Está en la página 1de 568
wii ELECTRIC Teel ehn a ENGINEERING REFERENCE v7 a preteen =r ecs of the Aer vel elt tae lC-Yoraa tes Corporation PETS DOBNNDOONDHOGHNDOOHODOAOOONHDHODDNODCOOOONONOOOOONOT JQOPAFISOEIN FOO CE ww at PDD DP DIDI 2 ene) JID Ee on.d G0 34.00 wos cen HeDe Mesa nash Sufaeidses PREFACE Owe aeasvxa oF me PRoowEss of men and nations is the amount of electrical ‘exergy available per capita. If the measurement is made on the basis of residential consumption, it immediately and accurately reflects a standard of living. If the available electrical energy yardstick is applied to workers in industry it is, at once, ‘a measure of productivity and therefore a guidepost to human progress. ‘The historian struggling for superlatives to contrast the beginning of the first half of the twentieth century with tho beginning of the latter half could do it succinctly. He could say that in the year 1900 the American workman had at his disposal nine electrical machines, or helpers, totaling two horsepower. A little more than half a century later that worker had 61 of these electrical assistants, or 1324 horsepower. Having done this the author would be in an excellent position to proceed with a moving essay on the dignity of man. ‘This dramatic contribution to human welfare is the scbievement of the electri- ‘eal engineer. And his work is only beginning. In the face of an exploding population the United States can maintain its high place among the nations of the world only by generating, transmitting, distributing and utilizing vastly inoreased quantities of electrical energy. But aa the power industry grows, in proportion to the need, so do the engineer ing and economic problems that the electriea! engineer must face and solve. Fortunately he hes major new tools and techniques to apply to these prob- lems. Competitive atomic power for central station generation is within reach. Digital computers have opened up a whole new field for applying mathematical logic to power system engineoring. A new frontier has been opened through the use of operational gaming techniques in system planning, a method known as Powereaeting, Extra-high-voltage transmission systems, along with increased distri- bation voltages, hold promise for revolutionary advances. Super-eritieal steam con- ditions, once thought to be © barvier to progress, have been met and conquered, ‘but not without raising serious questions of system economics. ‘These revolutionary developments havé given rise to a need for a new source of basic reference materials for the Electrie Utility’ Engineer. In 1942, Westinghouse Eleetrie Corporation published the first edition of the now classic “Zleetrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book.” This book ‘was written by Engineers of the Central Station Engineering Section, which is now the Blectrio Utility Engineoring Department, ‘To the man faced with every-day clectrie utility problems, the book was simple, practical, and useful. Over the years it became the most widely used reference’book in the world on electric utility power system engineering, Many eolloges adapted it as a basic textbook, ‘The latest edition, published in 1950, contained new material to reflect chang ing practices in a dynamic industry. Meanwhile, due to success of the “T&D Book,” as the original volume came to be called, leading distribution engineors continually requested a companion volume dealing exclusively with distribution systems. We began preparing it in 1956. But by the time the first draft was com- pleted, it was apparent that we could not write a separate volume on distribution Tr systems without duplicating a number of chapters covering basio principles that had already been published in the fourth edition of the “T&D Book.” About this time many of the advances mentioned above were coming in for serious con~ sideration, Thus, it boeame evident that a major revision of the '“T&D Book” would bbe needed fairly soon. This prompted an entiroly new plan for an “Bleetrie Utility Engineering Reference Book,” that would provide a complete reference to all the ‘engineering fields eneountered in the utility industry. Tt consists of three volumes written by the Westinghouse Blectrie Utility Engineers and has the following sub- titles: Volume 1—System Analysis and Generation ‘Volume 2—Transmission and System Protection ‘Volume 3—Distribution Systems. Because of the great need, Volume 3 is published first. Tt is designed for use with ‘the original “L&D Book,” and, of course, with the other two volumes in the series. “The 50,000 owners of the original book will find many cross references cited herein. ‘This volume is written principally a8 an information source and reference for the Flectrie Utility Distribution Engineer to help in the solution of daily and long range distribution problems. However, the purpose is by no means restricted and the bool: should be equally useful to all Blectrie Utility Engineers regardless of their field of specialty. The Industrial Power Systems Engineer should also find it valuable because his problems are similar to those encountered in the utility field. We expect and hope that the book will also be useful as a text for college courses, No book is complete without proper acknowledgements. These volumes reflect, the experience encountered day after day and year after year by Westinghouse engineers in the field. Credit must also be given to engineers from all over the ‘world who contributed to the fund of technical knowledge which we have drawn upon freely. Special recognition is due to the chapter authors who fitted this work into their normal daily assignments and to R. F. Lawrence and H. E, Lokay who coordinated and edited the material. Finally, and particularly, we are deeply indebted to our predecessors, the original “T&D Book” authors who established the foundation upon which we have built, and who provided the inspiration end set the high standards which we have earnestly tried to uphold. Joseph K, Dillard, Manager Blectric Utility Engineering Department, Westinghouse Electric Corporation December 1, 1959 DOOCOVO OOD DODD ODDO OODGOCO OO DGTCOCOCOO COCO OGO00000C CONTENTS cuspren nine page 1 Gaerat Consippnanions or Distaipuntox . 2... 1 BR. F. Lawrence and 8. B. Griscom FPL L LILI L LIS II IE IEEE DDS, J 2 Loan Cuaractmnismcs ee ee 19 LW. Manning 3 SunTRanssusston axp Disteinuvion Sunstarions .. . . a7 D.N. Repo 4 Prntany ano Szconpany Disteinution . . . see 109 H.B. Lobay 5 Seconpary Network Systems 2. 2. ee 149 D.N. Reps 6 Disrripunion TRaNsrorMERs . 2... ee 201 B.D. Loyd 2 7 Sysrew Vourace Reouiaton. . 2... =. AT 5 HB. Lakay 5 8 AppucaTion oF CaracrTorns 26... 1... ee es 808 > Miles Moawell 4 4 9 Vourace Frucruations on Pownr Systems . 2... 1... 345 5 D. M. Sauter 45 10 Prorgcrive Device Coorpination. .... . . « erciereneeaat 3 4 Robert A. Zimmerman 2 11 Merentne Prinorpues anp Pracricss «7... pein 7d . LW. Manning > 12 Smmperligumnc. eee 495 5 pil ae re APPENDIX... 5. eee eee eee 581 ip ane fee eee eee seeder ceece eu cee seeder ete te 587 2 a % DODVDONDDDOO ODD OO OO OOOO ON ONO COO0COCNOOGOOONN00000C VN DD PL I ad EO RU RO ROEO) VvevuU vv Vu CHAPTER T GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION RF, LAWRENCE |. BASIC CONCEPTS Broadly spesking, an eleotric power system oan be defined to include @ generating,-a transmission, and a istribution system. ‘The distribution system, on a national average, is roughly equal in capital investnient, to the generation facilities. The sum of these two gener ally constitute over 80 per cent of the totel system in- vvestment. Thus, itis readily seen that the distribution system rates high in economic importance, and repre~ sents an investment that makes careful engineering, planning, design, construction, and operation most ‘vorthwhile. ‘A somewhat clastical definition of the complete dis- tribution system, from an engineering point of view, inoludes the bulk power substation, subtransmission, distribution substation, primary feoder, distribution transformer, and socondaries and services. These ele- monts, which are explained a little later on, basically apply to all types of distribution systoms, regardless of the classification by typo of load areas, such as commer cial, residential, and industrial, or by type of construc- tion, such ns overhend or underground, Table { deseribes the elements and components of the distribution system according to thefunction petformed. Fig. lisan academia ‘but accurate pictorial of the power system, illustrating particularly the component parts of tie distribution system. Table 1—Functional Classification of Distribution System Srstom Corona Foncion oceivea power from the trane- mission system and transforms to the subtranamtission voltage. 2. Subtrarsmission system Circuits that emanate from tho Duke povrer cource and supply tho t F tt ‘ 4! suastaTion | Bus of a ca a eee tel ed oo ee es eae eee casa een apace et aan econ showing extended use of three-phose moins and single-phase latercls— suburban-urban area distribution. 10 General Considerations of Distribution SUBSTATION BUS K * & =r i + gM eee a eo eat ek ‘ i Fig. 14. Radial primary feeder with emergency ties to adjacent primary cireuts. section of the feeder should have about an equal amount of approximately balanced three-phase load connected to it. This is to minimize the amount of lond connected to any feeder in an emergency and to prevent the emergency conneetion producing a bed unbalance be- tiveon phases on any feeder. Such a system of emergency ties requires that sufficient eapacity be built into each, primary feoder so that it can satisfuctorily carry its normal peak Ioad plus the additional emergenoy load which ean be switehed to it. The emergency ties allow ‘tivo-thirds or more of the feeder load to be picked up when a permanent fault occurs, without waiting until the fault is located and repaired. ‘his is true regardless of where the fault occurs on the feeder. This system of emergency switching also permits the primary feeder breaker to’be disconnected and maintained with no interruption—or only 2 short-time interruption of the feeder load, Tn the priniary network system, the primary circuits are conneoted to form a grid or notwork as shown in Fig. 15. ‘The substation transformers are supplied alternately from three subtransmission circuits in the example. Adjacent substations are supplied by different, subtransmission cirouits, Thus a subtransmission cirouit outage least affects the primary distribution system. ‘The primaxy tie feeders interconnecting the substation supply distribution transformers either diteatly or over subfeeders and laterals, just as do the primary feeders ina radial system, ‘A fault on a tie feeder causes the circuit breakers at its twwo ends to open due to overcurrent. This completely de-energizes the feecer and. interrupts service to all distribution transformers connected to it. The breakers have one or two automatic reclosures, with reclosing time staggored to look out. This gives the effect of two ‘or four rectosures. ‘A fault on a subtransmission oirouit is cleared by the source breaker on the subtransmission circuit and the transformer breaker, which is relayed open by network. relays that operate on reverse power flow. ‘The primary network system affords little more over- Fig. 15. Onedline diagram of @ conventional primary net work systom. COCVUVTOCOCUT oo 0° TIODAAGAGNCONNC PITH aor FIC O000R yO iC COCO ay het LL ND PRI LIED SAD DP PPP POPP ALLA IOP NEA POLO LENA LBS SO SE A AS General Considerations of Distribution u all system reliability than the spot network system the arrangement of substation A in Figs. 9 and 10. The primary network can obtain full service on the system swith a substation bus fault, but in other respects it adds little in reliability performance to the spot network: system. As previously mentioned, a primary feeder fault results in a serviee interruption to all londs connected to it, just as in a radial system. Howover, the tie feeders provide emergeney feed to the substations, which permits the use of simple single-transformor substations with o single subtransmission ciroutt supply to each, ‘Most primary networks are three-phase, four-wire on the main feeder scction with 2400-volt, single-phase laterals. A few primary network systems have been installed using three-phase, three-wire primary feeders operating at 2400 volts. At least one primary network using a voltage in the 15-kv class has been used. The first primary network was installed in 1031. Several primary networks are still operating, but there is no ‘rend toward their increased use 4, Secondary Distribution and Cire Secondary distribution may be classified as either single or three-phase. Rural and residential areas are for the most part single-phase and commercial areas are usually three-phase. Industrial power as supplied by the electric utility at utilization voltage is three-phase. Single-phase distribution takes the form of 120/240- volis, three-wire. Three-phase is generally 120/208- volts, four-wire wye. Occasionally, 120/240-volts, four- wire delta is used to obtain three-phase service from two phases, or two phases and a neutral, Increased usage of f higher secondary voltage for commercial areas has brought about a nominsl voltage of 285 /460-volts, four- wite wye. Fig, 16 summarizes the secondary utilization voltage most eommonly in use, as well as methods of obtaining them from the distribution transformers and primaties, ‘The radial secondary is supplied from eithor a con- ventional or completely self-protected (type CSP) dis tribution transformer. Fuso cutouts are used with oon- ventional distribution transformers, and surge protee- tion is provided by an externally-mounted lightning arrester. Internal protective links are a standard part of the type CSP transformer. They aro located inside the transformer tanks and are connected in the cireuit on ‘he supply side of the tap changer. Overlond and second- ‘ary short-cireuit, protection is provided in the CSP transformer by means of a secondary breaker located inside of the transformer tank. An integrally-mounted lightning arrester on the transformer tank provides surge protection. On either a conventional or OSP dis- tribution transformer, the secondary leads are con- nected solidly to the secondaries which supply the in dividual serviee to each house, In the case of rural service, it is quite common for a transformer to serve single farm or residence. In this ease, there are no secondary runs by the utility. Fig. 17 shows a line dia- gam of a primary, a CSP distribution transformer, and 120/240-volt secondaries serving three houses. rary = SNGLE—PHASE RESIDENTIAL AKO sonn $= eorzao-v. Rurat USAGE. s i Typce—mnase maa 2 ‘ seconoany REMARKS RESIDENTIAL WERE eave Loans" ‘eaune THREE ~ PHASE ALS0 Cen conwerciat. ‘Sreiem can RESULT Wl exTEN~ Sive vouTase, inealance, + + Typee—otase Boreoa-v, - 2 Boras, $ FW eer4e0-W. e ere Fig. 16. Most common distribution transformer primary and secondary arrangemen's with most common nominal second= cory voltage single- and threes phase. COMMERCAL OR INDUSTRIAL, ‘There is another form of radial secondary, dofined ag the banked secondary system. It is often misconstrued as a “network” eystem, or form of the a-c eecondary netrvork: desoribed later. The banked soeondary system consists of several transformers supplied from a single primary foeder, with the low-voltage terminals con- neoted together through tho secondary mains. Fig. 18 shows @ one-line diagram of the banked secondary system. The low voltage terminals are sometimes con- noted solidly to thesecondary mains. A number of banked secondary eysioms have boon protected by fuses witha considerable degree of success. The most effective protection of a banked secondary system is provided by the use of low-voltage cirouit breakers in the trans- former~the type CSPB transformer. A loop-type banked secondary is illustrated in Fig. 18. The banked secondary system is quite effective in reducing the flicker on starting of large motors such as central or room-type air conditioners é =| bey , 17. Single-phase primary and secondary distribution ts in common vse for residentiol distribution. 2 General Considerations of Distribution Rs “73 1 srasution | TRANSFORMER: ie VUNG CUSTOMER'S METER AND SERVICE. Fig. 18. Onedtine diagram of banked secondory type of distribution. ‘Tho first automatic secondary network system was installed in Now York in 1923. Today nearly every major city in the United States uses this system of dis- tribution, Ib is the most reliable type of distribution available. ‘The a-e secondary nétwork utilizes three-phase dis- ‘tribution transformers, which aro called network trans- formers because of differences in design and beenuse of their use. A few single-phaso units to form three-phase banks are still in use. The secondaries aro three-phase, four-wire circuits operating at a nominal 120/208 volts, with several cities providing a nominal distribution voltage of 265/460 volts, In the secondary network, the secondary mains surround each blook and are connected togethet to form a grid or mesh from which the consumers’ services are tapped. At 120/208 volts, the majority of secondary faults will be self-clearing, although this may not be the case at 265/460 volts. The trend is to design secondaries to use limiters for protecting against secondary Faults ab 208 volts. At 480 volts they are a necessity. Fig. 10 illustrates an idealized pattern of a 120/208- volt secondary network, Power is supplied to the sec- ondary grid over the primary feeders through netwvork transformers. The system is designed so that it will operate satisfactorily when one primary feeder is out of service. This is called frst contingency design. When ‘wo feeders are out of service, it is called a second con- tingency. Most secondary networks are designed on the basis of first contingency. The pfimary feeders are in- terlaced as shown in Fig. 19, so that wherever possible, ‘wo adjacent transformers are always supplied from different feeders, ‘When fault occurs on a primary feeder, the cirouit breaker supplying this feeder is tripped by relays that dotect the fault current. However, the fault oan still be supplied by the network transformers connected to this, feeder and energized from the low-voltage grid. The fault eurront, from the grid flows in reverse direction through the low-voltage swvitehing device eonnected to the transformer low-voltage terminals. This switehing device is a special air cireuit breaker ealled a network protector, The network protector is controlled by net~ work relays whose function it is to open the protector (on reverse power and close the protector under voltage conditions that will result in positive power iow into the etwork. It depends upon the connections of the net~ ‘work transformers whether or not ground fault current flows from the network transformers after the primary feeder breaker has disconnected that portion of the cirouit. For example, if the network transformers are wye-wye grounded on high and low voltage sides, ground fault eurrent will flow. If the high voltage con- nections of the network transformer are delta, then only phaee-to-phaso fault currents can flow from the network transformers, For a ground fault, only the eable eapact- tive charging current and the network transformer magnetizing ourrent will flow through the network protector and be detested by the netivork relay. ‘The network relay is seusitive enough to detect the in phase current. ‘The: majority of all primary feeders supplying a-c secondary networks are in the 15-kv class. There are some existing 4-kv feeders but this voltage is not often used swith modern systems and load densities to initiate a new systom, A few installations of primary feeder voltages exist in the 25- and 84.5-kv class, and 69 kv to 4460 volts has been used in New York City. At voltages above 15 kv there may be a problem of network relay operation, due to the reverse capacitive current flow under normal backfeed and faulé current baekfeed con= ditions, This problem requires special investigation, SUBSTATION gus. pamany FEEDERS network ‘TRANSTORNER fy ae Le \ cusrowens’ ‘SERVICES ‘THREE PHASE SECONDARIES NeTwORK, pRoTECToR Fig. 19. ldeolized potter of ovtomatic a-c secondary nel ‘work distribution system. TOT FRGS FFF FRO @26 | § 5 : 2 8 5 § & § A § § § § ‘ t é ‘ General Considerations of Distribution 18 Fig. 20. A typical 120/208-volt secondary network grid potters for a downtown oreo. Typical values of load chown in kva. Network transformers ore oll 500 kva units. Numbers in parenthesis indicate primary feeder to which transformer is connected. ‘Hack network transformer is connected to a primary feeder without any fuses or any other automatic see tionalising devices in its primary leads. The transformer is usually connected to its primary feeder by means of a manually-operated, three-position switch. The switeh is arranged so that it can be operated only when the primary feeder is de-energized. It is used to connect and disconnect the transformer and primary feeder, and to short-cireuit and ground all conductors of the primary feeder with the transformer disconnected from the feeder. The grounding of the feeder is a safety precaution to personnel working on the feeder in the ovent of accidental energizing of the feeder. ‘The sesondary notwork is used most extensively in underground construction in the downtown commercial areas. The network can take the form of an overhead system or a combination of overhead and underground system. Of interest in the overhead network is a light= duty netiwork protector. It differs from the standard heavy-duty, network protector in that desensitized net work rolays are used. These relays require a reverse cur- rent of about 160percent of normal full-load to operate. Therefore, wye-wye transformer connections must be used. Another differenco in tho light-duty network is that it is usually supplied by only two primary feeders. ‘Thus, if one feeder is out of service, the other must handle the entire load. The system must, of course, be designed for this loading, ‘The primary feeders may also serve some other distribution besides the network. ‘The idealized form of a-c secondary network follows a uniform pattern of square blocks in the downtown area, with a single transformer at each intersection of the seoondary grid. Fig. 20 essentially follows this patt but better illustrates a pattorn that might be found is practice. Ab soveral of the intersections, there are rultiple transformer installations. These are known as spot networks, and they are utilized to serve lange con- centrations of spot loads. The general present practice at nominal 120/208-volt. secondaries is to tic these spots into the secondary grid. However, at higher seeondary voltages of 265/460 volts, the spots are more generally self-contained and do not tie into the second- ary grid. ‘The practice of tying into the secondary grid is perhaps more an evolutionary result of practice than adherence to the most economic design. For example, at 120/208 volts, a secondary grid is provided to give nesessary area coverage in the commercial area served by the network. As large load concentrations build up, multiple transformer stations are installed to serve the load. Tn this evolution of load build-up and apparatus installation to serve the load, nothing will be gnined by opening grid ties to the multiple transformer installa tion. Asa matter of fact, some benefit will be lost, in the form of aid from the multiple transformer spot to the grid, under loss of primary feeder conditions. In the case of a higher secondary voltage, the build-up of load is much different. Large new buildings are built, with modern lighting, afr conditioning, and other elec- trical loads, [n these new buildings, the use of a higher secondary voltage of 265/460 volts offers an economic incentive to the builder and eonsumer. Thus, « bigh isolated load must be served. Similar new buildings are usually not elose enough to be served from the same id 7000 Ke hes ee Fig. 21. A higher secondary voltage spot-network/radiol sysiem supplied by two transformers connected to different primary feeders. Multiple secondary circuits shown supply Edjacent smeller spot loads. Loads in kva at higher second fry voltage but autotransformer step down to 120/208- volts could be provided. spot or to make it economical to tie spots together with a grid. However, it is possible to economically serve relatively small loads 2% 265/460 volts by means of a spot nelwork/radial system. This form of system is iustrated in Fig. 21, and is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 5. IV, VOLTAGE REGULATION As mentioned earlier, the second part of quality of service is voltage regulation. The distribution system is “eost-sensitive” to voltage in the sense that there are fairly definite limits between which voltage must be maintained at the point of delivery to obtain proper ‘operation of utilization equipment. Maintaining closer General Considerations of Dislribution limits than necessary will result in higher system cost. ‘Automatic regulation provided by regulating devices must be earefully sized and located to insure economic, system design. While the distribution system is cost-sensitive to ‘voltage, s0 also isthe utilization equipment, in the sense that it-must be designed within certain voltage limits for « specified performance. Thus, it would be more expensive to design a motor for a given performance ‘quality for voltage limits of plus end minus 20 per cent instead of plus and minus 10 per cent, a typical value for three-phase motors. Over the years, the manufacture of all types of utilization equipment and the design and operation of distribution systems have resulted in fairly stable and uniformly adopted limits of voltage. The limits of supplied voltage do, of course, vary slightly from one utility system to the next. Fig. 22 illustrates a few typical voltago limits of power com- panies for the primary feeder on residential and rural cuits, and the limits for residential customers’ service entrance. All of these values are design voltage limits. ‘The chart of Fig. 23 illustrates maximum and minimum, voltages for 120/208- and 265 /460-volt commereial area, service. Fig. 2b shows in convenient bar chart the ‘voltage limits of common utilization devices. “The most commonly misunderstood terminology in distribution work undoubtedly is found in discussing voltage limits, Tt is very important that they be clearly understood with regard to the value of the limits, the definition of them, and the location at whioh they are measured, The “ERI-NEMA Preferred Voltage Ratings for A-C Systems and Equipment” Report, which is discussed fully in Chapter 7, is a valuable document with reference to voltages and voltage limits. “These terms should be carefully studied and under- stood by the distribution engineer: nominal voltage, rated voltage, voltage spread, and mode volinge. Similarly there are three important designations of system voltage, Theze refer to the voltage zone of a w ‘ oy REEMU —so, BURRS © mo Eenee® 28 128 ie ee: Et = HA = ee vee wee ue ue ns tie ua ue Fig. 22. Typical design voltage limits of twenty power companies. PR LB LIB IRIE LE IRIE LN IOLE IE LO INIA IO LELR LOSE DR LOPE LO POLO SOSA LAI O IAIN LO LODE LOS IN IO IV LS ISIE JO General Considerations of Distribution 15 (—220 [278 7 ¢ MAXIMUM —=126—) 27g MaxiMuM PERMISSIBLE PERMISSIBLE }—277/460.-TRANSFORVER RATING ws—lere f-275 tapers : [ers ere es. Leen |270-—osvecrive opuective—-ize— 1268 [ese 12267 [266 NOMINAL —+- 208/120 —7}— 265/460-—-~NOMINAL wrerenence~ | ~264 POINT tw—[-28s [262 : lest saniwom—- 110 —f (woRMAL) L260 sininum, (woRMaLy Fig, 23. Corcelation between voltages of 120/208 ond 265/460 nominel secondary voltage systems in o network ‘rea. (Reproduced from reference 6-C, chapter 5.) operation and aro tho favorable voltage zono, the tolerable zone, and the extreme zone. All of theso definitions are discuseod fully in Chapter 7 and are Included here primarily for emphasis. Tho voltage applied on the various distribution equipments such as distribution transformers, substa~ tions, and switching equipments must be considored in overall system design. ‘The benchmark for distribution system design and operation is the voliage supplied to the load. Usual voltage drops for purpose of aysiem design aze shown in Table 3 of Chapter 7. Secondary mains, run by the utilly, are used in residential areas, but in rural areas it is the exception rather than the rule, Because of the lack of mains in the rural area, additional voltage drop ean be allocated to the primary. Systems are therefore usually designed so that the maximum voltage variation at any service entrance does not exceed 10 per eent. The values of voltage in ‘Table 3 of Chapter 7 are representative of general practies, In the economic com parison of diferent distribution systems, its best to set up designs without a predetermined allocation of these drops. An optimum economic design can be obtained by simultaneous analysis ofthe primary feeder, distribution transformer, and secondary main, with the total voltage spread being allocated to all of the three components, V. UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION ‘As might be expected, the eapital investment cost of distributing power through underground cireuits is, appreciably higher than by overhead circuits, Under- ground circuits have many advantages such as freedom from sleet and icing of conductors, tree limbs, lightning surges, damage by vehicles, and improved appearance, ‘On the other hand, there are substantial disadvantages in the form of higher investment cost and longer time required for repair. ‘There are many factors that lead to the uso of unde ground systems. Historically, the distribution systems in the downtown areas of cities have been the first to go to underground construetion. The substation and as- sociated feeder breakers that supply the primary feeders are surface mounted equipments. ‘The primary feeder cables are underground circuits that supply the network transformers. The network transformers, network pro- teetors, and low-voltage secondary circuits are under- Fig. 24. (o} Comparison of tolerable voltages for motors and Aorescent lominoires with the range of voltage usually provided by representotive 120/208-valt secondory net- ‘work systems in commercial areas. (b) Comparison of toler ble voltage for motors ond fluorescent lumincires and yoltage ranges that con be provided by 265/460-volt and 240/416-volt systems in commercial creas. (Reproduced from reference 6, chapter 7.)