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PSYC 100 Final Exam (UMUC)

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1. Ancient Egyptians and early Greek philosophers (e.g., Aristotle) believed that
all of our mental life happened in: (A) the soul; (B) the pineal gland; (C) the
stomach; (D) the heart.
____2. According to Ren Descartes, the mind (soul) and body interacted in which
brain structure? (A) pituitary gland; (B) pineal gland; (C) cortex; (D) hypothalamus.
____3. One extreme example of the lack of objectivity in the field of abnormal behavior
occurred in the middle of the 19th
century, when a disease called drapetomania was invented. This condition referred to: (A) the lack of pain experienced
by people who were being physically punished; (B) the custom of diagnosing
political dissidents as mentally disordered in certain communist countries; (C)
behaving in a fashion that is unacceptable to the society at large; (D) slaves
running away from their masters.
____4. Walter Mischel followed up on the children who had participated (at age 4) in
his marshmallow study 14 years later (when they were 18 years old). Mischel
found that the children who had successfully waited (for 15 minutes) to receive
a second marshmallow ______ those who ate their first marshmallow. (A) were
more self-reliant, trustworthy, and academically successful than; (B) were not

as good at planning for their futures as; (C) had poorer social adjustment than;
(D) had similar SAT scores as.
____5. If we consider the factors that determine whether an individual develops male
or female genitalia, we find that: (A) genetic sex (XX or XY) is the crucial
factor, because an XY fetus invariably develops as a male; (B) male hormones
are critical, because in the absence of male hormones, an XY fetus will develop
as a female; (C) female hormones are critical, because in the absence of female
hormones, an XX fetus will develop as a male; (D) sex hormones are critical,
because without male hormones, an XY fetus will develop as a female, and
without female hormones, an XX fetus will develop as a male.
____6. If the axon of a neuron is myelinated, the neural impulse will: (A) travel faster
down the axon; (B) travel more slowly down the axon; (C) be prevented from
reaching the end of the axon; (D) be stronger.
____7. The most common way of assessing attachment in human infants is to: (A) have
the child track a picture of the mother with her eyes; (B) see if the child smiles at
a picture of her mother; (C) determine the predominant child-rearing style of the
parents; (D) see how the child responds when separated from and reunited with
her mother. PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College
Second Examination Fall, 2013
____8. Your friend claims that you enjoy loud music because, the louder the music, the
greater the strength of the resulting neural impulses, leading to a more enjoyable
experience. You know that this nave theory is wrong because of an important
characteristic of neural impulses called: (A) depolarization; (B) action potential;
(C) fixed amplitude; (D) refractory periods.

____9. The ______ governs the high levels of arousal experienced by firefighters when
they are fighting a fire. Later, when they are back in the fire station, their arousal levels slowly come down due to the effect of the ______. (A) sympathetic
nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system; (B) parasympathetic nervous
system, sympathetic nervous system; (C) autonomic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system; (D) parasympathetic nervous system, autonomic nervous system.
____10. Suppose you meet someone and are told that she is a split-brain patient. You
can conclude that she: (A) has had her corpus callosum severed; (B) will be unable to eat or walk unassisted; (C) will probably demonstrate multiple personalities; (D) was born with the equivalent of half a brain.
____11. An important lesson from the story of Governor Earl Long (Ol Earl) of Louisiana is that: (A) psychologists need to be involved in deciding how government
funds are used to conduct mental health research; (B) the mental health system
in Louisiana needs significant reform; (C) people are sometimes incorrectly
diagnosed with a mental illness when they are completely normal. (D) psychologists tend to be unpopular with politicians because of their insistence on rigorous scientific methodology.
____12. In Harry Harlows research on attachment, baby monkeys that had been separated from their mothers were exposed to two different surrogate mothers. One
was made of wire mesh and provided food; the other was padded, covered with
terry cloth, and provided contact comfort but no nourishment. When presented with a fear stimulus, the baby monkey would: (A) run to the wire mother for
protection; (B) run to the terry cloth mother for protection; (C) be just as likely

to run to the terry cloth mother as it is to run to the wire mother; (D) venture out
to explore the fear stimulus and then return to the terry cloth mother before exploring further.
____13. John Searles statement The mind is what the brain does summarizes the
position about the relation between the brain and mind known as: (A) isolationism; (B) dualism; (C) materialism; (D) parallelism.
____14. In a test of Kohlbergs theory, you present moral dilemmas to children who are
7, 19, and 13 years old, and ask them to resolve the dilemmas. Which of the
following best describes your experimental design? (A) cross-age; (B) multiage; (C) longitudinal; (D) cross-sectional. PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of
Maryland University College
Second Examination Fall, 2013
____15. While discussing the functions of the brain stem, the lecturer notices that many
of his students appear to have fallen asleep. This situation reminds him of the
______, which arouses the cerebral cortex to attend to new stimulation and
keeps the brain alert even during sleep. (A) pons; (B) medulla; (C) cerebellum;
(D) reticular formation.
____16. Contrary to popular public opinion regarding hypnosis, most people who are
hypnotized: (A) forget what happened while they were hypnotized; (B) have
very good memory for situational details while hypnotized; (C) experience a
total lack of situational awareness while in the hypnotic state; (D) generate
significantly fewer false memories than nonhypnotized subjects.
____17. Both the so-called zombie problem and the hard problem of consciousness
are concerned with the suitability of ________ explanations of consciousness.
(A) dualist; (B) behaviorist; (C) materialist; (D) information-processing.

____18. Panic disorders and phobias fall under the broader category of what type of
disorders? (A) anxiety disorders; (B) somatoform disorders; (C) disorders of
childhood and infancy; (D) psychotic disorders.
____19. The term conservation refers to a childs (A) egocentric perspective regarding social issues; (B) awareness that altering the form or shape of an object does
not alter the amount of that object; (C) release from lack of object permanence;
(D) inability to mentally undo a process or procedure.
____20. What would this country be like if there was no racial tension? An individual
who is in Piagets ______ stage of cognitive development would be most capable
of pondering this question and generating several possible answers. (A) sensorimotor; (B) preoperational; (C) concrete operational; (D) formal operational.
____21. The role of the corpus callosum is to: (A) allow neural impulses to travel from
one cerebral hemisphere to the other; (B) allow each cerebral hemisphere to process sensory information twice; (C) prevent sensory and motor impairment if
one side of the brain is damaged; (D) allow the brain to work as two separate and
distinct units, functioning independently from one another.
____22. Transmission of neural impulses across synapses is accomplished by means of:
(A) inorganic ions, such as sodium and potassium; (B) organic molecules, such
as acetylcholine and dopamine; (C) electrical impulses; (D) intermittent physical
contact between the relevant neurons.
____23. The belief that children will develop superior cognitive abilities if their parents
play classical music for them during infancy reflects: (A) a pro-nurture perspective; (B) a pro-nature perspective; (C) a belief that genes set limits on cognitive
abilities; (D) a belief that cognitive abilities are genetically determined. PSYC 100 - Introductory
Psychology University of Maryland University College

Second Examination Fall, 2013


____24. Which of the following brain structures is associated with the regulation of
hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual arousal? (A) hippocampus;
(B) cerebellum; (C) amygdala; (D) hypothalamus.
____25. Neurologists consider the retina to be a part of the: (A) central nervous system;
(B) parasympathetic nervous system; (C) sympathetic nervous system; (D) somatic nervous system.
____26. Jean Piaget is best known for his efforts to understand: (A) the way children
interpret their emerging sense of sexuality; (B) the way children think, reason,
and solve problems; (C) language development; (D) bystander intervention.
____27. As a result of the John Hinckley case, what was changed about the insanity
defense? (A) It was limited to crimes in which the death sentence could be
applied. (B) The burden of proof was shifted to the defense. (C) The burden
of proof was shifted to the prosecution. (D) It was limited to crimes in which
the accused is predicted to harm others again.
____28. A child has two favorite glasses, each of which will hold eight ounces of liquid.
One glass is a tall, skinny one with a picture of a giraffe; the other is a short, fat
one with a picture of a hippopotamus. When her mother pours some of her juice
into the hippo glass, the girl asks her mother to move the juice into the giraffe
glass, because she is really thirsty. If the girl believes that transferring the juice
into the taller glass increases the amount of juice, she probably: (A) is capable of
mental operations; (B) is capable of accommodation; (C) is in Piagets stage of
formal operations; (D) has not yet reached the concrete operational stage.
____29. You watch you newborn nephew and observe the way he tracks a moving ob-

ject. You then compare it to how your 5-year-old sister tracks the same moving
object. What do you observe? (A) Both your nephew and your sister track the
object with saccadic eye movements. (B) Both your nephew and your sister
track the object with smooth pursuit eye movements. (C) Your nephew tracks
the object with saccadic eye movements and your sister uses smooth pursuit eye
movements. (D) Your nephew uses smooth pursuit eye movements to watch the
object, and your sister uses saccades.
____30. What part of the human brain is the most recently evolved? (A) cerebral cortex;
(B) cerebellum; (C) hypothalamus; (D) brain stem.
____31. Which statement most closely represents the activation-synthesis model
(Hobson & McCarley, 1977) of dreaming? (A) Dreams originate with an
unconscious wish or motive. (B) Dreams result from neural signals in the
brainstem that stimulate areas of the brains cortex. (C) A dream will occur
only if a person has an unresolved conflict or problem. (D) Latent content
is more important than manifest content in the interpretation of dreams. PSYC 100 - Introductory
Psychology University of Maryland University College
Second Examination Fall, 2013
____32. Because of a severe drought, a ban on outdoor watering has been issued. The
Robinsons decide that they will not water their new shrubs because their neighbors would disapprove. Their reasoning places the Robinsons in which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development? (A) preconventional; (B) conventional;
(C) postconventional; (D) unconventional.
____33. Carrie and her husband have been trying to have a baby. She is shocked to find
out that the reason for her infertility is that she is biologically a man! Apparently, during her prenatal development, her androgen receptors failed to function,

causing her to develop as a female. Her condition is known as: (A) transgender
dysfunction; (B) androgen insensitivity syndrome; (C) gender identity disorder;
(D) androgyny.
____34. The ________ are the primary brain regions involved in formulating goals and
strategies. (A) frontal lobes; (B) right and left lobes of the amygdala; (C) fusiform areas; (D) adrenal cortex.
____35. One reason human newborns have poor visual skills is that the neurons in their
visual cortex are: (A) insufficiently connected; (B) myelinated; (C) depolarized;
(D) always fatigued.
____36. According to Piaget, a child who moves from the observation that 4+1 and 6+1
both produce odd numbers to the principle that adding 1 to any even number will
produce an odd number is in which stage of cognitive development? (A) formal
operational; (B) concrete operational; (C) preoperational; (D) sensorimotor.
____37. Female genitalia: (A) develop more quickly than male genitalia; (B) are more
susceptible to damage than male genitalia; (C) do not need additional hormones
to develop; (D) need androgens to develop.
____38. Harlow showed that infant monkeys chose to cling to which of the following
fake mothers for most of the day? (A) the mother with the bottle; (B) the
mother that looked most like a monkey; (C) the cloth mother; (D) the
mother made of wire.
____39. Bipolar disorder was formerly known as: (A) major depression; (B) dysthymia;
(C) manic-depression; (D) ADHD.
____40. The methodological breakthrough for the study of sleep came in 1937 when
researchers began using: (A) electroencephalograms; (B) experience-sampling;

(C) hypnosis; (D) think-aloud protocols.


____41. Most instances of adolescent risk taking occur when an adolescent is: (A) alone;
(B) with his or her family; (C) during school hours; (D) in groups of same-age
peers. PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College
Second Examination Fall, 2013
____42. Many of the behaviors that are performed under hypnosis: (A) have been demonstrated only under hypnosis; (B) have also been demonstrated under nonhypnotic
conditions; (C) have the potential of injuring bystanders, including the hypnotist;
(D) would never occur under normal states of consciousness.
____43. Baby Otto is involved in a research study. He is shown a picture of a human
face and a picture of a group of shapes at the same time. The investigators record which picture he looks at longer to determine his preferences. This technique is known as the: (A) picture habituation technique; (B) orienting task;
(C) object permanence technique; (D) preferential looking technique.
____44. Moruzzi and Magoun (1949) demonstrated that stimulating the ______, in the
brainstem, caused a sleeping animal to awaken. (A) amygdala; (B) cerebellum;
(C) reticular formation; (D) hypothalamus.
____45. The erroneous conclusion that cognitive ability can be boosted by listening to
classical music (i.e., the Mozart effect): (A) was based on a single study conducted with college students; (B) involved a single paper-folding task, rather
than the variety of tasks used in typical IQ tests; (C) has never received strong
empirical support in studies of children; (D) all of the above.
____46. Your friend Anna reports that she never has any dreams. Which of the following
is most likely? (A) She never enters the REM stage of sleep. (B) Her stages of

sleep occur in reverse order. (C) She exercises excessively. (D) She fails to remember her dreams.
____47. A child that has achieved object permanence is watching a puppet show, and
the curtain closes at the end. When asked by his teacher (immediately after the
curtain closes) to search for the missing puppets, the child will most likely look:
(A) nowhere (i.e., the child will simply state that the puppets are no longer present); (B) on the ground around and behind him; (C) behind his teacher, thinking
she is hiding the puppets; (D) behind the curtain of the stage, because he realizes
they are hidden by the curtain.
____48. The subcortical structure in the forebrain that organizes incoming sensory information and routes it to the appropriate cortical areas to be processed is called
the: (A) thalamus; (B) hypothalamus; (C) hippocampus; (D) amygdala.
____49. Sleep deprivation has been found to interfere with: (A) the ability to perform
physical tasks; (B) the ability to react to stressful situations; (C) language abilities; (D) the ability to perform tasks that require vigilance.
____50. The thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and experiences that occur during hypnotic
age regression or past life regression are: (A) actively constructed; (B) best
guesses; (C) rarely accurate; (D) all of the above. PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of
Maryland University College
Second Examination Fall, 2013
Developmental:
____50. A child has two favorite glasses, each of which will hold eight ounces of liquid.
One glass is a tall, skinny one with a picture of a giraffe; the other is a short, fat
one with a picture of a hippopotamus. When her mother pours some of her juice
into the hippo glass, the girl asks her mother to move the juice into the giraffe

glass, because she is really thirsty. If the girl believes that transferring the juice
into the taller glass increases the amount of juice, she probably: (A) is capable of
mental operations; (B) is capable of accommodation; (C) is in Piagets stage of
formal operations; (D) has not yet reached the concrete operational stage.
____42. In a test of Kohlbergs theory, you present moral dilemmas to children who are
7, 19, and 13 years old, and ask them to resolve the dilemmas. Which of the
following best describes your experimental design? (A) cross-age; (B) multiage; (C) longitudinal; (D) cross-sectional.
____43. The most common way of assessing attachment in human infants is to: (A) have
the child track a picture of the mother with her eyes; (B) see if the child smiles at
a picture of her mother; (C) determine the predominant child-rearing style of the
parents; (D) see how the child responds when separated from and reunited with
her mother.
____15. Baby Otto is involved in a research study. He is shown a picture of a human
face and a picture of a group of shapes at the same time. The investigators record which picture he looks at longer to determine his preferences. This technique is known as the: (A) picture habituation technique; (B) orienting task;
(C) object permanence technique; (D) preferential looking technique.
____36. A child that has achieved object permanence is watching a puppet show, and
the curtain closes at the end. When asked by his teacher (immediately after the
curtain closes) to search for the missing puppets, the child will most likely look:
(A) nowhere (i.e., the child will simply state that the puppets are no longer present); (B) on the ground around and behind him; (C) behind his teacher, thinking
she is hiding the puppets; (D) behind the curtain of the stage, because he realizes

they are hidden by the curtain.


____32. In Harry Harlows research on attachment, baby monkeys that had been separated from their mothers were exposed to two different surrogate mothers. One
was made of wire mesh and provided food; the other was padded, covered with PSYC 100 Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College
Second Examination Fall, 2013
terry cloth, and provided contact comfort but no nourishment. When presented with a fear stimulus, the baby monkey would: (A) run to the wire mother for
protection; (B) run to the terry cloth mother for protection; (C) be just as likely
to run to the terry cloth mother as it is to run to the wire mother; (D) venture out
to explore the fear stimulus and then return to the terry cloth mother before exploring further.
____30. One reason human newborns have poor visual skills is that the neurons in their
visual cortex are: (A) insufficiently connected; (B) myelinated; (C) depolarized;
(D) always fatigued.
____27. Harlow showed that infant monkeys chose to cling to which of the following
fake mothers for most of the day? (A) the mother with the bottle; (B) the
mother that looked most like a monkey; (C) the cloth mother; (D) the
mother made of wire.
____28. Carrie and her husband have been trying to have a baby. She is shocked to find
out that the reason for her infertility is that she is biologically a man! Apparently, during her prenatal development, her androgen receptors failed to function,
causing her to develop as a female. Her condition is known as: (A) transgender
dysfunction; (B) androgen insensitivity syndrome; (C) gender identity disorder;
(D) androgyny.

____13. Because of a severe drought, a ban on outdoor watering has been issued. The
Robinsons decide that they will not water their new shrubs because their neighbors would disapprove. Their reasoning places them in which of Kohlbergs
stages? (A) preconventional; (B) conventional; (C) postconventional; (D) unconventional.