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A Study on IPv6 in IPv4 Static Tunneling threat issues in 4G Networks using OOAD Class and Instance Diagrams.

  • 1 Hanumanthappa.J., 2 Dr.Manjaiah.D.H, 3 Joshi Vinayak.B.

  • 1 Teacher Fellow,Dos in Computer Science,University of Mysore,Manasagangothri,Mysore,INDIA. 2 Reader and Chairman,Dept of Computer Science,Mangalore University,Mangalagangothri,Mangalore,INDIA. 3 Research Scholar,Dept of Computer Science,MangaloreUniversity,Mangalagangothri,Mangalore,INDIA.

Abstract:In this paper we consider the use of recently sanctioned project “Design Tool of IPv6 Mobility for 4G- Networks(DTMIPv6)”.It describes one of our major research project work sponsored by UGC,New Delhi to study how the IPv6 in IPv4 Static tunneling works in 4G networks,how to avoid the various threat issues by an IPv6 in IPv4 Static tunneling.One of the terms used to describe 4G networks is MAGIC-Mobile Multimedia,AnytimeAnywhere,Global mobility support,Integrated wireless solution,and Customized personal service.The main important approach of 4G mobile communication system is projected to solve still-all the remaining problems of 3G and to provide a wide variety of new services,from high-quality voice to high-definition video and to high-data rate wireless channels.

Keywords:Automatic

tunnels,IPv6

in IPv4 Static tunnels,4G

Networks etc.

I.Introduction:

  • a. Introduction to Tunnels in 4G networks.

Tunnel is a bidirectional point–to-point link between two network endpoints.The term “tunneling” refers to a means to encapsulate one version of IP in another so the packets can be sent over a backbone that does not support the encapsulated IP version.The various examples of the former include IPX-in-IP encapsulation[15],IPv6-in-IPv4 encapsulation[12],and other examples of the latter include IPSec[13] and Virtual private networks[14].Tunnels are an important part of the IPv4 to IPv6 transition strategy,and the IPv6 specifications define many different types of tunnels.Their discovery is essential for studying the topology and the evolution of the IPv6 network and is useful for troubleshooting and performance optimization.Tunnelling consists the encapsulation of the packets of a network-layer protocol within the packets of a second protocol,such that the former regards the latter as its data link layer[19].Because of the flexibility it provides(any protocol can be transported,including the encapsulating protocol itself),tunneling is widely used both to expand networks without having to deploy native infrastructure and to improve security.Similarly to other network discovery problems,its importance derives from the need for up-to-date information about network topology and from the impact that topology is known to have on crucial aspects of network behavior such as the dynamics of routing protocols,the scalability of multicast,the efficacy of denial-of-service counter measures[15][16]and other aspects of protocol

performance[17].

b. General Working procedure for the operation of Tunnels

An IPv6-in-IPv4 Tunnel T=<A,B>is a point to point link between two dual stack interfaces A(the tunnel source) and B(the tunnel destination)or routers.We denote respectively with A 4 and B 4 and with A 6 and B 6 the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of A and B and we represent bidirectional tunnels as two tunnels with the same end points in inverted order and thus if a tunnel T=<A,B>is bidirectional then T 1 =<B,A>also exists.A Tunnel operates as follows:When an IPv6 is sent through a tunnel exists from a node A to B then a source node creates an IPv4 packet with source addresses A 4 and the destination addresses B 4 whose pay load packet is IPv6 packet where as in GRE or Teredo tunnels no extra headers are added and the packet is marked as an encapsulating IPv6 packet by setting the IPv4 protocol field to 41.The IPv6 packet is then sent to B over the IPv4 network.When the destination workstation receives the packet it checks the IPv4 source address to predict whether it belongs to a known tunnel and if so it decapsulates the packet and processes it smoothly as it had arrived on any other IPv6 workstation.Suppose if the IPv6 packet is forwarded then the hop-limit field header is decremented by 1.IPv6 in IPv4 tunnels are also called as single workstation tunnels i.e they appear to the IPv6 as a single point to point path which hides the complexity of IPv4 network[12].

A Study on IPv6 in IPv4 Static Tunneling threat issues in 4G Networks using OOAD Classhanums_j@yahoo.com,ylm321@yahoo.co.in,vbjj@rediffmail.com . Abstract: In this paper we consider the use of recently sanctioned project “Design Tool of IPv6 Mobility for 4G- Networks(DTMIPv6)”.It describes one of our major research project work sponsored by UGC,New Delhi to study how the IPv6 in IPv4 Static tunneling works in 4G networks,how to avoid the various threat issues by an IPv6 in IPv4 Static tunneling.One of the terms used to describe 4G networks is MAGIC-Mobile Multimedia,AnytimeAnywhere,Global mobility support,Integrated wireless solution,and Customized personal service.The main important approach of 4G mobile communication system is projected to solve still-all the remaining problems of 3G and to provide a wide variety of new services,from high-quality voice to high-definition video and to high-data rate wireless channels . Keywords:Automatic tunnels,IPv6 in IPv4 Static tunnels,4G Networks etc. I.Introduction: a. Introduction to Tunnels in 4G networks . Tunnel is a bidirectional point–to-point link between two network endpoints.The term “tunneling” refers to a means to encapsulate one version of IP in another so the packets can be sent over a backbone that does not support the encapsulated IP version.The various examples of the former include IPX-in-IP encapsulation[15],IPv6-in-IPv4 encapsulation[12],and other examples of the latter include IPSec[13] and Virtual private networks[14].Tunnels are an important part of the IPv4 to IPv6 transition strategy,and the IPv6 specifications define many different types of tunnels.Their discovery is essential for studying the topology and the evolution of the IPv6 network and is useful for troubleshooting and performance optimization.Tunnelling consists the encapsulation of the packets of a network-layer protocol within the packets of a second protocol,such that the former regards the latter as its data link layer[19].Because of the flexibility it provides(any protocol can be transported,including the encapsulating protocol itself),tunneling is widely used both to expand networks without having to deploy native infrastructure and to improve security.Similarly to other network discovery problems,its importance derives from the need for up-to-date information about network topology and from the impact that topology is known to have on crucial aspects of network behavior such as the dynamics of routing protocols,the scalability of multicast,the efficacy of denial-of-service counter measures[15][16]and other aspects of protocol performance[17]. b. General Working procedure for the operation of Tunnels An IPv6-in-IPv4 Tunnel T=<A,B>is a point to point link between two dual stack interfaces A(the tunnel source) and B(the tunnel destination)or routers.We denote respectively with A and B and with A and B the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of A and B and we represent bidirectional tunnels as two tunnels with the same end points in inverted order and thus if a tunnel T=<A,B>is bidirectional then T =<B,A>also exists.A Tunnel operates as follows:When an IPv6 is sent through a tunnel exists from a node A to B then a source node creates an IPv4 packet with source addresses A and the destination addresses B whose pay load packet is IPv6 packet where as in GRE or Teredo tunnels no extra headers are added and the packet is marked as an encapsulating IPv6 packet by setting the IPv4 protocol field to 41.The IPv6 packet is then sent to B over the IPv4 network.When the destination workstation receives the packet it checks the IPv4 source address to predict whether it belongs to a known tunnel and if so it decapsulates the packet and processes it smoothly as it had arrived on any other IPv6 workstation.Suppose if the IPv6 packet is forwarded then the hop-limit field header is decremented by 1.IPv6 in IPv4 tunnels are also called as single workstation tunnels i.e they appear to the IPv6 as a single point to point path which hides the complexity of IPv4 network[12]. Fig.1.The IPv6 in IPv4 Tunnel . The research on IPv6 tunneling can be classified as follows: (1) Research on basic IPv6 Tunneling mechanisms: A number of different tunneling mechanisms(e.g.Automatic tunneling,Manually Configured tunneling,6–to-4 Tunnel broker,Automatic 6 to 4 tunnel,Automatic 4 to 6 Tunnel, IPv6 over IPv4 GRE Tunnel etc) have been proposed for varied tunneling requirements.These tunneling mechanisms provide tools for the whole transition process.Data is carried through the tunnel using a process called encapsulation in which IPv6 packet is carried inside an IPv4 packet which makes IPv4 as a Data Link layer with respect to IPv6 packet transport.The term tunneling refers to a means to encapsulate one version of IP in another so the packets can be sent over a backbone that does not support the encapsulated IP version.It is process by which information from one protocol is " id="pdf-obj-0-66" src="pdf-obj-0-66.jpg">

Fig.1.The IPv6 in IPv4 Tunnel.

The research on IPv6 tunneling can be classified as follows:

(1)Research on basic IPv6 Tunneling mechanisms:A number of different tunneling mechanisms(e.g.Automatic tunneling,Manually Configured tunneling,6–to-4 Tunnel broker,Automatic 6 to 4 tunnel,Automatic 4 to 6 Tunnel,IPv6 over IPv4 GRE Tunnel etc)have been proposed for varied tunneling requirements.These tunneling mechanisms provide tools for the whole transition process.Data is carried through the tunnel using a process called encapsulation in which IPv6 packet is carried inside an IPv4 packet which makes IPv4 as a Data Link layer with respect to IPv6 packet transport.The term tunneling refers to a means to encapsulate one version of IP in another so the packets can be sent over a backbone that does not support the encapsulated IP version.It is process by which information from one protocol is

encapsulated inside the packet of protocol architecture,thus enabling the original data to be carried over the second protocol.This mechanism can be used when two nodes that use same protocol wants to communicate over a network that uses another network protocol.The tunneling process involves three steps:encapsulation,decapsulation,and tunnel management.It also requires two tunnel end-points,which in general case are dual-stack IPv4/IPv6 nodes,to handle the encapsulation and decapsulation.Tunneling is one of the key deployment strategies for both service providers and enterprises during the period of IPv4 and IPv6 coexistence. Tunneling allows service providers to offer an end-to-end

IPv6 service without major upgrades to the infrastructure and without impacting current IPv4 services.Tunneling allows enterprises to interconnect isolated IPv6 domains over their existing IPv4 infrastructures,or to connect to

remote IPv6 networks such as the 6bone.The IETF has made a great contribution on this topic. (2)Research on analyzing the typical tunneling scenarios and how to provide relevant tunneling

schemes:As there are a variety of different scenarios during IPv6 tunneling the typical scenarios need to be emphasized about IPv6 deployment and applying suitable transition mechanisms. This paper presents a comprehensive explanation about the current status of research on IPv6 in IPv4 Static Tunneling mechanisms with Automatic 6 to 4 Tunneling.This paper is organized as follows:We briefly described Introduction to tunnels in 4G networks,Preliminary Definitions of Tunneling Techniques,General Working procedure for the operation of Tunnels,Research on IPv6 tunneling issues in Section 2.We described,4G and IPv6 networks,desirable characteristics of 4G networks,the characteristics of IPv6 4G,Initiatives on the 4G in section 3.Basic IPv6 Tunneling Mechanisms,Role of IPv6 tunnels in 4G,Types of tunneling in 4G networks,representation of IPv6 Tunneling types in 4G Networks with Class-Diagrams and Instance Diagrams and a Static tunneling in 4G networks,limitations of IPv6 static tunneling.in section 4.The prototype,threat analysis due to transition mechanism,IPv6 tunneling,IPv6 threats,Security issues in IPv6 tunneling has explained in section 5,The future innovative challenges of IPv6 threats has covered in section 6.Finally we concluded the whole paper in section 7.

  • I. IPv6 Tunneling Methods in 4G networks. This section presents a number of tunneling techniques we have studied and analyzed to tackle the tunneling mechanisms/strategies.Depending on their objective tunneling types are broadly divided into different types depending upon the IPv6 specifications.The IPv6 specification defines several types of IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels,including Manually configured tunneling,Automatic tunneling,Generic routing encapsulation (GRE), Semiautomatic tunneling mechanisms such as tunnel

brokers,6-to-4[12],ISATAP[13]and Teredo[14].IPv6 also supports for GRE tunnels over IPv4,our results suggest that tunnels are very common in the today’s internet and the transition to IPv6 occurs smoothly and slowly.So tunnels to continue to play an important role in IPv6 networks,as IPv4 network infrastructure will remain widely deployed for many years. a.Types of Tunneling in 4G Networks. Tunneling techniques are broadly divided into two types,first one is an automatic tunneling and second one is configuration tunneling.The tunneling technique we can use the compatible addresses discussed as shown in the below figure-6.A compatible address is an address of 96 bits of zero followed by 32 bits of IPv4 address.It is used when a computer using IPv6 wants to send a message to another computer using IPv6.However suppose the packet passes through a region where the networks are still using IPv4.The sender must use the IPv4-compatible address to facilitate the passage of the packet through the IPv4 region.For example the IPv4 address 2.13.17.14 becomes 0::020D:110E.The IPv4 is pre pended with 96 zeros to create a 128–bit address(See figure-3)[10].

encapsulated inside the packet of protocol architecture,thus enabling the original data to be carried over the

Fig3.The IPv6 Compatible Address.

b.Representation of IPv6 Tunneling types in 4G Networks with Class-Diagrams and Instance Diagrams.

encapsulated inside the packet of protocol architecture,thus enabling the original data to be carried over the

Fig 4.The Tunneling types with Class-Diagram.

As we know that tunneling types are broadly divided into Automatic,Manually configured tunneling,GRE tunneling,Tunnel brokers etc.In Fig.4.we have represented the tunneling types by using Class-Diagrams.A Class digram is a type of Object diagram.A Class diagram is a Schema,pattern,or template for describing many possible instances of data.A Class diagram describes Classes[16].A Class diagram represents either bidirectional or ternary relationship.In Fig.4.a Class Diagram may be traversed either from Left to Right or from Right to Left.In the Fig.4.5+ represents the value of multiplicity(Multiplicity specifies how many instances of one class may relate to a single instance of an associated class.Or Multiplicity constrains the number of related objects.) i.e.IPv6 Tunneling has broadly divided into more than 5 types.A Solid ball is the OMT symbol for “many” meaning zero or more.A hollow ball indicates “optional” meaning zero or more[16].has-divided represents the Binary association between IPv6-Tunneling and Tunneling type.Instance Diagram is also another type of Object diagram which represents objects or instances.The Fig.5.specifies an Instance diagram for Tunneling types[16][17][18].The lines between the objects or instances represents the links[16][17].

Fig.5.The Tunneling types with Instance-Diagram. d. Static Tunneling in 4G Networks . Static tunneling is also

Fig.5.The Tunneling types with Instance-Diagram.

d. Static Tunneling in 4G Networks. Static tunneling is also called as Configured tunneling.Static tunneling can be used to link isolated islands of IPv6, in which the network domains are well known and unlikely to change without notice.A static configured tunneling is equal to a permanent link of two IPv6 domains with the permanent connectivity provided over an IPv4 backbone.Static tunneling assigned IPv4 addresses are manually configured to the tunnel source and the tunnel destination.The identification of which packets has to send through a tunnel via a routing table in the tunnel end points,the table direct packets based on their destination address using prefix mask and match technique.In a static tunneling the host or router at each end of a static configured tunnel must support both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks.The static tunneling in 4G networks was most preferred when the necessary of a few tunnels to forward a packets from source host to the destination host via tunnel end points.The below figure-6.shows the IPv6 static tunneling in 4G networks.The requirements of IPv6 Static tunneling are R1,R2 are dual stack.R1 has a reachable address from R2 and vice versa.In IPv6 static tunneling static configuration is possible on both the ends.The IPv6 static tunneling has dependency on the 4 pararmeters like IPv6,IPv4,R1,R2.

Fig.5.The Tunneling types with Instance-Diagram. d. Static Tunneling in 4G Networks . Static tunneling is also

Fig.6.IPv6 Static tunneling in 4G networks. The below Table-1 shows the configuration of IPv6 Static tunneling in 4G

networks.

Configuration Parameter

Router R2

Router R1

IPv6 Source address

3ffe:b00:1:1::

3ffe:b00:1:1::2

1

IPV6

Destination

3ffe:b00:1:1::

3ffe:b00:1:1:1

address

2

IPv4 Source address

  • 192.0.2.1 192.0.3.1

 

IPv4 Destination address

  • 192.0.3.1 192.0.2.1

 

4.4.1.Limitations of IPv6 static tunneling.

Manual configuration is not manageable,if

the number of tunnels are increasing.

If the IP addresses change,then changes in

manual configuration is also possible.

IP protocol 41 might be filtered in the path.

Does not traverse NAT.

IV.Related Work. a.Threat Analysis due to Transition Mechanisms.

Threat modeling (or analysis) is essential in order to help us to develop a security model than can focus or protecting against certain threats and manage the related assumptions. One methodology to discover and list all possible security attacks against a system is known as attack trees.To create an attack tree we represent attacks against a system in a tree structure, the attack goals as root nodes and the different sub goals necessary to achieve them as their leaf nodes.Figure-7 represents the general threat categories we have identified against network convergence architectures namely attack on the network processes are responsible for IPv6 transition,Dual stack,Automatic tunneling and Configuration tunneling threats.Dual Stack threats are totally different from the IPv6 Tunneling techniques like an automatic tunneling and Configuration tunneling,manually configured tunneling,Static tunneling etc.As we have discussed there are large number of transition mechanisms to deploy IPv6 but broadly be categorized into,Dual Stack,Tunneling(Automatic,Manual Configuration),and Translation Header.The problems are identified when IPv6 is tunneled over IPv4 encapsulated in UDP as UDP is usually allowed to pass through NATS and Firewalls [59].Consequently allowing an attacker to punch holes with in the security infrastructure.The First and Second authors of this paper recommends that if the necessary security measures cannot be taken ,tunneled traffic should be used with caution if not completely blocked.To provide ingress and egress filtering of known IPv6 tunneled traffic, perimeter firewalls should block all inbound and outbound IPv4 protocol 41 traffic.For circumstances where Protocol 41 is not blocked it can easily be detected and monitored by the open-source IPv4 IDS Snort.During the development of the IP6-to-IPv4 threat model we have identified that several attacks lead to other attacks which we have previously included and analyzed.These are represented in the tree as identical nodes in different locations.

b. IPv6-Tunneling-IPv6 Threats. In Tunneling based methods,when a tunnel end point receives an encapsulated data packet,it decapsulates the packet and sends it to the other local forwarding scheme.The security

threats in tunneling mechanisms,take IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel are mostly caused by the spoofed encapsulated packet sent by

the attackers in an IPv4 networks.(Refer-Fig.7).As shown in

Fig.7.the target of attacks can be either a normal IPv6 node, or

the tunnel end point.

Fig.5.The Tunneling types with Instance-Diagram. d. Static Tunneling in 4G Networks . Static tunneling is also

Fig.9.Spoofing in an IPv4 with 6 to 4.

Fig.5.The Tunneling types with Instance-Diagram. d. Static Tunneling in 4G Networks . Static tunneling is also

Fig.7.Security issues of various tunneling types.

c.The Security issues in IPv6 tunneling are as follows.

  • 1. The hard to trace back :

Case-1:IPv4 networking node can make an attack on IPv6 node(network):The attackers(hackers) in IPv4 networks can make an attack on the IPv6 nodes through the 6to4 router(tunnel)end point by forwarding a spoofed encapsulated messages(Packets).Therefore here in this situation it is very difficult to trace back. Case-2:IPv6 networking node can make an attack on IPv6 network (node):In this type the hacker in IPv6 networks can make an attack on the IPv6 network through 6-to4 relay end point and 6-to4 router by sending a spoofed encapsulated packets.In this case also its very difficult to trace back.(Refer

Fig-7)

2.Potential reflect- DoS attack on Destination Host (Refer-Fig-7):The hackers in the IPv4 networks can make a reflect–DoS attack to a normal IPv6 network (node) through the 6-to-4 router (tunnel) end point by sending the encapsulated packets with the spoofed IPv6 source address as the specific IPv6 node. 3.Cheat by a Hacker with the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) message:Whenever IPv4 network is treated as the link layer in tunneling technology,the hackers in the IPv4 networks can cheat and DoS attack the tunnel end point by sending encapsulated IPv6 neighbor discovery (ND)messages with a spoofed IPv6 link local address.The automatic tunneling techniques like 6-to 4 and Teredo get the information of remote tunnel end point from the certain IPv6 packets. Distributed Reflection DoS:This type of attack can be performed if the very large number of nodes whenever involved in the sending spoofed traffic with same source IPv6 addresses.

  • 1. If the Destination host generates replies by using TCP

SYN ACK,TCP RST,ICMPv6 Echo reply,ICMPv6 Destination unreachable etc):In this case of attack the victim host is used as a reflector for attacking another victim connected to the network by using a spoofed source(Refer Fig-7). 2.Spoofing in IPv4 with 6 to 4:In this type of attack 6 to 4 tunneling spoofed traffic can be injected from IPv4 into IPv6.The IPv4 spoofed address acts like an IPv4 source,6 to 4 relay any cast (192.88.99.1)acts like an IPv4 destination.The 2002::spoofed source address acts like an IPv4 destination.

[Refer-Fig-9]

7.Theft of Service:During the IPv6 transition period, many sites will use IPv6 tunnels over IPv4 infrastructure. Sometimes we will use static or automatic tunnels.The 6 to 4 relay administrators will often want to use some policy limit the use of the relay to specific 6 to 4 sites or specific IPv6 sites.However some users may be able to use the service regardless of these controls by configuring the address of the relay using its IPv4 address instead of 192.88.99.1 or using the router header to route the IPv6 packets to reach specific 6 to 4 relays.

8.Attack

with

IPv4

broadcast

address:In

the

6

to

4

mechanisms,some packets with the destination addresses spoofed and mapped to their broadcast addresses of the 6to4

or relay routers are sent to the target routers by the attackers in the IPv6 network.In this case also 6 to 4 or relay routers are attacked by the broadcast addresses. The security issues in tunneling mechanisms can generally limited by investigating the validness of the source/destination address at each tunnel end point.Usually in tunneling techniques it is easier to avoid ingress filtering checks.Sometime it is possible to send packets having link- local addresses and hop-limit=255,which can be used to attack subnet hosts from the remote node,but it is very difficult to deal with attacks with legal IP addresses now[26].Since the tunnel end points of configuration tunnels are fixed,so IPSec can be used to avoid spoofed attacks[29].IPv6 Security issues even though it has provided lot off features but its known that automatic tunneling are dangerous as other end points are unspecified because it’s very difficult to prevent automatic tunneling mechanisms DoS/reflect-DoS attacks by the attackers in IPv4 network.

V.Simulation and Results.

The following are the assumptions made in the ns-2 simulation model.It consists of IPv6 automatic tunneling ,IPv6 manually configured tunneling,GRE tunneling,Tunnel broker etc.The Graph shown In figure-10 is the combined graph of number of threats v/s tunneling types.we can observe that if we are using static tunneling then number of threats were very small,otherwise if we are preferring Automatic tunneling or manually configured tunneling then threats also increases.So this paper shows how static tunneling is a best technique to avoid threat issues.The Static tunneling reduces the number of threats as compared to other IPv6 tunneling types etc.Hence more number of threats to be avoided by using a static IPv6 to IPv4 tunneling.The below figure-10 shows the graph of IPv6 threat v/s static tunneling in IPv6.

Case-1: IPv4 networking node can make an attack on IPv6 node(network): The attackers(hackers) in IPv4 networks

Fig.10.Threat V/s Tunneling types.

VI.The Current and future Innovative research challenges of IPv6 threat issues for Researchers.

This paper has not considered the overall threat review of IPv6 for all the aspects like,IPv6 Static tunneling mechanisms,which is a large and complex topic.To provide a complete overview of IPv6 security this paper should be in conjunction with the IPv6 to IPv4 threat review with IPv6 Static and Automatic tunneling considerations.The most important area to move forward with in IPv6 security is the extension of current IPv6 Firewalls and Network tools to test them(IPv6 packet constructors,IDS’s and so on).This will allow more users to adopt IPv6 without being paranoid about their openness to attack. Before formulating analysis,we have proposed(formulated) several innovative research challenges.Presently there have been plenty of studies done on the research about basic security issues of IPv6, threat issues of IPv6,however there are still so many problems not yet resolved yet,calling for great

challenges ahead.The innovative research challenges of IPv6 threat issues are as follows. 1.Notion of the system identification within an organization:With the advent of privacy extensions and the size of IPv6 ranges in use,identifying systems within an organization and in particular identifying mis behaving. 2.Transition mechanisms from IPv4 to IPv6:The current research on the basic transition mechanisms mostly focus on the situation of IPv6 over IPv4.Due to advanced deployment of IPv6,the IPv4 networks may also be separated by IPv6 ones.We are using only few kinds of method in this situation like IPv4 configuration tunnel and DSTM,more research on IPv4 over IPv6 transition methods is necessary. 3.Increased dependence on multicast addresses in IPv6 could have some interesting implications with flooding attacks.For example all routers and NTP servers have site specific multicast addresses.Can we use site specific multicast addresses to create an amplification attacks as similar as to the smurf attacks in IPv4 4.We know that neighbor discovery is a new addition to the IPv6 to replace ARP and RARP of IPv4 and also it is an essential component of a well-run IPv6 network it should be tested from a security point like a neighbor-discovery cache fall victim to a resource starvation attack in any of the currently deployed neighbor discovery implementations.Can the CPU of a device be exhausted by processing information of IPv6 neighbor discovery? 5.IPv6 is new and security information on the protocol is not widespread,it is the opinion of all the authors that a large number of dual stack hosts may be more exposed to attack with IPv6 than in IPv4.6.With a new IPv6 header configuration, new extension headers, and ICMP message types there may be a several novel ways to deal with flooding attacks.

7.Scenario Analysis:Typical Scenario analysis is still in progress. Some of them are in draft mode, such as enterprise network analysis along with this other possible scenarios should also be analyzed to support for next coming future wireless technologies.

Conclusion.

In this paper,we presented DTMIPv6 a Design tool for mobile IPv6 to support IPv6 tunneling,IPv6 to IPv4 Static tunneling , Mobile IPv6 etc.Motion behind DTMIPv6 stems from the fact that how mobility,tunneling, threats issues,as well as security plays an important role in 4G networks.We demonstrated how DTMIPv6 can address several issues for the future networking ,research(innovation)and how it cope with complexity and dynamic intrinsic to future environments.As for as we know DTMIPv6 is also a system tool that offers mobility support like other tools named such as proton for 4G mobile users.We have also demonstrated concepts from IPv6 in IPv4 static tunneling,threats issues,and its security issues to avoid threats can be applied to the design of novel solutions that brings us one more threat model and security model in open networking challenges.This project consolidates the idea of building a threat issues for IPv6 in IPv4 static tunneling.

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[12].R.Gilligan and E.Nordmark ,”Transition mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers”,RFC 2893,Aug 2000. [13].R.Woodburn and D.Miills,”RFC1241:Scheme for an Internet encapsulation protocol:Version 1”,July 1991. [14].R.Atkinson and S.Kent,”Security architecture for the internet protocol”,RFC 2401,Nov.1998. [15].D.Provan,”RFC1234:Tunneling IPX traffic through IP networks”,June

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[16].Ali bahrami,”Object Oriented systems development using UML”,Mc- Graw-Hill Intl editions,1999. [17].James Rumbaugh,Michael Blaha,William Premeralini,”Object-Oriented Modeling and Design”,PHI,2001. [18].Grady Booch,:Object oriented Design.

  • M r.Hanumanthappa.J. is Lecturer at the DoS in

CS,University

of

Engineering,

from

Mangalore

University

Mysore,Manasagangothri,Mysore-06

and currently pursuing Ph.D in Computer Science and

under

the

supervision

of

Dr.Manjaiah.D.H on entitled “Design and Implementation of IPv4–to- IPv6 Transition

Scenarios for 4G-Networks”.

  • Dr. Manjaiah.D.H is currently Reader and Chairman, Department of Computer Science Mangalore University, Mangalore. He received PhD degree from University of Mangalore, M.Tech. From NITK, Surathkal and B.E., from Mysore University. Dr.Manjaiah D.H has an extensive academic, Industry and Research experience. He has worked at many technical bodies like IAENG, WASET, ISOC, CSI, ISTE, and ACS. He has authored more than - 45 research papers in international conferences and reputed journals. He is the recipient of the several talks for his area of interest in many public occasions and International and National conferences. He is an expert committee member of an AICTE and various technical bodies. Dr .Manjaiah. D.H’s areas interest are Computer Networking & Sensor Networks, Mobile Communication, Operations Research, E-commerce, Internet Technology and Web Programming.