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Baypure

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Bestell-Nr.: LXS-FCC17D, Ausgabe: 2005-10

LANXESS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH I BU FUNCTIONAL CHEMICALS I


WATER AND SPECIALITY CHEMICALS I CHEMIEPARK LEVERKUSEN I
51369 LEVERKUSEN I FAX +49 (0)214-3041713 I WWW.BAYPURE.COM

GENERAL PRODUCTINFORMATION

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

P. 4

IDEA AND CONCEPT

P. 5

SYNTHESIS

P. 7

STRUCTURES

P. 7

I M I TAT I N G N AT U R E

P. 9

- B AY P U R E D S 1 0 0

P. 9

- B AY P U R E C X 1 0 0

P. 11

B I O D E G R A D AT I O N I N H A R M O N Y W I T H T H E E N V I R O N M E N T

P. 1 2

TOXICOLOGY

P. 1 4

B AY P U R E D S 1 0 0

P. 1 7

- S U P P LY F O R M S

P. 17

- S TA B I L I T Y

P. 18

- VISCOSITY

P. 19

- S TA B I L I T Y C O N S TA N T S

P. 19

- COMPARISON POLYASPARTATE
OTHER POLYCARBOXYLATES

P. 20

B AY P U R E C X 1 0 0

P. 2 3

- DELIVERY FORMS

P. 23

- DENSITY

P. 25

- VISCOSITY

P. 25

- p H A N D p K a D ATA

P. 27

- S TA B I L I T Y

P. 27

- I M I N O D I S U C C I N AT E M E TA L C O M P L E X E S

P. 28

- C A L C I U M B I N D I N G C A PA C I T Y

P. 29

- S TA B I L I T Y C O N S TA N T S

P. 30

B AY P U R E D S P

P. 3 3

- PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

P. 33

A P P L I C AT I O N S O V E R V I E W

P. 3 5

Baypure

E F F I C I E N T B Y N AT U R E

INTRODUCTION

BAYPURE - IDEA AND CONCEPT


LANXESS (previously Bayer Chemicals) has been pursuing this

E F F I C I E N T B Y N AT U R E - E C O N O M I C A L LY A N D E C O L O G I C A L LY I M P O RTA N T

type of research project for years under the central theme of


Responsible Care in order to highlight innovative routes for its

Dispersing and complexing agents are nearly everywhere in our

dominantly used are removed in water treatment plants, they are only

customers.

daily life. At home, in industry and crafts, wherever water is used,

mineralized to a very small extent. The majority is absorbed in

LANXESS biomimetic chemistry is still a relatively new area of work

these additives are required so that water is used more efficiently.

sewage sludge. If the sewage sludge is used for agricultural pur-

and the new series of Baypure * products was developed there.

The conservation of resources is the basic concept behind all these

poses, the polymers return to the biosphere. On the basis of their

Chemistry and nature do not conflict with each other: on the con-

With the new Baypure range, LANXESS is now able to offer its cus-

additives. In the past, water chemicals polluted the effluents. Nowa-

behavior, they are not considered to be readily biodegradable.

trary, chemical substances are the building blocks of both our living

tomers a group of products helping them to use water more effi-

days, large amounts of water-soluble dispersing agents based on

Also, huge amounts of conventional chelants are still used, although

and inanimate environment.

ciently and in a more environmentally friendly manner, using ecolo-

polycarboxylates are used worldwide, mainly in the detergent indus-

their use is controversial due to environmental or toxicological con-

gically compatible, biodegradable functional polymers and chelants.

try and for water treatment. The world market is currently estimat-

cern.

What can be more natural than to learn from nature? That is the

With these innovative products for complexing, dispersing and con-

ed at several hundred thousand tons a year. The waste problem

Our aim was developing and marketing new, ecologically compati-

task of biomimetic chemistry which makes industrial use of natural

trolling crystallization, we are able to offer our customers a powerful

associated with these functional polymers is still largely unsolved.

ble products. We used nature as a model for this. Baypure is the

processes and products.

range of products for water conditioning .

Although the polycarboxylates based on acrylic acid being pre-

result of it.

* Baypure is a registered
tradename of
Bayer AG, Leverkusen

SYNTHESIS
All Baypure products are made of maleic acid anhydride, ammonia water and occasionally sodium hydroxide. These raw materials
are easily accessible.
In the process of manufacturing Polyaspartic Acid, Polysuccinimide is generated first. This is converted into salts of Polyaspartic Acid by subsequent hydrolysis. The Baypure CX 100 is directly synthesized of the above mentioned raw materials.

Baypure DSP
Polysuccinimide

, NH3

NaOH, NH3

NaOH

Baypure DS 100

Baypure CX 100

Sodiumpolyaspartate

Tetrasodium Iminodisuccinate

STRUCTURES

O
O

ONa

H
N

N
H

H2N
O

H
N

O
ONa

ONa O
O

N
H

ONa
O
N
H

O
ONa

NaO

ONa

NaO

O
ONa
ONa
N

ONa

O
n

Baypure DS 100

n: depending on the way of synthesis

Baypure CX 100
D,L-asparatic acid,
N-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-,
tetranatrium salt;
CAS-No. 144538-83-0

NATURE AS THE MODEL


F R O M A N AT U R A L LY O C C U R I N G P O LY P E P T I D E T O A N I N D U S T R I A L P O LY M E R :
B AY P U R E D S 1 0 0

Polymers being able to control crystallization processes are present


in nature. For millions of years, mussels have used certain proteins
which contain polyaspartate (salts of Polyaspartic Acid) sequences
consisting of between 10 and 50 aspartic acid units to control the
structural synthesis of their shells. Even in higher living organisms,
these types of molecules have an effect on biomineralization
processes, for example the growth of bones and teeth.

*The figure is published in Biomimetic


Material Chemistry, page 256, figure
9.6 (b) Editor Stephen Mann, ISBN: 156081-669-4 [1996]. Copyright by John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Reprinted by permission of John Wiley
& Sons, Inc.
All rights Reserved.
Calcit Crystal growth without

Calcit Crystal growth* with

Polyaspartates

Polyaspartates

Short, homopolymeric aspartic acid chains have an effect on crystal

2. New seed crystals are formed on the polymer chains so that ulti-

growth not only in vivo, but also in vitro. The protein chain interacts

mately many small crystals are produced which can shift with

with certain surfaces of a microcrystal. This has two effects:

respect to each other and which are separated by polyaspartic


acid molecules.

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

1. Crystal growth is prevented or delayed, because further ions from

On a macroscopic scale, these collections of crystallites also have

the aqueous solution cannot easily be inserted into the crystal lat-

quite different mechanical properties from those of large crystals.

tice. Thus the presence of polymers leads to a different type of

This is the key to the industrial application of Baypure DS100 func-

crystal morphology.

tional polymers.

ASP

Polycarboxylate

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

ASP

COO- COO- COO- COO-

ASP

Structural comparison between Polycarboxylates and Sodium


Salts of Polyaspartic Acid.
In contrast to polyacrylates having a molecular backbone exclusive-

COO- O

COO- O
N
H

Having an effect
on the crystal
morphology of

minerals

COO-

ly consisting of carbon atomes, the backbone of Polyaspartic Acid


has a chain consisting of carbon and nitrogen atoms enabling

N
H

biodegradation.
Polyasparate

F R O M T H E P O LY M E R T O T H E M O N O M E R :
B AY P U R E C X 1 0 0
Chelation is also a widespread process in nature. Processes involving complexants are photosynthesis in plants, and oxygen transport
in all animals right up to humans. Porphyrin complexes of magnesium, iron or copper, are key substances in living organisms. Synthetic chelants act in just the same way as biological complexing
agents, which hold firmly on to their essential metal ions when they
bond to troublesome metal ions and thus mask them.
The use of nitrogen atoms in combination with oxygen functions as
complex-forming centers is a very old idea in nature. The skillful linking of these functional groups in Baypure CX100, the Tetrasodium
salt of Iminodisuccinic Acid, also give rise to a superior property of
this molecule: its outstanding biodegradability.
This means that this compound is much better, from an ecological
point of view, than conventional complexing agents. Complexing
agents from the Baypure range do their work where they are actually used, during application.

IMINODISUCCINIC ACID:
A BIODEGRADABLE COMPLEXING AGENT
O
O

ONa

C-Terminus, Polyaspartate

ONa
N
I
H
O

O
H 2O

OH

NaOH

NaO

OH

NH 3

NaO

O
O

ONa

10

ONa
O

N
I
H

Biodegradation of Baypure CX100

Biodegradation in %
over 28 days

100

80

60

40

20

0
0

14

21

Biodegradation in %
over 28 days

28
time [d]

Test design OECD 302 B as a function of time

100

80

60

40

20

0
0

14

Test design OECD 301 E as a function of time

21

28
time [d]

TOXICOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL DATA


Biodegradation - in harmony with the environment

Since increasing quantities of chelants (complexing agents) are dis-

In January 1998, the Professional Association of the Photographic

No waste gases or effluents are generated during the production of

charged into the environment every year, extensive toxicological and

Chemicals Industry, the German Association of Professional Devel-

the Baypure products. To a certain extent, the protection of the

ecotoxicological tests were carried out. Environmental monitoring

oping Laboratories and the Association of Professional Photographic

60-

environment is also an integral part of the products themselves.

programs analyzed how complexing agents enter surface waters. In

Laboratories volunteered the German Environment Ministry that they

50-

These compounds based on models from nature are biodegraded

the 1980s, the results led to recommendations on the maximum

would reduce the discharge of complexing agents with low

40-

within a very short time, like their natural templates. The degradation

amount of complexing agents that should be used in detergents.

biodegradability into surface waters by 30% by the end of 2000. In

30-

behavior of Baypure DS100 was tested according to a variety of

Most conventional complexing agents find their way into rivers and

addition to this, the chemical industry is actively pursueing the devel-

20-

OECD methods. These test demonstrated that Baypure DS100 is

lakes because they have low biodegradability.

opment of biodegradable complexing agents.

10-

inherently degradable and in some cases the requirements for ready

Another drawback is their relatively low adsorption by activated

The Baypure products are an environmentally-friendly alternative to

biodegradability were also met. In all tests, Baypure CX100 was

sludge and soil sediment. Consequently, complexing agents with

conventional additives. They enable our customers to increase their

classified as readily biodegradable.

low biodegradability were even detected in plants used to treat

expertise in water business and to meet their own commitments to

drinking water.

protect the environment.

Biodegradation in % over 28 days


70-

00

10

time [d]

glucose
polyaspartic acid
polycarboxylate

12

15

20

25

30

TOXICOLOGICAL DATA FOR DS100

acute oral toxicity (rats)

LD50 > 2000 mg/kg

not classified

acute dermal toxicity (rats)

LD50 (24 h) > 2000 mg/kg

not classified

acute toxicity (skin irritation)

aqueous solution, pH < 11

non-irritant

acute toxicity (eye irritation)

aqueous solution, pH < 11

non-irritant

subacute toxicity (rats)

four weeks

not classified

skin sensitization

no effects (guinea pigs)

non-sensitizing

mutagenicity (Ames test)

no mutagenic effects (in vitro)

negative

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL DATA FOR DS100

acute toxicity (fish)

LC0 (96 h) = 3160 mg/l

not classified

acute toxicity (daphnia)

EC0 (48 h) = 2500 mg/l

not classified

algal growth inhibition test

ErC50 (72 h) = 1070 mg/l

not classified

algal growth inhibition test

EbC50 (72 h) = 528 mg/l

not classified

bacterial inhibition test

EC50 (0.5 h) 15000 mg/l

not classified

biodegradability, OECD 301 E

DOC decrease (28 d) = 74%*

readily degradable

biodegradability, OECD 302 B

DOC decrease (28 d) = 77%

see OECD 301 E

water hazard class 1


* for a 5% solution

TOXICOLOGICAL DATA FOR CX 100

TOXICITY AND ECOTOXICITY


Baypure DS100 underwent toxicological tests in numerous organisms, including bacteria, water fleas, rats and algae.
The toxicological and ecotoxicological safety of Baypure CX100
was confirmed almost simultaneously in Europe and the United
States at the start of 1998. Unlike many other complexing agents,
the product leads to only a low remobilization of heavy metals from

acute oral toxicity (rats)

LD50 > 2000 mg/kg

not classified

acute dermal toxicity (rats)

LD50 (24 h) > 2,000 mg/kg

not classified

subacute oral toxicity (rats)

NOEC (28 d): 200 mg/kg/d

not classified

subchronic oral toxicity (rats)

NOEC (90 d): 200 mg/kg/d

not classified

acute toxicity (skin irritation)

aqueous solution, pH < 11.5

non-irritant

acute toxicity (eye irritation)

aqueous solution, pH < 11.5

non-irritant

skin sensitization

no effects (guinea pigs)

non-sensitizing

mutagenicity (Ames test)

no mutagenic effects (in vitro)

negative

mutagenicity (micronucleus test)

no clastogenic effect (in vivo)

negative

sediments, an ecotoxicologically significant argument in favor of this


compound.

The Baypure product range is safe to use in household and industrial applications. They dont irritate or sensitize the skin.

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL DATA FOR CX 100

acute toxicity (fish)

LC0 (96 h) 82.6 mg/l

not classified

reproduction test (fish)

LC0 (14 d) 12.0 mg/l

not classified

acute toxicity (daphnia)

EC0 (48 h) 84.0 mg/l

not classified

reproduction test (daphnia)

EC0 (21 d) 11.7 mg/l

not classified

algal growth inhibition test

ErC50 (72 h) 94.5 mg/l

not classified

bacterial inhibition test

EC50 (0.5 h) 10000 mg/l

not classified

biodegradability, OECD 301 E

DOC decrease (28 d) = 79%

readily degradable

biodegradability, OECD 302 B

DOC decrease (28 d) = 89-99%

see OECD 301 E

water hazard class 1


14

BAYPURE DS 100
B AY P U R E D S 1 0 0 - S U P P L I E D I N T H R E E F O R M S :

Product Name

Baypure DS100/40%

Baypure DS100/ solid

Baypure DS100 solid G

Delivery Form

solution

solid

solid

Appearance

orange to brown

orange to brown powder orange to brown granules

Odor

very low

odorless

odorless

pH-Value 10% solution

9.5 10.5

ca. 10.5

ca. 10.0

Density at 20C [g/ml]

ca. 1.30

---

---

Bulk Density [kg/Liter]

---

0.55 0.90

0.83 0.97

Viscosity at 20C [mPa*s]

20 - 60

---

---

Freezing point [C]

ca. 12C

---

---

at 20C [g/100g H2O]

each ratio

80

80

COD [mg O2/g]

ca. 330

ca. 480

ca. 540

Solubility in Water

B AY P U R E D S 1 0 0 - C O N S T I T U E N T S :

16

Productname

Baypure DS100/40%

Baypure DS100 solid

Polyaspartic Acid, Sodium Salt [% w/w]

> 38.0

> 80.0

> 87.0

Aspartic Acid, Sodium Salt [% w/w]

< 2.0

< 4.0

< 4.0

Asparagine Sodium Salt [% w/w]

< 0.3

< 0.5

<

Fumaric Acid, Sodium Salt [% w/w]

< 0.3

< 0.5

< 0.7

Maleic Acid, Sodium Salt [% w/w]

< 0.2

< 0.3

< 0.5

Water [% w/w]

ca. 60

<

< 10.0

15

Baypure DS100 solid G

0,5

STABILITY
T H E R M O S TA B I L I T Y A N D p H S TA B I L I T Y
O F B AY P U R E D S 1 0 0
In many applications especially in cleaning agents and detergents, any ingredient must be stable in both strong alkaline conditions and within a wide range of temperatures.
Stability [%]

Washing machines, dishwashers and membrane cleaning operations can run for hours. Baypure DS 100 therefore needs ade-

100

quate stablity to resist these conditions. To verify this, the stabil80

ity of a 1% solution at 96 was tested at various time intervals in


the pH range from 1 14. The results are excellent in the alkaline

60

range up to pH 13 and good in the acid pH range.

40

20

1
12
24

Time [hrs.]

100

43

39

23

100
8

96

96

83

10

12

13

14

pH

stability after 1 hour at 96C


stability after 12 hour at 96C
stability after 24 hour at 96C

CHELATION CONSTANTS

VISCOSITY
S TA B I L I T Y T O O X I D A N T S

100000- Viscosity in relation to concentration and temperature [mpas*sec]

The stability constants of Baypure DS complexes with various metal

Detergents and cleaners may contain oxygen-based bleaching

cations were determined in an aqueous solution with a constant

agents. Thus the stability of Baypure DS100 to peroxides is very

ionic strength: 0,1 mol/L. They give evidence of the strong com-

10000-

important. The chart shows the stability of a 1% solution of Bay-

plexing capability of Baypure DS versus iron ions. This effect is

pure DS100 to H2O2 (based on 100% active substance) at tem-

favourable for the application of Baypure DS as a dispersant in


20C

1000-

peratures of 65 C and 95 C, respectively.

Stability [%]

laundry detergents. These iron ions may promote precipitation lead-

50C
80C

The residual content of Baypure DS100 was determined at inter

100

vals of one hour in the pH range. In solutions with a high or low


pH, respectively at 1 or 14, the active agent concentration

ing to graying of the fibers. In addition iron interferes with the bleach-

100-

ing processes and has to be inactivated.

80

declines. However, it has a good stability in the range in which

60

10-

detergents and cleaning agents are used.


40

20
65
95

Temperature
[C]

I
35

I
40

Concentration in [% w/w]
64

77

80

99

100

100

8,5

pH-Value

stability at 65C
stability at 95C

18

1- I
30

100
9

98
9,5

97
10

92

73

12

14

I
45

I
50

I
55

I
60

I
65

Metal ions

Mg2+

Ca2+

Mn2+

Fe2+

Fe3+

Cu2+

logK

2.0

2.7

2.1

10.0

18.5

4.8

COMPARISONS
Calcium Carbonate Dispersing Capacity (CCDC) at pH =10

0,05 m filter system and the residual hardness was determined by

Calcium Binding Capacity (CCBV) at pH =10

was hardened to 30dH with calcium chloride and the pH value

Due to its importance to the washing process the inhibition of

titration with EDTA. The residual hardness corresponds to a mass of

Unlike the inhibition capacity, the binding capacity is proportional to

adjusted to pH = 10 with sodium hydroxide solution. A Ca-specific

CaCO3 scaling by Baypure DS 100 was investigated. The condi-

colloidal dispersed CaCO3 (mg CaO/g Polymer).

its complexing power. Inhibition capacity indicates the inhibition of

electrode was calibrated at 3 dH and 30 dH and the potential

tions were: 60 d hardness (via dissolution of CaCl2 in deionized

The results demontrate superior dispersing capacity of sodium

crystal growth of the nuclei of precipitated CaCO3. The binding

adjustment in the measurement solution awaited (25 C). 1g/l polyas-

water) and 25C. After 30 minutes the solution was filtered with a

polyaspartate compared to common polyacrylates.

capacity is a measure of the masking of distinct calcium ions.

partic acid (active substance) was then added and the chronologi-

A given standard-type polyacrylate is superior in calcium binding to

cal sequence of the Ca compound was determined.

Baypure DS 100. In other words the functionality as a complexant

The calcium binding capacity is calculated from the potential value

is more prominent in polyacrylates than it is in Baypure DS 100.

after 15 minutes. (Value in mg CaO/g polymer).

The washing process depends, however, on the dispersion performance of the polymer as the function of binding metal ions is
assumed by other constituents of the formulation.
To determine the calcium binding capacity, fully demineralized water
Polycarboxylate

Polycarboxylate

Polyaspartate

Polyaspartate

I
0

I
20

I
40

I
60

CCDC (mg CaO/g a.i.)

20

I
80

I
100

I
120

I
140

I
160

I
180

I
200

I
0

I
20

I
40

I
60

CBC (mg CaO/g a.i.)

I
80

I
100

I
120

I
140

I
160

I
180

I
200

I
220

I
240

BAYPURE CX 100
B AY P U R E C X 1 0 0 - S U P P L I E D I N T H R E E F O R M S :
Product Name

Baypure CX100/34%

Baypure CX100 solid

Baypure CX100 solid G

Delivery Form

solution

solid

solid

Appearance

colorless to

white powder

white granules

yellowish, clear
Odor

very low

no odor

no odor

Color no.[Hazen]

< 300

---

---

pH value 10% solution

approx. 11.0

approx. 11.0

approx. 11.0 (10%)

density at 20C [g/ml]

< 1.34

---

---

Bulk density [kg/Liter]

---

0.5 0.7

0.78 - 1.02

Viscosity 20C [mPa*s]

< 50

---

---

Freezing point [C]

<5

---

---

soluble in any ratio

56

56

Solubility in water
at 20C [g/100g H2O]
Solubility in glycol
at 20C [g/100g glycol]

soluble in any ratio

very low

very low

Ammonia [ppm]

< 70

---

---

COD (DIN H 41) [mg O2/g]

approx. 225

approx. 480

approx. 540

> 120

> 260

BoD 7 [mg O /g]

B AY P U R E C X 1 0 0 - C O N S T I T U E N T S :

22

Productname

Baypure CX100/34%

Baypure CX100 solid

Baypure CX100 solid G

Iminodisuccinic acid, Na4 salt [% w/w]

> 33.0

> 65.0

> 78.0

Aspartic acid, Na2 salt [% w/w]

< 7.0

< 15.0

< 15.0

Fumaric acid, Na2 salt [% w/w]

< 2.5

< 8.0

< 5.0

Hydroxysuccinic acid, Na2 salt [% w/w] < 0.5

< 2.0

< 0.7

Maleic acid, Na2 salt [% w/w]

< 0.3

< 2.0

< 0.5

Total sodium salts [% w/w]

> 41.0

> 85.0

> 96.0

Water [% w/w]

< 59.0

< 15.0

< 4.0

Baypure CX100/34 is a clear, colorless to slightly yellowish liquid.

At temperatures below 5C, some turbidity may be observed as a

At a density of 1.34 g/ml, and at a temperature of 20C (68 F), it

result of crystallization of the fumaric acid Na2 salt. However, these

contains about 34% of the Tetrasodium Salt of Iminidodisuccinic

crystals dissolve again if the solution is diluted, or the temperature is

Acid. The total assay of dissolved solids is at approx. 43 w/w%. The

raised.

byproducts being responsible for this are the sodium salts of (sum

Baypure CX100 solid and Baypure CX100 solid G are the spray-

of sodium salts) aspartic, fumaric and hydroxysuccinic acids. These

dried products. They are supplied as odorless white powders with

are natural compounds that are used as additives in animal feeds and

a bulk density of 0.5 0.7 kg/l. If they are dissolved in water, a clear

edible acids. Normally, only traces of maleic acid disodium salt are

colorless to slightly yellowish solution is obtained.

found.

Since the powders are slightly hygroscopic, they should always be

The solution can be stored at temperatures down to 5C.

stored in closed containers.

DENSITY OF THE SOLUTION


The assay of Baypure CX100 in an aqueous solution can be deter-

The second chart shows the density of an aqueous solution of

mined by measuring the density of the solution. The graph below

Baypure CX100 as a function of temperature and various con-

shows the density of the solution versus its concentration at 20C

centrations:

(68F).

Density of an aqueous solution of Baypure CX100 as a

Density of an aqueous solution of Baypure CX100 as

function of temperature at different concentrations

a function of its concentration at 20C


Density [g/ml]
1.400
1.350

Density [g/ml]

1.300

1.360

1.250

1.350

1.200

1.340

1.150

1.330

1.100

1.320

1.050

1.310

1.000
0

10

15

20

25

30

35 40

45

1.300
0

50

10

20

30

40

50

Temperature[C]

Concentration [w/w %]
concentration [total sodium salts]

IDS Na-salt
Total sodium salt

45.0 %

42.2 %

44.8 %

40.6 %

43.1 %

VISCOSITY OF THE SOLUTION


The viscosity of the solution is important for processing it. Therefore,

However, in order to not impair storage stability, aqueous solutions

we measured the viscosity of the solution at various temperatures.

of the Baypure CX 100 should not be exposed to temperatures

The results show that the solutions remain pumpable even if they are

below 5C (40F) for prolonged periods.

cooled to 0C for a short period.

Viscosity of Baypure CX100 at 20C as a function


Viscosity[m
Pa*s]

Viscosity of Baypure CX100 as a function of temperature at

of concentration

Viscosity
[mPa*s]

100

125

80

100

60

75

40

50

20
0
0

different concentrations

25
5

10

15

20

25

30

IDS Na-salt
Total concentration of sodium salt

35

40

45

50

0
0

15

20

25

30

35

40

Temperature [C]

Concentration [w/w %]

Concentration [Total sodium salt]


45.0
44.8
43.1
40.6

24

10

pH- AND pK a
By using the plotted neutralization curve it is possible to determine

Having added 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 mole equivalents of solutions of

the pH of the corresponding sodium salt of Iminodisuccinic Acid.

caustic soda, four pKs for IDS resulted as follows:

The titration of a 0.25% solution of iminodisuccinic acid by a 1


molecular solution of caustic soda showed a pH of approx. 11.5 for
the IDS Na4 salt.

Neutralization curve of an iminodisuccinic acid solution


(0.25% by wt.)
pH-

pKa1

pKa2

pKa3

pKa4

2.8

3.6

4.7

10.2

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0,0

0,5 1,0 1,5

2,0 2,5

3,0

3,5

4,0 4,5

5,0

NaOH [mole-equivalents]

STABILITY
Stability of sodium salts of Iminodisuccinic Acid
Chelants are used in various conditions in many applications. It may

Stability of iminodisuccinic acid sodium salt


(11% by wt.) in solution at 100C

occur that, if applied in detergents and cleaners, they may be

Stability
[%]

exposed to both strongly acidic and strongly alkaline conditions over

100

a wide temperature range with exposure times of up to several hours.

80
60

In such conditions complexing agents need to have a sufficient sta-

40
20

bility. The stability of an 11% aqueous solution of the Tetrasodium


Salt of Iminodisuccinic Acid, was tested over 20 hours at 100C and

0
0

1,5

7,0

4,0

11,0

Time [5h]
Time [20h]

13,5
pH

within a pH range from 4 to 13.5, which reflects conditions in practice, stability is sufficient in the applications mentioned. After 5 hours,
90 to 98% of the active ingredient still remains undecomposed. The
highest stability is at pH 7.

Stability of IDS Na4-salt in caustic soda


Stability
[%]
100

IDS Na4 salt is also stable in the presence of large amounts of caus-

80

tic soda. A solution containing approx. 13.5% of IDS Na4 salt and

60

12.5% of NaOH was conditioned over a period of 24 weeks at tem-

40

peratures of 23C and 50C, respectively.


The chart shows that the Tetrasodium Salt of Iminodisuccinic Acid
is stable at room temperature. In the test conducted at a temperature

20
0
0

12

16

20

24

Time [weeks]

of 50C (122F), 90% of the product still remained after 24 weeks.


23C

26

50C

IMINODISUCCINIC ACID METAL COMPLEXES

CALCIUM BINDING CAPACITY

The anion of Iminodisuccinic Acid is able to form penta-dendate

One unwanted secondary reaction in technical processes is the

These deposits lead to graying of textile fabrics, the formation of films

complexes with metal ions. In this case, the chelation involves the

formation of salts with poor solubility. These are mainly caused by

on surfaces, blocking of membranes and clogging of pipes, nozzles,

nitrogen atom and all four carboxyl groups. As a result of the octa-

magnesium and calcium ions being the principal constituents of

etc. Thus they negatively affect the operation of technical facilities

water hardness. They are able to form deposits with carbonate,

and appliances, and reduce the hygiene of all types of surfaces.

hedric structure of a complex, another monodental ligand (e.g. a


molecule of water) is required for completing the octahedral coor-

Me

sulfate, phosphate, silicate, fluoride and surfactant anions.


Consequently, the calcium binding capacity of complexing agents is

dination geometry.
Computer calculations show that the imino-disuccinic acid iron III

complex and the manganese II complex can be represented as fol-

a key to soften water. The efficiency to bind calcium is determined


here by turbidity titration, which is conducted at pH 11 and 23C.

Calcium Binding Capacity [mg CaCO3/g Na salt]

The results obtained were approx. 230 mg CaCO3/g Na salt for IDS

lows:
Iminodisuccinic acid iron III complex

Na4 salt, compared with 210 and 280 mg CaCO3/g Na salt for

Citric acid Na3 salt

DTPA Na5 salt and EDTA Na4 salt. Overall, IDS Na4 salt has good
DTPA Na5 salt

calcium binding capacity and is thus an effective component for


cleaning agents.

IDS Na4-salt
The calculation shows that the iron III complex has a higher stability than the
manganese II complex because of the bond length and bonding angle. This has
been confirmed by measuring the complexing constants.

EDTA Na4-salt
I
0

I
50

I
100

I
150

I
200

I
250

I
300

Calcium Binding Capacity at pH 11 and 23C

28

STABILITY CONSTANTS
The stability of metal complexes with Iminodisuccinic Acid is

The equilibrium constant KIDSMe is also the quotient of the concen-

Complexing constants for 1:1 complexes and conditional com-

described by thermodynamic complexing constants. The constants

tration of the metal complex formed and the product of the concen-

plexing constants at the pH range where they reach their maxi-

depend on the equilibrium reaction between the metal cation and the

tration of the free IDS anion and the metal cation. If the metal ions

mum

IDS anion on the one hand and the metal complex on the other:

are chelated, it is known as the thermodynamic complexing constant.

By contrast, the conditional complexing constants take account of

It is normally expressed as a log K value. The table shows that imin-

the pH dependence of the metal complexes formed. In acid solu-

odisuccinic acid is a medium strong complexing agent.

tions, the proportion of IDS anions that can form complexes declines

K
IDSm- + Men+ == IDSMe

(m-n)-

For a 1:1 complex, the mass action law is:

as a result of progressive protonation. In the alkaline range, many


metal ions form hydrocomplexes that influence the concentration of
metal ions. As a result, the conditional complexing constants have a

[IDSMe

(m-n) -

KIDS =
[IDSm-] [Men+]

more or less pronounced maximum, depending on pH. The table


shows the range of pH in which the conditional constants reach their
maximum.

log K

Ba2+
Ag1+
Sr2+
Ca2+
Mg2+
Mn2+
Fe2+
Cd2+
Cr3+
Co2+
Zn2+
Pb2+
Ni2+
Cu2+

3.4
3.9
4.1
5.2
6.1
7.7
8.2
8.4
9.6
10.5
10.8
11.0
12.2

10 13
10 12
10 14
6 14
9 12
4 14
8 12
4 12
--6 12
3 12
6 11
3 14

13.1
14.1
14.9
15.2

3 14
4 7
2 11
2 10

AI3+
Hg2+
Fe3+

30

log K

pos. at given pH-

Metal ion
range

kond.

BAYPURE DSP
O

S T R U C T U R E O F P O LY S U C C I N I M I D E

O
O
O

Baypure DSP (polysuccinimide) is another product in the Baypure

N
N

family and is an intermediate stage in the production of Baypure DS


N

O
O

100 (sodium polyaspartate).


O

Polysuccinimide is a non-hygroscopic, brownish yellow powder that

is virtually insoluble in water. Is has an average molecular weight of


4,400g/mol in weight average and approx. 3,100g/mol in number
average. In contact with water, very slow hydrolysis takes place to

vents such as DMSO, DMF and triethylene glycol. It can be

produce free polyaspartic acid. Depending on the pH, alkali accel-

processed with binders such as fatty acid derivatives to form com-

erates the hydrolysis, resulting in more or less neutralized polyas-

pressed materials or with water to form a slurry.

partic acid as a hydrolysis product*.


This reaction can be used for slow-release formulations, for example

M A I N F I E L D S O F A P P L I C AT I O N :

for the slow release of Baypure DS 100 incrustation inhibitor in

Slow-release formulations in water treatment

water treatment. In the drainage sector, very high life expectancies

Setting retarder for plaster and cement

(weeks to months) are attained. Baypure DSP is soluble in sol-

Odor suppression in hygiene and agricultural applications

P R O D U C T P R O P E RT I E S B AY P U R E D S P
Product name

ground Baypure DSP

Product form

solid

Appearance

orange-beige powder

Odor

odorless

Bulk density

[kg/liter]

0.50 0.60

Solubility in water at 20 C

[g/100 g H2O]

insoluble

Solubility in triethylene glycol at 20 C

[g/100 g glycol]

30 - 35

B AY P U R E D S P C O N S I S T S O F T H E F O L L O W I N G C O M P O N E N T S :
Product name

ground Baypure DSP

Polysuccinimide

[% by wt]

> 90%

Aspartic acid Na2 salt

[% by wt]

< 4%

Fumaric acid Na2 salt

[% by wt]

< 2%

Maleic acid Na2 salt

[% by wt]

< 2%

*(cp. e.g. Mosig et al, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.; 1997, 2163-2170)

32

agents and we shall continue to expand this in the interests of our customers and for the wellbeing of the environment.
Baypure is a package provided for the more efficient use of water.
The properties of the dispersing agent Baypure DS 100 and the

Baypure CX100

Baypure DS100

We opened a new route for functional polymers and complexing

Baypure DSP

BAYPURE APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW

moderately strong complexing agent Baypure CX 100 complement


one another ideally. Baypure is suitable for many different applica-

A P P L I C AT I O N

FUNCTIONS, i.e.

tions.
Detergens

I
I

I
I

Watersoftening
Disperson of soiling

I&I

I
I
I

Watersoftening
Dispersion of soiling
Membrane cleaning

Cosmetics

Stabilization of Active Ingredients

Oil Field

Antiscaleant

Mining

Antiscaleant

Ceramic Industry

Dispersion of raw materials

Building & Construction

I
I

I
I

Fluidification of concrete
Retarder

Water Treatment

I
I
I

I
I

Watersoftening
Antiscaleant
Corrosion Inhibition

Waste Water Treatment

Prevention of incrustations

Paper-, Leather-,
Textile auxiliaries

I
I
I

I
I
I

I
I
I

Dispersion of Slurries
Bleaching Additives
Antiscaleant

Dyes, Pigments,
Lakes, Inks

Sugar

Our responsibility has not come to an end with that. As a partner of


our customers, we will continue to work in the future to improve existing products and develop new ones which are tailor-made to the
requirements of the user.
We are looking to find efficient solutions to replace harmful chemicals
and to ensure the preservation of water, a resource, mankind will be
running short of in the future. Waste avoidance, in-process environmental protection and biodegradable, ecologically harmless products are therefore right at the forefront of our activities.

34

Dispersion of Colorants

Antiscaleant