V
voltage division, V x =
10k + 15k

Assuming all resistors have value R, all inductors have value L, and all capacitors
value C,

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Using

(b)

33.
(a)
have

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(b)

Vx = 0 V as L is short circuit at dc.

Vx

(a) As all resistors have value R, all inductors value L, and all capacitors value C,

Chapter Seven Solutions

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34.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= { [(100 n + 40 n) || 12 n] + 75 n} || {7 + (2 || 12 )}

C equiv 85.211nF

equiv

Chapter Seven Solutions

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35. C

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= {[ (17 p || 4 n) + 77 p] || 12 n} + {1 n || (72 p + 14 p)}

Lequiv 172.388 pH

equiv

Chapter Seven Solutions

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36. L

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
(CT C x )V 2 = 1 (171 )(2.5)2 = 534.375J
2
2

1
425n (2 )
E C x = 425n = C xV 2 C x =
= 136nF
2
(2.5)2

E C x = E CT E CT C x = (534.8 534.375)J = 425nJ

E CT C x =

C T C x = (7 + 47 + 1 + 16 + 100) = 171F

Chapter Seven Solutions

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37.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

LN

N =1

NLN 1

For a general network of this type, having N stages (and all L values equiv),

(b)
Lequiv =

For all L = 1.5H, Lequiv

(a)

1
1

= 2.75H
= 1.5 +
+
1 + 1 1 + 1 + 1

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Chapter Seven Solutions

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38.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(3)

1
3

=1+

(2)2 + (3)3
2(2 ) 3(3)2

1
1
+K+
1 1 1 1 1
1
1
+
+ +
+K
2 2 3 3 3
N
N
1
1
1
= 1+
+
+K+
= N
2(1 / 2) 3(1 / 3)
N(1/N)

Lequiv = 1 +

Extending for the general case of N stages,

(2 )

1
1
+
2+ 2 3+3

For a network of this type having 3 stages,

(b)

Lequiv = 1 +

Lequiv

(a)

1
1

= 3H

=1+
+
1 + 1 1+1+1

2 2 3 3 3

Chapter Seven Solutions

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39.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

C equiv =
3 p + 0.25 p

(3 p )(0.25 p ) = 0.231 pF

Chapter Seven Solutions

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40.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Lequiv =
2.6& n

(2.3& n )(0.3& n ) = 0.2916& nH

Chapter Seven Solutions

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41.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Use 2 x 1H in series with 4 x 1H in parallel.


Use 2 x 1H in parallel, in series with 4 x 1H in parallel.
Use 5 x 1H in parallel, in series with 4 x 1H in parallel.

(a)
(b)
(c)

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

55
30 = 11.379
3

10 10
55
+ 10 + 10 10 =
,
3 3
3

C = 10F :

1
= 5.4545
1/ 30 + 1/10 + 1/ 20
10
Ceq = 5.4545 + = 8.788F
3

L = 10H Leq = 11.379H

R eq =

R = 10 :10 10 10 =

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(c)

(b)

(a)

43.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

4 = 1.4194H

oc :1 +

1
7
1
= , ceq =
= 1.3125F
1/ 4 + 1/ 2 3
3 / 7 + 1/ 2
1
5
5
= , Ceq = 4 + = 4.833F
sc :
1/ 5 + 1 6
6

sc : L eq = (3 2 + 1) 4 = 2.2

oc :L eq = 6 1 + 3 = 3.857H

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(b)

(a)

44.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(c)

(b)

(a)

45.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

6 4 = 2.4H v = Leq is = 2.4 0.06(200)e200t

(a)

i2 = is i1 = 60e200t 24e200t + 4 = 36e200t + 4mA(t > 0)

(c)

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i1 =

(b)

1 t
4.8 200t
(e
28.8e200t dt + 0.02 =
1) + 0.02

6 o
200
= 24e200t 4mA(t > 0)

or v = 28.8e 200t V

is = 60e 200t mA, i1 (0) = 20mA

Chapter Seven Solutions

46.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

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(c)

6400 80t
(e 1) + 20
80

t
106
1600 80t
(6.4 103 ) e 80t dt + 80 =
(e 1) + 80
v2
o
4
80
= 20e 80t + 60V

v1 = 80e80t 60V

v1 = 106 (6.4 103 ) e 80t dt + 20 =

i = Ceq vs = 0.8 106 (80)100e 80t = 6.4 103 e80t A

(a)
(b)

vs = 100e 80tV , v1 (0) = 20V

Chapter Seven Solutions

47.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
5 106

20i20 +
o

(i

20

(i
iL )dt + 12 = vs

i20 )dt 12 + 10iL + 8 103 iL = 0

1
5 106

vc vs
v v
+ 5 106 vc + c L = 0
20
10
t
vL vc
1
+
vL dt + 2 = 0
10
8 103 o

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(b)

(a)

48.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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9V: vL = 0; 0.04 cos103 t : vL = 0.06 0.04 (1000) sin103 t = 2.4sin103 tV

vL (t ): 30mA, 20mA,

vc (t ) = 9.2V

0.04 cos103 t : vc = 0

9V: vc = 9V, 20mA: vc = 0.02 20 = 0.4V

vc (t ): 30mA: 0.03 20 = 0.6V, vc = 0.6V

49.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

and:
2:

1, 4 Supernode:

V3

V2 - V1
V - 40e 20t
dV2
+ 2
+ 10- 6
50
100
dt

[3]

0.8V1 + 0.2 V2 V4 = 0

t
V1 - V2
+ 0.02 103 V4 40e 20t dt [1]
0
50

Ref.

V2

V4 = 0.2 Vx or

0 =

2010-3 e-20t =

V1

V4

[2]

10 March 2006

We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference and assigning four nodal
voltages:

Chapter Seven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Node

50.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b)

vi + Ri Avi = 0, vs =

1
idt + vi
c
1
1+ A
vo = Avi vi = vo i =
vi
A
R
1
1
1
1+ A
v
vs = idt vo = vo +
o dt

c
A
A
RC
A
1+ A
1+ A
Avs = vo
vo or vo +
vo + Avs = 0
RC
RC

also 0 + Ri + vo = 0 vo = RCvs

R i = , R o = 0, A = vi = 0 i = Cvs

Chapter Seven Solutions

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51. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

+Cf
dt

dv c f
=
1 10

Va V
+ 1.602 10 19

ions
sec

0 vdt ' = C f (Vc

)
Vc f (0)

R1 = 1 M, Cf = 1F

1.602 10 19 ions
= C f Vc f
R2
R1
1
1.602 10 19 ions Vout =
1.602 10 19 ions
Vc f = Va Vout Vout =
R2 C f
Cf

1
R2

dv c f
V
V
19 ions
+Cf
=
1
.
602
10
+

R2
dt
sec
1 10 6

1 10

Va V

Integrating current with respect to t,

0=

0=

Place a current source in parallel with a 1-M resistor on the positive input of a buffer
with output voltage, v. This feeds into an integrator stage with input resistor, R2, of
1-M and feedback capacitor, Cf, of 1 F.
dv c f
ions
i=Cf
= 1.602 10 19
dt
sec

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52.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Let A = vs = 10sin10tV

1
1 1

vs = 1 + 10sin10t + cos10t Let A = 2000


A A
A
vs = 10.005sin10t + 0.0005 0.0005cos10t

vo
1
1 t

Eq. (16) is: 1 + vo =


vs + dt vc (0)

o
RC
A
A
vo
1
1
1
1
1

1 + vo =
vs + 1 + (10sin10t ) = 1 vs + cos10t
A
RC
A A
A
A

R = 0.5M, C = 2 F, R i = , R o = 0, vo = cos10t 1V

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(b)

(a)

53.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Vout = +

1mV
dvs
R
= 60
/ min
R f C1
dt
rpm
R
RfC1=60 so choose Rf = 6 M and C1 = 10 F.

Create a op-amp based differentiator using an ideal op amp with input capacitor C1 and
feedback resistor Rf followed by inverter stage with unity gain.

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54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0 v s dt '

10 March 2006

In practice, capacitors are usually used as capacitor values are more readily
available than inductor values.

Rf
Vout
1
=

=
V
v
dt
L
out
L
Rf
L

Va Vout
1
+
vdt
Rf
L

Va = V = 0,

0=

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(b)

55. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
R1C f
in

v
dt

In other words, 1 =

1
R1C f

103 dt =

Arbitrarily selecting Cf = 1 F, we find R1 = 1 k.

103
R1C f

we want vout = 1 V for vin = 1 mV over 1 s.

vout =

10 March 2006

Neglecting the sign (we can reverse terminals of output connection if needed),
we therefore need R1Cf = 103.

vin

One possible solution:

Chapter Seven Solutions

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56.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

100 mV
In other words, vout = 1 V = RC

60s
or RC = 600

dvin
dt
dv 100 mV
maximum in . =
60s
dt

vout = RC

Arbitrarily selecting C = 1000 F, we find that R = 600 k.

vin

One possible solution of many:

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

100 mV
In other words, vout = 1 V = RC

1s
or RC = 10

dvin
dt
dv 100 mV
At 1 litre/s, in =
.
s
dt

vout = RC

Arbitrarily selecting C = 10 F, we find that R = 1 M.

vin

One possible solution of many:

Chapter Seven Solutions

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58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
R1C f

I
2

dt

Arbitrarily selecting C = 1 F, we find that we need R = 1 M.

Thus, 103 = RC 103 , so RC = 1

we want vout = 1 mV for vin = 1 mV (corresponding to 1 A 2 ).

vout =

The power into a 1 load is I2, therefore energy = W = I2t.

vin

One possible solution:

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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59.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vout = RC

dvin
dt

Arbitrarily selecting C = 1 F, we find that R = 447 k.

so RC = 0.447

vout = 2.237 RC = 1

Output: 1 mV per m/s2. Therefore,

Input: 1 mV = 1 mph, 1 mile = 1609 metres.


Thus, on the input side, we see 1 mV corresponding to 1609/3600 m/s.

vin

One possible solution of many:

Chapter Seven Solutions

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60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(v

20

(v
vc )dt + 12 = is

v20 )dt 12 + 10vc + 8 103 vc = 0

1
5 106

iL is
i i
+ 5 106 iL + L c = 0
20
10
t
ic iL
1
+
i dt + 2 = 0
3 o c
10
8 10

1
5 106

20v20 +

Chapter Seven Solutions

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(c)

(b)

(a)

61.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Seven Solutions

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62.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Seven Solutions

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63.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i2 (t ) = is i1 (t ) i2 (t ) = 20e80t + 60A

(c)

6400 80t
(e 1) = 80e80t 60A
80

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i1 (t ) = 106 6.4 103 e 80t dt + 20 i1 (t ) =

v(t) = 6.43-80t mV

L eq = 1 4 = 0.8 H v(t ) = Leq is = 0.8 106 100(80)r 80t V

(b)

(c) (a)

Chapter Seven Solutions

is = 100e-80t A and i1 (0) = 20 A in the circuit of (new) Fig. 7.62.

(a) Determine v(t) for all t.


(b) Find i1(t) for t 0.
(c) Find v2(t) for t 0.

(b) Let

(a)

64.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1 t
V1dt + G in (V1 - V2 )
L1 0

Dividing, we find that

iout
=
iS

1 t
V1dt + G in (V1 - V2 )
L1 0

[2]

[1]

G in (V2 - V1 ) + G f V2

iout = Aid = GfV2 + Gin (V2 V1)

iS =

In creating the dual of the original circuit, we have lost both vs and vout. However, we
may write the dual of the original transfer function: iout/ is. Performing nodal analysis,

Chapter Seven Solutions

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65.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

verification:

= 4/10 = 400 mA. W =

1 2
LI L = 160 mJ
2

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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PSpice

66. I

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 4/(4/3) = 3 A. W =

1 2
LI L = 31.5 J
2

Chapter Seven Solutions

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PSpice verification:

67. I

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Solving, we find that VA = 588 mV.

VA 4 VA VA
V
+
+
= 0.8 A
100
20 25
25

Then, by KCL,

We choose the bottom node as the reference node, and label the nodal voltage at the top
of the dependent source VA.

Chapter Seven Solutions

1
1
2
CV 2 = 103 ( 0.588 ) = 173 J
2
2

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Hence, the energy stored in the capacitor is

Therefore,
VC, the voltage on the capacitor, is 588 mV (no DC current can flow through
the
75 resistor due to the presence of the capacitor.)

68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

1
1
2
CV 2 = 5 106 ( 32 ) = 2.56 mJ
2
2

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verification:

Hence, the energy stored in the capacitor =

the current through the 4 k resistor is 8 mA. Thus, Vc = (8)(4) = 32 V.

By inspection, noting that the capacitor is acting as an open circuit,

PSpice

69.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

)( )

Verifying with PSpice, choosing the LF411 and 18 V supplies:

dvs
= 5 109 108 ( 30 cos100t ) = 15cos10t V
dt

= 5 nF, Rf = 100 M.

vout = R f C1

Chapter Seven Solutions

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70. C

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

verification

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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w = Cv2 = 0.5 (3310-6)[5 cos (7510-2)]2 = 220.8 J. This is in agreement with the
PSpice simulation results shown below.

71. PSpice

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

verification

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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w = Li2 = 0.5 (10010-12)[5 cos (7510-2)]2 = 669.2 pJ. This is in agreement with
the PSpice simulation results shown below.

72. PSpice

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

L f dVs
Lf d
=
A cos 2 10 3 t L f = 2 R1 ; Let _R = 1 and L = 1 H.
R1 dt
R1 dt

10 March 2006

PSpice Verification: clearly, something rather odd is occuring in the simulation of this
particular circuit, since the output is not a pure sinusoid, but a combination of several
sinusoids.

Vout =

V L f = Va Vout = 0 Vout =

L dVs
R1 dt

Va V s 1
+ v L f dt
R1
L
Vs 1
Va = Vb = 0,
0=
+ v L f dt
R1
L
0=

Chapter Seven Solutions

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73.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

verification

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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w = Cv2 = 0.5 (3310-6)[5 cos (7510-2) - 7]2 = 184.2 J. This is in reasonable


agreement with the PSpice simulation results shown below.

74. PSpice

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

verification

Chapter Seven Solutions

10 March 2006

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w = Li2 = 0.5 (10010-12)[5 cos (7510-2) - 7]2 = 558.3 pJ. This is in agreement with
the PSpice simulation results shown below.

75. PSpice

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vR = iR

(c)

Chapter Eight Solutions

)
= 6.608 V

10 March 2006

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vL(75 ps) = vR(75 ps) = 6.608 V

= 736 A

4.7109 751012

= 1.25 mA

4.7109 212.81012

vR(75 ps) = 2 ( 4700 ) e

i(212.8 ps) = 2e

(d)

4.7109 1001012

= 2e 4.710 t mA

(b)

R t
L

i(100 ps) = 2e

i (t ) = i (0)e

(a)

1.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

At t = 10 s, i (t ) = 316e 10 / 2 mA = 2.13 mA
At t = 2 s, i (t ) = 316e 1 mA = 116.3 mA . Thus, the energy remaining is
1
W (2) = Li (2) 2 = 13.53 mJ
2

(c)
(d)

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At t = 5 s, i (t ) = 316e 5/ 2 mA = 25.96 mA

= 316e t / 2 mA

(b)

R
t
L

10 March 2006

At t = 1 s, i (t ) = 316e 1/ 2 mA = 192 mA

and i( t ) = i (0)e

1 2
Li = 100 mJ at t = 0.
2
Thus, i( 0) = 0.1 = 316 mA

W=

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

L=

= 2 10 e

100
t
L

10 March 2006

735.8 106
ln

3
2 10

= 50 mH

, and that i(500 s) = 735.8 A.

) = 100 ( 500 10 )

i (500 106 )
ln

3
2 10

100 500 106

We know that i (t ) = i (0)e

Chapter Eight Solutions

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Thus,

3.

R
t
L

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R=

= 1.5e

R
t
3103

, and that i(2) = 551.8 mA.

3 103 i (2)
3 103 0.5518
ln
=

ln
= 1.50 m

2
2
1.5
1.5

We know that i (t ) = i (0)e

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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Thus,

4.

R
t
L

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

R=

) (

3 103 i (t )
3 103 8.165
ln
ln
=

= 3.454
t
0.001 25.82
i (0)

3103

We know that i (t ) = i (0)e = 1.5e


, and that W(0) = 1 J; W(103) = 100 mJ.
2
1
t = 0,
3 103 i ( 0 ) = 1 therefore i (0) = 25.82 A.
2
2
1
t = 1 ms,
3 103 i 103 = 0.1 therefore i (103 ) = 8.165 A.
2

Chapter Eight Solutions

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Thus,

At

At

5.

R
t
L

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

v = 4(20) = 80 V.

The instant after the switch is thrown, we know that 2 A flows through the inductor. By
KCL, the simple circuit must have 2 A flowing through the 20- resistor as well. Thus,

(b)

10 March 2006

Since the inductor current cant change instantaneously, we simply need to find iL while
the switch is closed. The inductor is shorting out both of the resistors, so iL(0+) = 2 A.

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

6.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(a) Prior to the switch being thrown, the 12- resistor is isolated and we have a simple
two-resistor current divider (the inductor is acting like a short circuit in the DC circuit,
since it has been connected in this fashion long enough for any transients to have
decayed). Thus, the current iL through the inductor is simply 5(8)/ (8 + 2) = 4 A.
The voltage v must be 0 V.

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b) The instant just after the switch is thrown, the inductor current must remain the same,
so
iL = 4 A. KCL requires that the same current must now be flowing through the 12-
resistor,
so v = 12(-4) = -48 V.

7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 1.289 mA.

iL = 4.5e 10

t/4

103
106
=
4 103
4

mA iL (5 s ) = 4.5e 1.25

iL (0) = 4.5mA, R/L =

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b) iSW( 5 s) = 9 1.289 = 7.711 mA.

(a)

8.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

2e 400t1 = 1, e 400t1 = 2, t1 = 1.7329ms

(c)

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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iL (0.01) = 2e 4 = 36.63mA

100
= 2A iL (t ) = 2e80t / 0.2
50
400 t
= 2e A, t > 0

iL (0) =

(b)

(a)

9.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v
d R
2
v
5 R
L
dt
2
dv
2.5 R + 2.5vR = 0
dt

= 0 or

di
+ 5i = 0
[1]
dt
vR = 2i so Eq. [1] can be written as
L

Chapter Eight Solutions

vR (1) = 10e 1 = 3.679 V

At t = 0, i(0) = 5 A = i(0+). Thus, vR (t ) = 10e t , t > 0


2
vR (0 ) = (10 ) = 6.667 V
3
+
vR (0 ) = 10 V

10 March 2006

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(c)

(b) Characteristic equation is 2.5s + 2.5 = 0, or s + 1 = 0


Solving,
s = 1, vR (t ) = Ae t

10. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i
Now, y = m( x 1) + b = e 1 ( x 1) + e1 = x, = y
Io

1
1
At y = 0, e ( x 1) = e x = 2 t / = 2

i
d (i / Io )
d ()
= e t / ,
= et / ; t t / = 1,
=ae 1
Io
d (t / )
d ()

t
t
Io
I
= 100, = 4.605; o = 1000, = 6.908
i
i

I I
i
t
t
= e t / , = ln o , o = 10 = ln10 = 2.303;
i i
Io

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

(a)

11.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

I 0 = 10 A

= 2 ms

Reading from the graph current is at 0.37 at 2 ms

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

12.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

As can be seen by
comparing the two plots,
which probably should
have the same x-axis scale
labels for easier
comparison, the PSpice
simulation results obtained
using a parametric sweep
do in fact agree with our
hand calculations.

Sketch based on hand analysis

Circuit used for PSpice


verification

To create a sketch, we firs t realise that the m aximum current for any of the th ree cases
will be 1.732 A, and af ter one time constant (10, 1, or 0.1 s), the current will d rop to
36.79% of this value (637.2 m A); after approximately 5 tim e constants, the curren t will
be close to zero.

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13.

w = Li2, so an initial energy of 15 mJ in a 10-mH inductor corresponds to an initial


inductor current of 1.732 A. For R = 1 k, = L/R = 10 s, so iL(t) = 1.732 e0.1t A.
For R = 10 k, = 1 s so iL(t) = 1.732 e-t. For R = 100 k, = 100 ns or 0.1 s so
iL(t) = 1.732 e-10t A. For each current expression above, it is assumed that time is
expressed
in microseconds.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

510 12 / 3.310 6

2 43 10 6
= 5.1 A
3.3 10 6

i (5 ps ) = 5.1e 110

I0 =

1
2

= .L.I 0 2

3.3 10 6
=
= 3.3 10 12
6
1 10

= 1.12 A

Chapter Eight Solutions

From the PSpice


simulation, we see that
the inductor current is
1.121 A at t = 5 ps, in
agreement with the hand
calculation.

10 March 2006

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(c)

(b)

(a)

14.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

(If 1 assumed then R >

so R must be greater than 6.285 k.

6.285
= 125.7 )
5

L
5L
5 =
= 100 109 secs
R
R
(5)(125.7)106
R >
107

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15. Assume the source Thvenin resistance is zero, and assume the transient is measured to
5. Then,

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

ix (mA)

t (s)

t < 0, we have a current divider with iL(0-) = ix(0-) = 0.5 [ 10 (1/ (1 + 1.5)] mA
= 2 mA. For t > 0, the resistor through which ix flows is shorted, so that ix(t > 0) = 0.
The remaining 1-k resistor and 1-mH inductor network exhibits a decaying current such
iL(t) = 2e-t/ mA where = L/R = 1 S.

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

(a)

that

16. For

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v(t ) = v(0)e t / RC = 44.72e 0.01t V


Thus, v(20) = = 44.72e 0.01(20) = 36.62 V .
v
36.62
Since i = =
= 366 nA
R 100 106

= RC = 100 s

2
1
2 103
C v ( 0 ) = 103 so v ( 0 ) =
= 44.72 V
2
106

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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(c)

(b)

(a)

17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

At t = 1 s, v(1) = 10e 1/ 2 = 6.065 V


At t = 2 s, v(2) = 10e 1 = 3.679 V
At t = 5 s, v(5) = 10e 2.5 = 821 mV
At t = 10 s, v(10) = 10e 5 = 67.4 mV

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

10 March 2006

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i(0) = 10 A, v(0) = 10 V. v(t ) = v(0)e t / RC = 10e t / 2 V

Chapter Eight Solutions

18. If

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v(2 ms) = 5e 0.25( 0.002 ) = 4.998 V


Therefore i(2 ms) = 4.998 / 1000 = 4.998 mA
v(4 ms) = 5e 0.25( 0.004 ) = 4.995 V
1
W = Cv 2 = 49.9 mJ
2

(b)
(c)

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

v(1 ms) = 5e 0.25( 0.001) = 4.999 V

v(t ) = v(0)e t / RC = 5e0.25t V.

Referring to Fig. 8.62, we note that = RC = 4 s. Thus,

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

19.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R=

t
2 109
=
= 7.385
v(t )
0.1
10
10 ln
C ln
1.5
1.5

(a) v(t ) = v(0)e t / RC = 1.5e t / RC V


t
v(t )
= ln

RC
1.5

10 March 2006

We see from the PSpice


simulation that our
predicted voltage at 2 ns
agrees with the
information used to
calculate R = 7.385 .

Chapter Eight Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

Thus,

20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

exposure time

o e t / dt

With two 50-m F capacitors connected in pa rallel for a total capacitance of 100 mF, we
may estimate the Thvenin equivalent resistance from = RC as Rth = / C
9.945 .

This estim ate is consis tent with the addition al observation that a t t = 2 s, the im age
appears to be saturated.

With 150 m s yielding an image intensity of approxim ately 14% of the m aximum
observed and the knowledge that at 2 s no further increase is seen leads us to estim ate
3
that 1 e15010 / = 0.14, assuming that we are observing single-exponential decay
behavior and that the response speed of the fil m is not affecting the m easurement. Thus,
we may extract an estimate of the circuit time constant as = 994.5 ms.

The maximum value of this intensity function is Ko.

= - K o e (exp osure time)/ - 1

where K is some constant. Solving the integral, we find that

= K

where the time constant = RTHC represents the effect of the Thvenin equivalent
resistance of the equipment as it drains the energy stored in the two capacitors, then the
intensity of the image on the film is actually proportional to the integrated exposure:

(t) = o e-t/

The film acts as an intensity integrator. Assuming that we may model the intensity as a
simple decaying exponential,

Chapter Eight Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

21.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0.1 = e 125t t = 18.421ms

vc (t ) = 192e 3000t / 24

30
= 192V
50
= 192e 125t V

vc (0) = 8(50 200)

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

(a)

22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

wc =

t /100

= 80e10 t V, t > 0; 0.5 = e10 t t = 69.31 s

1
1
C 802 e 20,000t = C 802 t = 34.66 s
2
4

vc = 80e 10

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

(a)

23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

20
= 6.667V
3
4

2
mA
3

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

vC(t)

6.667 25t
e = 0.3333e25t mA
3
20 10

iC(t)

vc (t ) = 6.667e25t V ic (t ) =

t > 0 : is = 0 vc (t ) = 6.667e t / 210 210

vc (t ) =

t < 0 : ic (t ) = 0, 10 = 5000is + 104 is is =

24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v(3ms ) = 20e 310


i (3ms ) = 0 A
3

= 4.5V

= 1V

/ 50 2010 6

/ 502010 6

v(1.5ms ) = 20e 1.510


i (1.5ms ) = 0 A

( )
i (0 ) = 0.1A
v 0 + = 20V

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (t ) = 30e250t / 0.05 = 30e5000t mA, iL (0.3ms)

(c)
ix = 6.694 mA.

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Thus,

iL (0+ ) = 30 mA, ix (0+ ) = 30 mA

(b)

= 30e1.5 = 6.694mA = ix

1
2
iL (0 ) = 60 = 30 mA, ix (0 ) = 30 = 20 mA
2
3

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

26.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (2ms) = 2.426e 0.25 = 1.8895 A

iL (t ) = 2.426e 250( t 0.001)

iL (1ms) = 4e 0.5 = 2.426A

iL (0.8ms) = 4e0.4 = 2.681A

iL (0) = 4A iL (t ) = 4e500t A (0 t 1ms)

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(b)

(a)

27.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (10 s) = 40e 0.5 = 24.26mA iL

(b)

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= 0.25(1000 + R)103 ,1000 + R = 0.8863 4 103 R = 2545+

10 = 24.26e (1000+ R )510 ln2.426 = 0.8863

= 24.26e (1000+ R )50t (t > 10 s)

iL = 40e50,000t mA 10 = 40e50,000t , t1 = 27.73 s

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

28.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

85
= 40e 50000t + 45e 100000t . Let e 50000t = x
10
45 x 2 + 40 x 8.5 = 0

(c)

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x =

40 1600 + 1530
= 0.17718, < 0
90
e 50000t = 0.17718, t = 34.61 s

v(15 s ) = 40e 0.75 + 45e1.5 = 28.94V

v(t ) = 40e 50000t + 45e 100000t V v(0) = 85V

i1 (0) = 20mA, i2 (0) = 15mA

Chapter Eight Solutions

(b)

(a)

29.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

30.

Chapter Eight Solutions

2R1R 2
R1 R 2 = 5. Also, vR (1ms)
R1 +R 2

1
1 1
+
= R1 = 7.821
13.863 R1 5

= 5 = 10e50 R2 /1000 0.05R 2 = 0.6931 R 2 = 13.863

vR (0+ ) = 10 =

2R1
2R1R 2 50 R2t
e50 R2t vR =
e
R1 + R 2
R1 +R 2

2R1R 2
2R1
, iL (0) =
R1 +R 2
R1 + R 2

t > 0 : iL (t ) =

t < 0 : vR =

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition


10 March 2006

24
= 0.4A iL (t ) = 0.4e750t A, t > 0
60

5
vx = 24 = 20V, t < 0
6
3
vx (0+ ) = 50 0.4 = 7.5V
8
750 t
vx (t ) = 7.5e V, t > 0

iL (0) =

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(b)

(a)

31.

3iL
20 + 10iL = 25iL
4
v
vin in = 25 iL = 10e25t / 0.5 = 10e 50t A, t > 0
iL

v in =

Chapter Eight Solutions

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32.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

64
40

= 5A
4 + 40 8 48

i 1 (0.03) = 2.285 A, i1 (0.1) = 1.852 A

i1 (t ) = 2.5e 3t A, t > 0; i1 (0.1)= 2.5 A

iL = 5e 24t / 8 = 5e 3t A

iL (0) =

Chapter Eight Solutions

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33.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (30ms) = 0.8925+ e 0.3 = 0.6612A

t >15ms: iL = 0.8925+ e20(t 0.015) A

iL (15ms) = 4e 1.5 = 0.8925+ A

iL (0) = 4A iL = 4e100t A, 0 < t < 15ms

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

(a)

34.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v = 48i = 1440e600t V

(d)

1
1
WL (0) = 0.1102 + 0.4 202 = 5 + 80 = 85J
2
2
1
1
WL () = 0.1 142 + 0.4 142 = 9.8 + 39.2 = 49J
2
2

900 48
WR = i 2 48dt = 900 48e1200t dt =
(1) = 36J
0
0
1200
49 + 36 = 85 checks

= 6e 600t t0 +20 = 6e 600t + 14A

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(f)

i2 = 2.5(1440) e 600t dt + 20

i1 (0 ) = 10A, i2 (0 ) = 20A ; i (t ) = 30e 600t A

(c)

i1 = 10(440) e 600t dt + 10 = 24e 600t t0 +10 = 24e 600t 14A

0.08 5
= ms = 1.6667ms;
48 3

= L eq / R eq =

(b)

(e)

i1 (0+ ) = i1 (0 ) = 10A, i2 (0+ ) = i2 (0 ) = 20A i (0+ ) = 30A

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

35.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

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We see from the DC analysis of the circuit that our initial value is correct; the Probe
output confirms our hand calculations, especially for part (c).

Verification:

= 400 s, so 1.2 = 480 s. vC(1.2) = 33.33 e1.2 = 10.04 V.


Using Ohms law, we find that i1(1.2) = vC(1.2)/ 4000 = 2.51 mA.

(d) PSpice

(c)

15.745
= 3.936mA
4000

vc (t ) = 33.33e t / 400 , t > 10 : 00 vc (10 : 05) = 33.33e 300 / 400

(b)
= 15.745+ V, i1 (10 : 05) =

vc (0) = 100

2
2
100 2
= 33.33V; i1 (0 ) =
= 16.667mA
2+2 3
2+2 3
vc (9 : 59) = 33.33V, i1 (9 : 59) = 16.667mA

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

36.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vc (t ) = 25 0.2e t = 5e t V ix (0+ ) =

(c)

ix (0.4) =

1
5e0.4 = 0.03352A
100

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(e)

5
= 0.05A
100

34
20 33.2
0.04
=
= 0.2767A
120
120 120

ix (0 ) = 0.2A

(b)

0.8ix (0+ ) = 0.04A is (0+ ) =

is (0 ) = (1.25 0.8 + 1)0.2 = 0.290 A

(d)

Chapter Eight Solutions

25ix
= 1.25ix 34 = 100(1.25ix 0.8ix + ix ) + 25ix ix = 0.2A
20

(a)

t> 0:

37.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

106 t /(10 + 50 200)

= 10e 20000t V

Chapter Eight Solutions

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From the DC simulation, we see that PSpice verifies our hand calculation of iA = 50 mA.
The transient response plotted using Probe indicates that at 100 s, the current is approximately
5.46 mA, which is within acceptable round-off error compared to the hand calculated value.

Verification.

iA (100 s) = iA (0 ) =

10
= 50mA
200
1 50
iA (100 s ) = 10e2
= 5.413mA

10 + 40 250

vc (0) = 10V vc (t ) = 10e

(c) PSpice

(b)

(a)

38.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t / 5 2103

= 48e100t V, t > 0

Chapter Eight Solutions

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i (t ) = 12e100t mA, t > 0

vc (t ) = 48e10

4 12 6 = 2k , vc (0) = 48V

(b)

12
= 6mA (t < 0)
12 + 4

i1 (t ) = 8(1)

(a)

39.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t /8

, vCR = 80e10

t / 0.8

vout (5 s) = 80e6.25 20e 0.625 = 10.551V

vout (0+ ) = 60V; vout (1 s) = 80e1.25 20e 0.125 = 5.270V

vout = vCR vCL = 80e1,250,000t 20e125,000t V, t > 0

vCL = 20e10

vCLeft (0) = 20V, vCRIGHT (0) = 80V

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

(a)

40.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t/4

= 20e 250,000t V (t > 0)

10 March 2006

As can be seen from the simulation results, our hand calculations are accurate.

PSpice verification. Note that the switch parameters had to be changed in order to
perform this simulation.

vC(3 s) = 9.447 V

vc (t ) = 20e 10

t < 0:

vc 0.25vc vc vc 40
+ +
= 0 vc = 20V (t < 0)
5
10
4
1 0.25
+ 0.1 iin = 0.25A
t > 0: Apply vc = 1V
5
1
R eq =
= 4
0.25

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(c)

(b)

41. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t /( Ro +1000)

( t 103 )

= 1957.6, R1 1000 = 215.2

1
1
+ 103 =
R1 = 274.2
R1
215.2

.1000
,1742.4 + R1 1000
1742.4 + R1 1000

/(1742.4 + R1 1000)

25 = 41.67e 1000( ) 0.5108 =

t > 1ms : vc = 41.67e 10

vc (1ms) = 60e1000 / 2742.4 = 41.67V

0 < t < 1ms: vc = 60e10

50 500 /( Ro +1000)
e
60
R
500

= ln 1.2 = 0.18232 o + 2 = 5.4848, Ro = 1742.4


R o + 1000
500

t < 0 : vc (0) = 60V

Chapter Eight Solutions

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42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

t > 0 : R eq = 10 6.5 = 3.939k vc = 87.59e 10

t / 3939

[1]
[2]

= 87.59e 2539t V (t > 0)

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(b)

Solving, we find that VC = vC(0-) = 99.76 V.

0 = (V1 100)/ 2 + (V1 VC)/ 3 + V1/ 5


0 = VC/ 10 + (VC V1)/ 3 + (VC 100)

(a)
With the switch closed, define a nodal voltage V1 at the top of the 5-k resistor.
Then,

43.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

i1 (t ) =

t /150

= 13e6667 t

vo
= 0.4333e 6667 t mA (t > 0)
3 104

vc (t ) = 13e t / 7510 210 = 13e10

t > 0: Apply 1mA 1 + 0.6i1 = i1 i1 = 2.5mA; vin = 30i1 = 75V R eq = 75k

vc (0) = 13V

t < 0:
12 = 4i1 + 20i1 i1 = 0.5mA vc (0) = 6i1 + 20i1 = 26i1

Chapter Eight Solutions

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44.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v1 (0 ) = 100V. v2 (0+ ) = 0, vR (0+ ) = 100V

(b)

10 March 2006

1
1
wc1 () = 20 106 802 = 64mJ, wc 2 () 5 106 802 = 16mJ
2
2
1
wc1 (0) = 20 106 1002 = 100mJ, wc 2 (0) = 0
2

25
wR = 25 106 e 25t 2 104 dt =
2 104 (1)106 = 20mJ
o
25
64 + 16 + 20 = 100 checks

v1 (t ) =

106 t
103 12.5t t
3 12.5t
12.5t

e
dt
+
=
e
+ 80V
5
10
100
o +100 = 20e

o
20
50
1000 t 12.5t
v2 (t ) =
dt + 0 = 80e 12.5t to +0 = 80e12.5t + 80V
5e

o
5

vR (t )
= 5e 12.5t mA
4
2 10

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(g)

(f)

i (t ) =

vR (t ) = 100e 12.5t V, t > 0

(d)
(e)

(c)

20 5
106 2 104 = 8 102 s
20 + 5

v1 (0 ) = 100V. v2 (0 ) = 0, vR (0 ) = 0

(a)

45.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vx = vc vL (t ) = 10e 5000t e10000t V, t > 0

i L (t ) = 103 e 103t / 0.1 = 103 e 10000t A vL (t ) = e 10000t V, t > 0

t > 0 : vc (t ) = 10e t /10 2010 = 10e5000t V

t < 0: is = 1mA vc (0) = 10V, iL (0) = 1mA vx (0) = 10V, t < 0

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

(a)

46.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

104

= 20e5000t V

ix (t ) = iL (t ) + ic (t ) = 0.02e 10000t 0.002e 5000t A = 20e 10000t 2e5000t mA

ic (t ) = 2 108 20(5000) e 5000t = 2e5000t mA

t > 0: vs = 0 iL (t ) = 0.02e 10000t A; vc (t ) = 20e t / 210

t < 0: vs = 20V vc = 20V, iL = 20mA ix (t ) = 20mA, t < 0

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

(a)

47.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

We see from the simulation result that the current through the fuse (R3) is 869 mA, in
agreement with our hand calculation.

PSpice verification: Note that the switch properties were changed.

since the current has dropped to less than 1 A prior to t = 100 ms, the fuse does not blow.

iL (0.1s ) = 1.1e 2.3630.1 = 0.8685 A

V
1
=
= 1.1 A
R 0.909
t > 0 : iL (t ) = e 2.363t A
iL ( 0 ) =

Chapter Eight Solutions

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48.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v(t ) = 6u (t ) 6u (t 2) + 3u (t 4)

Chapter Eight Solutions

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49.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i (t ) = 2u (t ) + 2u (t 2) 8u (t 3) + 6u (t 4) A

Chapter Eight Solutions

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50.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

f(0) = 6 + 6 3 = 9
f(0+) = 6 + 6 3 = 9
f(1.5) = 0 + 6 3 = 3
f(3) = 0 + 6 3 = 3

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Chapter Eight Solutions

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f(1) = 6 + 6 3 = 9

51. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

g(0+) = 9 6 + 3 = 6
g(5) = 9 6 + 3 = 6
g(11) = 9 6 + 3 = 6
g(30) = 9 6 + 3 = 6

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Chapter Eight Solutions

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g(1) = 0 6 + 3 = 3

52. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t = 1.5 : i1 (1.5) = 3

100
= 1A
300
120
t = 0.5 : i1 (0.5) =
+ 1 = 0.6A;
300
120
300 120
t = 0.5 : i1 =
= 0.4A; t = 1.5 : i1 =

= 0.6A
300
300 300

(a) v A = 300u (t 1) V, vB = 120u (t + 1) V; ic = 3u (t )A

Chapter Eight Solutions

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53.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

t = 0.5 : i1 =

600(0.5) 600(1.5)
+
= 4A
300
300
600(1.5) 600(2.5) 1
t = 1.5 : i1 =
+
+ 6 0.5 = 3 + 5 + 1 = 9A
300
300
3

t = 1.5 : i1 = 0; t = 0.5 : i1 = 600(0.5) / 300 = 1A

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(b)

(a)

v A = 600tu (t + 1) v, vB = 600 (t + 1) u (t ) V, ic = 6(t 1) u (t 1)A

54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

4e u (1)u (1) = 4e 1 = 1.4715+

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(c)

[5 u (2)] [2 + u (1)] [1 u (1)]

(b)

= 4 3 1 = 12

2u (1) 3u (1) + 4u (3) = 3 + 4 = 1

(a)

55.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

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t < 0: The voltage source is shorting out the 30- resistor, so ix = 0.


t > 0: ix = 60/ 30 = 2 A.

(b)

100
20
+ 0 + 10
= 6A
50
50
60
t > 0: ix = 0 + + 0 = 2A
30
t < 0: ix =

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

56.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

200
= 3A
66.67

ix =
ix = 3

t = 0.5 :
t = 1.5 :

ix =

t = 3.5 :

100
= 2A
50

200 100
= 2A
50

ix =

t = 2.5 :

10 March 2006

200
1/ 50
1
2
= 3 = 2.5A
66.67
1/ 50 + 1/ 25 + 1/ 50
2

100 1
= 2.5A
66.67 3

50 25 = 16.667, ix =

t = 0.5 :

Chapter Eight Solutions

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

4
0

-12

v(t) (V)

v(t ) = 4 16u (t ) + 20u (t 4) 6u (t 6)V

t (s)

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b)

Resistor of value 2

v (1) = 9.8 volts

7 u (t ) 0.2 u (t ) + 8(t 2) + 3

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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59. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vR (2 103 ) = 1.2 1 e2

)
V = 1.038 V

V =
1.2 1 e 1000t u (t )

R
t
Vo
L

e
1

u (t ) A and vR (t ) = i ( t ) R
R

R
t

vR (t ) = Vo 1 e L u (t )

i (t ) =

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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(c)

(b)

(a)

60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vL (t ) = LiL = 15 103 103 (2)

(b)

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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(200000e 200000t ) u (t ) = 6e 200000t u (t )V

iL (t ) = (2 2e 200000t ) u (t )mmA

(a)

61.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (0.5) = 2 + 2 (1 e1.25 ) = 3.427A


iL (1.5) = 2 + 2 (1 e3.75 ) = 3.953A

(b)
(c)

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iL (t ) = 2 + 2 (1 e 2.5t ) u (t ) A i1 (0.5) = 2A

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

62.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v1 (t ) = (100 80e1000t )u (t )V

iL (t ) = 4(1 e 1000t )u (t )A

iL (t ) = (4 4e20t / 0.02 )u (t )

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

(a)

63.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

6t/ 1.307

] A. Solving at t = 3 s,

We see from the Probe output that our hand calculations are correct by verifying using
the cursor tool at t = 3 s.

(c) PSpice verification

We may therefore write i(t) = 3.125[1 e-10


we find 2.810 A.

(b) The total inductance is 30 || 10 = 7.5 mH. The Thvenin equivalent resistance is
12 || 11 = 5.739 k. Thus, the circuit time constant is L/R = 1.307 s. The final value of
the total current flowing into the parallel inductor combination is 50/12 mA = 4.167 mA.
This will be divided between the two inductors, so that i() = (4.167)(30)/ (30 + 10) =
3.125 mA.

(a) 0 W

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64.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

106 t
9
6

and i f =

At t = 1.5 s, i = i (t ) =

1.5
t
9
0.9e 9 = 1.038 A
5

10

t
9
i (t ) = 0.9e 9 A
5

10

t
9
i (t ) = + Ae 9
5
t = 0, i(0 ) = i(0+) = 4.5/5. Thus, A = 4.5/5 = 0.9

in = Ae

9
5

30 106 30 106
=
= 9 106
5 ||10
3.333

i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t )

= L/RTH =

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(c)

(b)

At
so

Thus,

(a)

65.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= L/Req =

45 103 45 103
=
= 0.0135 s
10 || 5
3.333
vR (t ) = v f + vn

Chapter Eight Solutions

t = 0, iL = 12/10 = 1.2 A = iL(0-) = iL(0+).

(c)

At t = 2 ms, vR (2 ms) =

4 74.07( 2103 )
V = 1.15 V
e
3

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(b)

Writing KVL for this instant in time, 16 10(1.2 + vR/5) = vR


4
4
Therefore
vR (0+ ) = V and hence vR (t ) = e74.07 t V
3
3

At

vf(t) = 0 since inductor acts as a short circuit.


Thus,
vR (t ) = vn = Ae74.07 t .

(a)

66.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

106 t
50

27

t = 27 s, v1 (27 106 ) = 6 1 e 50 = 2.5 V

10 t

v1 (t ) = 6 1 e 50 V.

t = 0-, iL = 0 = iL(0+). Thus, v1(0+) = 0 since no current flows through the resistor.

v1 (t ) = 6 + Ae

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At

Hence

At

L 5 103
=
= 50 s
Req
100

Chapter Eight Solutions

v1 (t ) = v1 f + v1n where v1 f = 6 V since the inductor acts as a short circuit

Therefore

67.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (t ) = 8 + 2e5t / 0.5

(b)

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iL (t ) = 8 + 2e10t A, t > 0

iL (t ) = 10 A, t < 0

(a)

68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (t ) = 5 e4t / 0.1

(b)

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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iL (t ) = 5 3e40t A, t > 0

iL (t ) = 2A, t > 0

(a)

69.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

50 103 1
= ms iL = 1(1 e 4000t ) u (t )A, iL (0.2ms) = 0.5507A
200
4
v1 (t ) = (100 + 100e 4000t ) u (t )V, v1 (0.2ms) = 144.93V

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(d)

100V

0, 200V

(b)
(c) 1A,

(a) 0,

70.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t
10
2
= 2 i = e 25t 2e 25t dt + Ae 25t = e25t e 25t to + Ae25t
o
L
25
2
10
2
2
i =
+ Ae 25t , i (0) =
= A = 0i =
= 0.08A
125 25
25
25

e 25t

25t
502 + 252 (25cos 50t + 50sin 50t ) + Ae

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e 25t

1
= 2e 25t
25 + Ae 25t
(25cos 50t + 50sin 50t )
3125
3125

2
4
2 25t
e + Ae 25t
=
cos 50t +
sin 50t
125
125
125
2
2
i (0) = 0 0 =

+ AA = 0
125 125
i (t ) = 0.016 cos 50t + 0.032sin 50t 0.016e25t A, t > 0

25t

t
10u (t ) cos 50t
= 2u (t ) cos 50t i = e 25t 2 cos 50t e 25t dt + Ae 25t
o
5

10 + 10u (t )
= 2 + 2 u (t ) i = 0.16 0.08e 25t A, t > 0
5

i = 2e

Q(t ) =

Q(t ) =

(c)

t
10u (t )
2
= 2u (t ) i = e 25t 2e 25t dt + Ae 25t =
+ Ae 25t
o
5
25
2
i (0) = 0 A = i (t ) = 0.08(1 e 25t )A, t > 0
25

Q(t ) =

Q(t ) =

(d)

Chapter Eight Solutions

di
+ Pi = Q, i = e Pt Qe Pt dt + Ae Pt , R = 125, L = 5H
dt
di
L LPi = LQ LP = 5P = R = 125 P = 25
dt

(b)

(a)

71.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (t ) = 5 20e 40t A, t > 0

(d)

Chapter Eight Solutions

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iL () =

(c)

100
= 5A
20

iL (0+ ) = iL (0 ) = 15A

(b)

100 100

= 15A, t < 0
20
5

iL (t ) =

(a)

72.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

or, iL (t ) = 0.1 + (0.1 0.1e 9000t ) u (t )A

iL (t ) = 0.1u (t ) + (0.2 0.1e 9000t ) u (t )A

iL (t ) = 0.2 0.1e 9000t A, t > 0

iL (0 ) =

18
1
= 0.1A iL (0+ ) = 0.1A
60 + 30 2
i L () = 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.2A

Chapter Eight Solutions

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73.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

ix () = iL () = 3A

(c)

Chapter Eight Solutions

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= 3 + e0.8 = 3.449A

ix (t ) = 3 + 1e10t / 0.5 = 3 + e20t A ix (0.04)

ix (0+ ) = iL (0+ ) = 4A

(b)

30 3
= 3A, iL (0 ) = 4A
7.5 4

ix (0 ) =

(a)

74.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

30
30
15
+ 3
= 2.4A
30 + 7.5 40
10 + 15

30
= 3A
10

ix ( ) =

30 30

= 3A ix (t ) = 3 0.6e 6t / 0.5
7.5 40
= 3 0.6e 12t ix (0.04) = 3 0.6e 0.48 = 2.629A

ix (0+ ) =

ix (0 ) = iL (0 ) =

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(c)

(b)

(a)

75.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

SC : 0.1u (t ) =

vx 0.2vx vx
+ ,12 u (t ) = 0.6vx + 2vx
40
60
v
12 u (t )
12 u (t ) u (t )
vx =
iab = x =
=
2.6
60 2.6 60 13
4 u (t )
u (t )
(1 e52t / 0.2 ) u (t ) =
(1 e260t ) u (t )
Rth = 4 13 = 52 iL =
52
13
+
260 t
) u (t )V
vx = 60iL = 4.615 (1 e

OC : vx = 0, voc = 4 u (t )V

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76.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i1 (t ) =

100u (t ) 80e 40t u (t )


= 10 8e 40t u (t )A
10

vL = 0.1 20 40e 40t u (t ) = 80e 40t u (t )

SC : i1 = 10A, isc = 10 +

20 10
= 20A
20
R th = 4 iL (t ) = 20(1 e 40t ) u (t )A

voc = 80 u (t )V

OC : 100 + 30i1 + 20i1 = 0, i1 = 2A

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

(a)

77.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

dv 4.7
=
( 2)
dt
5

therefore

dv
4.7
4.7
or 0.1A 5 B =
=
[2]
dt t =0+
5
5

Thus, v(t ) = 0.192 ( e0.1t e5t )

Solving our two equations, we find that A = B = 0.192.

i (0) = C

At t = 0, v(0) = 0 since no source exists prior to t = 0. Thus, A + B = 0 [1].


As t , v() 0 . We need another equation.

v = vn + v f = Ae 0.1t + Be 5t .

Thus, vn (t ) = Ae0.2t .

= Req C = (5)(2) = 10 s

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78.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

= (5)(2)

9.4 cos 4t = 5i + v
dv
+v
dt

and v(t ) =

0.94
(10 )
1601

0.94
10e0.1t + 10 cos 4t + 400sin 4t
1601

At t = 0, v = 0, so that A =

10 cos 4t + 400sin 4t
v(t ) = 0.94
+ Ae0.1t .

1 + 1600

or

dv
+ 0.1v = 0.94 cos 4t , so that v(t ) = e0.1t ( 0.94 cos 4t ) e0.1t dt + Ae0.1t
dt
Performing the integration, we find that

Then we find that

Begin by transforming the circuit such that it contains a 9.4 cos 4t u(t) V voltage source
in series with a 5 resistor, in series with the 2 F capacitor.

Chapter Eight Solutions

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79.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b) PSpice verification.

vc (2 s) = vc (0 ) = 2V, vc (2 s) = 6 + 8e1 = 3.057V

vc (t ) = 6 + 8e10 t / 210 = 6 + 8e500000t V, t > 0

6
vc (0 ) = 3 = 2V = vc (0+ )
9
6
vc () = 2 6 (2 7) = 6V
7

Chapter Eight Solutions

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As can be seen from the plot above, the PSpice simulation results confirm our hand
lations of vC(t < 0) = 2 V and vC(t = 2 s) = -3.06 V
calcu

80. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

since vC ( ) = 4.5 V

vC (t ) = 4.5e10t + 4.5 = 4.5 (1 e10t )

vC (0 ) = vC (0+ ) = 0

vC (t ) = vCn + vCf = Ae 10t + 4.5

vn = Ae10t

= RC = 2 103 ( 50 ) = 0.1

Chapter Eight Solutions

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Since

81.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

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iA = 2.5 + (1.4286 2.5) e10 t /1.7510 = 2.5 1.0714e57140t mA, t > 0

82. i (0 ) = 10 = 10mA, i () = 2.5mA, v (0) = 0


A
A
c
1
10 1
iA (0+ ) =
1.4286mA iA = 10mA, t < 0
1.75 4

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

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iA = 10 + 7.5e 10 t /10 = 10 + 7.5e10 t mA, t > 0, iA = 2.5mA t < 0

83. iA (0 ) =

10
= 2.5mA, iA () = 10mA
4
10 7.5
vc (0) = 7.5V iA (0+ ) = +
= 17.5mA
1
1

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iin (1.5) = 0

(b)

Chapter Eight Solutions

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iin (-1.5) = 0

(a)

84.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

12
24 + 8
= 0.4mA, iin (0+ ) =
= 3.2mA
30
10
24
= 0.8mA
iin () =
30
iin (t ) = 0.4u (t ) + (0.8 + 2.4e 500t ) u (t )mA

vc (t ) = 8u (t ) + (16 24e 500t ) u (t )

2
t > 0 : vc () = 24 = 16V
3
200
RC =
103 3 107 = 2 103
30
vc (t ) = 16 24e 500t V, t > 0

t < 0: vc (0 ) = 8V vc (0+ ) = 8V

vs = 12u (t ) + 24 u (t )V

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(b) iin (0 ) =

(a)

85.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 2(1 e 30,000t ) V, t > 0

vc = voc (1 e t / RthC ) = 2(1 e 10 t / 33.33 )

OC :

vx vx 3 vx

+
= 0 vx = 1, voc = 3 1 = 2V
100 100 100
v
v
SC : vx = 3V isc = x + x = 0.06A
100 100
R th = voc / isc = 2 / 0.06 = 33.33

Chapter Eight Solutions

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86.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t > 0.5:

5 50
8
20 10 5
= A vc () = 10 + 8 + = V, 4 8 =
12
6
6 3
3
50
50
+ 7.135 e 0.37520( t 0.5) = 16.667 9.532e 7.5(t 0.5) V
vc (t ) =
3
3
vc (0.8) = 16.667 9.532e 7.5(0.3) = 15.662V

vc (0.4) = 6.321V, vc (0.5) = 7.135V

0 < t < 0.5s : vc = 10(1 e 2.5t )V

iin (0+ ) = 0 iin (t ) = 0 for all t

vc (0 ) = 10V = vc (0+ ), iin (0 ) = 0

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87.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

We see from the simulation results that


our hand calculations and sketch are
indeed correct.

For t < 0,
vC = 0.

Thus, vC(t') = 52 + [29.37 52] e-2.5t' = 52 22.63 e-2.5(t 1) V.

For t > 1, we now have two sources operating, although the circuit time constant remains
unchanged. We define a new time axis temporarily: t' = t 1. Then vC(t' = 0+) =
vC(t = 1) = 29.37 V. This is the voltage across the capacitor when the second source
kicks on. The new final voltage is found to be vC() = 40(20)/ (20 + 5) +
100(5)/ (20 + 5) = 52 V.

For 0 < t < 1, only the 40-V source is active. Rth = 5k || 20 k = 4 k and hence
= Rth C = 0.4 s. The final value (assuming no other source is ever added) is found
by voltage division to be vC() = 40(20)/(20 + 5) = 32 V. Thus, we may write
vC(t) = 32 + [0 32] et/ 0.4 V = 32(1 e-2.5t) V.

t < 0, there are no active sources, and so vC = 0.

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(c)

(b)

(a) For

88.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vR (0 ) = 80V, vR (0+ ) = 8

20
80
10 + 10 = 32 + 16 = 48V
30 + 20
50
20000 t
V, t > 0
vR () = 80V vR (t ) = 80 32e

vc (0 ) = 80V, vc () = 240V vc (t ) = 240 160e t / 5010 = 240 160e 20000t V

t < 0 : vR (t ) = 80V

vR (t ) = 80 + 160e 100000t V, t > 0

vc (t ) = 80 + 160e t /1010 = 80 + 160e 100000t V

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(d)

(c)

t < 0 : vc (t ) = 8 30 = 240V vc (0+ ) = 240V

(b)
1
t = () : vc () = 8(10 + 10) = 80V
2

t < 0 : 8(10 + 20) = 240V = vR (t ) = 80V, t < 0

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

89.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t /( R1 +100)

t /( R2 +100)

, t = t 103 1 8e 1000 (R 2 + 100)

1000
= 2.079, R 2 = 480.9 100 = 380.9
R 2 + 100

1
= e1000 /( R1 +100)
9

1000
= 2.197, R1 = 355.1
R1 + 100

t > 1ms : vc = 8e 10

8 = 9 (1 e 1000 /( R1 +100) ),

0 < t < 1ms : vc = 9 (1 e 10

t < 0 : vc = 0

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90.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

e 1000t =

100 10, 000 + 80, 000


= 0.25 0.75
400
e 1000t = 0.5, t = 0.6931ms

100e 1000t + 200(e 1000t ) 2 100 = 0,

200e 2000t = 100 100e1000t

vx = v x , L vx , c = 0

vx ,c = 100(1 e 1000t )V

vx , L = 200e 2000t V

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91.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V2
= 0.08 W
R

Pfinal =

Power (W)

V2
= 0.02 W
R

V final = 7 10 3 900 // 1000 = 3.3 V

Pinit =

Vinit = I .R = 7 10 3 900 = 6.3 V

P(t < 0 ) = I 2 R = 0.0012 103 = 0.001 W

Time (ms)

Chapter Eight Solutions

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92.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

dv1
dv
dv
= C2 2 = C3 3
dt
dt
dt

Energy stored at t = 0 is Cv2 = 0.5(0.545510-6)(7.421)2 = 15.02 J.

(c)

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The voltage across the entire capacitor string can be written as 7.421 e-t/ 2.56410 V.
Thus, the voltage across the 4.7-k resistor at t = 1.7 ms = 3.824 V and the dissipated
power is therefore 3.111 mW.

(b)

-3

v(t = 5.45 ms) = 241.6 mV.

v(t) = 2.024 e-t/ 2.56410 V

-3

With the initial voltage across the 2-uF capacitor now known, we may write

that v2 = 2.024 V.

v1
+ v2
+ v3 = 7.421
=0
10-6 v1 210-6 v2
-6
-6
210 v2 310 v3 = 0

With no initial energy stored, integration yields the relationship C1v1 = C2v2 = C3v3
throughout the charging (i.e. until the switch is eventually opened). Thus, just prior to
the switch being thrown at what we now call t = 0, the total voltage across the capacitor
string is 7.421 V, and the individual voltages may be found by solving:

C1

When the circuit was first constructed, we assume no energy was stored in any of the
capacitors, and hence the voltage across each was zero. When the switch was closed, the
capacitors began to charge according to Cv2. The capacitors charge with the same
current flowing through each, so that by KCL we may write

t < 0, the voltage across all three capacitors is simply 9 (4.7)/ 5.7 = 7.421 V. The
circuit time constant is = RC = 4700 (0.545510-6) = 2.564 ms.

Chapter Eight Solutions

(a)

so

93. For

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

follower vo (t ) = v2 (t )
/ 0.5 200

u (t )V

u (t )

Chapter Eight Solutions

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= 1.25e

10,000 t

vx (t ) = 1.25e 10

v2 (t ) = 1.25 u (t )V = vo (t )

94. voltage

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

v250/250 + v=
2/1000.

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

In plotting both the hand-derived result and the PSpice simulation result, we see that the
ideal op amp approximation holds very well for this particular circuit. Although the 741
contains internal capacitors, it does not introduce any shorter time constants than that of
the input circuit.

verification:

vo(t) = v2(t) = 1.0e-t/10 u(t) V.

at t = 0+ v250 = v2, we find that v2(0+) = 1 V.


t , v2 0, so we may write,

Considering initial conditions: vC(0-) = 0 vC(0+) = 0.


Applying KVL at t = 0+,

This is a voltage follower vo (t ) = v2 (t ) , where v2(t) is defined at the non-inverting input.


The time constant of the RC input circuit is 0.008(1000+250) = 10 s.

PSpice

Since
As

95.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

From the PSpice simulation, we see that our t < 0 calculation is indeed correct, and find
that the inductor current at t = 50 ms is 7.82 A.

PSpice Simulation

t < 0, the current source is an open circuit and so i1 = 40/ 50 = 0.8 A.


The current through the 5- resistor is [40 10(0.8)]/ 5 = 7.2 A, so the inductor current
is equal to 7.2 A

Chapter Eight Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

96. For

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

4 20,000t
e
u (t )A
104

t
t
o

10 March 2006

We can see from the simulation result that our ideal op amp approximation is not
providing a great deal of accuracy in modeling the transient response of an op amp in this
particular circuit; the output was predicted to be negative for t > 0.

(b) PSpice verification:

And we may write vo(t) = -0.2[1 + e-2010 t]u(t) V.

vo (t ) = vc (t ) vR (t ) = (0.2 + 0.2e 20,000t 0.4e 20,000t ) u (t )

vR (t ) = 103 i (t ) = 0.4e 20,000t u (t )V

vc = 107

4 20,000t
e
dt = 0.2e 20,000t
o 10 4
vc (t ) = 0.2(1 e 20,000t ) u (t )

v1 = 0 (virtual gnd) i =

Chapter Eight Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

97. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

The circuit above contains a 1-M resistor in parallel with the capacitor to allow current
to flow through the light bulb when the light
switch is on. In order to determ ine the
required capacitor size, we first recognise that it will see a Thevenin equivalent resistance
of 1 M || 330.6 = 330.5 . We want vC(t = 5s) = 81.33 = 115 e-5/, so we need a
circuit time constant of t = 14.43 s and a capacitor value of / Rth = 43.67 mF.

One possible solution of many: implement a capacitor to retain charge; assuming the
light is left on long enough to fully charge th e capacitor, th e stored ch arge will run the
lightbulb after the wall switch is turned off. Taking a 40-W light bulb connected to 115
V, we estimate th e res istance of the light bu lb (which chan ges with its tem perature) as
330.6 . We define on for the light bulb som ewhat arbitrarily as 50% intensity, taking
intensity as proportional to the dissipated pow er. Thus, we need at least 20 W (246 mA
or 81.33 V) to the light bulb for 5 seconds after the light switch is turned off.

Chapter Eight Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

98.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
106 C

or C =

1000
.1.5 = 1.496 volts
1002.37

We have 1 = 1.496e

vc (0) =

vc (1) = 1 volt

Add capacitor C.

1
= 2.48F
10 ln(1.496)
6

Assume at least 1 A required otherwise alarm triggers.

Chapter Eight Solutions

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99.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b) Negative times are not permitted in PSpice. The only way to model this situation is to
shift the time axis by a fixed amount, e.g., t = t + 2 .

odel this

10 March 2006

(a) Note that negativ e tim es are not perm itted in PSpice. The only way to m
situation is to shift the time axis by a fixed amount, e.g., t = t + 1 .

Chapter Eight Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

100.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

= L / R = 0.1 s . This is much less than either the period or pulsewidth.

Chapter Eight Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

101. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

= L / R = 1 s . This is much less than either the period or pulsewidth.

Chapter Eight Solutions

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(b)

102. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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103.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

L 500 106
=
= 34 ns
Req 14.7 103
6

The transient response will therefore have the form Ae 29.410 t .

Chapter Eight Solutions

10 March 2006

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(c)

(b)

(a)

104.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

0 =

(b)

1
=
LC
6

( 2 10 )(10 )
3

1
=

22.4 krad/s

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c) The circuit is overdamped since > 0 .

1
1
1
=
=
= 175 103 s 1
6
2 RC ( 2 ) (4 ||10)(10 ) ( 2 ) (2.857)(106 )

Parallel RLC circuit:

(a)

1.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
LC
or R >

1 L
1
2
; R>
.
2 C
2 1012

(b) For critical damping,


1 L
R=
= 707 k
2 C

Thus, R > 707 k.

1
<
2 RC

(a) For an underdamped response, we require < 0 , so that

Parallel RLC circuit:

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(10 )(10 )
9

= 3.16 1013 rad/s =


31.6 Trad/s

12

1
=
LC

5 108

1
1
1
=
=
=
6
2 RC ( 2 ) (4 ||10)(10 ) ( 2 ) (1)(109 )

10 March 2006

(c) The circuit is underdamped since < 0 .

s1,2 = 2 02 = 0.5 109 j 1021 (0.25)(1018 ) = 0.5 j 31.62 Grad/s

0 =

Parallel RLC circuit:

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

(a)

3.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
LC
or R >

1 L
1
1015
.
; R>
2 C
2 2 1018

(c) For overdamped, R < 11.18 .

(b) For critical damping,


1 L
R=
= 11.18
2 C

Thus, R > 11.18 .

1
<
2 RC

(a) For an underdamped response, we require < 0 , so that

Parallel RLC circuit:

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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4.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
, o = 6.928
LC

rad/s 6.928 L = 10, L = 1.4434H,


1
1
C=
= 14.434mF,
= 7 R = 4.949
48L
2RC

6 = 7 + 49 o2 o2 = 48

14 = 2 = 7 s 1

6 = + 2 o2 , 8 = 2 o2 adding,

o L = 10, s1 = 6s 1 , s2 = 8s 1

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
500
= 3.333 Also,
,R =
3
2R10
150

v
= 0.12e 100t + 0.045e 200t A
R

1 100
=
, L = 0.5H
LC
L

i (t ) = 80e100t 15e200t mA, t > 0

(i)t = iR (t ) ic (t ) = (0.12 0.04)e 100t + (0.045 + 0.03)e200t

i R (t ) =

20000 =

200 = 150 22500 o2 o2 = 20000

150 +

300 = 2, = 150s 1

s1 = 100 = + 2 o2 , s2 = 200 = 2 o2

v(t ) = 0.4e100t + 0.15e200t V

v(t ) =

t
1 t
0.25
(40e 100t 30e200t ) dt 0.25
i
dt

=
c

o
o
C
v(t ) = 0.4(e 100t 1) + 0.15(e 200t 1) 0.25

ic = 40e 100t 30e 200t mA, C = 1mF, v(0) = 0.25V

Chapter Nine Solutions

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(c)

(b)

(a)

6.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

5 109
=
= 7.071 105
12
o 70.7110

10 March 2006

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(e)

S1 = + 2 o2 = 5 109 + j 70.71 1012 s 1

(d)

S 2 = 2 o2 = 5 109 j 70.71 1012 s 1

is the neper frequency: 5 Gs-1

(c)

aF

1
= 5 109 s 1
2 RC
1
So 1R = 10
= M
(10 ) (100 1018 )

o2 =

1
= (70.71 1012 ) 2
LC
1
So 100.0
C=
=
12 2
(70.7110 ) (2 1012 )

Parallel RLC with o = 70.71 1012 rad/s. L = 2 pH.

Chapter Nine Solutions

(b)

(a)

7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

L = 4 R 2C , =

1
2 RC

d 2 v 1 dv 1
+
+ v=0
dt 2 R dt L
[1]

[3]

[2]

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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Next, with v(0) = A2 = 16


dv
= ( A1 A2 ) = ( A1 16 ) = 4
and
dt t =0
we find that A1 = 4 + 16

Thus, v(t ) = e t ( A1t + A2 ) is in fact a solution to the differential equation.

1
1
1
t
(2 A1 ) e t +
( A1 ) e t
( A1t + A2 ) e +
RC
2 RC
2 RC
1
1
( A1t + A2 ) e t + 2 2 ( A1t + A2 ) et

2 RC
4R C
=0

Substituting Eqs. [2] and [3] into Eq. [1], and using the information initially provided,

= (2 A1 A2 A1t )e t

d v
= ( A1 A1t A2 ) (e t ) A1e t
2
dt
= ( A1 A2 + A1 A1t ) e t

dv
= e t ( A1 ) e t ( A1t + A2 )
dt
= ( A1 A1t A2 ) e t

Show that v(t ) = e t ( A1t + A2 ) is a solution to

8. Given:

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
2 RC
1
o2 =
LC
so

L = 312.5 mH

so C = 5F

Parallel RLC with o = 800 rad/s, and = 1000 s-1 when R = 100 .

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

new
o

new =

new old
100
old

= 95300%

Define the percent change as

old
o

1
= 954.0 103 s 1
2 RC

old =

new old
100
old

The resonant frequency is unchanged, so o = 800 rad/s

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(c)

(b)

(a)

100 cm 1in 1ft 6.39


(5 m)

1m 2.54 cm 12in 1000 ft


= 0.1048 or 104.8 m

Replace the resistor with 5 meters of 18 AWG copper wire. From Table 2.3, 18 AWG soft solid
copper wire has a resistance of 6.39 /1000ft. Thus, the wire has a resistance of

9.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
1000
1
=
= 5, o2 =
= 16,
2RC 2 8 12.5
LC

10 March 2006

i (0+ ) = 2A 3 8A 4 =

40
= 8 A / s 4 = A 3 4A 4
5
3A 4 = 13 + 4, A 4 = 3, A 3 = 16 i (t ) = 16e 2t + 3e 8t A, t > 0

ic (0+ ) = 8A Let i( t ) = A 3e 2t + A 4 e 8t ; iR (0+ ) =

v(0+ ) 40
=
= 5A
R
8
i (0+ ) = A 3 + A 4 = iR (0+ ) ic (0+ ) = 8 5 = 13A;

v(t ) = 120e 2t + 160e 8t V, t > 0

40 = A1 + A 2 v(0+ ) =

1000
40
+
iL (0 ) = 80 (8 5) = 1040
12.5
8
v / s = 2A1 8A 2 520 = A1 4A 2 3A 2 = 480, A 2 = 160, A1 = 120

o = 4 s1,2 = 5 25 16 = 2, 8 v(t ) = A1e 2t + A 2 e 8t

i (0+ ) = 8A: =

L = 5H, R = 8, C = 12.5mF, v(0+ ) = 40V

Chapter Nine Solutions

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(b)

(a)

10.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
= 3.162 104 s 1 and 0 =
2RC

di
= 10
dt t =0

[1]

i (t ) = 4.169e 158.5t 0.169e 6.3110

10 March 2006

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So that

Solving Eqs. [1] and [2] yields A1 = 4.169 A and A2 = 0.169 A

103 158.5 A1 6.31 104 A2 = 10 [2]

v(0+ ) = L

A1+ A2 = 4

With i(0 ) = i(0+ ) = 4 A and v(0 ) = v(0+ ) = 10 V

s1,2 = 2 02 = 158.5 s 1 and 6.31 104 s 1

1
= 3.162 103 rad/s
LC

1 L 1 103 1
10 = 1.581
=
=
2 C 2 104 2

= 0.1RC = 158.1 m

RC =

Chapter Nine Solutions

So we may write i (t ) = A1e158.5t + A2 e6.3110

Noting

Thus,

(b)

Therefore

11. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
= 100 rad/s
LC

t =0

. Note that
dt

diR ( t )
=

1 dv
dv
[3] and iC = C
= i iR .
dt
R dt

dv
v(0+ )
= i (0+ ) iR (0+ ) = 2 103
= 2 103 [4]
dt t =0+
R

diR
dt

[2]

So that

(c)

iR (t ) = 2.04 e 10.1t e989.9t

mA
We see that the simulation agrees.

Solving Eqs. [2] and [6] yields A1 = 2.04 mA and A2 = 2.04 mA

diR
= (50)(0.04) = 2 [5]. Taking the derivative of Eq. [1] and combining with
dt t =0
[6].
Eq. [5] then yields: s1 A1 + s 2 A2 = 2

we may write based on Eqs. [3] and [4]:

iC (0+ ) = C

We need to find

A1+ A2 = 0

With i(0 ) = i (0+ ) = 2 mA and v(0 ) = v(0+ ) = 0

So we may write iR (t ) = A1e10.1t + A2 e 989.9t [1]

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

1
= 500 s 1 and 0 =
2RC

Chapter Nine Solutions

s1,2 = 2 02 = 10.10 s 1 and 989.9 s 1

Therefore,

Thus,

Thus,

12. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
80
= 25, o2 =
= 400,
2 0.1 0.2
0.2

1
H, R = 0.1, C = 0.2F
80

10 March 2006

i(t) = v/ R C

dv
= 200e 10t 600e 40t 0.2(-20)(-10)e -10t (0.2)(60)(-40)e 40t
dt
10 t
= 160e
120e 40t A

v(t ) = 20e 10t + 60e 40t V, t > 0

v(0+ ) = 10A1 40A 2 v(0+ ) =

1
v(0)
i (0)
= 2200
C
R
A1 4A 2 = 220 3A 2 = 180 A 2 = 60, A1 = 20

v(t ) = A1 e 10t + A 2 e40t 40 = A1 + A 2 ;

o = 20, s1,2 = 25 625 400 = 10, 40

i (0) = 40A, v(0) = 40V, L =

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

(a)

13.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
= 6.667 108 s 1 and 0 =
2RC

1
= 105 rad/s
LC

10 March 2006

t =0

. We know that L

di
dt
t =0

= 2 so

di
2
=
= 106 . Also,
dt t =0 2 106

di
di diR diC
+
+
= 0 so C
dt dt
dt
dt
t =0

= 7.5 A1 1.33 109 A2 = 106

1
( A1 + A2 ) [3]
CR

9
i
di
di
1 dv
1
dv
= iC and R =
so R = C =
A1e7.5t + A2 e1.33310 t .
dt
dt R dt
dt CR CR

diR
dt

(b)

So that

iC (t ) = 0.75 103 e 7.5t + 0.133 106 e1.33310

Solving Eqs. [2] and [3] yields A1 = 0.75 mA and A2 = 0.133 MA (very different!)

We need to find

A1+ A2 = 0.133106 [2]

iC (t ) = A1e 7.5t + A2 e1.33310 t [1] With i (0 ) = i (0+ ) = 0 A and v(0 ) = v(0+ ) = 2 V ,


2
iC (0+ ) = iR (0+ ) =
= 0.133 106 so that
6
15 10

s1,2 = 2 02 = 7.5 s 1 and 1.333 109 s 1 . So we may write

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Using

Thus,

14. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
= 0.125 s 1 and 0 =
2RC

1
= 0.112 rad/s
LC

10 March 2006

diR
dt
t =0

. We know that

v(t ) = 17.89 e 0.069t e0.181t V

(c) The simulation agrees with the analytic results.

v(8.61) = 6.1 V

Substituting into our expression for the voltage, the peak value is

dv
= 1.236e 0.069t 8.236e0.181t . We set this equal to 0 and solve for tm:
dt
3.236 e 0.069tm
=
= e0.112tm , so that tm = 8.61 s.
1.236 e 0.181tm

So that

Solving Eqs. [2] and [3] yields A1 = 17.89 V and A2 = 17.89 V

iC (t ) = C

dv
= 4 0.069 A1e 0.069t 0.181A2 e0.181t . So,
dt
[3]
iC (0) = 4 [ 0.069 A1 0.181A2 ] = 8

We need to find

With iC (0 ) = iC (0+ ) = 8 A and v(0 ) = v(0+ ) = 0 ,


A1+ A2 = 0
[2]

v(t ) = A1e0.069t + A2 e 0.181t [1]

s1,2 = 2 02 = 0.069 s 1 and 0.181 s 1 . So we may write

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

Thus,

15. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

t > 0: iL (t ) = 2A iL (t ) = 2u (t ) + (2.25e2000t 0.25e6000t ) u (t )A

iL (0+ ) =

103 3
100 = 3000 = 2000A1 6000A 2 1.5 = A1 3A 2 0.5 = 2A 2
100
A 2 = 0.25, A1 = 2.25 iL (t ) = 2.25e 2000t 0.25e6000t A, t > 0

iL (t ) = A1e 2000t + A 2 e 6000t , t > 0 A1 + A s = 2

iL (0) =

100
= 2A, vc (0) = 100V
50
106
3 106+3
=
= 4000, wo2 =
= 12 106
2 50 2.5
100 2.5
3
16 12 10 = 200, s1,2 = 4000 2000

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

iL (t ) = 2.025e 50t 0.025e 450t A, t > 0

A1 + 9A 2 = 1.8 8A 2 = 0.2 A 2 = 0.025, A1 = 2.025(A)

iL = A1e 50t + A 2 e 450t A1 + A 2 = 2; iL (0+ ) = 45(2) = 50A1 450A 2

s1,2 = 250 2502 22500 = 50, 450 s 1

12
= 2A, vc (0) = 2V
5 +1
1000
1000 45
= 250, o2 =
= 22500
=
2 1 2
2

iL (0) =

Chapter Nine Solutions

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17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

vmax at t = 0 vmax = 18V 0.18 = 20.25e4ts 2.25e 36ts

(c)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Solving using a scientific calculator, we find that ts = 1.181 s.

i (t ) =

v
1
v = 0.5625e4t 0.0625e36t 0.05625e4t + 0.05625e36t
+
36 1440
i (t ) = 0.50625e4t 0.00625e 36t A, t > 0

v(t ) = 20.25e 4 2.25e 36t V, t > 0

1 18
v(0) = 18 = A1 + A2 , v(0) = 1440 = 0
2 36
0 = 4A1 36A 2 = A1 9A 2 = 18 = 8A 2 , A 2 = 2.25, A1 = 20.25

s1,2

1
1440
1440
=
= 20, o2 =
= 144
2RC
72
10
= 20 400 144 = 4, 36: v = A1e 4t + A 2 e 36t

Chapter Nine Solutions

(b)

(a)

18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

LC

= 4 rad/s

1
= 5 s 1
2 RC

o = 1

Referring to Fig. 9.43,

A = 150 V
B = 25 V

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Thus, v(t ) = 166.7e 8t 41.67e 2t , t > 0

Solving Eqs. [1] and [2],

Using the initial conditions, v(0) = 125 = A + B


v(0+ )
+ ic (0+ ) = 0
iL (0+ ) + iR (0+ ) + ic (0+ ) = 0 +
2
125
v(0+ )
+
=
= 62.5 V
So (ic 0 ) =
2
2
dv
= 50 103[8 Ae 8t 2 Be 2t ]
ic = C
dt
+
[2]
ic (0 ) = 62.5 = 50 103 (8 A + 2 B)

[1]

Since > o, this circuit is over damped.

S1,2 = 2 o2 = 5 3 = 8, 2

iL (0 ) = iL (0+ ) = 0

Thus, v(t ) = Ae 8t + Be2t

so

Chapter Nine Solutions

L = 1250 mH

The capacitor stores 390 J at t = 0:


1
Wc = C vc2
2
2Wc
= 125 V = vc (0+ )
So (vc 01 ) =
C
The inductor initially stores zero energy,

so

19.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

S2 = 2 o2 = 6 = 5 25 o2

S1 = + 2 o2 = 4 = 5 + 25 o2

1
1
, L = 2 = 833.3 mH
LC
oC

v=
Thus, 210

e 4t 190e 6t , t > 0

Solving, A = 210 V, B = 190 V

v(0) = A + B = 20
[1]
dv
ic = C
= 50 103 (4 Ae 4t 6 Be6t )
dt
+
ic (0 ) = 50 103 (4 A 6 B) = 15
[2]

iR (0+ ) = 10 A, vR (0+ ) = v(0+ ) = vc (0+ ) = 20 V

If iR (0+ ) = 10 A and ic (0+ ) = 15 A, find A and B.

o2 =

Solving either equation, we obtain o = 4.899 rad/s

(a)

We want a response v = Ae 4t + Be6t


1
=
= 5 s 1
2 RC

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

with

(b)

Since

20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[2]

vc

= 25 + 75 = 50 V

solving | 25e 2000ts + 75e 6000ts | = 0.5 in view of the graph in part (d),
find ts = 1.955 ms using a scientific calculators equation solver routine.

max

25e 2000t + 75e 6000t = 0 t = 274.7 s


using a scientific calculator

Solving, we find A = 25 and B = 75


so that vc (t ) = 25e 2000t + 75e6000t , t > 0

and v( c 0+ ) = A + B = 50

ic = C

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So,
we

(f)

(e)

(d)

= 2000, 6000

dv
= (5 106 ) (2000 Ae 2000t 6000 Be 6000t )
dt
[1]
ic (0+ ) = 0.01A 0.03B = 2

vc (t ) = Ae 2000t + Be 6000t

10 March 2006

50
=2 A
25

s1,2 = 2 o2

iR (0+ ) =

Chapter Nine Solutions

> 0, this system is overdamped. Thus,

t > 0: parallel (source-free) RLC circuit


1
=
= 4000 s 1
2 RC
1
o =
= 3464 rad/s
LC

(c)

Since

ic (0+ ) = iL (0+ ) iR (0+ ) = 0 2 = 2 A

(b)

iL (0 ) = iL (0+ ) = 0

vc (0+ ) = vc (0 ) = 2(25) = 50 V

conditions:

(a)

21. Initial

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

i1
i2

and i1 i2 = iA

[2]

2i2 2i1 + 3iA + 7i2 = 0

iA (0+ ) = 0 = A + B

iA (t ) = Ae 1.881t + Be4.785t

Thus,

6
= 6
1

dvc
iA = 25 103 1.881(6 A)e1.881t 4.785(6 B)e4.785t

dt
1.881t
4.785t
Be
- Ae

Solving Eqs. [1] and [2], A = 20.66 and B = +20.66


that iA (t ) = 20.66[e 4.785t e1.881t ]

iL (0+ ) = 9 = 25 103[1.881(6 A) 4.785(6 B)] A B


or
9 = -0.7178A 0.2822B
[2]

= C

iL = ic iR

To find the second equation required to determine the coefficients, we write:

S1,2 = 2 o2 = 1.881, 4.785

1
= 3.333 s 1
2 RC
1
o =
= 3 rad/s
LC

vLC = 6 V RTH =

vLC + 7 3(1) + 2 = 0

so, iA (0+ ) = 0

[1]

vc (0+ ) + 7iA (0+ ) 3iA (0+ ) + 2iA (0+ ) = 0

around left mesh:

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So

(e)

vc (0 ) = 0 due to the presence of the inductor.

(c)

1A

t > 0:

(b)
4.444 H

iA (0 ) = i1 i2 = 4.5 A and iL (0 ) = i2 = 9 A

4i1 + 6 i2 = 0. Solving, i1 = 13.5 A and i2 = 9 A.

4.444 H

[1]

9 + 2i1 2i2 = 0

(a)

(d)

10 March 2006

Due to the presence of the inductor, vc (0 ) = 0 . Performing mesh analysis,

Rearranging, we obtain 2i1 2i2 = 0 and

22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
= 79.89 Mrad/s
LC

1
> 79.89 106
2 RC
1
R<
12
2(39.17 10 ) (79.89 106 )

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

*Note: The final answer depends quite strongly on the choice of r.

or R < 159.8

Thus,

For an over damped response, we require > o.

o =

L = 4H

r o A (88) (8.854 1014 F/cm) (0.5027cm 2 )


=
=
d
0.1cm
= 39.17pF

Area = r 2 = 0.5027cm 2

Chapter Nine Solutions

Diameter of a dime: approximately 8 mm.

Capacitance

23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t =0

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c) We see from plotting both the analytic result in Probe and the simulated voltage, the
two are in excellent agreement (the curves lie on top of one another).

10 March 2006

1 vC (0)
1

12

+ 0 =
+ 0 A1 9.129 103 (12 )

6
C R
12 10 4.565

A1 = 109.6 103 V , so we may write

vC ( t ) = e 9.12910 t 109.6 103 t + 12 .

dvC
dt

also iC = (iR + iL ) , so

dt

A2 = 12 V .

[1]

= e 9.12910 t 9.129 103 A1t + A1 9.129 103 (12 )

Taking the derivative of Eq. [1],

1
1
=
= 9.129 103 s 1
6
2 RC 2 ( 4.564 ) 12 10

t = 0, vC (0) = A1 ( 0 ) + A2 = 12

dvC ( t )

Chapter Nine Solutions

1 L 1
103
=
= 4.564 .
2 C 2 12 106

vC ( t ) = e 9.12910 t ( A1t + A2 )

(a) For critical damping, R =

Solving,

and

At

Thus,

(b)

24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

)(

t =0

= vC (0) = 0 [3], so

10 March 2006

(c) We see from plotting both the analytic result in Probe and the simulated voltage, the
two are in reasonable agreement (some numerical error is evident).

iL ( t ) = e 3.16210 t 3.162 106 t + 10 .

Solving Eqs. [2] and [3],


A1 = 3.162 105 (10 ) = 3.162 106 V , so we may write

diL
dt

A2 = 10 A .

[1]

= e 3.16210 t 3.162 105 A1t + A1 3.162 105 (10 ) [2]

also L

dt

diL ( t )

Taking the derivative of Eq. [1],

t = 0, iL (0) = A1 ( 0 ) + A2 = 10

1
1
=
= 3.162 105 s 1
3
3
2 RC 2 1.581 10
10

1 L 1 108
=
= 1.581 m .
2 C 2 103

iL ( t ) = e3.16210 t ( A1t + A2 )

(a) For critical damping, R =

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

and

At

Thus,

(b)

25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

It is unlikely to observe a critically damped response in real-life circuits, as it would be


virtually impossible to obtain the exact values required for R, L and C. However, using
carefully chosen components, it is possible to obtain a response which is for all intents
and purposes very close to a critically damped response.

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

26.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(a)

10 March 2006

tm = 0, iL max = 2A 0.02 = e 250ts (250ts + 2); SOLVE: ts = 23.96ms

iL max : (250tm + 2) = 0, 1 = 250tm + 2, tm < 0 No!

Then 8 103 iL (0+ ) = 2 = 8 103 (A1 500), = e 1.25 (1.25 + 2) = 0.9311A

= o

1
1000
=
= 250 iL = e 250t (A1t + A 2 )
2RC 2 1 2
iL (0) = 2A, vc (0) = 2V iL = e250t (A1t + 2)

L = 4R 2 C = 4 1 2 103 = 8mH

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

(b)

crit. damp.

27.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(a)

L = 4R 2 C =

100
103 = 4R 2 106 R = 57.74
3

10 March 2006

iL (0) =

100
= 1.7321A 100 = A 2
57.74
106
100
5
vc (0+ ) =
1.7321
= 0 = A1 3464A 2 A1 = 3.464 10
2.5
57.74
t
3464
vc (t ) = e (3.464 105 t + 100) V, t > 0

o = = 103 /

1
2.5 = 3464 s 1
30
vc (t ) = e 3464t (A1t + A 2 ) vc (0) = 100V

Chapter Nine Solutions

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(b)

crit. damp.

28.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

or R =

1
= 159.8
2oC

1
= o
2 RC

1
= 79.89 Mrad/s
LC

For critical damping, we require

ith L = 4H, o =

r o A (88) (8.854 1014 ) (0.5027)


=
The capacitance is d
0.1
= 39.17 pF

Diameter of a dime is approximately 8 mm. The area, therefore, is r2 = 0.5027 cm2.

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

29.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

max

= i (tm ) = 0.13821A

imax = i (0) = 0.1A

(65,860 8.590 106 + 0.1) = 0.13821A

tm = 8.590 s i (tm ) = e 141,4208.59010

e t (+65860) + 141, 420e t (65,860tm + 0.1) = 0

i = e 141,421t (65,860t + 0.1). i = 0

(A1 141, 420 0.1) = 400 A1 = 65,860

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

(b)

L = 4R 2 C = 5 103 = 4R 2 108 R = 353.6

(a)
108
=
= 141, 420 i = e 141,420t (A1t + A 2 )
2 353.6
A 2 = 0.1= e 141,421t (A1t + 0.1), 5 103

L = 5mH, C = 108 F, crit. damp. v(0) = 400V, i (0) = 0.1A

Chapter Nine Solutions

30.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

1013 cm

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

So 8.106
s=

(42 109 ) (50) 2 (0.5) 2 s = 2 109

50 turns
1m
2
(4 10 H/m)

. s (0.5cm) . .
100 cm
cm
If So
s
= 2 109

N 2 A
= 2 109
L=
S

We know

Critically damped parallel RLC with = 103 s 1 , R = 1M .

1
103
= 103 , so 500
C=
=
2 RC
2 106
1
Since = o, o =
= 103
LC
1
or 10 = 6
LC
so L = 2 GH (!)

31.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

(e) 0 = 1(B1 ) B1 = 0, vc (t ) = B2 e t sin 5t , vc (0 + ) = B2 (5) = 16

(d)
(e)

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(f)

vc (0+ )
1
+
+
[iL (0 ) iR (0 )] = 4 4
= 4 (4 + 0) = 16 V/s
c
2

vc (0+ ) =

B2 = 3.2, vc (t ) = 3.2e t sin 5t V, t > 0

1
vc (0+ ) = 0
L

iL (0+ ) =

vc (0+ ) = vc (0) = 0

(b)
(c)

iL (0+ ) = iL (0) = 4A

(a)

1
4
1
4 13
=
= 1, o2 =
=
= 26, d = 26 1 = 5
2RC 2 2
LC
2
vc (t ) = e t ( B1 cos 5t + B2 sin 5t )

32.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
106
1 106+3
=
= 4000, o2 =
=
= 2 107
2RC 100 2.5
LC
50

ic (0+ ) =

1
1
1
2 106
vc (0) vc (0+ ) = 0
ic (0+ ) =
L
R
RC
125
6
2 10
B1 = 2A,
= 16, 000 = 2000B2 + (2) (4000) B2 = 4
125
ic (t ) = e 4000t (2 cos 2000t + 4sin 2000t )A, t > 0

iL (0) = 2A, vc (0) = 0 ic (0+ ) = 2A; ic (0+ ) = iL (0+ ) iR (0+ )

ic = e 4000t (B1 cos 2000t + B2 sin 2000t )

d = 20 106 16 106 = 2000

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

33.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL (t ) = 4u (t ) + e 8t (4 cos 6t + 5.333sin 6t ) u (t ) A

iL (0+ ) = t vc (0+ ) = 0 6B2 8(4) = 0, B2 = 16 / 3

iL (0) = 4A B1 = 4A, iL = e 8t (4 cos 6t + B2 sin 6t ) vc (0) = 0

t < 0: iL (t ) = 4A; t > 0: iL (t ) = e 8t (B1 cos 6t + B2 sin 6t )

1
100
1 100 2
=
= 8, o2 =
=
, d = 36 = o2 64
2RC 12.5
LC
L
100
o2 = 100 =
L = 1H
L
=

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

(b)

(a)

34.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
1093
1
109
=
= 5000, o2 =
=
= 1.25 108
2RC 2 20 5
LC 1.6 5

109 2
200
= 0 = 104 B2 200 (5000)
10

5
20, 000

vc (0)

iL (0) 20, 000

1
vc + Cvc
R

10 March 2006

isw = 10 e 5000t (10 cos104 t 7.5sin104 t ) mA, t > 0

(200 cos + 100sin) 5 109 2.5 106 e5000t sin104 t


iL = e 5000t
20, 000

4
4
5000 t
=e
(0.01cos10 t 0.0075sin10 t ) A

= e 500t [106 (2sin 0.5cos)] = 2.5 106 e5000t sin104 t v / s

vc = e 5000t [104 (200sin + 100 cos] 5000 (200 cos + 100sin)]

isw = 102 iL , iL =

B2 = 100V vc (t ) = e 5000t (200 cos104 t + 100sin104 t ) V, t > 0

1
109
vc (0+ ) = ic (0+ ) =
5
c

vc (0) = 200V, iL (0) = 10mA vc (t ) = e 5000t (200 cos104 t + B2 sin104 t )

vc (t ) = e 5000t (B1 cos104 t + B2 sin104 t )

d = o2 2 = 125 106 25 106 = 10, 000

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

(a)

35.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
106
1 1.01 106
=
= 20, o2 =
=
= 40, 400
2RC 2000 25
LC
25

1
io (0+ )
C

T=

2
= 3.42ms
200

v = 10.032e20t cos (200t 4.574)V

106
(103 ) = 40 A 2 = 1 0.2 = 0.8
25
v(t ) = e 20t (10 cos 200t + 0.8sin 200t ) V, t > 0

v(0+ ) = 200A 2 20 10 = 200 (A 2 1) =

v = e 20t (10 cos 200t + A 2 sin 200t ) V, t > 0

v(0) = 10V, iL (0) = 9mA A1 = 10V

v = e 20t (A1 cos 200t + A 2 sin 200t )

d = o2 2 = 40, 400 400 = 200

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

(a)

36.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i1 (t ) = 0.6e 100t sin1000t mA, t > 0

vc (t ) = 104 (6) e 100t sin1000tA

vc (t ) = 6e 100t sin1000tV, t > 0 i1 (t ) =

vc (0+ ) =
1
104

1
1
ic (0+ ) = 106 [i1 (0+ )
vc (0+ )] = 106
C
5000
(6 103 ) = 6000 = 1000 A 2 A 2 = 6

A1 = 0, vc (t ) = A 2 e 100t sin1000t

1
1063
1
=
= 100 s 1 , o2 =
= 1.01 106
2RC 2 5
LC
60
d = 101 104 104 = 100; iL (0) =
= 6mA
10
vc (0) = 0 vc (t ) = e 100t (A1 cos1000t + A 2 sin1000t ), t > 0
=

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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37.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0 =

< 3464

and

1
10 10 6 R

1
2RC
or

R > 34.64 m.

1
; we require < 0.
LC

10 March 2006

Sketch of v(t).

PSpice schematic for t > 0 circuit.

v(t) = e-2887t (50 cos 1914t + 75.42 sin 1914t) V.

From PSpice the settling time using R = 34.64 is approximately 1.6 ms.

50 103
iL(0 ) = 0 =
[B d - A ], so that B = 75.42 V.
3

iL(t) = L

dvL
dv
= L C
dt
dt
t
= L e ( A d t sin d t + B d t cos d t ) - e t ( A cos d t + Bsin d t )

v(t) = e-t (A cos dt + B sin dt) where = 2887 s-1 and d = 1914 rad/s.
iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0 and vC(0+) = vC(0-) = (2)(25) = 50 V = A.

For R = 34.64 (1000 the minimum required value), the response is:

We replace the 25- resistor to obtain an underdamped response:

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Thus,

Thus,

38.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Td = tm1 +
;
2
d

d
1

, tm1 =
tan 1 d

vm 2
v
1
= e / d ; let m 2 =
Vm1
vm1 100

21
21
= 2.02351; d = 6
= 1.380363
10.378
10.378

ts = 2.145sec; vm 2 = 0.7126 < 0.01vm1

vm1 = 71.2926v Computed values show

v = 304.268e 2.02351t sin 1.380363t v tm1 = 0.434 s,

0
21

B = B 6
= 4R 10 +
B = 1.380363
10.3780
10.378

vm 2
< 0.01, chose R = 10.3780 v(0+ ) = d
vm1

21
R = 1/ 6 441 +
= 10.3781 To keep
100

e / d = 100, =

d
1
21
ln 100; =
= ,
2RC R

1
21 ln100
6R 2 441
02 =
= 6 d = 6 441/ R 2
LC
R R

sin d tm1

vm1 = Be tm1 sin d tm1 vm 2 = Be tm1 / d

tm 2 = tm1 +

tan d t =

v = e t [ Bsin d t + d B cos d t ] = 0

v = Be t sin d t

v = et (A cos d t + Bsin d t ) A = 0,

v(0) = 0; i (0) = 10A

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

39.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

We see from the simulation


result below that our hand
calculations are correct; the
slight disagreement is due to
numerical inaccuracy.
Changing the step ceiling
from the 10-ms value
employed to a smaller value
will improve the accuracy.

iL(t) = e-4t (4 cos 3.162t + 5.06 sin 3.162t) A and iL(.25) = 2.358 A.

and so with vC(0+) = 0 = (2/13) (3.162D 4C), we obtain D = 5.06 A.

vC(t) = (2/13) [e-t (-Cd sin dt + Dd cos dt) - e-t (C cos dt + D sin dt)]

= 1/2RC = 4 s-1 and 0 = 5.099 rad/s. Since < 0, the new response will still be
underdamped, but with d = 3.162 rad/s. We still may write

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

Thus,

(b)

Thus,

iL(t) = e-0.4t (4 cos 5.083t + 0.3148 sin 5.083t) A and iL(2.5) = 1.473 A.

ith vC(0+) = 0 = (2/13) (5.083D 0.4C), we obtain D = 0.3148 A.

W
and

When the 4-A source turns off at t = 0 s, we are left with a parallel RLC circuit such that
= 1/2RC = 0.4 s -1 and 0 = 5.099 rad/s. Since
< 0, the response will be
underdamped with d = 5.083 rad/s. Assume the form iL(t) = e-t (C cos dt + D sin dt)
for the response.

For t < 0 s, we see from the circuit that the capacitor and the resistor are shorted by
the presence of the inductor. Hence, iL(0-) = 4 A and vC(0-) = 0 V.

Chapter Nine Solutions

ith iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 4 A, we find C = 4 A. To find D, we first note that


di
vC(t) = vL(t) = L L
dt
so vC(t) = (2/13) [e-t (-Cd sin dt + Dd cos dt) - e-t (C cos dt + D sin dt)]

40. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

Using the cursor tool, the settling


time is approximately 4.65 s.

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

W
Thus,

We see that the simulation


result confirms our hand
analysis; there is only a
slight difference due to
numerical error between
the simulation result and
our exact expression.

ith vC(0+) = 0 = (2/13) (5D 4), we obtain D = 0.8 A.


iL(t) = e-t (4 cos 5t + 0.8 sin 5t) A

and

ith iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 4 A, we find C = 4 A. To find D, we first note that


di
vC(t) = vL(t) = L L
dt
so vC(t) = (2/13) [e-t (-Cd sin dt + Dd cos dt) - e-t (C cos dt + D sin dt)]

When the 4-A source turns off at t = 0 s, we are left with a parallel RLC circuit such that
= 1/2RC = 1 s-1 and 0 = 5.099 rad/s. Since < 0, the response will be underdamped
with d = 5 rad/s. Assume the form iL(t) = e-t (C cos dt + D sin dt) for the response.

41. (a,b)
For t < 0 s, we see from the circuit below that the capacitor and the resistor are
shorted by the presence of the inductor. Hence, iL(0-) = 4 A and vC(0-) = 0 V.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R 80
=
= 20
2L 4

Chapter Nine Solutions

1
1
1
vL (0+ ) = [0 vc (0+ )] = 210
L
2
2

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(420sin 0.4 210 cos 0.4) = 13.420 V Checks]

VL (40ms) = e 0.8

(210 cos10t + 420sin10t )V, t > 0

vL (40ms) = e 0.8 (210 cos 420sin + 840 sin) = e 20t

= e 20t (210 cos10t + 420sin10t ) V, t > 0

[check: vL = e 20t (210 cos 420sin + 840sin)

(40ms) = 160.40 + 146.98 = 13.420 V

vL (t ) = vc (t ) vc (t ) vR (t ) vL

vR (40ms) = 840e 0.8 sin 0.4 = 146.98 V

vR (t ) = 80iL = 840e 20t sin 10tV

iL (t ) = 10.5e 20t sin10t A, t > 0

iL (0+ ) = 105 = 10B2 B2 = 10.5

iL (0+ ) =

Also, i(L = e 20t B1 cos10t + B2 sin10t ),

vc (40ms) = e 0.8 (210 cos 0.4 + 420sin 0.4) = 160.40 V

vc (t ) = e 20t (210 cos10t + A 2 sin10t ); vc (0+ ) =

1
ic (0+ ) = 0
C
20 t
0 = 10A 2 20 (210), A 2 = 420 vc (t ) = e (210 cos10t + 420sin10t )

o2 =

100
= 500 : d = 500 202 = 10
2
vc (t ) = e 20t (A1 cos10t + A 2 sin10t ) A1 = 210 V

vc (0) = 50 + 80 2 = 210 V, iL (0) = 0, =

42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1
vL (0+ ) = 4 (20 20) = 0
L

iL (t ) = e 4t (10 cos 2t + 20sin 2t )A, t > 0

iL (0+ ) = 2A 2 4 10 A 2 = 20

A1 = 10; iL (0+ ) =

R
2
1
4
=
= 4, o2 =
=
= 20, d = 20 16 = 2
2L 1/ 2
LC 0.2
iL = e 4t (A1 cos 2t + A 2 sin 2t ); iL (0) = 10A, vc (0) = 20V

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

43. Series:

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
C

15
= 0.3ms
50, 000

vc ,max = 0.2489V

vc (0) = 10V vc
max

= 10V

vc (tm ) = e 3 (15 10) = 5e 3 = 0.2489V

5 = 50, 000tm 10 tm =

vc (t ) = e 10,000t [50, 000 10, 000 (50, 000t 10)] =

vc (t ) = e 10,000t (50, 000t 10) V, t > 0

Now, (vc 0+ ) = A1 + 105 = 150, 000 A1 = 50, 000

iL (0) = 106 (0.15) = 150, 000

A 2 = 10, vc (t ) = e 10000t (A1t 0); vc (0+ ) =

crit. damp; 2 =

R2
1
1
= o2 =
L = R 2C
2
4L
LC
4
1
200
L = 4 104 6 = 0.01H, =
= 104 = o
4
0.02
vc (t ) = e 10000t (A1t + A 2 ); vc (0) = 10V, iL (0) = 0.15A

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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(c)

(b)

44. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

R 0.02 106
106 3
=
= 4000, o2 =
= 1.2 107
2L
2 2.5
2.5 10

mF

vc (t ) = (2.25e 200t 0.25e6000t ) u (t ) + 2u (t ) V (checks)

0.5 = 2A 2 , = 0.25, A1 = 2.25

vc (t ) = A1e 2000t + A 2 e6000t ; vc (0) =

1
100 = 2V
50
1
iL (0) = 100A 2 = A1 + A 2 , vc (0+ ) =
C
3
(iL (0)) =
103 100 = 3000v / s
100
3000 = 200A1 600A 2 , 1.5 = A1 3A 2

s1,2 = 4000 16 106 12 106 = 2000, 6000

F
A

Obtain an expression for vc(t) in the circuit of Fig. 9.8 (dual) that is valid for all t.

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

45.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

and i0.5345A
L max =

iL (t2 ) = 0.5345 iL
max

= 2.571A

2t2 = 2 0.5536 + , t2 = 2.124,

2 cos 2t = sin 2t , tan 2t = 2


t1 = 0.5536 s, iL (t1 ) = 2.571A

iL = 5[e t (2 cos 2t sin 2t )] = 0

1
i1 (0) = vL (0+ ) = vR (0+ ) Vc (0+ ) = 0 10 = 2B2
1
B2 = 5 iL = 5e t sin 2tA, t > 0

B1 = 0, iL = B2 e t sin 2t

R 2
1
= = 1, o2 =
= 5, d = o2 2 = 2
2L 2
LC
t
iL = e (B1 cos 2t + B2 sin 2t ), iL (0) = 0, vc (0) = 10V

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

46. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R 250
1
106
=
= 25, o2 =
=
= 400
2L 10
LC 2500

vc (t ) = 100e10t V t > 0

1
106
vc = ic (0+ )
(0.5) = 1000
c
500
10A 3 40A 4 = 1000 3A 4 = 0, A 4 = 0, A 3 = 100

vc = A 3e 10t + A 4 e40t 100 = A 3 + A 4 ;

iL (t ) = 0.5e10t A, t > 0

A1 + 20 30A1 = 15, A1 = 0.5, A 2 = 0

5 = 10 A1 + 40 (0.5 A1 ) = 10A1 40

1
1
0.5 = A1 + A 2 , iL (0+ ) = vL (0+ ) =
5
5
(100 25 100) = 5 A / s = 10A1 40A 2

iL = A1 e 10t + A 2 e40t , iL (0) = 0.5A, vc (0) = 100V

s1,2 = 2 o2 = 25 15 = 10, 40

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

47. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

This answer is borne out by PSpice simulation:

Thus, iL(2) = 1.895 A

vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 0 = (9)(-0.25)(2.25) + (9)(0.2205B)


so B = 2.551 and
iL(t) = e-0.25t [2.25 cos 0.2205t + 2.551 sin 0.2205t] A

In order to determine B, we must invoke the remaining boundary condition. Noting that
di
vC(t) = vL(t) = L L
dt
= (9)(-0.25)e-0.25t (2.25 cos 0.2205t + B sin 0.2205t)
+ (9) e-0.25t [-2.25(0.2205) sin 0.2205t + 0.2205B cos 0.2205t]

so iL(t) = e0.25t (2.25 cos 0.2205t + B sin 0.2205t)

iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 2.25 = A

Considering the circuit as it exists for t < 0, we conclude that vC(0-) = 0 and iL(0-) = 9/4 =
2.25 A. For t > 0, we are left with a parallel RLC circuit having = 1/2RC = 0.25 s-1 and
o = 1/ LC = 0.3333 rad/s. Thus, we expect an underdam
ped response with d =
0.2205 rad/s:
iL(t) = e-t (A cos dt + B sin dt)

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

48.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

vL(t) = A e21.32t + B e-9379t


[1]

From the circuit as it exists for t < 0, it is evident that iL(0-) = 0 and vC(0-) = 4.7 kV

We are presented with a series RLC circuit having


= R/2L = 4700 s-1 and o = 1/ LC = 447.2 rad/s; therefore we expect an
overdamped response with s1 = -21.32 s-1 and s2 = -9379 s-1.

Chapter Nine Solutions

t>0

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

and the peak inductor voltage magnitude is 4700 V.

vL(t) = 10.71e-21.32t - 4711 e-9379t V,

Simultaneous solution of Eqs. [2] and [3] yields A = 10.71 and B = -4711. Thus,

With iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0 and iR(0+) = 0 we conclude that vR(0+) = 0; this leads to vL(0+) =
-vC(0-) = -4.7 kV and hence A + B = -4700 [2]
di
Since
vL = L , we may integrate Eq. [1] to find an expression for the inductor current:
dt
B 9379t
1 A 21.32t
iL(t) =
e
e

L 21.32
9379

1
B
A
t = 0+, iL = 0 so we have
= 0 [3]
At
-3
500 10 21.32 9379

Thus,

49.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

This corresponds to A = 100 mA, B = -100 mA, s1 = -4.167 s-1 and s2 = -24106 s-1

Iterating, we find that Rbear = 119.9775 .

Thus, A exp[(1810-6)s1] + B exp[(1810-6)s2] = 10010-3

What else is known? We know that the bear stops reacting at t = 18 s, meaning that the
current flowing through its fur coat has dropped just below 100 mA by then (not a long
shock).

vL(0+) = ALs1 + BLs2 = vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 12

vL = Ldi/dt = ALs1 es1t + BLs2 es2t

di/dt = As1 es1t + Bs2 es2t

Using our first initial condition, ibear(0+) = iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0 = A + B

ibear = Aes1t + Bes2t

With the 144 mJ originally stored via a 12-V battery, we know that the capacitor has a
value of 2 mF. The initial inductor current is zero, and the initial capacitor voltage is 12
V. We begin by seeking a (painful) current response of the form

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

50.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

iL(100 ms) = 2.249 A and so wL(100 ms) = 22.76 J

iL(t) = e-0.3333t (0.7499t + 2.25) A

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Thus,

diL
= 9(-0.3333) e-0.3333t (At + 2.25) + 9A e-0.3333t
dt

vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 0 = 9(-0.333)(2.25) + 9A so A = 0.7499 amperes and

vC(t) = vL(t) = L

Invoking the remaining initial condition requires consideration of the voltage across the
capacitor, which is equal in this case to the inductor voltage, given by:

iL(t) = e-0.3333t (At + 2.25)

that iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 2.25, we see that B = 2.25 and hence

iL(t) = e-t (At + B)

The inductor energy is given by wL = L [iL(t)]2, so we seek an expression for iL(t):

Considering the circuit at t < 0, we note that iL(0-) = 9/4 = 2.25 A and vC(0-) = 0.
1
1
=
, which, with
For a critically damped circuit, we require = o, or
2RC
LC
L = 9 H and C = 1 F, leads to the requirement that R = 1.5 (so = 0.3333 s-1).

Noting

51.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v
50
to t = 0, we find that v = (10 + i1 ) and i1 =
5
15
10 500
so v = 100 V .
v 1 =
15 15

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

1
=
LC

1
9

( 2 10 )( 20 10 )

= 1.581 105 rad/s

R
10
=
= 2.5 103 s 1
2 L 2 2 103

diL
dt

t =0

iL (t ) = 316e2500t sin1.581 105 t mA

= 100 we find that B2 = -0.316 A.

diL d t
= ( e B2 sin d t ) = B2 e t ( sin d t + d cos d t ) and
dt dt

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Finally,

that

t = 0, iL = 0 B1 = 0 .

We may therefore write the response as


iL (t ) = e t ( B1 cos d t + B2 sin d t )

d = 02 2 = 1.581 105 rad/s

ith < 0 we find the circuit is underdamped, with

0 =

The circuit for t > 0 may be reduced to a simple series circuit consisting of a 2 mH
inductor, 20 nF capacitor, and a 10 resistor; the dependent source delivers exactly the
current to the 5 that is required.

Therefore, vC (0+ ) = vC (0 ) = 100 V, and iL (0+ ) = iL (0 ) = 0.

Noting

At

and

Thus,

Thus,

52. Prior

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
=
LC

( 2 10 )( 20 10 )
3

= 1.581 105 rad/s

R
10
=
= 2.5 103 s 1
3
2 L 2 2 10

dvC
= iL and
dt

vC (t ) = e2500t 100 cos (1.581105 t ) + 1.581sin (1.581105 t ) V

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Finally,

we find that B2 = 1.581 V .

which is equal to zero at t = 0 (since iL = 0)

d t
e (100 cos d t + B2 sin d t )
dt
= e t (100 cos d t + B2 sin d t ) 100d sin d t + B2d cos d t

that C

t = 0, vC = 100 B1 = 100 V .

We may therefore write the response as


vC (t ) = e t ( B1 cos d t + B2 sin d t )

d = 02 2 = 1.581 105 rad/s

ith < 0 we find the circuit is underdamped, with

0 =

The circuit for t > 0 may be reduced to a simple series circuit consisting of a 2 mH
inductor, 20 nF capacitor, and a 10 resistor; the dependent source delivers exactly the
current to the 5 that is required to maintain its current.

Noting

At

and

Thus,

10 March 2006

to t = 0, we find that vC = 100 V, since 10 A flows through the 10 resistor.

Chapter Nine Solutions

Therefore, vC (0+ ) = vC (0 ) = 100 V, and iL (0+ ) = iL (0 ) = 0.

53. Prior

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

and

Thus,

d = 02 2 = 538 mrad/s

ith < 0 we find the circuit is underdamped, so that

R 1.25
=
= 0.208 s 1
2L
6
1
1
0 =
=
= 577 mrad/s
3
LC

t = 0 we are left with a series RLC circuit where i1 =

10 March 2006

diL
dt
t =0

= vC (0) and

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

iL (t ) = 1.935e 0.208t sin 0.538t A for t > 0 and 2.5 A, t < 0

we find that B2 = 7.738 V.

v (t ) 12.5
diL d t
= e ( B2 sin d t ) = B2 e t [ sin d t + d cos d t ] = C =
(t = 0)
dt dt
L
3

that L

t = 0, iL = 0 B1 = 0 A .

We may therefore write the response as


iL (t ) = e t ( B1 cos d t + B2 sin d t )

Finally,

to t = 0, i1 = 10/4 = 2.5 A, v = 7.5 V, and vg = 5 V.


vC(0+) = vC(0) = 7.5 + 5 = 12.5 V and iL = 0

Chapter Nine Solutions

iL
. We may replace the
4
dependent current source with a 0.5 resistor. Thus, we have a series RLC circuit with R
1.25 , C = 1 F, and L = 3 H.

Noting

At

After

54. Prior
Thus,

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

and

Thus,

to t = 0, i1 = 10/4 = 2.5 A, v = 7.5 V, and vg = 5 V.


vC(0+) = vC(0) = 12.5 V and iL = 0

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

vC (t ) = e 0.208t [12.5cos18.26t + 0.143sin18.26t ] V for t > 0 and 12.5 V, t < 0

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Finally,

that
dvC d t
= e ( B1 cos d t + B2 sin d t )
dt
dt
t
= e [12.5cos d t + B2 sin d t ] + e t [ 12.5d sin d t + d B2 cos d t ]
and this expression is equal to 0 at t = 0,
we find that B2 = 0.143 V.

t = 0, vC = 12.5 B1 = 12.5 V .

We may therefore write the response as


vC (t ) = e t ( B1 cos d t + B2 sin d t )

d = 02 2 = 18.26 rad/s

ith < 0 we find the circuit is underdamped, so that

R 1.25
=
= 0.208 s 1
2L
6
1
1
0 =
=
= 18.26 rad/s
3
LC
3
10

(
)

t = 0 we are left with a series RLC circuit where i1 =

iL
. We may replace the
4
dependent current source with a 0.5 resistor. Thus, we have a series RLC circuit with R
1.25 , C = 1 mF, and L = 3 H.

Noting

At

After

55. Prior
Thus,

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R 100
=
= 500,
2L 0.2

e500to (3000to + 6) = 3; by SOLVE, to = 3.357ms

iL (t ) = 3u (t ) + [3 + e 500t (3000t + 6)] u (t )A

(3000t + 6), t > 0

iL (0+ ) = A1 300 =

1
[vc (0) vR (0+ )] = 0
L
5000 t
A1 = 3000 e
iL (t ) = 3 + e 500t

iL = 3 + e 500t (A1t + A 2 ) 3 = 3 + A 2 , A 2 = 6A

iL (0) = 3, vc (0) = 300V

o2 =

1 10 106
=
= 250, 000
LC
40
Crit. damp iL ( f ) = 3(1 2) = 3,

Series, driven: =

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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(b)

56. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R
2
1
=
= 4, o2 =
= 4 5 = 20
2L 0.5
LC

1
vL (0+ ) = 4 0 = 0 iL (0+ ) = 0 = 2A 2 + 40, A 2 = 20
L

iL(t) = 10 - e-4t (20 sin 2t + 10 cos 2t) A, t > 0

iL (0+ ) =

0 = 10 + A1 , A1 = 10, iL (t ) = 10 + e 4t (A 2 sin 2t 10 cos 2t )

iL , f = 10A iL (t ) = 10 + e 4t (A1 cos 2t + A 2 sin 2t )

d = 20 16 = 2 iL (t ) = e 4t (A1 cos 2t + A 2 sin 2t ) + iL , f

vc (0) = 0, iL (0) = 0, =

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

iL (t ) = 0.5 + 1e 10t A, t > 0; iL (t ) = 0.5A, t > 0

A1 + A 2 = 110 = 10A 2 40 (1+A1 ) = 50A1 + 40, A1 = 1, A 2 = 0

iL (0+ ) = 10 10 = 10A1 40A 2 , 0.5 = 0.5 + A1 + A 2

t = 0+ : vL (0+ ) = 100 50 1 200 0.5 = 50V 50 = 5iL (0+ )

iL (t ) = 0.5 + A1e 10t + A 2 e 40t A

iL (0) = 0.5A, vc (0) = 100V, iL , f = 0.5A

R 250
1
106
=
= 25, o2 =
=
= 400
2L 10
LC 2500
s1,2 = 25 625 400 = 10, 40

58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
106
1 106+3
=
= 4000, o2 =
=
= 20 106
2RC 100 2.5
LC
50

10 March 2006

= e 4000t (2 cos 2000t 4sin 2000t ) A, t > 0

= 106+3+3 e 4000t (4sin 2000t + 2 cos 2000t )

ic (t ) = Cvc = 2.5 106 400e 4000t (4000sin 200t + 2000 cos 200t )

4000 t

1
106
+
(2 1) = 8 105
vc = B2 e
sin 2000t , vc (0 ) = ic (0 ) =
C
2.5
4000 t
5
8 10 = 2000B2 , B2 = 400, vc = 400e
sin 2000t

work with vc : vc (t ) = e 4000t (B1 cos 2000t + B2 sin 2000t ) B1 = 0

ic , f = 0, (vc , f = 0) ic = e 400t (A1 cos 2000t + A 2 sin 2000t )

d = o2 2 = 2000, iL (0) = 2A, vc (0) = 0

Chapter Nine Solutions

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59.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
8 106
8 106 13
2
=
=
1000,

=
= 26 106
o
3
2RC 2 4 10
4

So vc(t) = e-1000t (8 cos 1000t + 1.6 sin 1000t) V, t > 0

A1 = 8; vc (0+ ) =

1
8
0.008) = 0
ic (0+ ) = 8 106 (0.01
C
4000
5000A 2 1000 8 = 0, A 2 = 1.6

vc = e1000t (A1 cos1000t + A 2 sin 5000t )

iL (0) = 8mA, vc , f = 0

d = 26 1 103 = 5000, vc (0) = 8V

Chapter Nine Solutions

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(b)

60. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

R 1
1
= = 1, o2 =
= 1 crit. damp
2L 1
LC
5
vc (0) = 12 = 10V, iL (0) = 2A, vc , f = 12V
6
1
1
vc (t ) = 12 + e t (A1t 2); vc (0+ ) = ic (0+ ) = iL (0+ ) = 1
C
2
t
1 = A1 + 2; A1 = 1 vc (t ) = 12 e (t + 2) V, t > 0

61.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iR (t ) = 10 15e 500t + 5e1500t mA, t > 0

vc (t ) = 10 15e 500t + 5e 1500t V, t > 0

A 3 3A 4 = 0, add: 2A 4 = 10, A 4 = 5 A 3 = 15

[iL (0) iR (0+ )] = 2 106 (0 0) = 0 = 500A 3 1500A 4

vc (0) = 0, iL (0) = 0 A 3 + A 4 = 10V, vc (0+ ) = 2 106

vs = 10u (t ) V, vc , f = 10, vc = 10 + A 3e500t + A 4 e1500t ,

iR (t ) = 15e 500t 5e1500t mA, t > 0

vc (t ) = 15e 500t 5e1500t V t > 0

10

0.01
= 0 500A1 1500 A 2 = 0,
1000

A1 3A 2 = 0; add: 2 A 2 = 10, A 2 = 5, A1 = 15

A1 + A 2 = 10, vc (0+ ) = 2 106 [iL (0) iR (0+ )] = 2 106

1
106
vs = 10u (t ) V : =
=
= 1000
2RC 2000 0.5
1
2 106 3
o2 =
=
= 0.75 106 s1,2 = 500, 1500
LC
8
vc = A1e 500t + A 2 e 1500t , vo (0) = 10V, iL (0) = 10mA

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

62. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

106 (2500e 500t + 22,500e 1500t ) = 25e 500t + 22.5e1500t mA, t > 0

vc = 10 + 5e 500t 15e1500t V, is = ic =

10

4
vc (0+ ) = 106 ic (0+ ) = 106 0 +
= 2 10 = 500 A 3 1500 A 4
500

A 3 3A 4 = 40, add: 2 A 4 = 30, A 4 = 15, A 3 = 5,

vc = 10 + A3 e 500t + A 4 e1500t A 3 + A 4 = 10

vs (t ) = 10u (t ) V vc , f = 10V, vc (0) = 0, iL (0) = 0

= 2.5e 500t 22.5e 1500t mA, t > 0

is = 106 (2500e 500t 22,500e 1500t )

vc = 5e 500t + 15e 1500t V, t > 0 is = ic = Cvc

10

10 = A1 + A 2 , vc = 106 ic (0+ ) = 106 0


= 2 104

500
4
2 10 = 500A1 1500A 40 = A1 + 3A 2 30 = 2A 2 , A 2 = 15, A1 = 5

1
106
=
= 1000
2RC 1000
1 106 3
3
o2 =
=
s1,2 = 1000 106 106 = 500, 1500
LC
4
4
500 t
1500 t
vc , f = 0 vc = A1e
+ A2e
, vc (0) = 10V, iL (0) = 0
vs (t ) = 10u (t ) V: =

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

63. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(vC() = 0)

dvC
= (8010-3)(-0.375B e-0.375t sin 1.728t
dt

The energy stored in the capacitor at that instant is CvC2 = 11.04 J

vC(t) = 50.64 e0.375t sin 1.807t V and vC(t = 200 ms) = 16.61 V.

t = 0+, iC = 15 + 7 iL(0+) = 7 = (8010-3)(1.728B) so that B = 50.64 V.

iC(t) = -iL(t) = C

vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 0 = A and we may therefore write vC(t) = Be-0.375t sin (1.728t) V

vC(t) = e-t (A cos dt + B sin dt) + 0

Considering the circuit at t < 0, we see that iL(0-) = 15 A and vC(0-) = 0.


The circuit is a series RLC with = R/2L = 0.375 s -1 and 0 = 1.768 rad/s. W e therefore
of the
expect an underdam ped response with d = 1.728 rad/s. The general form
response will be

Chapter Nine Solutions

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Thus,

At

64.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 15 A
iC(0+) = 22 15 = 7 A and vS(0+) = 3(7) + vC(0+) = 51 V

(b)
Thus,

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

and vS(t) at t = 3.4 s = 44.002 V. This is borne out by PSpice simulation:

vS(t) = 44 + 2e-2.5t (-7cos 2.501t + 1.399sin 2.501t)


-2.5e-2.5t (-7cos 2.501t + 1.399sin 2.501t) + e-2.5t [17.51sin 2.501t + 3.499cos 2.501t)]

vS(t) = 51 = 44 + 2(-7) 2.5(-7) + 2.501B so B = 1.399 amperes and hence

Thus, iL(t) = 22 + e-2.5t (-7 cos 2.501t + B sin 2.501t)


di
di
vS(t) = 2 iL(t) + L L = 2iL + L = 44 + 2e-2.5t (-7cos 2.501t + Bsin 2.501t)
dt
dt
-2.5t
2.5e (-7cos 2.501t + Bsin 2.501t) + e-2.5t [7(2.501) sin 2.501t + 2.501B cos 2.501t)]

iL(t) = 22 + e-t (A cos dt + B sin dt)


iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 15 = 22 + A so A = -7 amperes

(d) We are presented with a s eries RLC circuit having = 5/2 = 2.5 s -1 and o = 3.536
rad/s. The natural response will therefore be underdamped with d = 2.501 rad/s.

(c) As t , the current through the inductor approaches 22 A, so vS(t ,) = 44 A.

vS(0-) = vC(0-) = 2(15) = 30 V

Chapter Nine Solutions

65. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

vC(t) = e-t (A cos dt + B sin dt)

t = 0+

= 8010-3[-2.5(30) + 2.501B] = -iL(0+) = -iL(0-) = -15 so B = -44.98 V

t = 0+

= (8010-3)[(-2.5)(-10.18) + 2.501B')] = 3 iL(0+) so B' = 10.48 V

Thus,

We see that our hand


calculations are supported by
the PSpice simulation.

vC(t') = e-2.5t (-10.18 cos 2.501t' + 10.48 sin 2.501t') and


iC(t') = e-2.5t (4.133 cos 2.501t' 0.05919 sin 2.501t').
Hence, vS(t') = 3 iC(t') + vC(t') = e-2.5t (2.219 cos 2.501t' + 10.36 sin 2.501t')

dt

iC(0+) = C dv C

t > 2: Define t' = t 1 for notational simplicity. Then, with the fact that vC() = 6 V,
our response will now be vC(t') = e-t' (A' cos dt' + B' sin dt') + 6.
With vC(0+) = A' + 6 = -4.181, we find that A' = -10.18 V.

Prior to switching, vC(t = 1) = -4.181 V and iL(t = 1) = -iC(t = 1) = -1.134 A.

Thus, vC(t) = e-2.5t (30 cos 2.501t 44.98 sin 2.501t) and
iC(t) = e-2.5t (-15 cos 2.501t + 2.994 sin 2.501t).
Hence, vS(t) = 3 iC(t) + vC(t) = e-2.5t (-15 cos 2.501t 36 sin 2.501t)

dt

iC(0+) = C dvC

vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 30 = A so we may write vC(t) = e-2.5t (30 cos 2.501t + B sin 2.501t)
dvC
= -2.5e-2.5t(30 cos 2.501t + B sin 2.501t)
dt
+ e-2.5t [-30(2.501)sin 2.501t + 2.501B cos 2.501t]

0<t<1

t < 0, we have 15 A dc flowing, so that iL = 15 A, vC = 30 V, v3 = 0 and vS = 30 V.


This is a series RLC circuit with = R/2L = 2.5 s-1 and 0 = 3.536 rad/s. We therefore
expect an underdamped response with d = 2.501 rad/s.

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66. For

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

at t = 0-.

t (s)

10 March 2006

diL
= B[(510-3)(-2000 e-2000t sin 1999t + 1999 e-2000t cos 1999t)]
dt

iL(t' = 0) = A' = 0.9239 and vx + vL + vC + 20 iL = 0 so that B' = -7.925.


Thus, iL(t') = e-2000 t' (0.9239 cos 1999t' 7.925 sin 1999t') and
hence iL(t = 2 ms) = iL(t' = 1 ms) = -1.028 A.

vL(t) = L

diL
, and this enables us to calculate that vL(t = 1 ms) = -13.54 V. Prior to the
dt
pulse returning to zero volts, -75 + vL + vC + 20 iL = 0 so vC(t' = 0) = 69.97 V.

iL(t') = e-2000t' (A' cos 1999t' + B' sin 1999t')

(d) Define t' = t 1 ms for notational convenience. With no source present, we expect a
new response but with the same general form:

Thus, iL(t) = 7.504 e-2000t sin 1999t and iL(1 ms) = 0.9239 A.

vL(0+) = vx(0+) vC(0+) 20 iL(0+) = B (510-3)(1999) so B = 7.504 A.

vL(t) = L

iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0 = A so A = 0. This leaves iL(t) = B e-2000t sin 1999t

The general form of the expected response is iL(t) = e-t (A cos dt + B sin dt)

(c) We are faced with a series RLC circuit having = R/2L = 2000 rad/s and 0 = 2828
rad/s. Thus, an underdamped response is expected with d = 1999 rad/s.

(b) iL(t) = 0 at t = 0+

(a) The source current ( = iL(t) ) =

75

vx (V)

Its probably easiest to begin by sketching the waveform vx:

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

67.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

The key will be to coordinate the decay dictated by , and the oscillation period
determined by d (and hence partially by ). One possible solution of many:

Chapter Nine Solutions

1
LC

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

And the operation is verified by a simple PSpice simulation:

Arbitrarily selecting R = 1 , we find that L = 1 H and C = 25.17 mF. We need the first
peak to be at least 5 V. Designing for B = 10 V, we need iL(0+) = 2(25.1710-3)(10) =
1.58 A. Our final circuit, then is:

d = 02 - = 39.73 rad/s =

1
2

R/2L = 0.5 so R = L and

Thus, vC(t) = B e-t sin 2t. This function has max/min at t = 0.25 s, 0.75 s, 1.25 s, etc.
Designing so that there is no strong damping for several seconds, we pick = 0.5 s-1.
Choosing a series RLC circuit, this now establishes the following:

Arbitra
rily set d = 2 rad/s.
We want a capacitor voltage vC(t) = e-t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t). If we go ahead and
decide to set vC(0-) = 0, then we can force A = 0 and simplify some of our algebra.

68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1
= 1.914106 rad/s, and so d2 = 02 2 leads to 2 = 332.8109
LC

Theoretically, this value must include the radiation resistance that accounts for the
power lost from the circuit and received by the radio; there is no way to separate this
effect from the resistance of the rag with the information provided.

Thus, = R/2L = 576863 s-1, and hence R = 1003 .

0 =

iL(t) = e-t (A cos dt + B sin dt) where we were given that d = 1.825106 rad/s.

The circuit described is a series RLC circuit, and the fact that oscillations are detected
tells us that it is an underdamped response that we are modeling. Thus,

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

69.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

dvC
dt
t =0+

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

and vC(1 ms) = -31.96 V. This is confirmed by the PSpice simulation shown below.

vC(t) = 133.3 e-2000t 8.333 e-8000t 50

Solving Eqs. [1] and [2], we find that A = 133.3 V and B = -8.333 V. Thus,

[2]

= 3 5 iL(0-) = -5 = -2510-6 (2000A + 8000B)

Thus, 2000A + 8000B = 5/2510-6

iC(0+) = C

dvC
= -2000 Ae-2000t 8000 Be-8000t
dt

t > 0, vC(t) = A e-2000t + B e-8000t - 50


vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 75 = A + B 50
so
A + B = 125
[1]

For

10 March 2006

t < 0, iL(0-) = 3 A and vC(0-) = 25(3) = 75 V. This is a series RLC circuit with =
R/2L = 5000 s-1 and 0 = 4000 rad/s. We therefore expect an overdamped response with
s1 = -2000 s-1 and s2 = -8000 s-1. The final value of vC = -50 V.

Chapter Nine Solutions

70. For

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

iC(t) = Cdv/dt = 0.4472B cos 0.2236t

Simulation using 741 op amps

Simulation using LF411 op amps

PSpice sim ulations ar e very sens itive to par ameter v alues; bette r re sults were obta ined
using LF411 instead of 741s (both were compared to the simple LC circuit simulation.)

In designing the op amp stage, we first write the differential equation:


dv
1 t
v dt + 10-3 + 2
= 0
(iC + iL = 0)

0
dt
10
and then take the derivative of both sides:
d 2v
1
= - v
2
dt
20
dv
With
= (0.2236)(2.236 10 3 ) = 5 10 4 , one possible solution is:
dt t = 0 +

v(t) = -2.236 sin 0.2236t mV

iC(0+) = 0.4472B = -iL(0+) = -iL(0-) = -110-3 so B = -2.23610-3 and thus

dv/dt = 0.2236B cos 0.2236t;

v(0+) = v(0-) = 0 = A therefore v(t) = B sin 0.2236t

= 0 (this is a series RLC with R = 0, or a parallel RLC with R = )


o2 = 0.05 therefore d = 0.223 rad/s. We anticipate a response of the form:
v(t) = A cos 0.2236t + B sin 0.2236t

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

71.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

iC(t) = Cdv/dt = 0.007071B cos 7.071t

In designing the op amp stage, we first write the differential equation:


dv
1 t
v dt + 2 + 10-3
= 0
(iC + iL = 0)

0
dt
20
and then take the derivative of both sides:
d 2v
= - 50v
dt 2
dv
With
= (7.071)(282.8) = 2178 , one possible solution is:
dt t = 0 +

v(t) = -282.8 sin 7.071t V

iC(0+) = 0.007071B = -iL(0+) = -iL(0-) = -2 so B = -282.8 and thus

dv/dt = 7.071B cos 7.071t;

v(0+) = v(0-) = 0 = A therefore v(t) = B sin 7.071t

= 0 (this is a series RLC with R = 0, or a parallel RLC with R = )


o2 = 50 therefore d = 7.071 rad/s. We anticipate a response of the form:
v(t) = A cos 7.071t + B sin 7.071t, knowing that iL(0-) = 2 A and v(0-) = 0.

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

72.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

dv
1
= v
dt
3.3
(b) One possible solution:

(a)

v
dv
+ 3.3 10- 3
1000
dt
or
= 0

Chapter Nine Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

73.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

One possible solution is:

d 2v
= 0.3v
dt 2

or

1
1
dv
vdt + 10-3 + vdt + 2

10 0
20
dt

= 0

and

The differential equation for this circuit is

di
dt

t =0+

=0

i(0+) = i(0-) = A = 110-3


di/dt = -Ad sin dt + Bd cos dt
vL = 10di/dt = -10Ad sin dt + 10Bd cos dt
vL(0+) = vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 0 = 10B(0.5477) so that B = 0
and hence i(t) = 10-3 cos 0.5477t A

We see either a series RLC with R = 0 or a parallel RLC with R = ; either way, = 0.
d = 0.5477 rad/s (com bining the tw o inductors in parallel for the
calculation). We expect a response of the form i(t) = A cos dt + B sin dt.

02 = 0.3 so

Chapter Nine Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

74.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

iL) = 5

20(-

diL
dt
or

diL
= - 4iL
dt

Chapter Nine Solutions

4 k

1 F

8V

1 k

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1 M

One possible solution, then, is

We know that iL(0-) = 2 amperes, so A = 2 and iL(t) = 2 e-4t


diL
= -4(2) = -8 A/s.
dt t = 0 +

10 March 2006

(b) We expect a response of the form iL(t) = A e-t/ where = L/R = 0.25.

vR = vL

75. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

8.5 cos (125) cos t + 8.5sin125

(c)

10 March 2006

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

sin t = 4.875+ cos 290.9t + 6.963sin 290.9t

8.5sin (290.9t + 325.0) = 8.5


cos(290.9t + 235) = 8.5 cos (290.9t 125)

= 0.6109rad + 2 = 5.672rad or 325.0


f (t ) = 8.5sin (290.9t + 325.0)

2103
= 290.9t rad/s
21.6
f (t ) = 8.5sin (290.9t + ) 0 = 8.5sin (290.9 2.1 103 + )
T = 4 (7.5 2.1)103 = 21.6 103 , =

Chapter Ten Solutions

(b)

(a)

1.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

0 < t < 10ms, 10 cos100t 12sin100t ; let 10cos100t =12sin100t


10
tan100t = , 100t = 0.6947 t = 2.211 ms 0 < t < 2.211 ms
12

i(t ) = 5cos10t 3sin10t = 0, 0 t 1 s


sin10t 5

= , 10t = 1.0304,
cos10t 3
t = 0.10304 s; also, 10t = 1.0304 + , t = 0.4172 s; 10t = 1.0304 + 2, t = 0.7314 s

G = 200sin130 = 153.2

200 cos (5t + 130) = Fcos 5t + G sin 5t F = 200cos130 = 128.6

A = 116 = 10.770, A cos = 10, A sin = 4 tan = 0.4, 3d quad


= 21.80 = 201.8, too large = 201.8 360 = 158.20

10 cos t + 4sin t + ACos ( wt + ), A > 0, 180 < 180

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d)

(c)

(b)

(a)

2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

f (t ) leads g (t ) by 149.04 15.255 = 133.8

g (t ) = 55cos t 15sin t = 57.01cos (t + 15.255)


ampl. of f (t ) = 58.31, ampl. of g (t ) = 57.01

f (t ) = 50 cos t 30sin t = 58.31cos (t + 149.04)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

Chapter Ten Solutions

B
that A cos x + B sin x = A2 + B 2 cos x + tan 1
. For f(t), the angle is in the
A

second quadrant; most calculators will return 30.96o, which is off by 180o.

(a) Note

3.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[A sin (
L t )] + RA cos (t ) = Vm cos t

R 2 + 2 L2

+ RA

*
R 2 + 2 L2

R
= Vm

Thus,

R 2 + 2 L2 A = ( Vm ) and therefore we may write A =

R2
2 L2
so that
+
A = Vm
2
2 2
R 2 + 2 L2
R + L

and LA

Thus, tan =

L
R
L

and LA sin + RA cos = Vm

LA cos = RA sin

= Vm cos t

R 2 + 2 L2

Vm

10 March 2006

LA sin t cos + LA cos t sin + RA cos t cos + RA sin t sin

i (t ) = A cos (t ), and
L(di / dt ) + Ri = Vm cos t

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

4.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 573589 - (85.2106)(21.15103) = 573589 - 573588 =

(85.2106)(21.15103) = 1801980, which is 573588, we find that

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Since

(85.2106)(21.15103) + = n, n = 1, 3, 5,

Delivering 300 W (peak) to a 5- load implies that

10 March 2006

Vm2
= 300 so Vm = 38.73 V.
5

Chapter Ten Solutions

f = 13.56 MHz so = 2f = 85.20 Mrad/s.

Finally,

5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
1

10 March 2006

-90o
-90o

cos (t 90o) leads sin (t 13o)


by 66 -90 = 156o.

1-103o
-90o

15 cos (1000t + 66o) leads -2 cos (1000t + 450o)


by 66 -90 = 156o.

15 66o
-2
450o = -2 90o = 2 270o

-33 sin(8t 9o) leads 12 cos (8t 1o) by


81 (-1) = 82o.

These two waveforms are in phase. Neither leads the other.

sin t
cos (t 90o)

1 -90o

sin (t 13o)
cos (t 90o)

2270o

1566o

15 cos (1000t + 66o)


-2 cos (1000t + 450o)

12-1o

3381o

-33 sin(8t 9o) -33(-9-90)o = 3381o


12 cos (8t 1o) 12-1o

1-103o

(b)

(a)

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d)

(c)

6.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1 -90o

-1

-cos (t - 100o) lags cos (t - 100o) by 180o.

7000 cos (t ) lags 9 cos (t 3.14o)


by 180 3.14 = 176.9o.

7000
- = 7000 -180o
9
-3.14o

-sin t lags sin t by 180o.

-90o = 190o
1 -90o

9 -3.14o

10 March 2006

-6 cos (260t + 9o) lags 6 cos (260t 9o)


by 360 9 189 = 162o.

6-9o
6189o

1 -100o
-1
-100o = 1 80o
180o

7000 cos (t )
9 cos (t 3.14o)

7000 -180o

(d)

190o

-sin t
sin t

1-100o

cos (t - 100o)
-cos (t - 100o)

6-9o

6 cos (260t 9o)


-6 cos (260t + 9o)

6189o

(a)

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(c)

(b)

7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[1]

V2
V1

V12 + V22

V2
V sin
= m
= tan and = tan-1(V2/ V1)
V1
Vm cos

10 March 2006

V1

2
2

V +V

2
1

V1

Thus, we can write v(t) = Vm cos (t + ) =

Vm =

V12 + V22 cos [ t + tan-1(V2/ V1)].

V12 + V22

Next, we see from the above sketch that we may write Vm = V1/ cos or

Dividing, we find that

V1 = Vm cos and V2 = Vm sin

V1 cos t V2 sin t = (Vm cos ) cos t (Vm sin ) sin t

Equating terms on the right hand sides of Eqs. [1] and [2],

v(t) = Vm cos (t + ) = Vm cos t cos - Vm sin t sin [2]

We assume this can be written as a single cosine such that

v(t) = V1 cos t - V2 sin t

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yields

8.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

0.8046 V.

(c) 0.8141 V.

(b) Remembering to set the calculator to radians, 0.7709 V.

(a) In the range 0 t 0.5, v(t) = t/0.5 V.


Thus, v(0.4) = 0.4/0.5 = 0.8 V.

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(d)

9.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V2
= m
2T
V2
= m
2T

1
2

V2
dt + m
2T
0

1
2

1
2

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4t
cos
dt
T

4t

1 + cos
dt
T

2t
cos
dt
T

V2
V2
4
= m T + m cos u 0
8
2T

V
= m
2

V2
= m
T

Vm = 110 2 = 155.6 V , 115 2 = 162.6 V , 120 2 = 169.7 V

(b)

cos 2 t dt

10 March 2006

Vrms

Chapter Ten Solutions

10. (a)

V2
= m
T

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

i = iC = C

dvC
, we may rewrite our KVL equation as
dt
dv
30 C + vC = 2 103 cos 5t
dt

2103cos5t + 10i + vC = 0.

We begin by defining a clockwise current i. Then, KVL yields

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

[1]

150 A

3
+ A2 cos 5t + ta+ n 1
= 2 10 cos 5t
A

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vC(t) = 13.33 cos (5t 89.62o) V.

Equating terms, we find that A = 13.33 V and = tan1 150 = 89.62o. Thus,

(150 A)

We anticipate a response of the form vC(t) = Acos(5t + ). Since

dvC
= 5 A sin(5t + ) ,
dt
we now may write Eq. [1] as 150Asin(5t + ) + Acos(5t + ) = 2103 cos5t. Using a
common
trigonometric identity, we may combine the two terms on the left hand side into
a single cosine function:

Since

11.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

yields

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

[1]

800 A

cos 400t + t + an 1
= 6 cos 400t
100 A

di
di
= 2 = 5.954cos (400t + 7.12o)
dt
dt

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i(t) = 7.442 cos (400t 82.88o) mV, so vL = L

Equating terms, we find that A = 7.442 mA and = tan1 8 = 82.88o. Thus,

(800 A) + (100 A)

Using a common trigonometric identity, we may combine the two terms on the left hand
side into a single cosine function:

800Asin(400t + ) + 100Acos(400t + ) = 6 cos400t.

6cos400t + 100i + vL = 0.
di
di
Since
vL = L = 2 , we may rewrite our KVL equation as
dt
dt
di
2 + 100i = 6 cos 400t
dt
We anticipate a response of the form i(t) = Acos(400t + ). Since
di
= 400 A sin(400t + ) ,
dt
we now may write Eq. [1] as

12. KVL

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t V 200o V. 20 mH j10 .

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

19.99
= 0.7427-21.81o A. Thus, iL(t) = 742.7 cos (500t 21.81o) mA.
19.99 + 5 + j 10

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IL =

20 || 60k = 19.99 . By current division, then,

Performing a quick source transformation, we replace the voltage source/20- resistor


series combination with a 10o A current source in parallel with a 20- resistor.

13. 20cos500

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

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= 31.80 cos (500t + 57.99) mA

sin (500t 32.01) = 2.544sin (500t 32.01) V


vL = 2.544 cos (500t + 57.99) V, ix

vL = LiL = 0.02 0.02544 (500)

(b)

10

cos 500t tan 1


15

162 + 102
= 0.2544 cos (500t 32.01) A

iL =

(a)

4.8

voc = 0.4 (15 85)

80
cos 500t
85
voc = 4.8cos 500t V

14.
At x x : R th = 80 20 = 16

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

ps = 0 when 105 t =

, t = 15.708s and also t = 25.83s


2

ps = vs iL = 10.600 cos105 t cos (105 t 57.99)

10 March 2006

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(c)

t = 10.121 or 25.83s

pL = 0 when 2 105 t 115.989 = 0, 180,

cos (105 t 57.99) = 4.494 sin (2 165 t 115.989)

pL = vL i = 8.989sin (105 t 57.99)

vL = 84.80sin (105 t 57.99)

vL = Li = 8 103 0.10600 (105 ) sin (105 t 57.99)

(b)

800

5
cos 105 t
= 0.10600 cos (10 t 57.99) A
2
2
500

500 + 800

57.99
pR = 0 when i = 0 105 t
= , t = 25.83s
180
2

i=

100

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

15.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10

cos 105 t tan 1 = 0.11767 cos (105 t 11.310) A


50

502 + 102
At 10
t = s, 105 t = 1 iL = 0.1167 cos (1rad 11.310) = 81.76mA

vL = 0.11767 10 cos (1rad 11.30 + 90) = 0.8462V

iL =

change to 6 cos 105 t V in series with 30; 30 + 20 = 50

Add, getting 0.2 cos105 t A 30

vs in series with 30 0.1cos105 t A 30

vs = 3cos105 t V, is = 0.1cos105 t A

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16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

t V 10o V. 0.3 mH j0.15 .

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

so that iL(t) = 12.5cos(500t 0.1074o) mA.

Solving, we find that IL = 0.0125-0.1074o A,

1 + 20IL = (100 + j0.15) IL

Performing a quick source transformation, we replace the voltage source-resistor series


combination with at 0.010o A current source in parallel with a 100- resistor. Current
division then leads to
100
= IL
( 0.01 + 0.2I L )
100 + j 0.15

17. cos500

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

37.70

cos 120 t tan 1

40

402 + 37.702
= 2.183cos (120 t 43.30) A

L , av =

1
0.2383 = 0.11916 J
2

1
L = 0.1 2.1832 cos 2 (120 t 43.30)
2
= 0.2383cos 2 (120 t 43.30) J

iL =

120

120
120
= 2A,
= 1A, 2 + 1 = 3A, 60 120 = 40
60
12
3 40 = 120 V, L = 12 = 37.70

vs1 = Vs 2 = 120 cos120 t V

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(b)

(a)

18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

so that iL = 1.414 cos (400t 45) + 1.342 cos (200t 26.57) A

Next , we open-circuit the 400 rad/s current source, and perform a


source transformation to obtain a voltage source with magnitude
1.5 40 = 60 V. Its contribution to the inductor current is
60
200(0.1)
cos (200t tan 1
)A
iL =
40
402 + 2002 (0.1) 2

Performing two quick source transformations,


120
180
= 2 A,
= 1.5 A, and noting that 60 120 = 40 ,
60
120
results in two current sources (with different frequencies) in parallel,
and also in parallel with a 40 resistor and the 100 mH inductor.
Next we employ superposition. Open-circuiting the 200 rad/s source first,
we perform a source transformation to obtain a voltage source having
magnitude 2 40 = 80 V. Applying Eqn. 10.4,
80
400(0.1)
cos (400t tan 1
)
iL =
40
402 + 4002 (0.1) 2

19. vs1 = 120 cos 400t V, vs 2 = 180 cos 200t V

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

=
C1 R

L
R

= vout +
Vm cos t = vout + R1C1vout

vout
R
d v
For RL circuit, Vm cos t = vr + L R
dt R
L
Vm cos t = vR + vR
R
By comparison, vR = vout

(vout Vm cos t ) = C1vout


R1

v
Vm cos t
, ilower = out
R
R1

ic1 = iupper + ilower =

iupper =

R i = , R o = 0, A = , ideal,

Chapter Ten Solutions

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20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

cos ( t + )
A
cos ( t + )
C

A
A
cos t cos sin t sin
C
C

10 March 2006

i =

A
1
C 1 + 2C2 R 2

1
cos t + tan 1

CR
1 + 2 C2 R 2

A
CVm
1 + 2 C2 R 2 A =
=
1 + 2C2 R 2
C

1+ C R

CR

A R 2C2 + 1

C 1 + 2 C2 R 2

CVm

Vm =

[2] Vm = R A

Equating terms on the left and right side,


A
1
[1] R A sin = cos tan =
so t = an 1 (1 CR ) , and
CR
C

Vm sin t = R A cos sin t-R A sin cos t +

Vm sin t = R A sin ( t + ) +

Assume iA=

1
idt (ignore I.C)
C
1
Vm sin t = Ri + i
C
Vm cos t = Ri +

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(b)

21.
(a)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(f) 3 = 3 0o

(e) 2 (1 + j 9) = -2 j 18 = 18.11 - 96.34o

1 0o = 1

(d)

10 March 2006

14ej15 = 14 15o = 14 cos 15o + j 14 sin 15o = 13.52 + j 3. 623

(b) 3 + j + 7 -17o = 3 + j + 6.694 j 2.047 = 9.694 j 1.047

7 -90o = -j 7

Chapter Ten Solutions

(c)

22. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

= 5 4.992 -20.05o = 5 4.689 j 1.712 = 0.3109 + j 1.712

(c) 5 16(9 j 5)/ (33 -9o) = 5 (164 -29.05o)/ (33 -9o)

(j 12)(17 180o) = (12 90o)(17 180o) = 204 270o = j 204

(a) 3 + 15 -23o = 3 + 13.81 j 5.861 = 16.81 j 5.861

Chapter Ten Solutions

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(b)

23.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

= 19.86 j 8.409 = 21.57 -22.95o

17 -33o + 6 -21o + j 3 = 14.26 j 9.259 + 5.601 j 2.150 + j 3

= 1.471 + j 1.382 + 4.330 j 2.5 = 5.801 j 1.118 = 5.908 -10.91o

(c) (14 j 9)/ (2 j 8) + 5 -30o = (16.64 -32.74o)/ (8.246 - 75.96o) + 4.330 j 2.5

(b) (8 j 15)(4 + j 16) j = 272 + j 68 j = 272 + j 67 = 280.1 13.84o

= 5.011 137.1o

(a) 5 9o 9 -17o = 4.938 + j 0.7822 8.607 + j 2.631 = -3.668 + j 3.414

Chapter Ten Solutions

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(d)

24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

= 2.224 + j 2.310 = 3.207 46.09o

= 1.768 + j 1.768 + 0.4546 + j 0.5418

2.5 45o + (2 5o)/ (2.828 -45o) = 1.768 + j 1.768 + 0.7072 50o

(5 30o)/ (2 -15o) + 2 e j5 / (2 j 2)

= 0.9703 + j 0.2419 + 8.988 + j 0.4710 + 8 j 6 = 17.96 j 5.287 = 18.72 -16.40o

(a) ej14 + 9 3o (8 j 6)/ j2 = 1 14o + 9 3o (8 j 6)/ (-1)

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

25.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

6e j160 = 5.638 + j 2.052


(3 + j 6) (250) = 5.336 + j12.310
100 j 40 = 107.70 158.20

250 + 3 120 = 1.0873 101.37

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

5 110 = 1.7101 j 4.698

(a)

26.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

2 2 j5
+
= 4.050 69.78
j 1+ j2

3+
(2.125)3 = 9.26175 = 2.397 + j8.945+
0.7e j 0.3 = 0.70.3rad = 0.6687 + j 0.2069

(b)
(c)
(d)

10 March 2006

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40 50 1825 = 39.39 76.20

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

27.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

vs = 34.93e j (40t 53.63 ) V

vL = (32 + j 64) e j (40t +30) V vs = (32 + j 64 j 50) e j (40t + 30)

iL = (20 j10) e j (40t +30) , vL = j 40 0.08(20 j10) e j (40t + 30)

vc = j 50e j (40t +30) , iR = j10e j (40t + 30) A

28.
ic = 20e(40t +30) A vc = 100 20e j (40t +30) dt

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

d
[20e j (10t + 25) ] = j 40e(10t = 25 )
dt

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

is = 65.12e j (10t +125.62) A

ic = (32 + j 64) e j (10t + 25) is = (12 + j 64) e j (10t + 25)

vs = (80 + j 40) e j (10t + 25) , ic = 0.08(80 + j 40) j10e j (10t + 25)

vR = 80e j (10t + 25)

vL = 0.2

29.
iL = 20e j (10t + 25) A

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

vs = 40sin (500t + 10) = 40 cos (500t 80)

(b)

iout = 3.366e j (500t +53.80 ) A

vs = (50 + j 20) e j 500t = 53.85+ e j 21.80+ j 500t

+ j 40sin (500t + 10) iout = 2.5e j (500t + 42) A

vs = 40e j (500t +10) = 40 cos (500t + 10)

10 March 2006

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(d)

(c)

vs = 40 cos (500t + 10) iout = 2.5cos (500t + 42) A

(a)

iout = 2.5cos (500t 48) A

80 cos(500t 20) V 5 cos (500t + 12) A

Chapter Ten Solutions

30.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

4 cos (200t 30) 5cos (200t + 20)


4 30 520 = 3.910 108.40 A

= 600, t = 5ms : 7030 V

(c)

(d)

72.11cos (3rad + 146.31) = 53.75 V

= 600, t = 5ms : 60 + j 40 V = 72.11146.3

10 March 2006

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(e)

7 sin 800t 3cos 800t j 7 3


= 3 + j 7 = 7.616113.20 A

(b)

70 cos (600 5 103rad + 30) = 64.95 V

12 sin (400t + 110) A 1220A

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

31.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

33 50 + 41 75 = 72.27 63.87 V

vx = 33cos (80t 50) + 41cos (80t 75)

20 + j 30 = 36.0656.31 V

vx = 20 cos108t 30sin108t

= 50 cos (250t 130) Vx = 50 130 V

vx (t ) = 50sin (250t 40)

ix = 4.272 cos (4rad + 159.44) = 3.750 A

I x = 4 + j1.5 = 4.272159.44 A

Chapter Ten Solutions

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(e)

(d)

(c)

(b)

I x = 5 80 A

(a)

ix = 5cos (4rad 80) = 4.294 A

= 4000, t = 1ms

32.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

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= 50sin 0.25rad + 40sin 0.6rad = 34.96mV

+ 8cos (1.2 0.5 + 90)]

vout = (5) [10 cos (500 0.5 103rad + 90)

= 1200, M by 5, t = 0.5ms

33. V1 = 1090 mV, = 500; V2 = 890 mV,

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Begin with the inductor:


40o) (j500) (2010-3) = 25130o V across the inductor and the 25- resistor.
The current through the 25- resistor is then (25130o) / 25 = 1130o A.

Chapter Ten Solutions

so vs(t) = 35.47 cos (500t + 58.93o) V.

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and

Vs = 10(26.9361.8o) + (25 -30o) + (25130o) = 35.47 58.93o

The current through the unknown element is therefore 2.540o + 1130o =


2.693
61.80o A; this is the same current through the 10- resistor as well.
Armed with this information, KVL provides that

34.
(2.5

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V3 = V2 4830o = 75.88 79.48o 4830o = 57.70118.7o V


v3 (t ) = 57.70 cos (5000t + 118.70) V

(c)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

V2 = V1 + 5(9.16549.11o) + 60120o = 75.8879.48o V


v2 (t ) = 75.88cos (5000t + 79.48) V

v1(t) = 18.33 cos (5000t 40.89o) V.

V1 = (1/jC)(9.16549.11o) = -j2 (9.16549.11o) = 18.33-40.89o V.

(b)

Thus,

10

The inductor voltage = 48 30o = jL IL = j(5000)(1.210-3) IL


So IL = 8-60o and the total current flowing through the capacitor is
0o - IL = 9.16549.11o A and the voltage V1 across the capacitor is

(a)

10 March 2006

= 5000 rad/s.

Chapter Ten Solutions

35.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Solving, we find that = 2.189 rad/s.

or 2 - 3 - 1 = 0

We desire the frequency w at which Vseries = 2VR or Vseries = 2


2
Thus, we need to solve the equation 1 + ( - 1/ ) = 4

VR = 1 and Vseries = 1 + ( - 1/ )

VR = 10o V, Vseries = (1 + j j/)(10o)

Chapter Ten Solutions

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36.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Vx = 9.89278.76 V, vx = 9.892 cos (400t + 78.76) V

Vx = VL Vc = 7.805+ 48.79 5 50

VL = 4 1.951390 4.211 = 7.805+ 48.79 V

I L = 3 240 = 1.9513 41.211 A

With an operating frequency of = 400 rad/s, the impedance of the 10-mH inductor is
jL = j4 , and the impedance of the 1-mF capacitor is j/C = -j2.5 .
Vc = 240 ( j 2.5) = 5 50 A

Chapter Ten Solutions

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37.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

90 j 30
= 12.415+ j 20.21
440

10 March 2006

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+ (26.15117.97) (2.560)
= 165.90 140.63V

= 49.842 60.32
Vout = (49.842 60.32) (2.5 60)

B =

30.06 153.82
= 26.148117.97
1.1496 + 88.21
A = 12.415+ j 20.21 10.800 + j 23.81

12.415+ j 20.21 40 10 = B (1 1.5 50)


= B (1.1496 + 88.21)

8010
3 30
=A+B
A = 40 10 B(1.5 50)
220
220
12.415+ j 20.21 B = 40 10 B(1.5 50)

and 90 j 30 = (A + B) (440) A + B =

Let Vout = AI s1 + BI s 2 8010 = A(220) + B(3 30)

Now let I s1 = 2.5 60 A and I s 2 = 2.560 A

I s1 = I s 2 = 440 A Vout = 90 j 30 V

If I si = 220 A, I s 2 = 3 30 A Vout = 8010 V

38.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

j106
= 2000 rad/s, therefore ZC = j/C =
= j 291.8 m .
2000 ( 545.5 )

(c)

= 2109 rad/s, therefore ZC = j/C =

j106
= j 291.8 n .
2 109 ( 545.5 )

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d)

= 200 rad/s, therefore ZC = j/C =

(b)

j106
= j 2.918 .
200 ( 545.5 )

= 2 rad/s, therefore ZC = j/C =

j106
= j 291.8 .
2 ( 545.5 )

We begin by noting that the series connection of capacitors can be replaced by a single
1
equivalent capacitance of value C =
= 545.5 F
. Noting = 2f,
1+ 1 + 1
2
3

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

39.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

= 2103 rad/s, therefore Z = 5.4831012 + j5.236106 .


= 2106 rad/s, therefore Z = 5.483106 + j5.236106 .
= 2109 rad/s, therefore Z = 2.615 + j2.497 .
= 21012 rad/s, therefore Z = 5 + j4.775103 .

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

= 2 rad/s, therefore Z = j5.236109 (the real part is essentially zero).

(a)

= 2f,

5 j 109
6

Z=
5
9
5 + j 10
6

We begin by noting that the parallel connection of inductors can be replaced by a single
1
5
equivalent inductance of value L =
= nH . In terms of impedance, then, we have
1+ 5 6

Noting

40.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

300( j 312.5)
300 j 312.5

600( j 960)
= 587.6 + j119.79
600 + j 960

= 1600 : Zin =

Zin =

300( j 625) 600( j 480)


+
300 j 625 600 + j 480
= 478.0 + j175.65

= 800 : 2F j 625, 0.6H j 480

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

41.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b)

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

50 + j 66.67 150 + j 200 30 + j 40 4 j 3


=
=

6.667 + j 5
20 + j15
4 + j3 4 j3
= Z in Z in (1.2 + j1.6) (4 j 3) = 9.6 + j 2.8

SCa, b : 20 10 = 6.667, (6.667 j 5) j10

(a)

Chapter Ten Solutions

At = 100 rad/s, 2 mF - j 5 ; 0.1 H j10 .


50 j 50 10 j10 2 j1
(10 + j10) ( j 5) =
=
10 + j 5
2 + j1 2 j1
= 2 j 6 Zin = 20 + 2 j 6 = 22 j 6

42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Thus, i(t) = 212.4 cos (800t 45.82o) mA.

I =

j 625
120

478.0 + j175.65 300 j 625


or I = 0.2124 45.82 A

Zin =

300( j 625) 600( j 480)


+
300 j 625 600 + j 480
= 478.0 + j175.65

= 800 : 2F j 625, 0.6H j 480

43.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

3 + 125F : V = (3 20) (3 j 4) = 15 73.3 V


3 2mH 125F : V = (3 20) 3 = 9 20 V

same:
4 = 000 V = (3 20) (3 + j8 j 2)
V = (3 20) (3 + j 6) = 20.1243.43 V

(b)
(c)
(d)

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

3 + 2mH : V = (3 20) (3 + j 4) = 1533.13 V

Chapter Ten Solutions

44.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
0.005 j 0.01 + j 0.002

1
1
= 100 =
5
0.01
0.0005 j 0.1/ + j 2 10

10 March 2006

866.0 105 7.5 105 + 8 106


= 444.3 and < 0
4 105

use + sign: =

866.0 105 7.5 105 + 8 106


= 11.254 and <0
4 105
=11.254 and 444.3rad/s

use sign: =

0.1
0.1

5
5
0.0052 + 2 105
= 0.0001, 2 10
= 7.5 10

0.01
2 105
866.0 105 = 0 2 105 2 866.0 105 0.1 = 0

C = 20F Zin =

6.245 10-3 = 39 10-6 = 100C 0.001


C = 72.45 F

so
or

64 10-6 = 0.0052 + (100C 0.001)

0.0052 + (100C 0.001)

1
0.005 j 0.001 + j100C
1

or

Z in = 125 =

= 100 rad/s Z in =

1
1
+
+ j1000 20 106
200 j1000
1
Zin =
= 196.12 11.310
0.005 + j 0.001

Zin =

C = 20F, = 100

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

(b)

(a)

45.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

30( j 0.02) 30 j 0.092 0.0122 + j18

=
30 + j 0.02 30 j 0.02 900 + 0.00042

4500 20.25 106 9 106 4500 3354


=
= 572.9, 3927rad/s
2
2

2 4500 + 2.25 106 = 0

18 = 10 (900 + 0.00042 ), 0.0042 18 + 9000 = 0,

0.0122 = 0.012 + 22,500, = 3354rad/s

0.0122 = 25 (900 + 0.00042 )

Zin =

1
3 0
1
Yin = 25 = f o j = tan 1
x
x
30
x = 64.34 = 0.02, = 3217rad/s

X = 45.23 = 0.002, = 2261rad/s

1
1
1
1
= 25 =

+ 2 = 0.0016
1
1
0.04 900 x
+
jx 30

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d)

(c)

(b)

(a)

46.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

240 (R 2 j 2.5)
R1 + j 4

R 2 = 4.335+ , R1 = 3.211

R1 = 2.532 + 0.15662R 2 , 4 = 1.0130R 2 0.395

= 0.15662R 2 + j1.0130 R 2 + 2.532 j 0.3915

= R 2 (1.025081.21) + 2.562 8.789

R1 + j 4 =

240 (R 2 j 2.5)
1.9513 41.21
= 1.025081.21 ( R2 j 2.5)

IL =

I L = 3 240 = 1.9513 41.211 A

Vc = 240 ( j 2.5) = 5 50 A

With an operating frequency of = 400 rad/s, the impedance of the 10-mH inductor is
jL = j4 , and the impedance of the 1-mF capacitor is j/C = -j2.5 .

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

47.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

6400X 2 + 40, 000X 2


= 10, 000
40, 000 + 6400 160X + X 2

80X j 200X
Zin = 100
200 + j (80 X)

1
C = 1.437
F
1200C

X=

160 25, 600 + 675, 600 160 837.4


=
7.28
7.28
1
C = 8.956F
X = 93.05 (> 0) =
1200C

3.64X 2 + 160 X 46, 400 = 0,

0.64X 2 + 4X 2 = X 2 160X + 46, 400

Zin =

46, 400 = 80 x, x = 580 =

X in = 0 40, 000 x + 80 x 2 6400 x = 0

= 1200
j (200 + j80) (80 x j 200 x)[200 + j ( x 80)]
=
Zin =
200 + j (80 x)
40, 000 + 6400 160 x + x 2

= 1200 rad/s.

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

(a)

48.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

inals ab short-circuited: Zin = 8 + j16 || 2 = 9.969 + j0.2462

(b) Term

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

inals ab open circuited: Zin = 8 + j16 || (2 j2) = 10.56 j1.92

= 4 rad/s, the 1/8-F capacitor has an impedance of j/C = -j2 , and the 4-H
inductor has an impedance of jL = j16 .

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) Term

49. At

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= Z1
= Z2
= Z3
= Z4
= Z5
= Z6

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Zin = Z1 + Z4 + j20.09 = j26.29 .

Next we see 106 || (Z2 + Zeq) = j20.09 .

Then we form Z2 in series with Zeq: Z2 + Zeq = j20.09 .

The three impedances at the upper right, Z3, 700 k, and Z3 reduce to j0.01592

f = 1 MHz, = 2f = 6.283 Mrad/s


F
-j0.07958
H
j20.11
F
-j0.1592
H
j6.283
H
j125.7
200 pF
-j795.8

Finally,

50.
2
3.2
1
1
20

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Z = 780o . R = Re{Z} = 7cos80o= 1.216 , and X = Im{Z} = 7sin80o = 6.894 .


We can obtain this impedance at 100 rad/s by placing a resistor of value 1.216 in
series with an inductor having a value of L = 6.894/ = 68.94 mH.

(c)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d) A single resistor having value R = 5 is the simplest solution.

Force jL = j/C, so that C = 1/L. Then we construct the network using


a single 5 resistor, a 2 H inductor, and a 0.5 F capacitor, all in series (any values for
these last two will suffice, provided they satisfy the C = 1/L requirement).

(a) Using at least 1 inductor, = 1 rad/s. Z = 1 + j4 .


Construct this using a single 1 resistor in series with a 4 H inductor.

As in any true design problem, there is more than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:

Chapter Ten Solutions

(b)

51.
f

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Select a 5 M resistor in series with 1 F in series with 100 mH.

(b) To obtain a purely real impedance, the reactance of the inductor must cancel the
reactance of the capacitor, In a series string, this is obtained by meeting the criterion L
1/C, or L = 1/2C = 1/100C.

Thus, one design is a 1 k resistor in series with 17.39 H in series with 1 F.

(a) 1 + j4 k at = 230 rad/s may be constructed using a 1 k resistor in series with an


inductor L and a capacitor C such that j230L j/(230C) = 4000. Selecting arbitrarily C =
1 F yields a required inductance value of L = 17.39 H.

(d) The simplest solution, independent of frequency, is a single 300 resistor.

If Z = 8022o is constructed using a series combination of a single resistor R and


single capacitor C, R = Re{Z} = 80cos(22o) = 74.17 . X = 1/C = Im{Z} =
o
80sin(22
) = 29.97 . Thus, C = 667.3 F.
(c)

10 March 2006

As in any true design problem, there is more than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

52.
f

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

Y = j400C = j8.796 S

= 400 rad/s.
= 4103 rad/s. Y = j4103C = j879.6 S
= 41011 rad/s. Y = j41011C = j8.796109 S

(b)
(c)
(d)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Y = j4C = j87.96 mS

= 4 rad/s.

(a)

53.
Note that we may replace the three capacitors in parallel with a single capacitor having
value
10 3 + 2 103 + 4 103 = 7 mF .

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Z = 1 + j100 , so Y =

(b) B = C = 100 S

(a) Susceptance is 0

10 March 2006

1
1 j100
=G + jB , where B = 9.999 mS.
=
1 + j100
1+1002

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1
2H
j2

10
1 1 j1
=
= 0.5 j 0.5
1 + j1 1 j1
Vin

Now 0.5 S 2 , j 0.5 S =

Vin =

Vin = j 2 + (1 + j1) ( j1) = 1 + j1

VL = j 2V I c = I in + 0.5 VL = 1 + j1

55.
2 H j 2, 1F j1 Let I1 = 0 A

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

= 1000 rad/s

(c)

1
1
+
= 0.180835.58o S
Z S ZC

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

= 147.1 + j105.2 mS

Yin ,ab =

Thus,

and Z C = j 58.89 .

Z S = 5 + j 2 j 5 = 5 j 3 = 5.831 30.96o

R in , ab =

106
= 21.2
5

YinRLC =

1
5 j9
9
=
Yc =
= 500C
5 + j9
106
106
9
C =
= 169.8
F
53, 000

= 500, ZinRLC = 5 + j10 j1 = 5 + j 9

(b)

56.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 10

100 81
= 52.23 and 133.95 krad/s
108 106

54 106 2 10 + 37.5 104 = 0,

Bin = 1.5 104 =

10
25 108 + 0.362
10 = 37.5 104 + 54 106 2

0.5 106 = 48 106 2 = 102.06 krad/s

5 106 + 6 104 2 + j (50 6)


25 108 + 0.362
5 106 + 6 104 2
1.8 103 =
25 108 + 0.362
5 106 + 6 104 2 = 4.5 106 + 648 106 2

100 + j 0.001 50, 000 j 0.6

50, 000 + j 0.6 50, 000 j 0.6

2 105 4 1010 4 1010


= 105 = 105 rad/s
2

G in = 1.8 103 : Yin =

X in = 50 =

10
= 0.5 106 + 0.5 104 2 10
6 2
10 + 10
2
= 0, 2 105 + 1010 = 0

0.5 104 2 = 0.5 106 , 2 = 1010 , = 105 rad/s

Zin =

5 106 + 0.00062 + j (60 50)


104 + 106 2
5 106 + 0.0062
R in =
= 550 5.5 106
4
6 2
10 + 10
4 2
+ 5.5 10 = 5 106 104 2

j 0.1
100 + j 0.001
50, 000 + j 0.6 100 j 0.001
Zin =

100 + j 0.001 100 j 0.001


R in = 550 : Zin = 500 +

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d)

(c)

(b)

57.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

I 2 = Y2 V2 = (5 + j 2)103 20 23.13 = 0.10770 1.3286 A

(c)
I3 0.213.740
=
= 44.7277.18 V V3 = 44.72V
Y3 (2 j 4)103

Vin = 45.60V

Vin = V1 + V3 + 20 23.13 + 44.7277.18 = 45.6051.62

V3 =

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(d)

V2 = V1 V2 = 20V

(b)

I3 = I1 + I 2 = 0.130 + 0.10770 1.3286 = 0.213.740 A

V1 =

I1
0.130
=
= 20 23.13 V1 = 20 V
Y1 (3 + j 4)103

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

58.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R1 j

500
= 5 j 5 R1 = 5 , C1 = 100 F
C1

= 2000 : 50 F j10 Yin = 0.1 + j 0.1 =

Yin =

R1 j

1
1000
1
R1 j
=
= 8 j4
1000
C
0.1 + j 0.05
R1 j
C
1
R 1 = 8 and C1 =
= 250 F
4

50 F j 20 Yin = 0.1 + j 0.05

500
C1

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

(a)

59.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Gin
0
0.0099
0.0385
0.2
0.5
0.8
1

0
1
2
5
10
20

Yin =

0
0.0099
0.1923
0.4
0.5
0.4
0

Bin

2 + j10
2 + 100
10
2
G in = 2
, Bin = 2
+ 100
+ 100

10 10 + j
=
j
j
j
10 j
Yin

10 + j 10 j
Zin = 1 +

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(a)

60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(d) The simplest solution is a single conductance G = 200 mS (a 5 resistor).

One solution therefore is an 822.7 m resistor in parallel with a 68.94 mF.

Y = 780o S = G + jB at = 100 rad/s. G = Re{ Y} = 7cos80 o = 1.216 S (an 822.7


m resistor). B = Im {Y} = 7sin8 0o = 6.894 S. W e m ay rea lize th is suscep tance by
placing a capacito r C in parallel with the resis tor such th at jC = j6.894, or C = 68.94

One solution therefore is a 5 resistor in parallel with a 1 F capacitor in parallel with a 1


inductor.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

mF.

(c)

1/

Y = 200 m S (purely real at = 1 rad/s). This can be constructed using a 200 mS


conductance (R = 5 ), in pa rallel with an ind uctor L and capacitor C such th at C
L = 0. Arbitrarily selecting L = 1 H, we find that C = 1 F.

(b)

parallel with an induc tance L such that 1/ L

Y = 1 j4 S at = 1 rad/s.
Construct this using a 1 S conductance in
= 4, or L = 250 mH.

(a)

10 March 2006

As in any true design problem , there is m ore than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:

Chapter Ten Solutions

61.
f

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(b) We may realise a pu rely real admittance of 5 S by pla cing a 5 S conductance (a


k resistor) in parallel with a capa citor C and inducta nce L such that C 1/ L =
0. Arbitrarily selecting a value of L = 2 H, we find a value of C = 1.594 F.

Construct this using a 1 pS conductance (a 1 T resistor) in parall el with an inductor L


such that j41012 = j/L, or L = 8.333 GH.

Y = 1 j4 pS at = 30 rad/s.

As in any true design problem , there is m ore than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:

Chapter Ten Solutions

(d) The simplest possible solution is a 60 nS resistor (a 16.67 M resistor).

One possible solution, then, is a 253.9 M resistor in parallel with a 28.78 H inductor.

Y = 4 10o nS = G + jB at = 50 rad/s. G = Re{ Y} = 410 9cos(10o) = 3.939 nS


(an 253.9 M resistor). B = Im{Y} = 410 9sin(10o) = 6.94610 10 S. We may r ealize
this susceptance by placing an inductor L in parallel with the resistor such that j/L =
j6.9461010, or L = 28.78 H.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

One possible solution, then, is a 20 0 k resistor in parallel w ith a 2 H inductor and a


1.594
F capacitor.

200

(a)

62.
f

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(2)

5 j 2 j 75
j4
300
1500 j 600 300 1200 j 600
= 34.3623.63 V
=
V2 =
=
j2
5 j2
25 j 30
17 j30 + 8
j4
5 j4

v2 V1 V2 V1 V2
+
+
= 10
6
j5
j3
j10V2 + j10V1 + j 6V2 j 6V1 + 5V2 = 300 j 4V1 + (5 j 4) V2 = 300

v1 V1 V2 v1 V2
, j 75 = 5V1 + j 3V1 j 3V2 j 5V1 + j 5V2
+
+
3
j5
j3
(5 j 2) V1 + j 2V2 = j 75 (1)

j5 =

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

63.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

= 13.198154.23 A

0
j5
60 j15 9 j 5 75 + j 300
=
IB =
j2
j5
15 j18
j5 9 j5

j 5I B + (9 j 5) I D = 60 j15

3(I D + j 5) j 5(I D I B ) + 6 (I D + 10) = 0

j 3I B j 5(I B I D ) = 0 2I B + j 5I D = 0

64.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Vs1 = 200 V, Vs 2 = j 20V

vs1 = 20 cos1000t V, vs 2 = 20sin1000t V

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

vx (t ) = 70.71cos(1000t 45) V

vx 20 vx vx + j 20
+ +
= 0, 0.04vx + j 2 2 = 0,
j10
j10
25
Vx = 25(2 j 2) = 70.71 45 V

0.01H j10 , 0.1mF j10

65.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

100
= 34.65+ 94.97V
j 0.25 j 2.875

10 March 2006

X 2 = 6, X = 6, Z c = j 2.449 k

Vin = 1 X 2 j 3X 4X 2 + jX 3 j3X = 1 5X 2 + j (X 3 6X) X 3 6X = 0

V1 = 1 jX + (2 jX) ( jX) = 1 X 2 j 3X, I1 = 1 X 2 j 3X, I in = 3 X 2 j 4 X

V2 = 1 jX, I 2 = 1 jX, I12 = 2 jX

j 0.5 jx Assume 1V3 = V I 3 = 1A,

= 0.25 j 2.875 V V3 =

Vin = 0.75 j1.5 j1.5 + (2.75 j 2) ( j 0.5)

I1 = 0.75 j1.5 mA, Iin = 0.75 j1.5 + 2 j 0.5 = 2.75 j 2 mA

V1 = 1 j 0.5 + (2 j 0.5) ( j 0.5) = 0.75 j1.5V

Assume V3 = 1V V2 = 1 j 0.5V, I 2 = 1 j 0.5 mA

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(b)

66.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

j 0.25

2 j 0.25

Ix =

10 (1 + 1 j 0.5)
j 0.25(2 j 0.5) + (2 + j 0.25 + j 0.25) + (2 j 0.25) (4 + 1 j 0.5 + j8 1)
20 j 5
=
I x = 1.217 75.96 A, ix (t ) = 1.2127 cos (100t 75.96) A
8 + j15

2 + j4

1 10
2 j 0.25
1
2 + j4 0
1
j 0.25
0
Ix =
2 j 0.25
1
j 0.25

Mesh 3: (-j0.25 + 1 + 1)I3 I2 (-j0.25I1) = 0

Mesh 2: I1 + (1 + 1 + j4)I2 I3 = 0

Mesh 1: -100o + (1 + 1 j0.25)I1 I2 (-j0.25)I3 = 0

Define three clockwise mesh currents i1, i2, i3 with i1 in the left mesh, i2 in the top right
esh, and i3 in the bottom right mesh.

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67.
m

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

10 (1 + 1 j 0.5)
j 0.25(2 j 0.5) + (2 + j 0.25 + j 0.25) + (2 j 0.25) (4 + 1 j 0.5 + j8 1)
20 j 5
=
= 1.2127 75.96 V
8 + j15
vx = 1.2127 cos(100t 75.96) V

1 10
2 j 0.25
1
2 + j4 0
1
j 0.25
0
Vx =
j 0.25
j 0.25
1
1
1
2 + j4
j 0.25
1
2 j 0.25

j 0.25V1 V2 + (2 j 0.25) Vx = 0

j 0.25Vx + j 0.25V1 + Vx + Vx V2

V1 + (2 + j 4) V2 Vx = 0

V2 V1 + V2 Vx + j 4V2 = 0

(2 j 0.25) V1 V2 + j 0.25 Vx = 10

V1 10 j 0.25V1 + j 0.25Vx + V1 V2 = 0

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68.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V1 + AVi
= j C1 (Vs Vi )
Rf

1
Rf

=
1 + j C f R f

Rf

(V1 + AVi )
(1 + j C f R f ) = (Vs Vi ) j C1 , Vo = AVi
Rf

j C f +

10 March 2006

Vo
[(1 + A) (1 + j C f R f ) + j C1R f ] = j C1R f Vs
A
j C1R f
j C1R f A
V
V
o =
As A , o
Vs
1 + j C f R f
Vs (1 + A) (1 + j C f R f ) + j C1R f

Vi [(1 + A) (1 + j C f R f ) + j C1R f ] = j C1R f Vs

Vi (1 + A) (1 + j C f R f ) = Vs j C1R f j C1R f Vi ,

I=

R f Cf =

Vo = AVi

Vo
(1 + A + j C1R f ) = j C1R f Vs
A
j C1R f A
V
V
o =
As A , o j C1R f
Vs
1 + A + j C1R f
Vs

Vi (1 + A + j C1R f ) = j C1R f Vs

I=

R1 = , R o = 0, A = Vo / Vi >> 0

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(b)

69.
(a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

j2

( V2 V1 )
+

V2
j2
[2]

v2(t) = 9.81 cos (103t 13.36o) mV

Solving, we find that V2 = 9.81 13.36o mV.


Converting back to the time domain,

-5V2 =

V1 - 3 - 3o
(V - V )
5V2 + 3V2 =
+ 1 2 [1]
100 j / 0.6
- j2

Define the nodal voltage v1(t) at the junction between the two dependent sources.
The voltage source may be replaced by a 3-3o V source, the 600-F capacitor by a
j/ 0.6 impedance, the 500-F capacitor by a j2 impedance, and the inductor by a
j2 impedance.

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70.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

0o 5 I2 + (5 j6.667) I3 = 0

Thus, P1 = [i1(1 ms)]2 1


=
(16.15103)(1) W = 16.15 mW.

i1(t) = 148.0cos (104t + 179.6o) A

Solving, we find that I1 = 148.0179.6o mA. Converting to the time domain,

3:

I1 + I2 = 2103

Around the 1, 2 supermesh: (1 + j20) I1 + (13 j1.351) I2 5 I3 = 0

Define three clockwise mesh currents: i1(t) in the left-most mesh, i2(t) in the bottom right
esh, and i3(t) in the top right mesh. The 15-F capacitor is replaced with a j/ 0.15
impedance, the inductor is replaced by a j20 impedance, the 74 F capacitor is
replaced by a j1.351 impedance, the current source is replaced by a 20o mA source,
and the voltage source is replaced with a 50o V source.

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Mesh

and

71.
m

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

j500 I4 = 6 0o [3]

j0.004 I2 + j500I3 + (j0.004 j500) I4 = 0

+ (1 j500) I3

j0.004 I4 = 0

i1(t) = 1.44 cos (2t 6.613o) mA


i2(t) = 2.038 cos (2t 6.500o) mA
i3(t) = 5.998 cos (2t + 179.8o) A

Converting to the time domain,

[4]

[2]

= 6 13o [1]

I1 = 2.002 6.613o mA, I2 = 2.038 6.500o mA, and I3 = 5.998 179.8o A.

Solving, we find that

I1

(0.005 + j/ 0.0015) I1 + (j0.004 j/0.0015) I2

(1 j/ 0.0015) I1 + j/0.0015I2 I3

We define an additional clockwise mesh current i4(t) flowing in the upper right-hand
mesh. The inductor is replaced by a j0.004 impedance, the 750 F capacitor is
replaced by a j/ 0.0015 impedance, and the 1000 F capacitor is replaced by a j/ 2
impedance. We replace the left voltage source with a a 6 -13o V source, and the
right voltage source with a 6 0o V source.

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72.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

2C1 1/0.03142 = -1.348 so that C1 = 4.85 F.

Z = 0.7411 87.88o . This allows us to solve for C1:

By voltage division, we can write that 6.014 85.76o = 115 2

ne Z such that Z-1 = 2C1 - j/0.03142 + 1/20


Z
Z + 20

We replace the voltage source with a 115 2 0o V source, the capacitor with a
j/ 2C1 impedance, and the inductor with a j0.03142 impedance.

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Thus,

Defi

73.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Thus, 20 =

and we find that L = 253.4 mH.

115 2
= 8.1320o
20 + j (2L 1.592 )

202 + (2L 1.592)

Ohms law then yields I1 =

Defining a clockwise mesh current i1(t), we replace the voltage source with a
115 2 0o V source, the inductor with a j2L impedance, and the capacitor with a
j1.592 impedance.

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74.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

and R L = RC || RL

g m R S j C R S

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(c) The output is ~180o out of phase with the input for f < 105 Hz; only for f = 0 is it
exactly 180o out of phase with the input.

(b)

Therefore,

1
1
1
+
+
R S R B r

C + C C
-1
+ 2 (2C2 + C C ) - j g mC +
+

RS R L
R
R S
L

[2]

C + C C
-1
+ 2 2C2 + C C - j g m C +
+

RS R L
RL
R S

g C + C + C + C


m
jC
RL
R S
1

tan
ang(Vout) = tan
2
-1

2
2
g m RS
+ (2C + C C )
RS R L

Vout =

And

RS

(-gm + jC) V - (jC + 1/RC + 1/RL) Vout = 0

ne

[2]

10 March 2006

1
1
1
[1]
+
+ + j (C + C ) V - jC Vout =

RS
R S R B r

Simplify and collect terms:

-gmV = (Vout V) jC + Vout / RC + Vout / RL

0 = (V 1)/ Rs + V / RB + V / r + jC V + (V Vout) jC [1]

(a) By nodal analysis:

Then

Defi

75.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Vx 100 Vx
+
0.02Vx = 0
j10
20
j10
0.07 + j 0.1

Chapter Ten Solutions

57.35 55.01
= 4.698 j 6.711
7

100
= 7A
20

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Zth =

SC :Vx = 100 I SC = 0.02 100 +

Vab ,oc = 100 Vx = 32.89 j 46.98 = 57.35 55.01 V

Vx = 67.11 + j 46.98

j10 = (0.05 + j 0.1 + 0.02) Vx , Vx =

OC :

76.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
+ j 2
j

and

L = 1/0.5 = 2 H.

1
= 0.5 j 0.5
1 + j1

R = 1/0.5 = 2

Yin =

= 1+

1
+ j 2
j

V
1
Zin = in = 1 +
+ j 2 so Yin =
1
j
+ j (2 2 1)
At = 1, Zin = 1 j1 + j 2 = 1 + j

Vin = (1 + j )

Let I in = 10. Then VL = j 2 I in = j 2 0.5VL = j

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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77.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

v1(t) = 11.79 cos (1000t + 135o) V.

j2 1=

j2 1 j2
= 0.8 + j 0.4 V1
1+ j2 1 j2
10 + j 20
0.8 + j 0.4
= j 25
=
= 11.785+ 135 V
1 j1 + 0.8 + j 0.4 1.8 j 0.6

s:

(b) I

so

Chapter Ten Solutions

15
(1 j1)1 2 + j1 3 j1

=
V1 =
0.6 j 0.2
2 j1 2 + j1
5
j 2 + 0.6 j 0.2
V1 = 590 v1 (t ) = 5cos (1000t + 90) V
Vs :

(a)

78.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

I N = 0.4 j 0.8 = 0.8944 63.43 A

IN =

I
1
= 0.4 j 0.8 YN = N = 0.4 j 0.8
0.5 + j1
10
1
1
1
1
RN =
= 2.5 ,
=
= j 0.8, L N =
= 1.25H
0.4
0.8
j L N
jL N

1 = (0.5 j + j 2) I N = (0.5 + j1) I N

SC : I N VL = j 2I N 10 = j1[0.25( j 2I N ) + I N ] + j 2I N

79.
OC :VL = 0 Vab ,oc = 10 V

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

2cos(200t + 90o) V. For the 100 rad/s source, we find


j
VL = (10 ) , vL = 0.5cos (100t + 90) V
2
vL ( t ) = 2 cos (200t + 90) + 0.5cos (100t + 90) V

10 March 2006

To solve this problem , we e mploy super position in order to separate sources having
different frequencies. First cons idering the sources operating at w = 200 rad/s, we opencircuit the 100 rad/s current source. This leads to VL = (j)(20) = j2 V. Therefore, vL ( t )

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80.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

30, 000
= j150
j 200

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Zth = j100 j 300 =

Use superposition. Left: Vab = 100

j100
j100 j 300
j 300
= 500 V Right: Vab = j100
= j150 V
j 300 + j100
Vth = 50 + j150 = 158.11108.43 V

81.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

i(t) = 51.07 cos (103t + 43.23o) mA

Converting back to the time domain, we find that

I =

517o + 0.240-90o 2.920-45o


73 + 10 + j13 j 4
= (4.264 50.42o)/ (83.49 6.189o) = 51.07 44.23 mA

This problem is easily solved if we first perform two source transformations to yield a
circuit containing only voltage sources and impedances:

Chapter Ten Solutions

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Then

82.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

PSpice verification.

Running an ac sweep at the


frequency f = 1/2 = 0.1592 Hz,
we obtain a phasor magnitude of
88.23 mV, and a phasor angle of
107.1o, in agreement with our
calculated result (the slight
disagreement is a combination
of round-off error in the hand
calculations and the rounding
due to expressing 1 rad/s in Hz.

Converting back to the time domain, vC(t) = 88.21 cos (t 107.1o) mV.

Then, by simple voltage division, we find that


j /3
VC = (2.228 68.2o)
1.85768.2o - j / 3 + j 7
= 88.21 -107.1o mV

VTH = 6(j2)/ (5 + j2) = 2.228 68.2o V


ZTH = 5 || j2 = j10/ (5 + j2) = 1.857 68.2o

(a) There are a number of possible approaches: Thvenizing everything to the left of the
capacitor is one of them.

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(b)

83.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

j0.5 = V2/ 10 + (V2 V1)/ (-j5) + (V2 V1)/ j10

[2]

-j V1 + (1 + j) V2 = j5

(b)

VM($N 0002,0)
4.474E+00
VM($N_0005,0)
4.473E+00

FREQ
1.592E+01
FREQ
1.592E+01

1.165E+02

VP($N_0005,0)

1.165E+02

VP($N 0002,0)

ZTH = 10 || [(j10 || -j5) + (5 || -j10)] = 10 || (-j10 + 4 j2) = 5.882 j3.529 .

Solving, we find that V2 = VTH = 5.423 40.60o V

[1]

(0.2 + j0.2) V1 j0.1 V2 = 1

[2]

1 = V1/ 5 + V1/ (-j10) + (V1 V2)/ (-j5) + (V1 V2)/ j10

Simplifying and collecting terms,

2:

Node 1:

(a) Performing nodal analysis on the circuit,

Chapter Ten Solutions

[1]

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Node

84.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
j C

V out
1 / jC
, or
R + 1 / jC
V in

1
1 + j RC

Vout

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

, this magnitude 0; the capacitor is acting as a short circuit to the ac signal.

As

Thus, low frequency signals are transferred from the input to the output relatively
unaffected by this circuit, but high frequency signals are attenuated, or filtered out.
This is readily apparent if we plot the magnitude as a function of frequency (assuming R
1 and C = 1 F for convenience):

0, this magnitude 1, its maximum value.

The magnitude of this ratio (consider, for example, an input with unity magnitude and
zero phase) is
1
Vout
=
2
Vin
1 + (RC )

Vout = Vin

Using voltage division, we may write:

Vin

Consider the circuit below:

Chapter Ten Solutions

As

85.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1/jC

R
jRC
V
, or out =
R + 1 / jC
Vin
1 + jRC

Vout

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

0, this magnitude 0; the capacitor is acting as an open circuit to the ac signal.

As

Thus, high frequency signals are transferred from the input to the output relatively
unaffected by this circuit, but low frequency signals are attenuated, or filtered out.
This is readily apparent if we plot the magnitude as a function of frequency (assuming R
1 and C = 1 F for convenience):

, this magnitude 1, its maximum value.

The magnitude of this ratio (consider, for example, an input with unity magnitude and
zero phase) is
RC
Vout
=
2
Vin
1 + (RC )

Vout = Vin

Using voltage division, we may write:

Vin

Consider the circuit below:

Chapter Ten Solutions

As

86.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

hence

and

10 March 2006

+
Vout
-

Both the MATLAB plot of the


frequency response and the PSpice
simulation show essentially the
same behavior; at a frequency of
approximately 20 MHz, there is a
sharp roll-off in the transfer
function magnitude.

Vout
1
405
=

12
VS
505 1 + j 2.532 10

1 + 6.411 10 24 2

0.802

so

31.57 fF

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Vout
=
VS

405
1/jC
VS
505 80.2 + 1 / jC

405
VS
505

80.2

Vth = (405/505) VS and Rth = 100 || (330 + 75) = 80.2

Vout =

(c)

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) Removing the capacitor temporarily, we easily find the Thvenin equivalent:

(b)

87.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

low frequency

R R (r || R B )
R R
r R B
= - g m C L
= - g m C L
R C + R L R S + r || R B
R C + R L R S (r + R B ) + r R B

We seek to maximize this term within the stated constraints. This requires a large value
gm, but also a large value of r || RB. This parallel combination will be less than the
smaller of the two terms, so even if we allow RB , we are left with
Vou t
- 2398
g r
- (7.994) m =
VS
100 + r
100 + r

Vou t
r || R B
= - g m (7.994)
VS
100 + r || R B

(b) If we set RS = 100 , RL = 8 , RC | max = 10 k and rgm = 300, then we find that

The resistor network comprised of r, RS, and RB acts as a voltage divider, leading to a
reduction in the gain of the amplifier. In the situation where r || RB >> RS, then it has
minimal effect and the gain will equal its maximum value of gm (RC || RL).

Vout
VS

2
2 R R 2
2
2
2 R CR L
C L
C
+
g m
R C + R L
R C + R L
Vout

=
2

Vin
2
2 R CR L

C
1 +

RC + RL

This function has a maximum value of gm (RC || RL) at = 0. Thus, the capacitors reduce
the gain at high frequencies; this is the frequency regime at which they begin to act as
short circuits. Therefore, the maximum gain is obtained at frequencies at which the
capacitors may be treated as open circuits. If we do this, we may analyze the circuit
of Fig. 10.25b without the capacitors, which leads to

that

- g m (R C || R L ) + j (R C || R L )C
Vout
=
Vin
1 + j (R C || R L )C

From the derivation, we see that

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c) Referring to our original expression in which the gain Vout/ Vin was computed, we
see that the critical frequency C = [(RC || RL) C]-1. Our selection of maximum RC,
RB , and r << 100 has not affected this frequency.

Considering this simpler expression, it is clear that if we select r to be small, (i.e.


r << 100), then gm will be large and the gain will have a maximum value of
approxim
ately 23.98.

of

so

88.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[2]

[1]

92 F -j0.05435
[3]

v2(t) = 31.2810-9 cos(2104t 177o) + 115.710-12 cos(2105t 93o) V

v1(t) = 3.22310-3 cos (2104t 87o) + 312.810-12 cos (2105t + 177o) V and

Adding, we find

v1"(t) = 312.8 cos (2105t + 177o) pV and v2"(t) = 115.7 cos(2105t 93o) V

V1" = 312.8 177o pV and V2" = 115.7 -93o V

Solving, we find that

(V2" V1")/ (56103 + j44.8) + (V2" 100 3o)/ 47103 + V2"/ (-j0.05435) = 0 [4]

V1"/ -j0.1515 + (V1" V2")/ (56103 + j44.8) = 0

100 cos (2105t - 3o) V 100 -3o V


F -j0.1515
112 H j22.4

Considering the effects of the = 2105 rad/ s source next,

v1(t) = 3.223 cos (2104t 87o) mV and v2(t) = 31.28 cos(2104t 177o) nV

V1 = 3.223 -87o mV and V2 = 31.28 -177o nV

Solving, we find that

(V2 V1)/ (56103 + j4.48) + V2/ (-j0.5435) = 0

(V1 100 3o)/ 47103 + V1/ (-j1.515) + (V1 V2)/ (56103 + j4.48) = 0

92 F -j0.5435

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Thus,

Then

33

Thus,

Then

33

10 March 2006

the = 2104 rad/ s source first, we make the following replacements:

Chapter Ten Solutions

100 cos (2104t + 3o) V 100 3o V


F -j1.515
112 H j2.24

89. Considering

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

=
=
=
=

0
-7
0
0

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

=
=
=
=

0
-7
0
0

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

v1(t) = 0.1517 cos (4t + 131.7o) + 0.1652 cos (2t - 90.17o) V


v2(t) = 2.013 cos (4t + 155.2o) + 0.8151 cos (2t + 54.61o) V

Converting back to the time domain,

V2 = (1 + j6) I4 = 2.013155.2o V and V2" = (1 + j6) ID = 0.815154.61o V

V1 = -j0.25 (I3 I4) = 0.1517131.7o V and V1" = -j0.25(IC ID) = 0.1652-90.17o V

Solving, we find that IC = 783.8 -4.427o mA and ID = 134 -25.93o mA.

(9.5 + j2) IA j2 IB 7 IC
4 ID
-j2 IA + (3 + j) IB
3 ID
-7 IA +
(12 j/ 4) IC + j/ 4 ID
-3 I2 + j/ 4 IC + (4 + j5.75) ID

Then by mesh analysis, (define 4 clockwise mesh currents IA, IB, IC, ID in the top left, top
right, bottom left and bottom right meshes, respectively):

For the source operating at = 2 rad/s,


5.5 cos 2t 5.5 0o V, 1 H j2 , 500 mF -j , 3 H j6 , and 2 F -j/ 4 .

Solving, we find that I3 = 365.3 -166.1o mA and I4 = 330.97 72.66o mA.

(9.5 + j4) I1 j4 I2 7 I3
- 4 I4
-j4 I1 + (3 + j3.5) I2
3 I4
-7 I1 +
(12 j/ 8) I3 + j/ 8 I4
-3 I2 + j/ 8 I3 + (4 + j11.875) I4

Then by mesh analysis, (define 4 clockwise mesh currents I1, I2, I3, I4 in the top left, top
right, bottom left and bottom right meshes, respectively):

For the source operating at = 4 rad/s,


7 cos 4t 7 0o V, 1 H j4 , 500 mF -j0.5 , 3 H j12 , and 2 F -j/ 8 .

Chapter Ten Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

90.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Vc = 51.21 140.19 (1.02in)

VR = 2 25.61 140.19 = 51.22 140.19 (1.02in)

VL = 2.5 57.2690 76.76 = 143.1513.24 (2.86in)

2
= 51.21 50.19 (2.05in)
2 j1

100 (2 j1)
= 57.26 76.76 (2.29in)
2.5 + j 3

Ic = (57.26 76.76)

2
2 j1

j1
= 25.61 140.19 (1.02in)
2 j1

j 2.5 +

100

I R = (57.26 76.76)

IL =

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(a)

91.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

= 6.265 22.14 A

I s = I1 + I 2 + I 3

120
= 3 30 A
4030
120
I2 =
= 2.05830.96 A
50 j 30
120
I3 =
= 2.4 53.13 A
30 + j 40

I1 =

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

(b)

(a)

92.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

By SOLVE, = 40.54 = 27.66]

5 1 1.42 sin 2 + 7 1 1sin 2 = 10

[Analytically: 5 + 7 = 10
= 5cos + j 5sin + 7 cos + j 7 sin
sin = 1.4sin

I1 lags I 2 . Use 2.5A / in

I1 + I 2 = 100, I1 lags V, I 2 leads V

I1 = 5A, I 2 = 7A

Chapter Ten Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

93.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[Analytically: |100 + 140| = 120


so | 100 + 140 cos + j140 sin | = 120
Using the Solve routine of a scientific calculator,
= 122.88o.]

V1 = 1000o V, |V2| = 140 V, |V1 + V2| = 120 V.


Let 50 V = 1 inch. From the sketch, for V2 positive,
V2 = 140122.5o. We may also have V2 = 140-122.5o V

Chapter Ten Solutions

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94.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

pc = 84.80 cos (45 32.01) = 1.060 cos (45 + 57.99) = 19.69 W

pR = 50 1.6962 cos 2 (45 32.01) = 136.55 W

ps ( / 2ms) = 84.80 cos (45 32.01) 2 cos 45 = 116.85 W

I c = 1.060057.99 A

Zc =

50 ( j80)
106
= j80 ,
= 42.40 32.01
j 500 25
50 j80
V = 84.80 32.01 V, I R = 1.696 32.01 A

1.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(b)
10
10
61
61
8 10 + 5 + 2 = V Pc (2) = 7 = 142.33 W
3
3
3
3

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

vc (2) =

1 t 2
2

2
2
(2t 1) dt + 2 = 5 t 3 t + 2 = 5 t 3 t 5 1 + 2
0.2 F : vc =

0.2 1
3
1
3
3
t

4H : i = 2t 2 1 v = Li = 4 (4t ) = 16t , wL =

1 2 1
Li = 4 (4t 4 4t 2 + 1)
2
2
4
2
4
2
wL = 8t 8t + 2 wL (3) wL (1) = 8 3 8 3 + 2 8 1 + 8 1 2 = 576 J

Chapter Eleven Solutions

(a)

2.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

R
1
= 2, o2 =
= 3, s1,2 = 2 1 = 1, 3
2L
LC

10 March 2006

Pc (0.4) = (3e 0.4 5e1.2 ) (5e1.2 e0.4 ) = 0.4220 W

(c)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Pc (0.2) = (3e 0.2 5e0.6 ) (e0.2 + 5e 0.6 ) = 0.5542 W

vc = 3e 5e3t Pc (0+ ) = (3 5) (1 + 5) = 8 W

+vc = 3 (e t + 5e3t ) dt 2 = 3(e t 5e 3t ) to 2 = e t 3 5e 3t + 5 2

1
i = Ae t + Be3t A + B = 4; i (0+ ) = vL (0+ ) = (4 4 +2) = 14
1
A 38 = 14 B = 5, A = 1, i = e t + 5e 3t A

vc (0) = 2V, i (0) = 4A, =

Chapter Eleven Solutions

(b)

(a)

3.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

][

97.97 mW

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT12) IP(V_PRINT12)
1.592E+02 2.629E-04
-5.054E+01

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)
1.592E+02 2.628E-03
-1.405E+02

VP(L,0)
-5.054E+01
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT11) IP(V_PRINT11)
1.592E+02 1.052E-02
3.946E+01

279.6 W

FREQ
VM(R2_5k,$N_0002)VP(R2_5k,$N_0002)
1.592E+02 1.974E+01
3.755E+01

FREQ
VM(L,0)
1.592E+02 2.629E+00

10000

P4 F = 2.631cos( 50.54o ) 10.52 10-3 cos(39.46o ) = 13.58 mW

[
][
[2.631cos( 50.54 )] =
P2.5k =

P1 H = 2.631cos( 50.54 ) 2.631 10-3 cos(140.5o ) = - 3.395 mW

2500

o 2

[19.74 cos 37.55 ]


P2.5k =

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
1.592E+02 7.896E-03
3.755E+01

Veq =

(2030)(11.10 j 333.0)
= 2.631 50.54o V
2500 + 11.10 j 333.0
Veq
Veq
I10k =
= 0.2631 - 50.54o mA
I1 H =
= 2.631 - 140.5o mA
j1000
10000
Veq
(2030)(2500)
I4 F =
= 10.52 39.46o mA V2.5k =
= 19.7437.55o V
j 250
2500 + 11.10 j 333.0

We assume the circuit has already reached sinusoidal steady state by t = 0.


k 2.5 k, 1 H j1000 , 4 F -j250 , 10 k 10 k
Zeq = j1000 || -j250 || 10000 = 11.10 j333.0

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Thus,

4.
2.5

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

40 53.13
11 j 4

17.087 33.15
= 3.41719.98 A
3 j4

Pc , abc = 3.946 (3.272) = 12.911 W

( = 0)

vc (0.1) = 13.670 cos (2.5rad 70.02) = 3.946 V

Vc = j 4 (3.41719.983) = 13.67 70.02,

P3,abc = 3.2722 3 = 32.12 W

i3 (0.1) = 3.417 cos (2.5rad + 19.98) = 3.272 A

I3 =

P8,abs = 0.73382 8 = 4.307 W ;

i8 =

17.087
cos (25t 33.15)
8
i8 (0.1) = 2.136 cos (2.5rad 33.15) = 0.7338 A

Ps ,abs (0.1) = 17.087 cos (2.5rad 33.147) 5cos 2.5rad = 23.51 W

vs = 17.087 cos (25t 33.15) V

= 3.417 33.15 Vs = 17.087 33.15,

is 50 A, C j 4 , Zin = 8 (3 j 4) =

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

5.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

at t = 1 s, i = 8e2 = 1.083 A; p(1) = i2R = 1.723 W.


at t = 2 s, i = 8e4 = 146.5 mA; p(2) = i2R = 21.47 mW

(b)
(c)

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

p(0+) = (8)2(1) = 64 W

(a)

= 8e 2t .

t > 0, i(t) = 8e

Chapter Eleven Solutions

6. For

R t
L

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c) p(0.09) = v2(0.09)/R = (18103e3)2 / 6000 = 134 W

p(0.03)
= v2(0.03)/R = (18103e1)2 / 6000 = 7.308 kW

30103

(b)

p(0+) = v2(0+)/R = (18103)2 / 6000 = 54 kW

v(t ) = (3)(6000)e

Chapter Eleven Solutions

(a)

7.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(b) W = (1.080106)(150106) = 162 J

(a) p = (30103)2 (1.2103) = 1.080 MW

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

8.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

v(0+ ) =

=
ms)

v 2 (120 ms) 2e2


=
= 226 mW
R
1.2

100 106 kJ
= 271.15 + 23 + 0.1111

kJ
3
(10 kG ) 0.9 kg K

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

= 294.3 K, representing a temperature increase of 0.1111 K.

= 271.15 + 23 +

Thus, the final temperature

T = Q/mc, where Q = 100 mJ, c = 0.9 kJ/kgK, and m = 103 kg.

RC
1 2e
v 2 (t )
RC 2 2
=
dt
0 R
0 R dt = 2 R e RC 1 100 mJ

2 t

The energy dissipated over the first second is given by

p(120

10 March 2006

2W
2(100 103 )
t
t
=
= 2 V and so v(t ) = 2e RC = 2e 0.12 V.
3
C
100 10

1
CV 2 . The initial voltage, v(0+), is therefore
2

Chapter Eleven Solutions

The instantaneous power dissipated at t = 120 mS is therefore

9. W =

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

p = (276)(130) = 358.8 mW

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)
v(t) = 2.76cos1000t V (given); we need to know the I-V relationship for this
(nonlinear)
device.

10. (a)

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

I10 =

100
j5
= 6.09752.43 so
6.5 + j 5 10
1
P10,abs = (6.097) 2 10 = 185.87 W
2
PL = 0
( = 0)

j 5(10 j 5)
= 4 + 2.5 + j 5 = 6.5 + j 5
10
100
Is =
= 12.194 37.57 A
6.5 + j5
1
Ps , abs = 100 12.194 cos 37.57 = 483.3 W
2
1
P4, abs = (12.194) 2 4 = 297.4 W,
2
Pcabs = 0
Zin = 4 +

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

11.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V = (10 + j10)

4030
= 52.4469.18 V
550 + 8 20

Chapter Eleven Solutions

( gen = abs )

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1 52.44
P8 20 abs =
cos (20) = 161.5 W
2 8

P550 abs

1 52.44
=
cos (50) = 176.8 W
2 5

1
P10, gen = 10 52.44 cos 69.18 = 93.19 W
2
1
Pj10, gen = 10 52.44 cos (90 69.18) = 245.1 W
2

12.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(2 + j 5) (4 + j 3)
= 13.46351.94 V
6 + j8

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1
13.463 5cos 51.94 = 20.75 W
2

Vs = 50

(b)
Ps , gen =

P3

(a)

1 5 29
=
3 = 10.875 W
2 10

2 + j5
5 29
, IR =
6 + j8
10

1
= 3 + 1 + j3 = 4 + j3
0.1 j 0.3

Ignore 30 on Vs , I R = 5

ZR = 3 +

13.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

P10 =

1 79.062
= 312.5 W;
2 10
79.06161.57 50
I 50 =
= 12.7578.69 A
j10
1
P50V = 50 12.748cos 78.69 = 62.50 W
2
79.06161.57 j 50
= 15.811 7.57 :
I j 50 =
j5
1
Pj 50 = 50 15.811cos (90 + 71.57) = 375.0 W
2

V10 = 79.0616.57 V

V10 50 V10 V10 j 50


+
+
=0
10
j5
j10
V10 ( j 0.1 + 0.1 + j 0.2) + j 5 + 10 = 0

Pj10 = P j 5 = 0,

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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14.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

[2]

[1]

[1] and

1
Pgen = 9.233 ( 2 5.122 ) cos (83.88 + 140.2) = 26.22 W
2

Solving,
Vx = 9.233 83.88 V and Vc = 5.122 140.2 V

j 2Vx + (3 j 2)Vc = 0 [2]

5Vx 14Vc = 60

Vx 20 Vx Vc
+
= 2Vc
2
3
and
V
V Vx
0= c + c
j2
3
which simplify to

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

15.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Vth

2PL
=

RL
(R th + R L ) 2 + a 2

R th2 + (Xth + X L ) 2

X L = 0 R L = R th2 + X th2 = Zth

R L = R th2 + a 2 =

R + R 2L + a 2 2R L (R th + R L )
df
= th
=0
2
dRL
(R th + R L ) 2 + a 2
R th2 + 2R th R L + R 2L + a 2 2R th R L = 2R 2L = 0

X L fixed, Let X L + Xth = a f =

Vth
1
R L Z L = R L jX th
R L fixed PL =
2 (R th + R L ) 2 + (X th + X L ) 2

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(e)

(d)

(c)

R L , X L independent Z L = Zth = R th jX th

(b)
2

X in = 0 Z L = R th + j 0

Chapter Eleven Solutions

(a)

16.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

ZTH + ( ZTH )

VTH
=

107.3 116.6
.
16

16

10

( ZTH ) = (107.3 116.6 )(16.12 60.26 )


VL = VTH
*
16
ZTH + ( ZTH )
1 (107.3)(16.12 ) 107.3
PL ,max =

cos ( 116.6 60.26 + 116.6 ) =

IL =

ZTH = ( Z L ) = 8 + j14

Chapter Eleven Solutions

179.8 W

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(b)

(a)

Vth = 120

j10
= 107.3 116.6 V
10 + j 5
j10 (10 + j15)
Zth =
= 8 j14
10 + j 5

17.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

PL =

1
107.332
16.125 = 119.38 W
2 (8 + 16.125) 2 + 142

R L = Zth R L = 82 + 142 = 16.125

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

18.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1
24 1.6 5 = 96
2
)
( genW

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Po =

Ix =

9.6
=5
1.92
V = (0.6 5)8 = 24 V

19.
j 9.6 = 4.8 I x j1.92 I x +4.8I x

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

IL =

144 + j192
2 28.8
1 1442 + 1922
28.8 = 250 W
and PL ,max =
2 4 28.82

Vth = 5(28.8 + j38.4) = 144 + j192 V,

(b)

j 480 80 j 60
80 + j 60 80 j 60
= 28.8 + j 38.4 Z L max = 28.8 j 38.4
Z th = 80 j 60 =

(a)

20.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

= 98.11 W (okay)

P4+j2 = (2.774)2 (4) = 15.39 W


P8+j7 = (2.774)2 (8) = 30.78 W

P6-j8 = (41.61)(4.161) cos (-49.44o 3.69o) = 51.94 W

I6-j8 = Veq / (6 j8) = 4.161 3.69o A


I4+j2 = I8+j7 = Veq/ 12+j9 = 2.774 -86.31o A

Ptotal = (41.61)(5) cos (-19.44o) = 98.09 W

Veq = (5 -30o) (8.321 -19.44o) = 41.61 -49.44o V

Zeq = (6 j8) || (12 + j9) = 8.321 -19.44o W

Check:

21.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

j10 (20)
j10
= 20 + j 40, Zth =
= 4 + j8
20 + j10
20 + j10

PL ,max =

1
202 + 402
8.944 = 38.63 W
2 (4 + 8.944) 2 + 64

R L = Zth R L = 8.944

Vth = 100

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

22.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

IP(V_PRINT3)
-1.846E+01
IP(V_PRINT4)
-1.846E+01
IP(V_PRINT3)
4.499E+01
IP(V_PRINT4)
4.499E+01

(a)
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 5.375E+00
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT4)
6.000E+01 5.375E+00
(b)
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 6.011E+00
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT4)
6.000E+01 3.006E+00

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

P10 = (6.01)2 (10) = 180.6 W

(b) = 1, so I1 =

1700 o
= 3.00545 o A
40 j 40
P20 = (3.005)2 (20) = 90.30 W
The current through the 10- resistor is I1 + I1 = 2 I1 = 6.01 45o so

1700 o
(a) = 0, so I1 =
= 5.376 - 18.43 o A and, with the same current flowing
30 + j10
through both resistors in this case,
P20 = (5.376)2 (20) = 289.0 W
P10 = (5.376)2 (10) = 144.5 W

23.
We may write a single mesh equation: 170 0o = (30 + j10) I1 (10 j50)(-I1)
Solving,
1700 o
I1 =
30 + j10 + 10 j 50

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

16

(0 1) =

10 3

16
A

2t
8sin
dt = - 8 10 3
3
4 10

10 3

4 10 3 t
cos

3
2 2 10

10 3

10 March 2006

(b)

2
I avg

10 3

sin
= 32 A 2
3
2 10

2t
sin 10 3 t
3 t
dt
=

64sin 2
64
10

4 10 3
2 10 3
2
3

10
= 64 10 3
2

1
=
1 10 3

2
Waveform (a): I avg
=

(100)(1) + (25)(1) + (0)(1)


= 41.67 A 2
3
Waveform (b): i(t) = -20103 t + 20
i2(t) = 4108 t2 8105 t + 400
10 -3
1
2
(4 108 t 2 - 8 10 5 t + 400) dt
I avg
=
-3 0
2 10
5
4 10 8

2
1
0.1333
3 3 8 10
(
)
(
=
= 66.67 A 2
10
10 3 ) + 400(10 3 ) =
-3
-3
2

2 10 3
2
10

Waveform (c):

1
Iavg =
1 10 3

Waveform (c):

(a) Waveform (a): Iavg =

(10)(1) + (5)(1) + 0(1)


= 1.667 A
3
1
(20)(1) + 0(1)
2
= 5A
Waveform (b): Iavg =
2

Chapter Eleven Solutions

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

24.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

)(

=
=
=
=

400 2 9 o
= 0.2081 - 27.61o A
2500 + 870.585.01o

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT12)
6.000E+01 1.812E-02

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT2)
6.000E+01 4.805E-01

IP(V_PRINT12)
5.740E+01

IP(V_PRINT11)
1.474E+02

VP(L,0)
5.740E+01

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

IP(V_PRINT2)
-3.260E+01

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT11)
6.000E+01 2.732E-01

FREQ
VM(L,0)
6.000E+01 1.812E+02
FREQ
VM(R2_5k,$N_0002) VP(R2_5k,$N_0002)
6.000E+01 5.204E+02
-2.760E+01

IP(V_PRINT1)
-2.760E+01

and Psource = ( 400 2 )(0.2081) cos (-9o + 27.61o) = 55.78 W (checks out).

Isource =

10 March 2006

54.16 W
1.642 W
0
0
(A total absorbed power of 55.80 W.)

To check, the average power delivered by the source:

P2.5k = (520.4)2 / 2 500


P10k = (181.2)2 / 10 000
P1H
P4F

2 9 o 2500
V2.5k =
= 520.4 - 27.61o V
o
2500 + 870.5 85.01
400 2 9 o 870.5 85.01o
V10k =
= 181.2 57.40 o V
o
2500 + 870.5 85.01

(400

Zeff = j377 || -j663.1 || 10 000 = 870.5 85.01o

= 120, 1 H j377 , and 4 F -j663.1

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1)
6.000E+01 2.081E-01

Thus,

25. At
Define

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1 144
144
= 8.485
1 + cos 1000t 176o dt =

2
T 0 2

(c)

(d)

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1 144
144
= 8.485
(1 + cos1000t ) dt =

2
T 0 2

1 144
144
= 8.485
(1 cos 2000t ) dt =

2
T 0 2

(b)

26. (a)

Chapter Eleven Solutions

1 144
144
= 8.485
(1 + cos 2000t ) dt =

2
T 0 2

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1 4
2
= 1.414
1 + cos 10t 64o dt =

2
T 02

(c)

(d)

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1 4
2
(1 + cos10t ) dt = = 1.414

2
T 02

1 4
2
(1 cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414

T 02
2

(b)

27. (a)

Chapter Eleven Solutions

1 4
2
(1 + cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414

T 02
2

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Vrms

1
100
100(2)
(10) 2 dt =
=
t =
= 8.165 V

31
3 1
3

28.
T = 3 s; integrate from 1 to 4 s; need only really integrate from 1 to 3 s as function is zero
between
t = 3 and t = 4 s.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

I rms

1
49
49(1)
(7) 2 dt =
=
t =
= 4.041 A

32
3 2
3

29.
T = 3 s; integrate from 2 to 5 s; need only really integrate from 2 to 3 s as function is zero
between
t = 3 and t = 4 s.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(c)

1
= 1 +
= 1.225 V
2

1
= 1 +
= 1.225 V
2
2

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Vrms = V

+V

2
2eff

2
1eff

+V

(b)
Vrms = V

2
2eff

(a) 1 V
2
1eff

30.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(10)(1) + (20)(1) + (10)(1) 40


=
= 10
4
4

avg

1 2
(10 + 202 + 102 ) = 150 = 12.247
4

Feff =

1
1
Veff = 100 + 81 + 36 = 158.5 = 12.590 V
2
2

v = 10 + 9 cos100t + 6sin100t

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c) F

(b)

(a)

31.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10
1
106 103 = 33.33
3
3

f (t ) = 100t , 0 < t < 0.1 Feff =

1 0.1 6 2
10 t dt
0.3 0

1
1
H eff = 22 + 32 + 42 = 16.5 = 4.062
2
2

h (t ) = 2 + 3cos100t + 4 cos (101t 120)

0 + 4-120 = 3.606 -73.90 so Geff =

g(t) = 2 + 3cos100t + 4cos(100t 120o)


3.606 2
4+
= 3.240
2

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

(b)

(a)

32.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1
1
Feff = 8.52 + 122 + 4.52 = 12.43
2
2

f (t ) = 4 12 cos100t + 9 cos 2 100t


f (t ) = 4 12 cos100t + 4.5 + 4.5cos 200t Fav = 4 + 4.5 = 8.5

(a)

(b)

f (t ) = (2 3cos100t ) 2

Chapter Eleven Solutions

33.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(c)
ieff

(b) ieff

ieff

)
2

1 1
2
t dt
= 8sin
0
4
1

1
2

1
2

5 = 2.236 A

10 March 2006

2
t
- 8 cos 2 = 2.257 A
0

= 6.455 A

1 1

= [ 20t + 20] dt + 0

2 0

Chapter Eleven Solutions

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

34. (a)

= 102 + (5) 2 + 0
3

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1 1
18.482 = 42.68 W
2 4

1 102 1 102
+
= 25
2 4
2 4
W

102
= 80.18 W
// + 10dc Pav = 55.18 +
4

100 + 10 45 = 18.48 22.50o


1
1 1
1
P = 18.482 + 102 = 55.18 W
2
4 2
4

v = 10 cos10t + 10sin (10t + 45) + 10 cos 40t ;

1 7.6542
P =
= 7.322
2
4

vs = 10 cos10t 10sin (10t + 45) 10 10 45 = 7.65467.50o

P=

A = C = 10V, B = D = 0, vs = 10 cos10t + 10 cos 40t ,

P =

A = B = 10V, C = D = 0 100 + 10 45 = 18.48 22.50o

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(e)

(d)

(c)

(b)

(a)

35.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

j 0.3R
. By voltage division, then, we write:
R + j 0.3R

10 March 2006

(120) - 0.03 2 + j 0.1R

12.96 4 + 144 2 R 2 or R = 0.1061

FREQ
VM($N_0001,$N_0002)VP($N_0001,$N_0002)
6.000E+01 7.347E+01 3.527E+01

FREQ
VM($N_0002,$N_0003)VP($N_0002,$N_0003)
6.000E+01 7.349E+01 -3.525E+01

(b) Substituting into the expression for V100mH, we find that V100mH = 73.47 V,
independent of frequency.
To verify with PSpice, simulate the circuit at 60 Hz, or = 120 rad/s, so R = 40 .
We also include a miniscule (1 p) resistor to avoid inductor loop warnings. We see
from the simulation results that the two voltage magnitudes are indeed the same.

36R =

j 36 R

j 0.1
- 0.03 2 + j 0.1R
= 1200
V100mH = 1200
j 0.3R
0.03 2 + j 0.4 R
j 0.1 +
R + j 0.3
j 0.3R
j 36 R
R + j 0.3
= 1200
V300mH = 1200
j 0.3R
0.032 + j 0.4 R
j 0.1 +
R + j 0.3
(a) Were interested in the value of R that would lead to equal voltage magnitudes, or

Zeq = R || j0.3 =

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Thus,

36.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1 3
1
1
(20t ) 2 dt =
400 27 = 1200 = 34.64V

0
3
3
3
1 2
1
(10 + 302 + 502 ) =
3500 = 34.16 V
3
3

Veff ,1 =
Veff ,2 =

1
Vav ,2 = (10 + 30 + 50) = 30V
3

Vav ,1 = 30V

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c) PSpice verification for Sawtooth waveform of Fig. 11.40a:

(b)

(a)

37.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

1
106
j
j
3

10

= j 90 A, or

90 cos(t + 90o ) A

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 3.393E-02

IP(V_PRINT3)
9.000E+01

(c) PSpice verification: set f = 60 Hz, simulate a single 0.75- F capacitor, and include a
100-M resistor in parallel w ith the capacitor to prevent a floating node. This should
resit in a rms current amplitude of 33.93 mA, which it does.

1200

= 1 . This is
106
R j
3
only true when R = ; otherwise, current is shunted through the resistor and the two
capacitor currents will be unequal.
(b) In this case, the capacitor current is

(a) For the two current magnitudes to be equal, we must have

120 3R - j106
1200
ISRC =
=
106
R106
j106 3R j106 jR106
j
j

3R j106
R
I3F = ISRC
106
R j
3

j106
jR106
=
Zeff = R ||
6
3 3R j10

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

38.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

1 5
256 3 t 5
e (e )3 = 6.654
256e ( t 3) dt =

3
5
5

V2,eff =

1 100

8 + 256e3 (e 3 e5 )

5 3

1 800

+ 256 (1 e 2 ) = 9.879 V OK

5 3

=
=

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

5
1 2
2
+
t
dt
100
256e3e t dt

0
3
5

Veff =

Veff = 7.3032 + 6.6542 = 9.879

1 2
20
8 = 7.303
100t 2 dt =

0
5
3

V1,eff =

Find eff. value separately

39.
v(t ) = 10t [u (t ) u (t 2)] + 16e 0.5(t 3) [u (t 3) u (t 5)] V

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Vm 0 Vm 45o
A.
=
Z
1414

In terms of rms current, the largest rms current permitted is 14.39 /

Thus, 0.250 = VmIm (1 + cos ) = (1414) Im2 (1.707)


and Im = 14.39 mA.
2 = 10.18 mA rms.

e may write p(t) = Vm Im cos + Vm Im cos (2t + ) where = the angle of the
t (-45o). This function has a maximum value of VmIm cos + VmIm.

designate V = Vm 0 , so that I =

Z = 1000 + j1000 = 1414 45o .

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

W
curren

Chapter Eleven Solutions

The peak instantaneous power is 250 mW. The combination of elements yields

Arbitrarily

40.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

V = 20I + 8035 Vrms, Ps , gen = 80 10 cos 35 = 655.3 W

(a)

APs , gen = 80 10 = 800 VA


APR = PR = 320 VA

I L = 100 435 = 7.104 18.84 A rms

(d)
(e)
(f)

since I L lags V,

PFL = cos L =
PFL is lagging

PL
335.3
=
= 0.599
APL 568.3

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(g)

PLoad = 655.3 320 = 335.3 W

(c)

APL = 80 7.104 = 568.3 V A

PR = I R = 16 20 = 320 W

(b)

I = 435 A rms

Chapter Eleven Solutions

41.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

ce verification

;(c) is correct (-9.810-5 degrees


is essentially zero, for unity PF).

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
6.000E+01 8.264E+00
-9.774E-05

10 March 2006

; (a) and (b) are correct


Next, add a 90.09-F capacitor in parallel with the source:

FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
6.000E+01 9.215E+00
-2.625E+01

FREQ
VM($N_0003,0) VP($N_0003,0)
6.000E+01 1.200E+02
0.000E+00

(d) PSpi

ZL = 4 +

j 48
1
(192 + j144)
= 4+
3 + j4
25
11.68 j 5.76
Z L = 11.68 + j 5.76 , YL =
11.682 + 5.762
j 5.76
, C = 90.09 F
j120 C =
11.682 + 5.762

Ps = 120 9.214 0.8969 = 991.7W

(b)
(c)

Chapter Eleven Solutions

120
= 9.214 26.25 A rms
j192
4+
12 + j16
PFs = cos 26.25 = 0.8969 lag
Is =

(a)

42.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

+ j5

10 March 2006

Z B = 5.8812 10 5 = 773.5 VA

Z1 = 9.32 10 = 864.9 VA

APS = 200 I1 = 200 15.108 = 3022 VA

APD = I 2

APC = I 2 2 ZC = 9.32 10 = 86.49 VA

APB = I1 I 2

APA = I1 Z A = 15.1082 29 = 1229 VA

25 j8 200
20 + j10 0
200 (20 j10)
=
= 9.300 0.5681 A rms
I2 =
480.9 26.00 480.920.00

200
20 + j10
0 33.66 j13.660
726522.09
=
= 15.113.908 A rms
I1 =
25 j8
20 + j10
480.9 26.00
20 + j10 33.66 j13.660

Z D = 10 60 = 5 j8.660

Z A = 5 + j 2 , Z B = 20 j10 , Z c = 1030
8.660
=

Chapter Eleven Solutions

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

43.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

The impedance has a positive angle; it therefore has a net inductive character.

Thus, the apparent power = S = 6.838 kVA.

S = VI* = 683.829.31o (100 ) = 683829.31o VA .

V = IZtot = 683.829.31o so

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(c)

(b)

Ztot = 3015 + 4040 = 68.3729.31

(a)
PF = cos 29.3 = 0.8719 lag

Z1 = 3015, Z 2 = 4040

Chapter Eleven Solutions

44.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Stotal
550.4
=
= 4.786 A rms
Veff
115

(b) PF of composite load = cos (24.71o) = 0.9084 lagging

Ieff =

Stotal = S1 + S2 + S3 = 500 + j230.1 VA = 550.4 24.71o VA

100 23.07o
S1 =
= 100 + j 42.59 VA
0.92
250 36.87 o
S2 =
= 250 + j187.5 VA
0.8
500 0o
S3 =
= 500 VA
1

1 = cos-1(0.92) = 23.07o, 2 = cos-1 (0.8) = 36.87o, 3 = 0

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

(a)

45.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

+ jX L R L =

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

0.09124 120 C

0.12651
C = 79.48 F

PFnew = 0.9 lag, new = 25.84 tan 25.84 = 0.4843

= 0.12651 j 0.09124S, Ynew

Vs = 40 (5.2 + j 3.75) = 256.435.80 V; Ytot =

1
5.2 + j 3.75
= 0.12651 + j (120 C 0.09124),

X L = 5 tan 36.87 = 3.75 , Z L = 5 + j 3.75, Ztot = 5.2 + j 3.75

Let R
ZL =

A rms

Chapter Eleven Solutions

0 A rms; PL = 10, 000 0.8 = 8000 W

8000
=5
402
cos L = 0.8lag L = cos 1 0.8 = 36.87

Let I40
L =

APL = 10, 000 VA, PFL = 0.8lag, 40


IL =

46.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

10 March 2006

j300 || 200 =

100 X C
+138.5 + j92.31
j (100 + X C )

IM(V_PRINT1)
4.853E-01
7.641E-01
7.641E-01

IP(V_PRINT1)
-5.825E+01
-2.707E+01
-2.707E+01

PF
54.25o 0. 5843 lag
23.07o 0. 9200 lag
23.07o 0. 9200 lag

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

FREQ
1.592E+02
1.592E+02
1.592E+02

General circuit for simulations. Results agree with hand calculations

100X C

= 138.5 + j 92.31 +
100 + X C

100X C

92.31 +

100 + X C
1
tan
= cos-1 0.92 = 23.07o

138.5

Solving, we find that XC = -25 = -1/C, so that C = 40 F

Znew = j100 || jXC +

(b) Raise PF to 0.92 lagging with parallel capacitance

Znew = j100 + jXC + j300 || 200 = 138.5 + j(192.3 + XC)


192.3 + X C
-1
o
tan 1
= cos 0.92 = 23.07
138.5
Solving, we find that XC = -133.3 = -1/C, so that C = 7.501 F

(a) Raise PF to 0.92 lagging with series capacitance

Zeff = j100 + j300 || 200 = 237 54.25o. PF = cos 54.25o = 0.5843 lagging.

With no compensation:
With series compensation:
With parallel compensation:

47.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

j 764.7 VA,

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

S j10 = j10 8.7452 =

S j 20 = j 20 4.8512 = j 470.6 VA,


=0

20 5.42349.40
= 4.851 14.04
10 + j 20

S10 = 10 4.8512 = 235.3 + j 0 VA

I10 =

S 20 = 20 5.4322 = 588.2 + j 0 VA

I 20 = 8.74519.65

10 + j 20
= 5.42349.40
30 + j 20

20 (1 + j 2)
= 10.769 j 3.846 = 11.435+ 19.65
3 + j2
100
Is =
= 8.74519.65
11.435 19.654
S s = Vs I s = 100 8.745 19.65 = 823.5 + j 294.1VA

Zin = j10 +

48.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

Chapter Eleven Solutions

=0

10 March 2006

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

100 53.35 42.66


I1 =
= 9.806 64.44 A
6 + j4
1
S1. gen = 100 9.80664.44 = 211.5 + j 442.3VA
2
1
S 6, abs = 6 9.8062 = 288.5 + j 0 VA
2
1
S j 4,abs = ( j 4) 9.8062 = 0 + j192.3VA
2
j100 53.35 42.66
= 14.99121.6,
I2 =
5
1
S5 abs = 5 14.992 = 561.5 + j 0 VA
2
1
S 2, gen = ( j100)14.99 121.57 = 638.4 j 392.3VA
2
1 53.35
S j10, abs =
( j10) = 0 j142.3VA = 142.3 90 VA
2 10

1
100
Vx
+ j 0.1 + 0.2 =
+ j 20
6 + j4
6 + j4
Vx = 53.35 42.66 V

Vx 100
V
V j100
+ x + x
=0
6 + j4
j10
5

49.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

500 VAR, PF = 0.75(lead) = cos 1 0.75 = 41.41


P 500 / tan 41.41 = 566.9W,
S = 566.9 j 500 VA

500 W, PF = 0.75 lead


500
S = 500
sin (cos 1 0.75) = 500 j 441.0 VA
j.075

S = 500 cos 1 0.75 = 375 j 330.7 VA

500 VA, PF = 0.75 lead

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(c)

(b)

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50.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

S s = 1600 + j 500 = 167617.35 VA PFs = cos17.35 = 0.9545 lag

(c)

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1833.3

+
PFL = cos tan 1
= 0.6575 lag
1600

S L = 400 (4 + j 4.583) = 1600 + j1833 VA

I s =

1600 + j 500
= 4 + j1.25 I s = 4 j1.25
400
400
Ic =
= j 3.333A rms I L = I s I c = 4 j1.25 j 3.333
j120
I L = 4 j 4.583A rms

S s = 1600 + j 500 VA (gen)

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(a)

51.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

S tot = 120036.87 + 160025.84 + 900

(a)

S = 3300 + j1417 VA

(c)

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PFs = cos 23.245 = 0.9188

3591.5
= 15.62 A rms
230

(b)

Is =

= 3300 + j1417.4 = 359223.25 VA

= 960 + j 720 + 1440 + j 697.4 + 900

(cos 1 0.8 = 36.87, cos 1 0.9 = 25.84)

Chapter Eleven Solutions

52.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

PF3 =

70, 000
= 0.8604 lag
81,360

APs = 250 325.4 = 81,360 VA

I s = 800 + 100 36.87 + 160 41.41 = 325.4 30.64 A rms

AP3 =

30, 000
40, 000
= 40, 000 VA, I 3 =
= 160 A rms
0.75
250
I 3 = cos 1 0.75 = 41.41 I 3 = 160 41.41 A rms

I 2 = cos 1 0.8 = 36.87 I 2 = 100 36.87 o A rms

I1 =

20, 000
= 800 A rms
250
I 2 = 25, 000 / 250 = 100 A rms

Ps ,tot = 20 + 25 0.8 + 30 0.75 = 70 kW

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(c)

(b)

(a)

53.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

The single 200-kVAR increment is the most economical choice.

A single 200-kVAR increment costs $395 to install, and would remove the entire excess
kVAR. The savings would be $1 (wow) in the first year, but $396 each year thereafter.

(c) A single 100-kVAR increment costs $200 to install. The excess kVAR would then be
280 100 130 = 50 kVAR, for an annual penalty of $332. This would result in a
first-year savings of $64.

(b) Target = S = P + j0.65 P


= tan-1(0.65P/P) = 33.02o, so target PF = cos = 0.8385

(a) 0.65 peak = 0.65(200) = 130 kVAR


Excess = 280 130 = 150 kVAR, for a cost of (12)(0.22)(150) = $396 / year.

200 kW average power and 280 kVAR reactive result in a power factor of
PF = cos (tan-1 (280/200) = 0.5813 lagging, which is pretty low.

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54.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

Vrms
2
2
= CVrms
= CVrms
( j / C)

, so that Q QC = P tan new

C =

2
Vrms

P ( tan old - tan new )

Thus, noting that old = load,

Substituting, we find that QC = P tan load P tan new


or
2
CVrms
= P (tan load tan new)

Q-QC
new = ang(Stotal) = tan 1
P

Stotal = Sload + SC = P + j(Q QC)

QC = SC = Vrms

load = tan-1(Q/P), or Q = P tan load

Perhaps the easiest approach is to consider the load and the compensation capacitor
separately. The load draws a complex power Sload = P + jQ. The capacitor draws a
purely reactive complex power SC = -jQC.

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55.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(f) S = 57.46 VA

(e) Since the load is purely resistive, it draws zero reactive power.

339

Veff
339
2
(d) Apparent power = Veff Ieff =
=
= 57.46 VA

2 1000 1000

(c) pmin = 0 W

(a) Veff =

339
= 239.7 V rms
2
(b) pmax = 3392 / 1000 = 114.9 W

V = 339 -66o V, = 100 rad/ s, connected to Z = 1000 .

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(f) complex power = j1219 VA

(d) apparent power = Veff Ieff =

339
(5.087 ) = 1219 VA
2
(e) reactive power = Q = Veff Ieff sin ( ) = 1219 VA

pmin = VmIm cos - VmIm = -1219 W

I =

339 - 66o
V
=
= 7.194 - 156o A
Z
j 47.12
7.194
= 5.087 A rms
so Ieff =
2
p(t) = VmIm cos + VmIm cos(2t + )
where = angle of current angle of voltage
pmax = VmIm cos + VmIm = (1 + cos(-90o)) (339)(7.194)/ 2 = 1219 W

V = 339 -66o V, = 100 rad/s to a purely inductive load of 150 mH (j47.12 )

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57.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

(50) (1.004 89.99o )


= 2.008 89.97 o mV
2500 + (1.00489.99o )
= (0.002)2 / 10103 = 400 pW

10 March 2006

Ssource =

1
50

( 50 )

2
25000.02292

= 0.005 -0.02292o VA

(c) apparent power = VeffIeff = VmIm = (0.002)2 / 10000 = 200 pVA

(b) 0 W (purely resistive elements draw no reactive power)

pmax

V10k =

Zeff = j || j250 || 104 = 1.004 89.99o

H j , 4 F j250

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(d)

(a)

58. 1

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

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(e) Q = Veff Ieff sin (ang VS ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) sin (3.049o) = 27.75 kVAR

(d) P = Veff Ieff cos (ang VS ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) cos (3.049o) = 521 kW

(c) The apparent power of the source is 521.8 kVA. The apparent powers of the passive
elements sum to 37.81 + 49.55 + 77.28 + 483.1 = 647.7 kVA, so NO! Phase angle is
important!

(b) 37.81 0 + 49.55 -90o +77.28 90o + 483.1 0o = 521.6 3.014o kVA,
which is within rounding error of the complex power delivered by the source.

V250 =

(111300.2381o )(250)
= 10990 8.852o V rms
250 + j 40
so S250 = (10990)2 / 250 = 483.1 0o kVA

I100mH =

V100mH
= 43.96 - 8.852o A rms
j 40
so S100 = (1758)(4.43.96) 90o = 77.28 90o kVA

(111300.2381o )( j 40)
= 1758 81.15o V rms
250 + j 40

Veff
= 4.452 90.24o A rms
- j 2500
so S1F = (11130)(4.452) -90o = 49.55 -90o kVA

V100mH =

I1F =

Veff

(120000)(2563.287 o )
=
= 11130 0.2381o V rms
o
20 + 2563.287

S20 = (43.48)2 (20) 0 = 37.81 0 kVA

IS =

120000
= 43.48 - 3.049o A rms
20 + 2563.287 o
Ssource = (12000)(43.48) 3.049o = 521.8 3.049o kVA

59.
(a) At = 400 rad/s, 1 F -j2500 , 100 mH j40
Defi
ne Zeff = -j2500 || (250 + j40) = 256 3.287o

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

10 March 2006

(g) Q = Veff Ieff sin = 37.59 kVAR

(f) |Zload| = |V/ I| = 2300/28 = 82.14 . Thus, Zload = 82.14 35.71o

(e) apparent power = |S| = 64.4 kVA

S = Veff Ieff = 64.4 35.71o kVA

(c) P = Veff Ieff cos = (2300)(28) cos (35.71o) = 52.29 kW

( 2300 2 ) (39.6) cos (120t ) cos (120t - 35.71 )

t = 2.5 ms, then, p(t) = 71.89 kW

p(t) =

load = cos-1(0.812) = +35.71o (since lagging PF). Assume ang (V) = 0o.

(a) Peak current = 28 2 = 39.6 A

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(d)

at

(b)

60.

Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition