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Gateway is a multi-level course for students working towards their

school-leaving examinations. By developing language and study


skills and promoting learner confidence and independence.
Gateway prepares students for their exams and for life beyond
the classroom.
Key features of the workbook include:
Vocabulary and Grammar extension activities which develop
and reinforce students' language skills
Developing speaking and supported writing sections which
develop key skills for exam success
Revision units which provide opportunities for self-assessment
Progress tests which enable students to monitor cumulative
progress throughout the course
Key features of the Gateway dictionary:
Includes all vocabulary from the Student's Book, Workbook and
other key vocabulary common in school leaving exam topics.
The most important words are highlighted in red and graded for
frequency of use
Real examples show students exactly how words
are used in a wide variety of situations
Essentiz
Clear, simple definitions make the dictionary fully
accessible to Bl learners
All words and definitions taken from the Macmillan
Essential Dictionary
www.macmillandi

A I A2 Bl B2

1EJ
-0-230-72345-0

MACMILLAN
www.macmillanenglish.com

www.MacmillanPracticeOnline.com/gateway

0"7 2 3 4 5 0'

Workbook
David Spencer
Contents
Unit 1: Family histories

Unit 2: Criminal records

10

Revision: Units 1-2

18

Unit 3: Lost in translation

20

Unit 4: Fit and well

28

Revision: Units 3-4

36

Unit 5: TV world

38

Unit 6: Living planet

46

Revision: Units 5-6

54

Unit 7: Odd jobs

56

Unit 8: Good friends

64

Revision: Units 7-8

72

Unit 9: Read on

74

Unit 10: Cyberspace

82

Revision: Units 9-10

90

Progress Tests: 1-10

92

Gateway B1 Dictionary

97

MCMILLAN

Grammar

Present simple and present continuous

Articles

Vocabulary Ages and stages of life > The family


Noun suffixes -ment, -ion, -ence

1 Family matter

Speaking

> Asking for personal information

Writing

An informal email

Ages and stages of life


1

Read the clues and complete the puzzle. Which word appears in the shaded column?
1

He's 72. He's a senior

2and3

She's 55. She's a.

adult.

the period of life when you change from being a child to being a young adult

a very young child who can't talk or walk

the stage of life when you are 70, for example

the opposite of life

the beginning of life

The family
2

Look at the family tree and complete the sentences.


John = Natasha

lan = Susan

Simon

Daniel

Sandra = Graham

Barbara

James

John and Natasha are Simon's grandparents

Susan is lan's

James is Simon's

Natasha is Graham's.

Graham is lan's

Daniel is Simon's

Barbara is lan's

James is Daniel's

Barbara is John's

10

Graham is Sandra's

Match the halves of the sentences.


1

I've got a stepfather

My aunt is 50 and single ...

because they don't want to get married at the moment.

She's my niece ...

because my parents got divorced and I live with my mum.

Paul is an only child ...

because after my father's death my mum got married again.

because she's my sister Elizabeth's daughter.

come from a one-parent family ..

because his parents didn't want any more children.

Peter is my cousin's partner, not her husband ...

because he separated from his wife legally last year.

Samuel is divorced ...

because she never wants to get married.

Write definitions or explanations of the words in bold from 3.


1

stepfather

single

niece

only child

one-parent family

partner

divorced
Unit 1

your

mother's jnew fii^band.m.


._

a later

marriage

_._

Read this text from a website. What do you think the website does?
1

It gives news about social changes.

It's a place where you can buy new products.

Tools

Winoow

It gives descriptions of and opinions about new products.

It explains the science behind new technology.

Help

TECHNOWORLD

PRODUCT D E S C R I P T I O N : A new high-tech coat for young children


A You know that here atTechnoworld our job
is to tell you all about new sorts of products
that are about to appear in a shop near you.
Well, this week we're looking at a coat called
the EZ-Find coat. Riley Electronics are
working on it and they hope that it will be in
the shops by next December.
Losing your child is a terrible experience.
This coat can tell you where your young child is
by computer or mobile phone. You can receive
GPS data from it every 15 seconds.The coat
also has an alarm which you can use to tell
your child to come home. Some of you are probably thinking that this is spying.
Maybe. But remember that this coat is for very young children and the idea is,
above all, to protect them. Another nice thing about the coat is that when your child
loses it, the G PS can help you to find it again.

By Einheit | 0 1 . 2 3 P M | 24/10
This is great news for my family. I have
a child with a disability. I think the idea
of the coat is to give the children extra
independence and help parents to relax. That
sounds perfect for us!
By Jabber | 0 1 . 4 5 P M | 2 4 / 1 0
What a'great' idea! Put a GPS in the first
thing that your son or daughter takes off their coat!
By Inkedfusion | 0 3 . 4 5 P M | 24/10
Great for little children but we all know that
this doesn't work with teenagers. When they
have GPS technology in their mobile phones,
they take their phone and leave it in the
library. You think they're studying but then
they go away and do what they want!

OK, so now you're waiting for next December to come so that you can run out
and buy the coat. But first we need to tell you about one or two problems we had
when we tested it. For a start, it's very warm. That means that, except for people
who live in Alaska, your child probably won't be able to wear it very often. And then
there's the other big problem.The coat is very expensive, especially if you pay for
the monthly service to be able to track the GPS signal.

Who (theTechnoworld website, Einheit, Jabber, Inkedfusion or


Stammer) thinks that the coat...
1

is good for people with a bad memory?

is ideal for their child?

is a bad idea because children always take their coats off first?

isn't a good idea when it's warm?

is a stupid idea for adolescents?

costs a lot?

In your own words, explain what these different people think


of the coat.
1

Jabber

Einheit

Inkedfusion

Stammer

By Stammer | 0 4 . 0 5 P M | 24/10
This is the perfect coat for me. For me, not
my children. I always take my coat off and
leave it. Then I never remember where it
is! With this GPS coat, it's the end of that
problem!

Find words in the text which have similar meanings to these


words or explanations.
1

types (paragraph A)

something that happens to you (paragraph B)

principally, most importantly (paragraph B)

follow or find someone or something (paragraph Q

the ability to take your own decisions (comment by Einheit)

What about you?


Write a comment for theTechnoworld website and give your
opinion about the coat.

Unit 1

Present simple and present continuous


1

Look at these sentences. Choose the correct alternative and


explain why we use the present simple or present continuous
in each sentence.
1

that's happening
2

action

now

You never listen to me.


Present sjmple/cwtinuous because

My dad works at the weekend.


Present simple/continuous because.

Water turns to ice when it's below 0C


Present simple/continuous because

My brother is spending the weekend with my grandparents.


Present simple/continuous because

Ah! Now I understand.


Present simple/continuous because.

Where you live?


Where doyou live? - PS

My friends are listening to the concert at the moment.


Present simpiej^'oniinuousjbecause it describes

All the questions are in the present simple (PS) or the present
continuous (PC), but one word is missing. Add a word to each
question and write PS or PC next to it.

What your mother do?

What your friends doing now?

Does your friend English well

Are you your homework at the moment?

What sports you do?

What is your friend at the moment?

Who do you usually next to in English lessons?

Write your own true answers to your questions in 3.


1
2

A: Do you like this programme? B: Yeah, I love it.

Present simple/continuous because

4
8

They go swimming twice a week.

Present simple/continuous because.

6
7

Complete the sentences with the present simple or the


present continuous form of the verbs given.
1

A: Why has he got his hand up?


B:

(want) the teacher to ask him.

He

(know) the answer.

A: Why
B:

He

you

(study)?

She doesn't have her books with her today?

Do you studying for your exam now?

Why are you and Joe walking to school today?

(not speak) French.

Do your brother plays in the basketball team?

(make) the dinner.

My cousin studies at this school.

My sister and I are having two bikes at the moment.

A: What do you do now?

(read) my notes and then I

(sing) downstairs?

B: That's my sister. She's good, isn't she?


5

A: Bonjour, mademoiselle.
B: Sorry, I

A: Mmmm. What's that smell? Is it pizza?


B: Yes. My dad

A: Why isn't your mum here at the moment?


B:

She

(finish) work late on Thursdays.

A: Can I speak to the director?


B:

to

Are these sentences correct? If not, correct them.

A: How do you prepare for exams?

A: Who

Are you writting your essay at the moment?

(write) questions for myself.


4

Grammar extension

I've got an exam tomorrow.

: I

No. He

Unit 1

(speak) to someone else.

: I listen to my MP3 player.

Developing vocabulary
Noun suffixes -ment, -ion, -ence
1

Write the noun form of these words.

Match words in 1 with these definitions. Make sure you write the
correct form of the word: noun, verb or adjective.

equip (v.) equipment

invent (v.)

facts about someone or something

protect (v.)

to make something better

improve (v.)

things and materials that you need to do something

adolescent (adj.)

to keep someone or something safe

retire (v.)

something that makes one person or thing not the same as another

inform (v.)

different (adj.)

move (v.)

10

discuss (v.)

Write a definition to explain the meaning of these words.


1

invention

11 independent (adj.)

movement

12 confident (adj.)

retire

Vocabulary extension: noun suffixes -er, -or, -ist


4

We can add the suffixes -er, -or, -ist to verbs or nouns


to make nouns that describe people. We usually add
-erand -or to verbs and -ist to nouns. Write the nouns
for these words. Use your dictionary if necessary.
1

art

sing

drive

invent

science

economy

teach

play

photograph

10

direct

11

write

12

build

Who are these people? Use the words in 4.

artist

Complete the sentences with words in 4.


1

He always wins at tennis. He's a very good

Steven Spielberg is a very famous film

Albert Einstein was a great

Is your dad a taxi-

I hate that

?
All her

songs are the same.


6

I'd like to be an

one day. I love

studying finance and markets.


7

It was his job to discover new things. He was an

Unit 1

International cultural knowledge


The origin of British family names

f77ie /{/1 p/ {ftrifis/ifii/itf/f/ names


Some people think rhat names aren't important. They're probably right, bur

Answer the questions.


1

they can be very interesting. Take British surnames, for example. A surname

Write down three British family names you know.

is a name that you and your family all have, and thar you pass from one

Jadcspyij

generation to another.
When we start to look at the meaning of different surnames, we soon discover

Can you guess the origin of any of these names?

that many of them answer one of these basic questions:

/ think Jackson

a) W h o is this person's father or grandfather?

is 'the son of Jack'.

This gives us British surnames like Peters or Peterson. There are many
surnames which begin with Mc or Mac, for example McCartney or
Macdonald. This has a Scottish origin and also means son of, the same
as O' in Ireland, like the surnames O'Connor or O'Brien.

Read this text about the origin of British family names.

b) Where is this person from?

What are the four origins that the text talks about?
They explain

who the person's

father

orgrandfather

Some people have a country for their surname, for example England.
was.

Field, House, Lake and H i l l are all common family names in Britain too.
In fact, some experts think that 50% of all surnames come from some
type o f geographic description.
c) W h a t is this person's job?
The very common surname Smith (five million people in the world have
got this surname!) comes from'blacksmith', the traditional job of making
objects such as horseshoes from metal. Baker (someone who makes bread),
Shepherd (someone who looks after sheep) and Carpenter (someone who
works with wood) are all common British surnames.
d) W h a t is special about this person?

WORD BOOSTER

1
1
1
1
1
1

I f your surname is Small, there's probably a small person in your family's

Match the words and definitions.


1

generation

from Scotland

Scottish

an area of green land, often with

field

seashore

animals
a group of people who are bom/live
around the same time
d

land next to the sea

history. If your surname is Armstrong, then somebody in your family's past


probably had strong arms. A n d the surname Reid comes from the word
red, so you probably had a family member with red hair or a red face.
When you start to investigate, you soon find that British surnames can
be really interesting. A n d when you discover that there is a book called A
Student's Guide to the Seashore by John and Susan Fish, you soon see that they
can be funny too!

Read the text again and answer the questions.


1

What is a surname?

Write down t w o surnames from your country (but nor your


surname!). Then write down a possible origin. Is it one of the
four origins from the text?

Where is the surname Macdonald from originally and what

does it mean?

Where does the family name Smith come from?

What does a carpenter do?

What does it mean if your surname is Reid?

What is funny about the surname of the authors of Student's

Surname
Possible origin

5
5

Surname
Possible origin

What about youl


Do you like your family name? Why/Why not? Do you know the
origin of your family name?

Guide to the Seashorel

Unit 1

Grammar in context
Articles
1

Match these sentences with the rules.


1

My friend's dad is an engineer.

I love animals.

That isn't the problem.

The sun is hot today.

.._

a
b

We use no article when we talk about things in general,


We use the to talk about a specific person or thing or a
previously mentioned person or thing,

We use a/an to talk about a singular, countable person or thing

Parents can be difficult.

for the first time, or to say that the person or thing is one of a

They've got a car.

number of people or things,

(They've got a car.) The car's blue.

We use the to talk about someone or something that is unique,

She's the new president.

We use a/an to say what somebody's profession is.

Complete the famous quotes with a/an, the or 0 (no article).

Complete the sentences with a, an or the.

1 have

dream.'

'

'I paint

'To be or not to be, that is

Martin Luther King

earth goes round

sun.'

Copernicus

objects as I think them, not as I see them.'


Pablo Picasso
question.'
William Shakespeare

Yes, you're right! He has got

walkers in

What's

He works for

mobile phone!

6
7

organisation that helps people with

remote control?

She's single. She hasn't got

husband.

I have

idea! Why don't we go to see Uncle George

tomorrow?
9

Alexis

name of my nephew.

10

My stepfather is

11

He is

12

My sister wants to be

13

Have you got

carpenter.

director of the film we saw yesterday.


economist.
new computer? I haven't seen it

before.
14

good old days than

bad memory.'

Franklin Pierce Adams

coat you are wearing looks very warm.

'

(CVo)nly problem with common sense is that it is

not very common.'


8

boy behind you is Paul's cousin.


What's on TV? Can you pass

Albert Einstein

'Nothing is more responsible for

title of that song?

(l/i)magination is more important than

knowledge.'

picture look very surprised.

no home.
5

'

'

(IVI)ifeis

Voltaire
dream.'

Calderon de la Barca

Grammar extension
4

Look at these sentences. Cross out the when you think it is not
necessary.
1

I love the Italian food.

The English people I know are really nice.

All you need is the love.

The food in this restaurant is terrible!

The money isn't the problem. The problem is not having the
money!

The problem today is that the families don't spend enough


time together.

The vegetarians don't eat the meat.

The man who lives next door is the headmaster's uncle.


Unit 1

Asking for personal information

Describing photos

You meet an English boy. Use these prompts to write


questions to ask him.
1

Find out if he has brothers or sisters.


Have you got any brothers

Look at this photo and answer the questions. If you are not
sure of something, use / think and/or / imagine.

or sisters?

Find out their ages.

Find out if they go to the boy's school.

Find out if they all go out together at the weekend.

Find out what the boy does on Saturdays.

Who can you see in the photo?

Where are they?

What are they doing?

How do you think the people are feeling? Why?

Match these answers to your questions in 1.


a

Yes, they do.

Yes, I've got two sisters and a brother.

I usually go out with my friends on Saturday afternoon or


evening. We go to the cinema, or bowling.

Not usually. We sometimes go out together on Sundays.


We just get in the car and drive out into the country to
spend the day there.

My sisters are 15 and 13 and my brother is 12.

Write your own true answers to the questions in 1.

Unit 1

Use the questions in 4 to think of things to say about


this photo. Make notes and then practise orally.

Developing w r i t i n g
An informal email
1

Read this student's paragraph plan and email. Then put his

Look at the words or expressions in bold in the email. Explain

why they are important in informal emails.

email in the order of his paragraph plan.

Paragraph plan

Hi W? usually start informalemails with this word.

Informal email giving personal information


Paragraph 1 : Basic personal information
I'm

Paragraph 2: Information about my family


Paragraph 3: Hobbies
Paragraph 4 : Favourite subject(s) a t school
Paragraph 5: Asking for a reply

Anyway

Best wishes

In my free time, I like doing s p o r t with my friends. We play

all types of sport - football, basketball, tennis. We aren't


very good, but we enjoy ourselves . I also enjoy reading and
watching TV.

I live with my mum and my little brother. His name is Tom

and he's only nine years old. My mum is an a r t i s t . She does


illustrations for books and magazines. She's very good and
she loves herjob! My parents are divorced and I don't see my
father very often.

Look at this personal information. Imagine that you are this


person. Write an informal email using the paragraph plan
and email in 1 as a model. Add more information and write
complete sentences.

Paragraph plan
Paragraph 1:

Marianela, 1 6 , Buenos Aires, Argentina

Paragraph 2:

Mother and father, t w o sisters. One sister


2 1 , other 1 9 . Both a t university. Go o u t
with them a t weekend.
Main hobby - cinema (American films). Go
often. Also like books.

19 Anyway, it's time t o do my homework. Write back

Favourite subjects - Geography. Good

soon and tell me about yourself.

teacher. Also History.

Best wishes

Ask for a reply

I'm Steve. I'm 1 7 and I'm from Oxford in England.


Let me tell you about myself.

A t school my favourite subject is English. A t t h e moment

we're studying American literature and I'm really enjoying it. I


also like studying a r t . My mum helps me with t h a t , of course!

Reply

Get Mail

1
2
3
4
5

Forward

Delete

Print

Z>

Steve

Unit 1

Grammar

Vocabulary Crimes

2 Criminal records

Past continuous

Criminals

Phrasal verbs connected with investigating and finding


Speaking

Reporting a past event

Writing

An informal letter

Crimes

Criminals

l a Find eight crimes in the word search.

Put the letters in order to find the names of different criminals.

ruggem mugger

redrumer.

fieth

boerbr

tripea

fitposherl.

lavand

blagrur

l b Write the words from la in column A. Put them in alphabetical


order.
A: crimes
1

B:verbs

burglary

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

> Past simple

Complete column with these verbs. You can repeat verbs if


necessary.
burgle

Unit

kill

mug

pirate

rob

steal

vandalise

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in


1,2and3.
1
2

The

stole money and objects from our home.

The police arrested a group of

who were

breaking shop windows in Main Street last night.


3

attacked an old woman last night and took

her handbag and watch.


4

In my opinion

is a terrible crime because it's

wrong to take someone's life.


5

They make thousands of illegal copies. They


software, CDs and DVDs.

The

stole CDs and DVDs from the department

store.
7

Those two robbers


month in spectacular robberies.

thousands of dollars every

Reading
1

Look at the photo and the title

of the text. What do you think B f

A^k.

happened?

Read the text again and choose a, b or to complete the


sentences.
1

I think
2

4
2

< y

C / C t m n n

Q h t n e s e
2

s t u d e n t /

p o l i c e

g e n t r - o l d

join the modern Chinese army,

be part of an ancient Chinese army,

be an expert in Chinese armies.

TheTerracotta Army began their work


a

100 years ago.

30 years ago.

over 2,000 years ago.

It was difficult to find Pablo Wendel because

t h e

nvmy

In
1974 t w o l o c a l
farmers
accidentally
d i s c o v e r e d t h e w o r l d - f a m o u s T e r r a c o t t a Army
near t h e a n c i e n t c i t y o f x i a n i n C h i n a . T h e r e
were thousands o f brown t e r r a c o t t a s o l d i e r s .
They were t h e r e t o g u a r d t h e a n c i e n t emperor
x i a n Shi Huang, a j o b t h e y began 2200 y e a r s
ago. A r c h e o l o g i s t s
immediately
called the
T e r r a c o t t a Army t h e f i n d o f t h e c e n t u r y .
Thousands
o f people
visit
the Terracotta
Army each day i n t h e museum i n x i a n . on 1 8
September 2006 one o f t h o s e v i s i t o r s was a
German a r t s t u d e n t c a l l e d P a b l o w e n d e l . P a b l o ,
26, l o o k e d l i k e a normal t o u r i s t when he
walked i n t o t h e museum. B u t he was c a r r y i n g a
bag w i t h s o m e t h i n g s p e c i a l i n i t . i n s i d e was a
brown costume t h a t l o o k e d v e r y o l d . I t was an
exact copy o f t h e u n i f o r m t h a t t h e t e r r a c o t t a
s o l d i e r s were w e a r i n g .

he was a good statue.

he was behind the soldiers.

the police weren't paying attention.

When the police found him, Pablo


a

Read the text. Were your predictions in 1 correct?

Z\

Pablo Wendel wanted to


a

started running.

didn't do anything.

attacked the police officers.

The police

said Pablo could stay in Xian.

carried Pablo away and questioned him.

thought the incident was funny and unimportant.

Answer the questions.


1

What did Pablo Wendel do on 18 September 2006?

Why did he do it?

Why did the police decide not to arrest him?

th

t h

necessary.
1

accidentally (paragraph 1) withoutplanning

or wanting to

do something

Pablo q u i c k l y p u t on h i s s o l d i e r ' s u n i f o r m ,
covered h i s f a c e i n brown p a i n t and jumped down
i n t o t h e a r e a where t h e T e r r a c o t t a Army was
s t a n d i n g , s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r s saw h i m , b u t P a b l o
was w e l l p r e p a r e d and knew e x a c t l y what t o d o .
He f o u n d a space i n t h e l i n e s o f s o l d i e r s and
stood c o m p l e t e l y s t i l l . The p o l i c e a r r i v e d ,
but now t h a t he w a s n ' t m o v i n g , t h e o f f i c e r s
d i d n ' t know w h i c h was t h e r e a l p e r s o n and
which were t h e s t a t u e s .
However, a f t e r two m i n u t e s , one o f t h e p o l i c e m e n
f i n a l l y f o u n d h i m . s t i l l P a b l o d i d n ' t move a
muscle, i n t h e e n d , t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s had t o
p i c k him up l i k e a s t a t u e and c a r r y h i m away.
The o f f i c e r s asked P a b l o a l o t o f q u e s t i o n s t o
f i n d o u t why he was t h e r e , t o l d them t h a t
he l o v e d t h e T e r r a c o t t a Army and w a n t e d t o be
p a r t o f i t f o r j u s t one d a y .

What is the meaning of these words from the text? Write a


definition, explanation or synonym. Use your dictionary if

century (paragraph 1)

costume (paragraph 2)

muscle (paragraph 4)

pick up (paragraph 4)

arrest (paragraph 5)

What about you?


Do you think that what Pablo did was right or wrong? Why?

The p o l i c e d e c i d e d n o t t o a r r e s t h i m , p r o b a b l y
because Pablo d i d n ' t a c t u a l l y t o u c h o r b r e a k
any o f t h e t e r r a c o t t a s o l d i e r s . B u t t h e y t o o k
away h i s u n i f o r m , t o l d h i m n o t t o do i t a g a i n
and s e n t him back t o t h e e a s t e r n C h i n e s e c i t y
o f Hangzhou where he was s t u d y i n g .

Unit 2

Past simple
1

Match the puzzle pieces to make irregular forms of the past


simple. How many irregular forms can you make? Write the
present form of each verb in brackets.
bought

(buy)

-aught I

br p

ft" -old 1
N

"" -ook I

sh jo

dr |o

What crime/commit?

How much/steal?

police/catch him?

Where/go in 1970?

Why/fly to Brazil?

sing with/the Rolling Stones?

-ank
-ought

_h_Jo

-ew

-ut
th p

ft

Complete the text with the past simple form of these verbs.
be

When/be born?
When was he horn?

b j o

Use the question words and the verbs to write questions


about Ronnie Biggs.

become

catch

go

not do

When/come back to England?

steal
4

These statements are incorrect. Write one negative sentence


and one correct sentence for each statement.
1

Ronnie Biggs was born in 1919.

Ronnie Biaas wasn't born in Iftl. He was born in 1121.

Ronald, or Ronnie, Biggs (a)


He (b)

born in England in 1929.

Ronnie Biggs committed a murder.

Biggs stole 2.6 million dollars.

He ran away to Madrid.

A police officer saw him in Australia.

After Australia, Biggs flew to the USA.

famous in 1963 for his part in the Great Train

Robbery. In this robbery, a gang of criminals (c)


2.6 million pounds from a train. Biggs (d)

much in the

crime, he only had a small part in it, but the police


(e)

him and he (f)


change

escape

to prison.
leave

Two years later he (g)


(h)

see

work

He ran away to Paris and

his appearance thanks to plastic surgery. In 1970

he (i)

France. Then, in Australia, he (j)

a television studio but a reporter (k)

him and

recognised him.
come

Use the answers to the questions in 3 to write a short text


about Ronnie Biggs.
He was born in 1121.

fly

Because of this, Biggs (I)

live

make

sing

to Brazil, where he

(m)

with his new family for many years. He

(n)

a film with the Sex Pistols in 1980 and he

(o)

some songs with them. He (p)

back to England in 2001 and had to go back to prison.


Unit 2

in

Grammar extension


Phrasal
1

verbs connected with investigating and finding

Complete the phrasal verbs with these words.


come

find

look

look

turn

work

Vocabulary extension: more phrasal verbs with

Use your dictionary to match these phrasal verbs with look

with their meanings.


1

.out = discover
. into = investigate
. for = try to find

look after--.
look ahead

up = arrive or appear unexpectedly

across = find by accident

out = solve a problem by considering the facts

feel happy or excited that


something is going to happen

walk around a room, building or


place and see what is there

look forward to

look carefully at people or things


around you to find a particular
person or thing

look out for

Choose the correct alternative.

plan what you are going to do in


the future

look back

look

think about a time or event in the

\
look round

P
"-f

ast

take care of someone or something

Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.


after ahead back forward out round
1

Let's look

this museum slowly. I think it will be

interesting.
2

I'm looking

to the football match tomorrow. I'm

really excited about it.


3

We need to look

and see what problems there

could be in the next few years.


4

Mum and I are going out now. Look

your little

sister until we get back.


5

Stop spending your time looking

The past is the

past. It's time to carry on with your life.


6

When you go to the party, look

for Helen and Kate

because they said they were going too.


Answer the questions. Write complete sentences.

Do you ever look after anybody? If so, who?

Do you spend more time looking ahead or looking back?

What are you looking forward to doing this weekend?

Is there a house, building or museum that you would like to

Sir Isaac Newton saw an apple falling from a tree. He thought


about it and worked out/turned up his theory of gravity.

When I lost a contact lens, I looked for/lopked into it


everywhere.

The maths problem was really difficult but after thinking hard,
they workedout/cqme

the answer.

Nobody usually went to her house but one Saturday one of


her friends turned up/carneacrqss,.

look round? Which one(s)?

He wanted an original name for his new dog but he couldn't


think of one. Then he cgmgMf.Qss/lwM.UJDtQ. the name Torak
in a novel and he liked it.

When she looked into/found out that he was lying, it was a


terrible shock.

When you go to a party, who is the first person you look out
for?

They can't take a decision about this question yet. They need
to look for/look into the facts in more detail.
Unit 2

Private investigators

"

Cross-curricular-History
The first private detective
1

Look at the logo above the text. What do you think the agency
did every day?

Read the text and choose the correct alternative.


1 The first detective, Allan Pinkerton, was born in England/
Scotland/America.
From 1842 he lived in England/Scotland/America.
Pinkerton's National Detective Agency investigated bank
robberies/train robberies/murders at the beginning.
Pinkerton's National Detective Agency worked before the FBI/
worked with the FBI/copied the FBI.
Pinkerton's National Detective Agency was very small/small/
big.

WORD BOOSTER

Match the words and definitions.

1 gang

2 logo

1
1

3 paid
4 assassinate

5 follow

kill an important person

gave money for something


group of criminals

d
e

walk behind somebody


symbol to represent a company or

W e all love films and books about private detectives.


But who was the first private detective? I n fact, his name
was Allan Pinkerton and his story is as interesting as a
detective novel.
Pinkerton was born in Scotland in 181!)
\ but he went to live in America in 1812.
^^
He and his wile lived in Chicago. One day
/ " ^ ' A when he was walking by a river, he came
across a small island. He saw that people
were living there and he worked out
that they were a gang of criminals.
He went and told the police and
they caught all the criminals except
their leader. Pinkerton helped the
police to look lor the leader and he found
him. Pinkerton became a local hero and the next year he
became Chicago's first private detective.
A

organisation

In 1852 Allan Pinkerton and his brother Robert started


their own detective agency. At the time, there were many
Complete the sentences with information from the text.
train robbers because trains carried lots ol money and gold.
People usually paid the Pinkertons to find and catch train
1 Allan Pinkerton became a local hero because he helped
robbers. They were good at their job and soon criminals
the police to find the leader of a gang of criminals.
hated the name Pinkerton.
2

because there was money and gold on trains.


3

The Pinkertons'usual job was to..


and they were very good at it.

Pinkerton's National Detective Agency became famous


because the Pinkertons

because Pinkerton's
National Detective Agency had an eye for their logo.
What about youl
Who is your favourite famous detective from a book, TV series,
film or cartoon? Why do you like him/her?

14

Unit 2

In 1861 the Pinkertons were investigating a train robbery


when they discovered a plan to assassinate the American
president, Abraham Lincoln. W i t h this information, the
Pinkertons saved Lincoln's life, and soon everybody knew
about their agency, Pinkerton's National Detective Agency.
In the American Civil War, Lincoln paid Pinkerton's
National Detective Agency to organise a secret intelligence
sen ice. Before the creation of the FBI or the C I A in
America, Pinkerton's National Detective Agency did exactly
this type of work.
The Pinkertons soon had many men and women
working lor them. Allan Pinkerton taught them how to
investigate crimes and how to follow people without them
knowing about it. He was also the first person to keep a
bank ol information about different criminals, including
their photos. O n the side of Pinkerton's National Detective
Agency's headquarters in Chicago they had a famous logo.
It was a big black and white eve with the words ' W e never
sleep'. Private detectives are often called 'Private Lyes'. The
Pinkerton eve was the origin of this name.

Past continuous
1

Complete the dialogue with the past continuous form of these


verbs.
do

do

HELEN:

feel

have

not feel

sit

talk

Write questions for these answers.


1

What (a)

you

My family was watching a film at 7pm.


?

My mum and I (b)

3
Later I took the dog out for a walk.

my

grandmother in hospital.
HELEN:

Why was she in hospital?

LUKE:

Yesterday morning she (c)

4
No, I wasn't sleeping at 9pm.
well

so we called the doctor and he said that she needed to

At 11 pm I was reading.

go to hospital.
HELEN:

What(d)

I went to sleep at about 12pm.

she

last night when you visited her?


LUKE:

She(e)

on a chair, not lying in

bed. All the patients (f)

dinner and

they (g)
this morning, she (h)

Write your own true answers to the questions in 3.


1

and laughing.

She looked OK. When my mum phoned the hospital


HELEN:

doing at 7pm last night?

I was listening to my MP3 player at 7pm last night.

visit

I rang you at 8pm last night but there was no answer.

LUKE:

What were yen

much better.
3

That's good news.

Complete the text with the past simple or past continuous


form of the verbs given.

4
5
6

Grammar extension
Read the text. There are ten extra words in it. Find them and
cross them out.
The last night we were watching a film on TV when suddenly we
did heard a sound like an explosion. At first we thought that it
was came from the TV but then we realised the noise came from
One Saturday afternoon, a team of police officers
(a)

the kitchen.

(play) football against a

group of local people in Yorkshire, England. The police officers


(b)

(lose) 0-2 when suddenly

an officer (c)

(recognise) one of the

men who (d)


He (e)

(play) in the other team.


(know) that the man was a criminal. The police

officers (f)

(look) for him for

several burglaries.The police officers (g)


playing and (h)
Then they (i)
In the end, the police officers (j)
And the man (k)

(stop)
(arrest) the man.
(start) the match again.
(win) the match 3-2!

(go) to prison for a long time.

My dad said us it could be a burglar and so he took a big stick


and went to the kitchen to see if he was right. He was opening
the door when that something jumped out really fast! It wasn't a
burglar because it was only small.
Then there did was another sound. We went back to the living
room. The lamp was on the floor. In the corner of the room
there was a cat. My family and I we recognised it - it was my
neighbour's cat. The cat was nervous and was knocking things
onto the floor while it is was running through our house.
We did rang the neighbour and he came to take his cat back.
In the end of we didn't see what happened in the film we were
watching.
Unit 2

Reporting a past event - a crime

Describing photos

Complete the dialogue with these words.


after
AMY:

at first

in the end

later

suddenly

Look at the photo and answer the questions. If you are not
sure of something, use / think and/or / imagine.

then

Last night my friends and I went out to that new


restaurant in Bank Street.

ADAM:

Did you have a good time?

AMY:

No, not really.

ADAM: Why not? What happened?


AMY:

Well, we wanted to see if it was good or not.


(a)

we didn't like it because the waiter

was really slow. But (b)

we started

eating and we loved it. When we were finishing our


meal, a man (c)

started shouting at the

waiter. He was really angry and became violent.


A few minutes (d)

the manager of the

restaurant called the police.


ADAM: Then what happened?
AMY:

(e)

that the man stopped shouting

and sat down, (f)


2

he paid and left.

Imagine that you were waiting outside the cinema last


Saturday and that you saw this scene. Write the other half of
the dialogue. Use some of the words from the box in 1.

Y O U R FRIEND:

Did you have a good time last Saturday?

YOU:

(a)

Y O U R FRIEND:

Why not? What happened?

YOU:

(b)

Y O U R FRIEND:

So what happened in the end?

YOU:

(c)

Unit 2

Who can you see in the photo?

Where are they?

What are they doing?

What do you think of this crime? Why?

Use the questions in 3 to think of things to say about this


photo. Make notes and then practise orally.

An

ping writing
An informal letter
1 Read this letter from a girl called Georgina. What was
Georgina's unusual experience?

Imagine that you found an animal some time ago. Write a


letter to a friend telling them about what you found. Tell
them:

what kind of animal it was and what you were doing when
you found it

why you decided to take it home and how other family


members reacted

what problem you had with the animal and how you solved

it
how the animal changed your life.

(a)

(b)

(d)
It was great to hear from you.
Something really unusual happened to me
yesterday. I was walking home after

hockey

practice when I saw a little boy on his own. He


was crying because he was lost. He was only about
{our or five years old and he didn't know how to
get home.
I didn't know what to do, but I couldn't

just

leave him there. I decided to take him to the


police station. We were walking along the road
when we got to some shops. Suddenly,

a woman

came running out of one of the shops. She


very worried and was crying too. The boy

looked
shouted

'Mummy!' The woman was his muml They both


looked so happy, and I was happy for them.
(e)

and

tell me about

your week
(f)
Georgma

Put these words and expressions in the correct place in the


letter in 1.

It answers the questions.

Dear Phil,

It has all the necessary information.

28 April 2011

It is easy to understand.

It is well organised.

I think the grammar is correct.

I have used different words.

I have used punctuation and capital letters.

1 Thanks for your letter.

th

Love,
70 Baxter Street,
Birmingham,
4RG.
6

When you finish, read your own letter and give yourself a
mark from 0 (not very good) to 5 (excellent) for these criteria.

Write back soon

Think about your marks in 4 and make changes to your letter


to improve it.

Unit 2

Revision: Units 1-2


Grammar

Vocabulary

Complete the sentences with the present simple form of the


verbs given.
(watch) the news twice a day.

Elizabeth

My friends

Sunny weather

A:

(not read) magazines.


(make) me feel happy.
it

(rain) a lot in

your country?
My brother usually

(study) in his bedroom.


/5

points)

Complete the dialogue with the present continuous form of


these verbs.
begin

carry

come

KATIE: Why (a)

not stay

put

you

now.

I (c)

because I have an

He (d)

now. He's walking slowly

because he (e)

the CD player

and some dictionaries.


/5

sister called Polly. My sister loves (b)

restaurant, (e)

Italian friend who has (d)

restaurant is near our house.


(_

points)

Complete the text with a/an, the or 0 (no article).

Italian food. She's got (c)

/5

One day, when I (a)


woman (c)
(d)
her, so I (e)

(see) something unusual. A


(sing) and a lot of people

single

only child

(be) there. Half an hour later all the other


(come). They
(talk) about a surprise concert by

the brother of your father

the brother of your husband or wife

your father's new wife

_]

your sister's daughter

the man a woman is married to

/5

points)

/5

points)

Match the words with the suffixes to make nouns.


protect
different
improve
equip
invent

-ion
-ment
-ence
,

somebody who steals from houses

the crime when you kill someone

somebody who attacks another person to steal from them

the crime of breaking and destroying public things for no


reason

the crime of copying software, films, etc

the person who steals from a bank


(

/6

look

look

turn

work

In this story, there is a mysterious theft. A detective (a)


into the crime. He asks lots of questions and, by using logic, he
(b)
He (c)

out that a man called Ron Carter is the criminal.


for physical evidence that Carter did it. The

(j)

up at Carter's house, Carter admits he is the thief.

/10

/25

points)

points

points)

Complete the text with the correct present simple form of


these verbs.

detective can't find anything but when he suddenly (d)

Find words which match the definitions.They are all crimes or


criminals.

our music teacher in the street and I was the only person who
(not see) it!

points)

(continue) on my way
(arrive), nobody

/5

Who are these people in a family?

(watch) her. I didn't recognise

students (h)
(i)

(walk) to school,

to school but when I (f)


(g)

senior citizen

points)

Complete the text with the past simple or the past continuous
form of the verbs given.

I (b)

I've got (a)

adolescence

1
2
3
4
5

KATIE: Where's the teacher anyway?

appointment at the doctor's.


LUCY:

birth

your

books in your bag?The lesson (b)


LUCY:

B: Yes, it
5

Write an explanation for each word or expression.

a><4l

>

/4

points)

/25

points^

Reading
1

Read the text and choose the best title for it.
School children and violent crime
Global solutions to the problem of absent students

T!

'HE

1
2

LAW

many

I N Britain and
other

countries

Viera.

says that c h i l d r e n under 16

Who is responsible for you travelling to school - you,

need to go to school. W h e n

your parents or the police?

they don't go to school, it's a


crime. It's called 'truancy' a n d
m a n y different countries take
truancy very seriously.
In

schools
put

group

of

i n Tokyo,

out

their

private
students

hands

for

e x a m i n a t i o n every m o r n i n g .
A

special

at

each

computer
student's

to check

looks
fingers

their f i n g e r p r i n t s .

Prison officers use the same


technique w i t h criminals i n
prison. It means that teachers
k n o w exactly w h o is i n class
and w h o isn't.
the

parents'

problem

and responsibility. A t 5 a m
one
two
the

2
5

Read the text. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? Write

Let me te/tyou what happened

Prison officers check fingerprints to know if criminals are


Mindy Pearl Viera had problems with the police because there

There are books at the Seremban police station.

All students in Seremban have to write a summary of their

With the Phonemaster system a person phones parents again


and again until they pick up the phone.

/ 7

points)

Writing
Last week you saw a crime. Write an informal letter to a friend
telling them about it.Tell them:

at

Pearl

Truancy is when children under 16 miss school for no reason.

book.

t.The

arrived

of M i n d y

were many times when she didn't go to school.

Miami,

HlUke,

ninal.

policemen
house

in

down the line(s) where you found the answer.

present in the prison or not.

le

morning

what the crime was

what you were doing when you saw it

who the criminal was

if the police caught the criminal

what happened in the end.

/8

points)

arrested

her

station because her teenage


daughters d i d n ' t go to school
more t h a n 100 times that year.
I n the Malaysian t o w n of
Seremban,

w h e n the police

f i n d a student w h o is i n the
street a n d not at school, they
take t h e m to the police station
w h e r e there is n o w a special
'reading r o o m ' . The students
read

books w h i l e they

are

w a i t i n g for their parents to


come a n d take t h e m home.
Students w h o don't finish the
book take it home and t h e n
w r i t e a summary of i t .
A school i n Scotland uses
an A m e r i c a n

I n some countries, truancy


is

They

a n d took her to the police

system

called

Phonemaster. It automatically
telephones parents w h e n

student is 30 minutes late for


school.

The

phone

stop r i n g i n g u n t i l
answers it.

to me last week. I...

doesn't
someone

3 Lost in translation

Grammar

Countable and uncountable nouns Relative pronouns

Vocabulary

Some, any, much, many, a lot of, a few, a little


Countries, nationalities and languages
Learning a language Negative prefixes un-, in-, im-, ir-, il-

Speaking

Asking for information

Writing

> A language biography

Countries, nationalities and languages

Learning a language

Complete the table.


Country
(a)
/

Berne S

Nationality
(b)

Language(s)

Choose the correct alternative.


1
2
3
4
5

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

7
4

How often do you practice/practise your pronunciation?


Translate/Translation can be difficult sometimes.
It's natural to do/make mistakes.
Last week we made/took a listening exam.
I enjoy dgjng/mgking speaking exercises.

You need lots of Pjgjctjce/gKiCtise to speak and write well in


English.
We're going to feyjs&reyision.

for our exam.

Complete the questions with these words. There are eight


words but only five gaps.

Warsaw

homework
skill

(g)

(h)

(i)

made

mistake

translation

write

When was the last time you

revise
wrote
an essay in

English? What was it about?

Tokyo

(j)

(k)

(1)

How do you

Apart from
outside school?

Which

grammar before an English exam?


, what else do you do in English
(reading, writing, listening or speaking)

do you enjoy practising the most?


j^^Cardiff

Brasilia

What is a typical

you make in English (e.g.

writing english instead of English)!


(m)

(n)

(o)

(P)

(q)

(r)

Write your own true answers to the questions in 4.


1

Buenos Aires

3
Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)? If they are false,
correct them.
1

In Russia they speak German.

In the Netherlands they speak Dutch.

People from Egypt are Egyptese.

People from Egypt speak Arabian.

Swiss people are from Switzerland.

In Switzerland they speak French.

In Brazil they speak Spanish.

Welsh people are from Wales.

1 Read this text and write a good title for it.

N 2005 THE Chief Inspector of Schools, David Bell, said:


'Teenage boys i n Britain don't really want to speak i n
English. So how are they going to learn to speak i n other
languages? Language learning i n England's schools is
- becoming almost completely middle class and female. We
know that girls are doing modern languages more than
boys, and that schools i n poor areas are not giving many
opportunities to learn modern foreign languages.' But why
aren't boys studying languages? Is it because they don't like
making mistakes? Or is i t because teenage boys just don't
talk a lot, not even i n their own language? 'It's not a good
situation,' said Bell, 'because we want more people to learn
a modern language.'

INSIDE INFORMATION

18-year-old students usually take. Grade A is the t o p mark.

Read the text again. Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)?
Write the line(s) where you found the answer.
1 David Bell thinks teenage boys in Britain are good at modern

In Britain'independent'schools are private schools. Parents pay t o send


their children t o these types of schools.

In Britain, the languages that secondary students normally study are


French, German or Spanish - in that order.

Modern languages are not very popular i n British


secondary schools. Not many people are taking a GCSE
in French this year. Recent investigation shows that there
are problems w i t h language learning i n Britain. And those
problems are making a difference to university language
departments too. There are not many students who want
to study languages, and so some university language
departments now only have 10 or 12 students.
Other statistics also confirmed the idea that mostly
r i c h students are now studying modern languages. The
Independent Schools Council found out that last year 6 0 %
of all the top marks i n A-level French came from students
in independent schools.

Mr Bell says secondary schools are already beginning


to separate boys and girls for science lessons. He thinks
it can also be a good idea for schools to do the same thing
with modern language teaching. Mr Bell suggested that
single-sex classes i n modern languages could stop boys
being embarrassed about speaking i n another language.
; 'Some people t h i n k that it is a bad idea to separate boys
and girls into different classes. But if the system produces
good results for modern languages, let's do i t . '

GCSEs are public examinations w h i c h English, Welsh and Northern Irish


students usually d o w h e n they are 16. A-levels are the exams w h i c h

What about you?


1

studying languages in your country? What is the difference?

languages because they like speaking.


2

Is there any difference between the number of girls and boys

David Bell is worried because in general children from poor


families aren't studying modern languages.

3 David Bell thinks it's a good idea to have language classes


with boys only because the boys won't be afraid to speak.
2
4

The number of students taking exams in modern languages


is not high.

learn languages?

The number of students doing languages at university is


going up.

Do you think there is any difference in the way boys and girls

You can only get a good mark in French if you go to an


independent school.

Find these words in the text. Write a synonym, definition or


explanation for each one. Use your dictionary if necessary.
1 completely (line 5)
2

What do you think about separating boys and girls into


different classes in languages or in general?

opportunities (//)

3 separate (line 15)


4

single-sex (line 18)

5 embarrassed (line 19)


6

top marks (line 34)


Unit 3

ntext

ram

Some, any, much, many, a lot of, a few, a little


1

Complete the table by ticking the correct boxes. Look at some


as an example.
some
plural
countable

uncountable

affirmative

any

much

many a lot (of)

Look at the pictures and write sentences with There is/are and
a few or a little.
There's a little

a few i a little
.

water.

water

negative&
questions
large
quantity
small
quantity
2

Are these words countable (C) or uncountable (U)?

close friend

energy

free time

niece

problem

cousin

good idea

homework

Write questions with the words in 2 using either much or


many. In your questions, make the countable nouns in 2
plural.
1

Have you. got many close

friends?

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4

Write your own true answers to your questions in 3 using


some, any, not much, not many, a lot of.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

I've got some close friends

but not many.

Grammar extension
6

Complete the sentences so they are true for you.


1

I've got some

in my bedroom.

We haven't got any

I haven't got much

There aren't many

in our family.

We've got a lot of

at school.

I've got a few

We've got a little

in our house.

in our fridge.

N6

Negative prefixes un-, in-, im-, ir-, il1 Complete the table by writing these words in the correct column.
correct

formal

happy

leaf

un-

official

possible

practical

regular

usual

visible

im-

in-

il-

irleqal

Basic rule: We use the

Basic rule:

Basic rule:

prefix im- when a


word starts

with

the

letter

Look at these words. Complete the basic rules in 1 to explain


when we use the prefixes im-, ir and //-.
1

2
3
4
5
6
3

patient -> impatient

probable improbable
relevant - irrelevant
responsible -* irresponsible
logical - illogical
legible -* illegible

Match the words in 1 and 2 with these synonyms and

definitions.
1

wrong

relaxed, friendly, not very serious

sad

not good at waiting

impossible to see

impossible to read

Vocabulary extension: negative prefixes dis- and non4

Look at these words. Which go with dis- and which go with


non-1 Which type of word is each one: a noun, verb or
adjective? Use your dictionary if necessary.
1

</w like

agree

alcoholic

appear

advantage

resident

stop

honest

obey

10

smoking

11

qualify

nounj

verb

Complete the sentences with words in 4.


1

Cola is a

drink.

2
3
4

short periods. He's a


When you

someone, you don't

do what they tell you to do.


5
you.

can
6
7

Our ideas are almost always different.


One

of mobik

that they can cause.


8

section.

9
It's one song, then another, then another.
Unit 3

Read the text and choose the best title for it.
1

School children in Finland want more Latin

Edit

View

History

Jpois

Window

In

Finland they speak

The news in Latin

Help

Finnish

and a f e w

And

Professor

doesn't

just

translate

popular there too, and t h a t language is L a t i n .

translates the words f o r songs. A n d he isn't

the

news

into

Latin.

He

also

Here's an example of Latin's popularity.

the only one. Dr J u k k a A m m o n d t , another

A Finnish university professor called Tuomo

25 university professor, loves Latin and he loves

Pekkanen has a radio programme where he

the king of rock and r o l l , Elvis Presley. So

reads the news every day ... in L a t i n . The t i t l e

w h a t does he do? He sings Elvis in L a t i n . T h e

of the programme is Nuntii Latini. There are

legend of Elvis Presley lives forever, and it is of

only one or t w o programmes like this in the

course very i m p o r t a n t to sing Elvis Presley's

10 w o r l d . 7 5 , 0 0 0 people listen t o it, f o r example

30 songs in the Latin language because Latin is

the Internet. The programme

receives

the eternal language/ he says. So songs like /

letters f r o m listeners in about 50 countries.

can't help falling in love become Won adamare

When he is making his news p r o g r a m m e

possum.

there are sometimes words which are d i f f i c u l t

There is an i m p o r t a n t t r a d i t i o n of studying

15 f o r Pekkanen to translate because, as you

35 L a t i n in Finland. There was a Latin congress

probably

know,

the

Romans

television, computers, emails

didn't

have

there recently and people had no problem t a l k i n g in L a t i n . Nowadays English

or lasers, f o r

is the language which people all over the w o r l d use t o communicate. But

example. But Pekkanen says t h a t he can t a l k

before English i t was L a t i n . Tuomo Pekkanen says t h a t around 15 million

about any story on the news by inventing a f e w

people in Europe speak or understand L a t i n . That's not bad f o r a dead'

20 new Latin words if necessary.

40

language.

WORD BOOSTER

legend

2
3
4

Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false
sentences.

Match the words a n d definitions.


a

big meeting of experts

eternal

with no end

congress

at the present time

nowadays

very famous person

There are many programmes like Nuntii Latini in the world.

It can be difficult to translate the news because there are not


always Latin words for modern things.

Tuomo Pekkanen is a professor who reads

Jukka Ammondt is a professor who sings

Finland is a place where there is

Latin is a language which around

Unit 3

Jukka Ammondt thinks there is a logical connection between


Latin and Elvis Presley.

Read the text again and complete the sentences.

24

Pekkanen

people speak Swedish. B u t another language is

on

Latin isn't a dead language

4
4

Today Latin has the same function as English.

What about you?


1

Do you, or did you, study Latin? Do/Did you like it?

Do you think it's a good idea to study Latin? Why/Why not?

t Grammar in contex
Relative pronouns
1 Complete the rules with these relative pronouns.
that
1

We use

We use

when

where

that

which

who

and
and

whose

for people.
for things.

4a Complete the definitions with the correct relative pronoun.


1

It's the nationality of a person

It's the country

It's the man

It's the crime

comes from Wales.

Dutch people live.


father is your grandfather.
thieves commit.

We use

for possessions.

It's the person

copies CDs and software illegally.

We use

for times.

It's the period

you are a child.

We use

for places.

It's a country

people speak Portuguese.

It's the thing

you often do after school.

2 Choose the correct alternative. If you think both alternatives


are possible, choose both.
1

Football is a sport that/- many people around the world


watch.

He's an artist who pgjnt/pgints abstract paintings.

She's the girl who/whose u s i n is at our school.

This is the town that/where he lives.

This is the room that/where I work.

4b Now find the words which are being described in 4a in the


word search. Be careful! There are 14 words in the word search
but only eight definitions.
f

6 That's the type of mistake that/which causes problems.

CO

I remember the time when/which I first met you.

Those are the people who come/comes at the weekend.

He's the writer who/whose books are very popular at the


moment.

10 This is the bus which/- goes to the city centre.


3 Complete the sentences with the correct relative pronoun.
1

Russia is a country

2 The weekend is a time

it is very cold in winter.


people can usually

relax.
3

English is a language

people speak all

over the world.


4 Tennis is a sport
different countries.
5
6
7

New York is a city


August is a month

holiday.

Johnny Depp is the actor

has many fans in lots of


they make a lot of films.
lots of people go on
starred in Pirates

of the Caribbean.
8

That's the man

wife is famous.

Grammar extension
5

Find six more words in the word search. The first letter of each word is in a grey box. Write definitions for them using relative pronouns.
Use the definitions in 4a as a model.
1

Word: a

Word:./?

Word:

Word: s

Word: s

Word: v

Unit 3

speakmff
Asking for information about a language course

Describing photos

Complete the questions used to ask for information about a

language course with these words.


information

last

price
1

Do you

Does the

Could you

Can you send me a

organise

pardon

repeat

accommodation?
include other activities?
that?

5
6

much

registration

Look at the photo and answer the questions. If you are not
sure of something, use / think and/or / imagine.

form?
? Did you say on the 10 July?
th

Could you give me some

about your

summer courses?

How

is the course?

How long does the course

Complete the dialogue with the questions in 1.


RECEPTIONIST: Good morning.This is the Bradford School of
English. How can I help you?
STUDENT:

Good morning. I'm calling from Italy, (a)

RECEPTIONIST: Yes, of course. We have a course for teenagers


which begins on the 13' July.
b

STUDENT:

,h

Where are they?

What are they doing?

What do you think they are talking about? Why?

Ah, I understand, (c)

RECEPTIONIST: 20 days.
STUDENT:

Who can you see in the photo?

(b)

RECEPTIONIST: No, on the 13 .


STUDENT:

(d)

RECEPTIONIST: Yes, we do. Students usually live with local


families.
STUDENT:

(e)

RECEPTIONIST: 950.
STUDENT:

(f)

RECEPTIONIST: Yes, I said the price is 950.


STUDENT:

(g)

RECEPTIONIST:

Yes, it does. It includes excursions and social


activities like parties and sports.

STUDENT:

I'm very interested in the course, (h)

RECEPTIONIST: Yes, of course. Can you give me your name and


address?
STUDENT:
3

Yes, it's ...

Which t w o questions in the dialogue in 2 do we use to check


understanding?

Unit 3

Use the questions in 4 to think of things to say about this

photo. Make notes and then practise orally.

Developing writing
A language biography
2

Write a title to describe the aim of each paragraph.


Paragraph 1 P&smM^g^tuU
Paragraph 2
Paragraph 3
Paragraph 4

You are going to write a language biography about yourself


and your experiences of learning another language. Before
you write, make notes here.
Paragraph 1: Topic
Notes

Paragraph 2:Topic
Notes

Paragraph 3:Topic

1 Read this language biography by a British student and put the


paragraphs in a logical order.

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 3

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 4

Notes

I still study French n o w at secondary school. We

Paragraph 4: Topic

read books i n French a n d t h e n w e t a l k a n d w r i t e

Notes

about t h e m . We

also s t u d y d i f f i c u l t p o i n t s o f

grammar and w r i t e d o w n n e w w o r d s t h a t w e c o m e
across.
4

Use the notes to write your language biography.

I started l e a r n i n g French w h e n I was at p r i m a r y


school. I was seven years o l d . I r e m e m b e r s i n g i n g
songs in French a n d p l a y i n g games. We l e a r n t a l o t
of French words, like colours, a n i m a l s a n d clothes.

My name is Luke Gallagher a n d I ' m 17 years o l d .


I'm British a n d m y f i r s t language is English. A p a r t
from English, I can speak French a n d G e r m a n .

Apart f r o m doing French at school I also have some


contact w i t h French o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m because
I have a French e-pal. I send h i m messages every
week and n e x t s u m m e r I t h i n k I'm g o i n g t o v i s i t
him. He lives i n Brittany. I l i s t e n t o s o m e French
singers too, and occasionally I w a t c h French f i l m s
at the cinema or o n DVD.

"
Unit 3

Grammar

> Present perfect with ever, never, for, since, just, yet, already
Present perfect and past simple

4 Fit and well

Vocabulary

Parts of the body

Health problems and illnesses

Compound nouns connected with health and medicine


Speaking

Describing a scene

Writing

Notes and messages

ocabulary
Parts of the body
1

Complete the parts of the body


1

th r

Complete the crossword.

h.... n d
I

f.... n g... r

kn

Across
1 When you eat too much of something, you often have this. >
2 This is an illness which can make you very hot or cold and
tired. It's common in the winter.
3 This is a very small living thing that can enter your body and
make you ill.

Health problems and illnesses


2

Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

When your throat hurts, you have a

throat|

Down
1 You have this when your body is unusually hot, when you
have a fever.
2

He's got a

hand.

She's got a

If you push air through your throat, it makes a sound,


especially when you have a cold.
When your ear hurts, you have this.

This is a very common problem in the winter. It isn't as seriousf


as 2 across.

Look at these questions and write the answers.


1

When do you need an aspirin?


You need cm aspirin

He's got

She's got

when you \c got q headache.

When do you need to go to the dentist?

When do you need a tissue or handkerchief?

When do you need to stop eating for a short time?

in her leg.

Keading
I

Read this newspaper article and choose the best title for it.
1 The woman who stopped speaking

That isn't me, is it?'

Why accents are not important

L I N D A W a l k e r is a 60-yearold w o m a n f r o m Newcastle.
She has recently had a stroke.
A stroke is a medical problem
where blood suddenly cannot
get to the brain. Often a stroke
can stop people f r o m speaking
or f r o m moving. In the case
of Linda Walker it has caused
something
very
unusual.
Before, Linda spoke w i t h a
typical
Newcastle
accent.
That's normal because she has
always lived in Newcastle. But
now her accent is a mixture
of Jamaican,
Italian
and
Slovakian.
It appears that Linda has
Foreign Accent
Syndrome.
Patients speak differently after
a problem like a stroke. They
first discovered this medical
problem in 1941 but it is not
very c o m m o n . Linda hates
what has happened to her
because she says she now
feels like a different person.

2 Read the text again and complete the sentences.

1 A stroke is when

' M y sister-in-law says that I


speak w i t h an Italian accent.
T h e n mv brother savs mv
accent is Slovakian. I spoke
to h i m o n the phone and he
said, "Stop playing w i t h me.
Talk normally." N o w someone
has j u s t told me that I sound
Jamaican. I've never been to
Jamaica. I don't know how to
explain i t / she said. 'Everyone
hears me differently. At first,
I had no idea that I had this
problem. T h e n my doctor
plaved a recording of me
talking. I couldn't believe i t ! '
Linda said: Tve lost my
identity
because
I
never
talked like this before. I'm a
very different person and it's
strange and I don't like it.' Is
it possible for Linda Walker to
go back to her original accent?
It isn't going to be easy but she
is having lessons to see if one
day she can speak like the old
Linda.

Find words in the text which have similar meanings to these


explanations.
1

the way that people from an area pronounce words


(paragraph 1)

patients can suffer from Foreign Accent Syndrome but it is


not very common.
3

Different people say that Linda speaks with

4 It's very unusual that Linda speaks with a Jamaican accent


because
5 Linda
was speaking differently at first.
6

Linda couldn't believe it when

Linda isn't happy because she

that she

two or more things mixed together (paragraph 1)

when you copy somebody's voice (e.g. on a CD) (paragraph 2)

first, the one that existed at the beginning (paragraph 3)

What about you?


1

Do you have an accent? If you do have one, what type is it?

Do you think accents are important? Why/Why not?

Linda is having lessons because she wants

Unit 4

29

Grammar in context
Present perfect with ever, never, for and since
1

Complete the sentences with the present perfect form of the


verbs given.
1

Sarah

Alfie and Holly

(see) a lot of films.


Answer:

(do) her homework. Here it is.


(live) in Paris for two

years.
4

We
Look! My dad

(paint) this room

Sam

(have) this watch since he was 12.

She

(read) that book.

Answer:
6

Match the rules to the sentences in 1. Write a, b or c.


a
b

an experience or experiences which happened at an


unspecified moment in the past
a past action which has a result in the present
a situation that started in the past and continues to the

Sentence 2
Sentence 3
Sentence 4
Sentence 5
Sentence 6
Sentence 7
Complete this dialogue with the present perfect.
(a)

you met any Russian people?

BETHANY:

Yes, I (b)

SOPHIE:

Have you (c)

BETHANY:

No, I (d)

I can't speak Russian very

(e)

Joe told you that he can speak

Russian?
BETHANY:

Question: you/climb a mountain?


Have you ever climbed a

Mountain?

Answer: Yes, I h

Question: your parents/visit the USA?

Answer:
3

Question: you/speak to a famous person?

I
Answer:
Unit 4

I liye/haye lived in this house for two years.

We have been here for/since half past three.

William hasn't seen his friend for/since he left his school.

How muchJime/lgng have you waited to see him?

Liam has been the singer in the band since threeyears/2009.

My sister has/has had that bike since she was little.

I've loved that group for/since the start of their career.

She's waited for this moment for nine months/January.

Have you ever/never been to London?


He has eyer/neyer met his Australian cousin.

Grammar extension
6

Rewrite the sentences by adding ever, never, for or since. Make


sure you add the word in the correct place.

No, he (f)

Write questions using the present perfect and ever. Then


write your own true answers to the questions. If the answer
is affirmative, write a short answer. If the answer is negative,
write a complete sentence with never.
1

Choose the correct alternative.

10

Russian to them?

well.
SOPHIE:

Question: you/sing in a concert?

Answer:

Sentence 1

SOPHIE:

Question: your English teacher/write a book?

Answer:

present

Question: you/ride a horse?

(buy) a dog.

green. It looks great!

Question: your friend/win a competition?

mountain.

Have you been here a long time?

She's wanted to be a doctor she was seven.

Have you met my parents?

I've been to China but I'd like to go.

Have you worn a suit and tie?

She's been able to walk the operation.

We've known each other ages.

Humans have been able to live underwater permanently.

Jeveloping vocabulary
Compound nouns connected with health and medicine
1 Look at the pictures and use these words to say what each one shows.
aid

attack

centre

first

food

health

heart

killers

pain

poisoning

room

waiting

f J
+

2 Write simple definitions for the compound nouns in 1. Use wh/ch, fhaf, where, when or whose.
1 It's the help ^

an accident.

Vocabulary extension: compound nouns based on parts of the body


I

Match these words to make compound


nouns. You can use words more than
i once. Use your dictionary if necessary.
1 arm
2 foot
3 hair
4 hand
5 head
[6

tooth

bag

band

brush

chair

dresser

print

Complete the sentences with the compound nouns in 3.


1
2

He switched on the TV and sat down in his favourite


The detective followed the burglar's

from the kitchen floor up

to the bedroom.
3

He cuts people's hair. He's a

He's got long hair so when he does sport he often wears a

Dentists recommend using an electric

My mum puts everything in her

- keys, money, mobile phone ...

[S Add parts of the body in 3 to complete these compound nouns. Use your dictionary if necessary.
I

ball or

teacher

ball

writing

ache or

step

ache

Unit 4

i
WORD BOOSTER

Cross-curricular - Science
Gray's Anatomy
1

Match the words and definitions.

Read the text. What is Grey's Anatomy and what is Gray's Anatomyl
1

Grey's Anatomy

Gray's Anatomy

Grey's Anatomy o r Gray's

Anatomy?

FOR SOME REASON, hospital dramas


are incredibly popular w i t h TV viewers all
over the world. One series which has been
especially popular in recent times is the
American series Grey's Anatomy. Meredith
Grey is a young doctor who works in a busy
hospital. She's a central character in the
series and this partly explains the title Grey's
Anatomy. But there's another reason for the
title. It's similar to the title Gray's Anatomy.
But who was this Gray, and what exactly
was Gray's Anatomy?
The full name of Gray's Anatomy is in fact
Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body.
It's a human anatomy textbook which first
appeared in 1 8 5 8 and which people have
considered a classic work since then.
D r Henry Gray was British. He was born in
1827. In 1855 he had the idea of producing
an anatomy textbook for medical students.
He talked about his idea to a young
colleague. Henry Vandyke Carter, who was
an excellent artist. Gray wrote the text and
Carter did the illustrations. They worked
together on the book for 18 months, using
dead bodies at the hospital for their work.
Just three years after its publication, Gray
died. He became i l l while he was looking
after a nephew who had an infectious illness.
He was just 34 years old.
Gray's
Anatomy
quickly became
very
popular. This was for various reasons. The
texts were very good, but people especially
liked the illustrations. There were a lot of
them in the book and they were of a very
high quality. At this time, the medical
profession was becoming more serious
and students needed to know more to pass
their exams and become doctors. Gray's
Anatomy helped them to do this w i t h all the
information it contained.

1 AWumr of the A

Each new version of Gray's Anatomy has


added to the original w i t h recent discoveries.
The book also exists now as a CD-ROM.
Medical students all over the world still study
Gray's Anatomy. Gray died many years ago
but his work has continued to this day.

32

Unit 4

full

different

colleague

process of producing a book

publication

someone who works with you

infectious

continuing now, after a long time

various

passing from one person to another

still

complete

Read the text again and complete the fact file about
Henry Gray.
Name: Henry
Nationality:

Gray
(a)

B o r n : (b)

Died: ()

C a u s e of death: (d)
F a m o u s work: (e)
Type of book: (f)
Illustrator: (g)
YearcM'publicaU^
3

Answer the questions.


I

What is the origin of Gray's Anatomyl

What are the reasons for the popularity of Gray's Anatomyl

What about youl


1

Do you think it is difficult to become a doctor? Why/Why not?

Would you like to be a doctor? Why/Why not?

jrammar in context
Present perfect with just, yet and already

Present perfect and past simple

1 Complete the table by ticking the correct boxes.

Just
1 We use it for very recent events.

Yet Already

3 We use it for something that has

happened, possibly before we expected.

4 We use it in affirmative sentences.


5 We use it in negative sentences.
6 We use it in questions.
7 It usually goes at the end of the sentence.
8 It usually goes immediately
before the past participle.

2 We use it for things that haven't


happened, but we think will happen
soon.

He/win a prize.

3 They/see a horror film.


4

We/do our homework.

l/finish this exercise.

3 Complete the sentences with the present perfect form of the


verbs given. Put the words in bold in the correct place in the
sentences.
1

(have) this jacket for two years and I

My friend

(go) on holiday to New York

last year.
4

That team

She really enjoys reading. She

(win) the league in 2005.


(read)

hundreds of books.
6

My friend

7
8

(appear) on TV last summer.


you ever

(eat)

Indian food? Would you like to go to an Indian restaurant?


My parents
(live) in our house for more
than 15 years.

9
10

, (buy) a present for you yesterday.

We
(fly) to New Zealand four years ago
and we stayed there for a month.

Grammar extension
5

Each sentence contains a mistake. Find the mistake and


rewrite the sentence correctly.Then explain the mistake.
1

My friend have lived in this city all of his life.


Explanation

Have you visited Rome ever?


Explanation

His parents have won the lottery in 2006.

I (not finish) this exercise. YET


Explanation

/ haven'tfinished this exercise yet


2

(be) at this school for five years

always wear it when I go out.

2 Write complete sentences saying what the people have just


done.

^^./^^4.^.^?..-.

Oliver
but he doesn't like it here.

1 She/have a shower.

Complete the sentences with the present perfect or the past


simple form of the verbs given.

My sister (have) an accident. JUST


4

Holly and Jack (eat) lunch. ALREADY

My mum (get) back from work. JUST

you (see) that film? YET

you (meet) the new teacher? JUST

the bus (go)? ALREADY

We (not study) for the exam. YET

We have done the shopping yet.


Explanation

I've just seen my cousin ten hours ago.


Explanation

These are my favourite earrings because I had them since I


was eight.
Explanation

Unit 4

Describing a scene
1

Look at the photo and read a description of it. Find three differences between the description and the photo and underline them.

There s i x people I n t h e p i c t u r e a n d , er, t h e y ' r e t i t a


w a i t i n g room., i t ' s p r o b a b l y a w a i t i n g r o o m lev a Health
c e n t r e , i I m a g i n e I t ' s t h e o r t h e afteriA,ooiA-

In the description in 1, underline any words or


expressions that the speaker uses as fillers to give them
time to think.

Make notes of things to say about this photo. Use the


questions in 2 to get ideas. Do not write complete
sentences.

When is the scene taking place (morning, night, summer,

Practise describing the photo in 4. Here are some ideas


of how you can practise.

winter, etc)?

because t h a t ' s w h e n people u s u a l l y g o t o t h e d o c t o r ' s .


Er, t h e people are p a t i e n t s , t h e y ' r e w a i t i n g t o see t h e
doctor. The doctor I s a l s o I n t h e r o o m . The p a t i e n t s a r e
a l l l o o t e l n g a t h i m . They loote I I I or, y o u tenow, have
h e a l t h p r o b l e m s . F o r e x a m p l e , I t h l n t e one m a n h a s g o t a
b a d c o l d , or m a y b e t h e f l u . I ' m n o t s u r e b u t I t h l n t e t h e
b u s i n e s s w o m a n Has g o t a sore s h o u l d e r or s o m e t h i n g
because she's t o u c h i n g I t .
The room, I s n ' t v e r y e x c i t i n g . There are, w e l l , t h r e e
p i c t u r e s o n t h e w a l l , i c a n a l s o see s o m e

magazines.

I thlnte they're probably g i v i n g I n f o r m a t i o n to the


p a t i e n t s . I've been I n a w a i t i n g r o o m lll-ee t h i s w h e n I've
been l i t . i d o n ' t llfee w a i t i n g r o o m s because t h e y a l w a y s
s e e m s a d a n d g r e y . The t h i n g I s , t h e p i c t u r e mafees m e
t h l n f e a b o u t t i m e s w h e n I've been I I I so i d o n ' t r e a l l y
Llfee I t m u c h .

Read the description again and put the questions in the order that
the speaker answers them.
a
b

What are the people doing?

What do you think about the picture?

Who is in the picture and where are they?

What type of people are they?

What things or objects are in the picture?

Have you ever been in a situation like the one in the picture?

Unit 4

[T\

Find a partner and take it in turns to describe the


photo. If necessary, help your partner by asking
questions.
Record yourself giving the description (e.g. with a
mobile phone or MP3 player). Listen to yourself when
you finish.
Practise on your own. Then do the activity again in
class.

developing w r i t i n g
Notes and messages
1 Read these instructions. Then look at the note below. Does the
writer follow the instructions? Do they write the note in the
correct style?
It's your friend's birthday today. You have gone to his house to see
him but he isn't there. Leave him a note. Include this information:
wish him a happy birthday
ask him to contact you when he gets home
tell him that you have something for him
arrange to meet him.

Rewrite this note to make the style appropriate.

4II 1) II U
J II II II 11 1 II1II I.
Dear Joe,
v/ould you please call me very t^uicKly because somebody
has burgled our housel They have taKen the T V , the
laptop, some money and other things. Please pay special
attention - do not tell Philip at the moment because I

111 DBS II I! m i l . H H

do not v/ant him to v/. By the v/ay, I am not at


home. I am at the police station at Farm Street.

Hare,

5am

Co*.cfa\u\a\\o*&\

T o d y ' s -hke, biq Aai\, i s a 4

r'+? [b already. You re. ackkiwq old. L(S+tn


qivc a ca\\ &. \\c

bouqM

pres^n+ (1 Wave** qo-t c*.ouqk

a biq preset
tWc preset

up a s-
MOACU,

I II II 1 1
.1 II II II II I 1
.1 1
.1 MHHH
Joe,

-to buq

- sorrql). i M \ikc -to qivc


-todaq. When, caw I sec qou?

Lfc-r ).
dfclUUj

PS dosh saqs Uappq -tWdau, -tool

2 Look at the words in bold in the note. Explain why they are
important in notes and messages.
Hare We usually begin notes with just
we are wn ting to.

CoAqra-tula-tioAS

the name of the

Read these instructions and write a note.


You usually go to an English language academy with your
friend, Sarah. Today you can't go. Leave Sarah a note. Include this
information:
tell her why you can't go (an illness? an accident?)
ask her to explain to the teacher
tell her to call you quickly after the lesson to tell you what
homework to do
say thank you and arrange to meet somewhere soon.

II II 11 II III II

S>araV\,
>. PS

3 What do these abbreviations mean?


1

St

2 tel.
3 etc.
4 PS
5 asap..
6 NB
Unit 4

Revision: Units 3-4


Grammar

Vocabulary

Decide if the words in bold are correct in these sentences.

Country

Nationality

I haven't got many money.

There isn't some bread on the table.

There's much orange juice in the fridge.

There were a little people at the party.

(c)

Swiss

I've got any pencils that you can use.

(d)

Welsh

Are there a lot of people in the shop?

Only a few people can win a Nobel Prize.

Brazil

helped me to pass the exam.

That's the school

. I went when I was five.

I fell into the river?

father is an actor.

Have you read the essay

Oh no! I've done a mistake.

Have you done that exercise?

We need to revision before the test.

3
/6

points)

Write sentences in the present perfect. Put the words in bold


in the correct place.

Do you want to practise this tomorrow?

you/visit an art gallery? EVER

William/ride a horse. NEVER

Joe and Ellie/come back from their holiday. JUST

l/speak to George. ALREADY

you/write your email? YET

We/not buy bread. YET

/4

points)

/4

points)

Make the words negative by adding prefixes.


1

possible

legal

regular

correct

What are these parts of the body?

/5

/6

points)

Complete the sentences with the present perfect or the past


simple form of the verbs given.
(have) this computer for ten years now.

She

(visit) Argentina in 2006.

My uncle

(be) in the basketball team two years ago.

(buy) all of his CDs. I love his music.

He

(live) in Germany since 2008.

(forget) to do his homework yesterday.


/6

points)

points)

came yesterday.

/5

Decide if the words in bold are correct in these sentences.


If not, correct them.

I wrote?

This is the email

(e)

points)

He's the teacher...


Do you remember the time

(b)

the Netherlands

Complete the sentences with the correct relative pronoun:


who, that, which, whose, when or where.

She's the girl

Polish

(a)

/7

Write the country or nationality.

If not, correct them.

points)

Put the letters of the words in bold in order to find words


connected with health.
1

I can't shout because I've got a rose throat.

Please take a seat in the ingtawi moor and the nurse will
call you.

He had a skiing accident and he's got a krenbo arm.

When there's an accident, it's good to know trifs dia.

People who smoke often have a bad gochu.

Lots of people at school have caught a survi.

I can't get up because I've got chackeab.

/7

points)

Reading
| l Read the text about an Ancient Greek called Hippocrates and
choose a, b or to complete the sentences.

There were many Ancient Greeks whose w o r k helped to


create the modern w o r l d we know today. One of these was
. an extraordinary man called Hippocrates, who changed the
world of medicine w i t h his ideas.
Hippocrates was an extremely intelligent man who is
famous for being the father of medicine.

People called h i m

the 'father of medicine' because he was the first person to


make medicine a serious profession. Before Hippocrates,
people thought that supernatural, mystical or divine factors
were responsible for illnesses. Hippocrates didn't believe
. in these superstitious ideas. He watched his patients very
carefully and saw that illnesses come from the things that we
eat, the things around us and our habits.
Hippocrates was one of the first people to ask his patients
questions and he wrote d o w n the information to analyse
it later. With this observation and information he worked
out how to look after the patient. We now know that he
general his way of working was revolutionary for the time.
needed

to be serious, professional and, very importantly, to be clean.


He told his student doctors to wash their hands all the time,
and his patients were always clean too.

Before Hippocrates people didn't

a
b

medicine. But 2,200 years later a German scientist rediscovered


headaches - aspirin!
One final point about Hippocrates - he was clearly a good
doctor because he himself lived until he was very old. Some
people say he was 83 when he died, some say he was 90 and
others say that he was 100 years o l d !

Writing

want to be doctors.
look for natural explanations for illnesses.
like doctors because they were superstitious.

For Hippocrates,.
patients,
a analysis
b good food
time

used salicin to cure headaches. Later people forgot about this


salicin and it became an ingredient in today's typical cure for

sometimes made serious mistakes in his analysis, but in

For example, Hippocrates believed that doctors

One of the many extraordinary things that Hippocrates d i d


in his life was to discover and use an ingredient called salicin. He

Write a paragraph about your English-learning experiences


this year. Use these questions for ideas about what to write.

was important to help his

What have you studied so far?

What activities do you like the most?

What are your strong points in English?

How could you improve on any weak points?

Hippocrates
a wasn't always right in his analysis.
b

didn't often wash his hands.


had a lot of enemies because of his ideas.

4 Hippocrates taught some people how to


a wash correctly.
b become doctors,
make mistakes.
5 We know that
a

Hippocrates created aspirin 2,200 years ago.

a German scientist discovered Hippocrates'instructions

for how to make aspirin,

Hippocrates knew an ingredient to stop headaches.

/5

points)

/ - ~

/10

/15

points)

points

Grammar

Comparatives and superlatives


Too ami (not)

5 TV world

Vocabulary

Less...

than and (not)

enough

TV programmes Adjectives describing TV programmes


Adjectives ending in -ing -ed

Speaking

Negotiating

Writing

A descriptions and opinions

ocabulary
TV programmes
1

Find eight types of TV programme in the word search. Then write them under the

correct pictures. There are three types of programme that do not have a picture.
t

1
2

Read the sentences. To complete them, add vowels


to these words and then write them in the correct
gap.
ch_nn
s_r

Is

_ f f
t_rn

Adjectives describing TV programmes


3

Put the letters in order to make adjectives describing TV programmes.

r m t....

cryas

fromvinetia

ginmov

nuyfn

ringbo

rolpupa

wulfa

pr.... gr.... mm...


1

ABC, CBS and Fox are American TV

The Simpsons and CSI are popular American TV

2
3
4

When you don't want to watch the TV, switch it

When people are bored, they often

I don't want to watch this programme but I don't


want to get up. Pass me the
Chat shows are my favourite type of

Write an example of a TV programme or film to describe each of the


adjectives in 3.

the TV on.
5

control.

3
4
5
6
7

Unit 5

funny

- The Simpsons

as\

Reading
1 Write two or three sentences with your opinion about adverts
on TV. You can use these adjectives: funny, interesting, useful,
boring.

1
2
3
4
5

/ think adverts are

2 Read the text. Is it generally positive or negative about


adverts?

A d v e r t s

4
t u r n

Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)?

v i e w e r s

o f f

The ABC channel had slightly more adverts than


other channels. But recently they've changed ... and
what they do now is even worse than before! Before,
all their dramas had four sections. But now ABC tells
producers to separate each programme into six sections.
Usually the first section is approximately ten minutes
long. Then they have the first break. When people
have watched a programme for ten minutes, it's much
less probable that they w i l l stop watching or change
channels. But then, i n the next 45 minutes, there are
four more commercial breaks. Each break is about three
and a half minutes long.
All of this makes it much more difficult for writers
of dramas to write good stories. Quiet scenes make no
impact because there are more and more adverts and
the adverts are longer and longer. 'It's OK for game
shows or more exciting adventure series,' says American
TV producer David E. Kelley. 'But for programmes that
don't depend on violence or melodramatic scenes, it's
more difficult to make a story with six sections than to
make one with four. The only thing you can do is be more
aggressive, either with the music or the visual impact,
just to attract people's attention after the adverts.'

Match the questions with the answers.


1

Recently fans of top soaps, dramas and reality shows i n


the USA have started to get angry about the number
and frequency of the adverts i n the middle of the
programmes. Sometimes it seems that the adverts are
more important than the programmes themselves.
For example, American dramas aren't as long as they
were in the past. Nowadays i n the US, an 'hour-long'
drama lasts about 40 minutes (in the 1980s they lasted
48 minutes). The rest is adverts. Or, i n other words, for
every two minutes of programme there's one minute of
adverts.

2
3
4
a
b

Today American dramas consist of around 40 minutes


of programme and 20 minutes of adverts.
On the ABC channel dramas now have six parts.
After ten minutes, viewers often change channels.
It's difficult for game shows to have frequent breaks.
TV drama writers like having lots of different
sections in a programme.
Some shows use exciting music to get people's
attention after the adverts.

Why do drama programmes have more sections


now than before?
Why do they wait ten minutes before the first break?
Why is it more difficult for dramas than for
game shows?
Why do dramas need fast music?
Because it isn't easy writing a slow, non-violent story

with a lot of different, short sections,


Because after the adverts they need to make people
pay attention,
Because that way there are more adverts,
Because they know that when people have watched
the start of the programme they continue watching.

Find words in the text which have similar meanings to these

words or explanations.
1

people who like something a lot (paragraph 1)

the best, most popular (paragraph 1)

short rest (paragraph 2)

very dramatic, too dramatic or emotional (paragraph 3)

strong or big effect (paragraph 3)

What about you?


Is advertising in your country the same as in the USA? Do you

think there are more adverts now than before?

Unit 5

Comparatives and superlatives


1

Complete the table by putting these adjectives in the correct place and then writing the comparative and superlative forms.
boring

brilliant

cool

easy

far

fit

good

scary

Adjective
(a)

smalt

thin

Rule

small

Comparative
th, e

sma Her

one-syllable adjectives, add -eror -est

Superlative

sma//est

one-syllable adjectives w h i c h end in one vowel +


one consonant, d o u b l e the last consonant and add
-eror -est

(b)

two-syllable adjectives e n d i n g in -y, o m i t -y and


add -/'eror -iest
adjectives w i t h t w o syllables or more, use more +
t h e adjective or the most + the adjective

(d)
(e)

irregular adjectives w i t h no set rules

Complete these sentences with the comparative or superlative form of the adjectives given.
1

This year is

She's the

Salad is

(hot) than last year.


(beautiful) girl in the world.

London is

That was the

(far) from Moscow than Berlin.


(bad) day of my life!

(good) for you than chocolate.

She's the

(intelligent) person I know.

I think it's

(difficult) to write in Chinese

than in English.

Look at this information about Jake, Ethan and Ryan and then
complete the sentences using the comparative or superlative
form of the adjectives given.

Rewrite the sentences using comparatives and superlatives.


Make sure the meaning stays the same.
1

No boy is taller than Jamie in this class.


Jamie is

the tallest hoy in this class

A bike is lighter than a motorbike.


A motorbike is

Becky is older than everybody in this class except Matthew.


Matthew is

No one in the 20 century was more intelligent than Einstein.


th

Einstein was
5

My bedroom is bigger than my brother's bedroom.


My brother's bedroom is

6
Jake
Name

Ethan
Tall

I think a Peugeot 507 is good but a Ferrari is very good.


I think a Ferrari is

Talkative

Jake

***

Ethan

***

Ryan

**

**

Good at sport

Grammar extension
5

***

Formula 1 racing is more dangerous playing football.

Everest is than any other mountain in the world.

The Nile is the river in the world.

Giraffes are taller elephants.

Motorbikes are dangerous than cars.

Ethan is

Jake

(tall) Ryan.

Jake

(tall).

Ethan

(talkative) Ryan.

Jasmine is the best swimmer the class.

Ryan

. (good at sport) Jake.

This is most exciting film I've ever seen.

(good at sport).

Simon is younger Michael.

Ryan
Unit 5

shorter than

(short) Jake.

There is a word missing in each sentence. Write an appropriate


word in the correct place.

Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed


1 How are the people feeling? Match these words to the
pictures.

bored

confused

frightened

disappointed

interested

relaxed

embarrassed
surprised

Complete the sentences about the people in the pictures in 1.


Use the -ed and the -ing form of the adjective.
The student is disappointed

because her

exam mark is disappointing

tired
2

He

because the

programme
3

I no-

She

because the ghost

train
4

He

because he thinks

maths
5
1

disappointed

They

because the

music
6

She

because the

situation
7

He

because the

class
8

She

because the news in the

letter
9

He

because the race

Vocabulary extension
3

Match these -ing adjectives with their synonyms or


explanations. Use your dictionary if necessary.
1

depressing

disgusting

exhausting

worrying

terrifying

amazing

a
b

d
e
f

very tiring
horrible, very bad
very sad
very good or surprising
making you unhappy because you
think of problems or bad things
very frightening

Write the -edform of the adjectives in 3. Check your answers


in your dictionary if necessary.
4
5
6

Complete the sentences with -ing or -ed adjectives in 3 and 4.


1

Yuck! I think eating insects is

I haven't slept for two nights. I'm

This programme is very

It's all about

the terrible problems in the world.


4

She hasn't studied. Now she's thinking about her exams and
she's very

about them.

Wow! Look up there! It's the


Spiderman!

I'm really afraid of high places so the idea of going up that


mountain is

for me.
Unit 5

Robin Hood

The

While he was serving in the Emperor's army, Janosik met a


prisoner called Tomas Uhorcik. Uhorcik was the leader of a
gang of outlaws. One day Uhorcik escaped from prison and
Janosik joined his group. Later Janosik became the captain
of the group. They lived in the forest and took money from
aristocrats, merchants and travellers and gave it to the
poor. They did not kill any of their victims and sometimes
they even helped them if they were ill.

Cross-curricular - Literature
Juraj Janosik

Read the text and match the titles

to the correct paragraphs.


1 In the forest a legend is born
2

The legend continues

The young soldier

A tragic end

A Slovak hero

People sometimes call Juraj Janosik the Slovak Robin


Hood. He has been the topic of many Slovak and Polish
legends, films,TV programmes, paintings, books and
poems. 'He took from the rich and gave to the poor'are
the famous words which people associate with him.

n 1713 soldiers captured Janosik. The legend says that in a pub a


eked old woman threw peas on the floor to make him fall and
help the soldiers to catch him.They put him in prison and then killed
him He had an early and violent death, but his legend has survived
and he is a very important person in Slovak folk history today.

JanosTk's legend was already getting bigger in the early 18


century, mainly because people considered him a symbol of
resistance. People needed a hero, especially one who took from
the rich and gave to the poor. In the end, the stories made him
invincible, protected from bullets. The tales of Janosik and his
friend, Uhorcik, have everything that makes a great legend: love,
adventure and the fight for justice.
th

(b)
Slovakia. At the age of 18, h e * M M
F
, 1 Ferenc.These troops lost
now i n .
7

WORD BOOSTER

and what is happening.

Match the words and definitions.

1 troops
2 merchant

3 capture

4 legend

1
2

a
b

Look at this scene from the legend of Juraj Janosik. With

information from the text, write about who the people are

an old story that was possibly true at


first but then becomes fictional
groups of soldiers
take somebody prisoner
person that buys and sells things

Answer the questions.


jura]

jiWStte

where was he from.?

How '"did he" becon* the rptfti* of 9>P f


owttaws?

How

w h e ^ did he die?
4

What about youl


Describe a folk hero or legend from your country.

<f W h y did he become Legend?

42

Unit 5

mmar in context
Less... than, (not)as...
1

as

Read the sentences and put the correct symbol (> for more
than or < for less than) after each one.
1
2
3
4
5

Wood is less heavy than metal.


TV is more popular than the cinema.
Europe isn't as hot as Africa.
Learning Japanese is harder than learning English.
Eating chocolate is not as healthy as eating fruit.

2 Compare the two things using the adjective and less...


and (not)as...

<

Rewrite the answers using too or not...


place in the sentence.
1

enough in the correct

Why don't you go to school now?


Because it's early.

-*

Because it's too, earn.


2

Why can't you carry that big bag?


Because it's heavy. -*

than

as.
3

Italy -* big

Russia.

Hamsters - dangerous - snakes.

Why isn't she a professional pianist?


Because she isn't good. -

Why can't you ride a motorbike?


Because I'm 15 - I'm not old. ->

The River Thames -> long - the Amazon.


5

A kilo of gold -> heavy -> a kilo of rice.

Chocolate - expensive - caviar.

Why can't you finish reading that book?


Because it's got 800 pages - it's long.

Why don't people swim in the Arctic Ocean?


Because the water isn't warm. -

Too and frofl ^

Because the flight is expensive. -*

3 Complete the sentences with the correct words.


1

He's 50. He's

old to be a professional football

When you're 15, you aren't old

to drive.

I can't buy that computer. It's 600 and I've only got 450. It's
too

She plays the guitar really well. She's

enough

to become a professional musician.


5

Those shoes are size 10 and your feet are size 8. The shoes are
too

for you.

Rewrite the sentences using too or not...


1

Why isn't he in the school football team?


Because he isn't fit. ->

player.
2

Why can't you go to New Zealand?

enough.

He's too young to vote.

Grammar extension
6

Put the words in order to make sentences. Then write true (T)
or false (F) after each one.
1

I not vote old am enough to.

Bicycles expensive are motorbikes than less.

The in leopard fastest world the is the animal.

as tigers Dolphins dangerous are as.

I to too to school old am go.

important in Latin language the the now world is most.

high K2 not as as Everest is.

hot polar the Sahara It bears for is too in live to.

He
2

I'm not rich enough to buy that.


I

Megan isn't tall enough to close the top window.


Megan

Her car is too slow to win the race.


Her car

That documentary is too boring to watch twice.


That documentary

Unit 5

Negotiating

Describing photos

Choose the correct alternative.


1

How about 1/1/.

2
3
4

Shall we tggg/gg/gging out this afternoon?


Why don't we tgj.ee/see/seeing that?
Let's tggg/gg/gging for a walk in the park.

'

ma

* t h e cinema?

Put sentences 1-4 in 1 in the correct place in the dialogue.


BOY:

(a)

GIRL:

OK. Where could we go?

BOY:

(b)

GIRL:

Hmm. I'm not sure. I'm a bit tired of walking.

BOY:

Yeah, we walked a lot this morning, didn't we?

(0
GIRL:

That's a good idea. What's on?

BOY:

There's a new comedy about Robin Hood.

GIRL:

No, I prefer a drama.

BOY:

OK. How about that new film with CharlizeTheron?

GIRL:

Great! I love CharlizeTheron!

(d)

3a Read the dialogue again. Find different ways of responding to


suggestions and write them in the table.
Yes

No

Maybe

OK.

3b Complete the table with any other phrases you know.


4

Write a dialogue using the chart below.


Nick:

I
il

Cathy:

Suggest doing something


tonight.
1

Say yes. But what?


2

4
Suggest going to the cinema.
3

Suggest eating out.


5

Suggest Italian.

Say no. Nothing good on


at the moment.

Say yes. What type of


restaurant?
6

Say yes to Chinese.


9

Unit 5

Say no. Prefer Chinese.


8

Look at the photo and answer the questions. If you are not
sure of something, use I think and/or I imagine.

' Developing writing


A description of a TV programme

Are these statements saying good things or bad things about

1 Read this email from a boy called Adam. Match the


correct title with the paragraphs in his email.

Adverts can be funny.

Adverts can be stereotypical.

Adverts can be informative.

Adverts interrupt programmes you want to watch.

Adverts can show lots of creativity.

Adverts give you time to get something to eat or drink.

Adverts can be very expensive.

Adverts can be boring.

Adverts are repeated too often.

adverts?

Paragraph 1
Paragraph 2
Paragraph 3
1 General news
2 His opinion about watching too much television
3 A description of his favourite programme
4
5
6
7
8

A description of a recent programme he hated


Reason for writing
His suggestion for making TV better
His general opinion ofTV at the moment
The good and bad things about adverts

Get Mail

Write

Contacts

Reply

Forward

Delete

10
I

Print

Hi Liz,
1

How are things? I'm w r i t i n g about t h a t new series which

Qood

Adverts can make you think.

Write an email to a friend using this paragraph plan. Use


expressions of opinion and give reasons for your opinions.
Paragraph 1: Reason for writing - you saw an advert last night
that was really good/bad
Paragraph 2: The good things about adverts
Paragraph 3: The bad things about adverts

was on TV last night. Did you see it? I saw the adverts
for it all week and it looked really cool so I decided t o
watch it. But I was really disappointed!
2

Get Mail

Write

Contacts

Reply

Forward

Delete

Print

Personally, I d o n ' t like soaps but the adverts said


that this one was different. I t w a s n ' t ! As f a r as I'm
concerned, it was as boring as every other soap I've
seen.The actors were a w f u l and the story just wasn't
interesting. And another thing - they stopped f o r adverts
every five or six minutes.

In my opinion, television in general is getting worse and


worse. I think the new series a r e n ' t as good or original
as the old ones.The only thing I w a t c h are old f i l m s .
But a 90-minute f i l m takes t w o hours because of all the
adverts! Is it just me or is t h a t really annoying?

Let me know w h a t you t h i n k .


Adam

2 Read the email again and underline any expressions of


opinion you can find.
3

Find Adam's opinion of the programme he saw last night and


his opinion of TV in general. What reasons does he give to

explain his opinion?


1

He jiked/didnXljke the programme he saw last night because

He !i.k^does_n'iljkeTv in general now because

Unit 5

45

Grammar

Be going to, will, may, might

Vocabulary

Geographical features

Speaking

Making arrangements

Writing

A formal letter

Zero conditional and first conditi

The environment

Different uses of;

Vocabulary
Geographical features

The environment

Complete the crossword.

C o m p l e t e these w o r d s a n d t h e n m a t c h t h e m t o t h e correct
pictures.
Ir
gr
r

Across

a long line o f very big hills

an area w i t h a lot o f trees

an area w i t h a lot o f sand, b u t n o t m a n y plants and almost no


water

Down

similar t o 3 across, b u t here it rains a lot

an area next t o the sea w i t h sand, w h e r e some people go t o


spend their holidays

a big, cold area t h a t covers t h e land and sea around the N o r t h


and South Pole

7
2

a tropical area w i t h a lot o f plants, trees, animals and insects

Use t h e w o r d s in 1 t o w r i t e a b o u t w h a t t h e r e is or isn't in y o u r
country.

Unit 6

g ht
nh

.... I....

fI
s
s.... v

g I.... b .. I w

f f.. t
w.... t.... r

rm

ng

.... z.... n.... t

w... s t .

.Reading
Read this p a g e f r o m a w e b s i t e a b o u t rainforests a n d w r i t e a g o o d t i t l e f o r each s e c t i o n .

.He Edit View

History Tools Window

Help

FOUR T H I N G S KIDS C A N D O T O SAVF T H E R A I N F O R F C T


Most paper c o m e s from trees, so if you use less paper, you'll help to save the
rainforests. Don't forget to use recycled paper whenever possible, or better
still, use tree-free paper. A s you can see from the n a m e , tree-free paper
doesn't c o m e from trees, it's m a d e from other types of plants. If you want
to buy this type of paper, m a k e sure you look closely at the packet. If paper
really is recycled or tree-free, it will say so somewhere on the packet.

A s w e all know, petrol and plastic are t w o things that c o m e from petroleum, |
or oil. A lot of oil c o m e s from the rainforests through a process called
extraction. This has a very adverse effect on the rainforests, so using fewer |
oil products can help save them. Just think twice before asking your parents
to use petrol to drive you somewhere in the car. Ride your bike, walk or take
the bus whenever possible.

Another simple w a y of saving paper that m a n y of us forget to d o is by


writing on both sides of the sheet. Meanwhile, there are other types of paper
that w e can save too. Paper tissues or paper towels are no good at all for the
environment. Try not to use them. If you do use them, only use one at a time.

Save plastic by choosing glass bottles and by reusing the plastic containers
and bottles that you already have. If you have a plastic water bottle, don't
throw it away and buy a n e w one. W a s h it and use it again and again.

One big reason rainforests are disappearing is meat, or beef to be m o r e


I specific. Big companies destroy millions of acres of rainforest and then
cover it with grass for cows. T h e meat from the cows goes to m a k e fastI food burgers, for example. W h a t you m a y not k n o w is that to m a k e just one
I burger, they destroy an area similar to a small kitchen. Think about it - that's
just for one burger!

Rainforests are the most amazing places you can imagine, and they're
important to every living thing on earth. Perhaps you think they're too
far away to m a k e any difference to you and your life. But, whether w e live
in the city, country, mountains or desert, rainforests affect all of us. Learn
m o r e about the rainforests and w h y they are so vital. Keep checking out
our website to get m o r e information, or go to a library for books on the
rainforest. Tell your friends and family what you have learned and get them
to join you in helping save the rainforests.

Look at these pictures. M a t c h t h e m t o t h e correct section (1 - 4 )

Section

in 1 a n d w r i t e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f w h y t h e y appear in t h e t e x t .
Section

It's better to .useglass


.< are made
Extracting petroleum

bottles because
frompetroleum.
can be bad, for

the rainforest. So we should use plastic


bottles again and,

Section

we shouldn't

just throw (hew away.


Section

Find w o r d s in t h e t e x t w h i c h have similar m e a n i n g s t o these


words or explanations.

f-

Section

Section

at any or every t i m e {Section 1)

w i t h no trees {Section 1)

a series o f actions {Section 2)

put it in t h e bin {Section 2)

meat f r o m a c o w {Section 3)

very i m p o r t a n t , essential {Section 4)

What about

you .
1

W o u l d you like t o visit a rainforest one day? Why/Why not?

Be going to and will


1

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences a n d rules w i t h t h e correct f o r m

of be going to or will.

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
1

A : The p h o n e is ringing.

A: Do you w a n t t o c o m e to a party on Saturday?


:

: I 'm going tg/'ll get it.

I can't. M y family and I are going tg/will go to London for


the weekend.

H o w old areyoiigghjgjG/^iyou

Look. He's p u t t i n g his coat on. He 's.gging[to/yyill go out.

be on your next birthday?

A : It's cold in here.

: OK. I M.ggingjg/li

close the window.

Will, may, might


3
t o make predictions based o n some

Rule: We use
sort of evidence.

I can't d o this

M a t c h t h e s e s y m b o l s w i t h t h e sentences.
a

*$ t$ *rf=

* ^ = Maybe yes, maybe no.

d
Don't worry,

help y o u !

Rule: We use

for decisions that w e take at the

m o m e n t of speaking.

Yes, certain,

= Yes, more or less certain,

= No, more or less certain,


^ \ 7 ? = No,certain.

Perhaps it'll rain.

It definitely w o n ' t rain.

It may rain.

It's possible t h a t it'll rain.

It m i g h t rain.

It'll probably rain.

It probably w o n ' t rain.

It'll definitely rain.

Put t h e w o r d s in o r d e r t o m a k e sentences. Then give a n


a p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t a g e o f c e r t a i n t y f o r each one.

. t o talk a b o u t an objective t r u t h .

Rule: We use

Next week I.
J see m y favourite g r o u p in concert,
-

team t h e w i n our Perhaps c o m p e t i t i o n will.

t o n i g h t w o n ' t It probably cold be

will finish m y h o m e w o r k soon I definitely.

o u t t o m o r r o w She w o n ' t definitely go.

do the They week may exam next.

I've already g o t m y ticket.

%
6

Rule: We use

t o talk a b o u t future plans or

intentions.
[We t h i n k that t h e e c o n o m y
get better soon.

Rule: We use

t o make a general prediction, often

after verbs like think or hope.

this M y probably call brother will afternoon.

Grammar extension
5

M a k e p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t y o u r life w h e n y o u are 35. Use t h e


word given.
1

may

.probably

... perhaps

.... possible

. definitely

won't

might

'Developing v o c a b u l a r y
Different uses of get
1 Look at these possible m e a n i n g s f o r get. Rewrite t h e
sentences by o m i t t i n g get or get to a n d u s i n g t h e correct
form o f these w o r d s .
arrive (at)
1

become

bring

obtain/buy

receive

When do you get angry?

/ do you

become ?

How many emails do you get a week?

What t i m e do you usually get t o school?

Do you get presents for your parents w h e n it's their birthday?

Are you g o i n g t o get s o m e t h i n g t o eat or drink on t h e way


home after school?

W r i t e y o u r o w n t r u e a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s in 1. Use get in
y o u r a n s w e r a n d w r i t e c o m p l e t e sentences.
1

Does your b e d r o o m get hot in t h e summer?

2
7

What t i m e do you usually get h o m e after school?

Do you get tired of w a t c h i n g TV?

3
4
5

What did you get for your last birthday?

7
10

Did you get any letters in t h e post last week?

11

Please get me the pen that's on t h e table.

8
9
10

Vocabulary extension: some phrasal verbs with get


3

Match t h e phrasal verbs w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g s . Use y o u r d i c t i o n a r y if necessary.


1

I get up at seven o'clock every day.

I get back from school at five o'clock.

I got o u t of t h e m e e t i n g just before lunch.

I'm g e t t i n g behind w i t h m y project. I've only d o n e

5
4

return
5

p n d time together
e

leave

half of it and I need t o give it in t o m o r r o w .

get o u t o f bed after sleeping

Why don't w e get t o g e t h e r at t h e weekend?

do s o m e t h i n g slower or later than necessary

What t i m e d o you get o u t of your house on a school morning?

Write y o u r o w n t r u e answers t o these q u e s t i o n s .


1

What t i m e d o you usually get up in the week?

What t i m e do you usually get up at the weekend?

H o w often d o you get together w i t h your grandparents and your


uncles and aunts?

What t i m e d o you usually get back if you g o o u t w i t h friends


on Friday or Saturday night?

H o w often d o you get behind w i t h schoolwork or homework?

Unit 6
I

An Australian novel
Cross-curricular - Literature
After Summer by Nick Earls

1
2

INSIDE INFORMATION

nervous

excited

bored

waves

killing s o m e b o d y for d o i n g a

execution

turn

d o w n in t h e sea

reflecting

shining back

showers

crime

The boy will g e t his results letter before he sees t h e newspaper.

The boy prefers s w i m m i n g in t h e m o r n i n g .

The boy finds it relaxing t o enter t h e cold water.

The boy always looks for t h e place w h e r e t h e waves are the best.

Today t h e boy waits for o n e very big wave before he gets out.

Choose a g o o d t i t l e f o r t h e e x t r a c t a n d e x p l a i n w h y .
Title
Explanation

WORD BOOSTER
Match the words and definitions.

W h a t a b o u t youl
1

Unit 6

Do you like beach holidays? Why/Why not?

lines o f water that g o u p and

m o v e 180 for example

place w h e r e you wash w i t h w a t e

This begins in January,


and
January is OK.
Sometimes it's as if the
bright days of summer
will last forever.
But the end of January
is the end of the known
world. It's been easy
till now, relatively. I've
had a new school year
each January, but not
| this year.
This
January
I'm
I waiting for my offer,
waiting for the message
that will tell me what happens next. Waiting.
A n d the waiting is everywhere, in the waves and winds,
in the familiar lights and sounds of the coastal summer,
in the sun rising over the sea and going down through an
orange sky into the Glasshouse Mountains.
The twentieth of January. Seventeen days from today.
On the twentieth of January it comes out in the paper and
I'll be there with the others from school around midnight
5 0

The b o y isn't having a g o o d t i m e because he's t h i n k i n g so m u c h


about t h e 2CP January.

Read t h e extract. H o w d o e s t h e w r i t e r feel?


very happy

The boy is w a i t i n g for some news w h i c h will make a difference t o his


future life.

Nick Earls is a popular Australian writer. He has written


books for teenagers and for adults.
After Summer was Earls'first novel and it w o n a number of
prizes. It is about a boy w h o is on his s u m m e r holidays.The
extract below is from the start of the novel. The narrator is
the teenage boy.

This s u m m e r holiday is different from other summer holidays


because t h e boy has just finished school.

In Australia the original title was After January because the


s u m m e r holidays in Australia begin in December and end
in January.

Read t h e extract again. Are these statements t r u e (T) or false (F)?

Have y o u ever been nervous waiting for exam results? When? What
happened?

at Newspaper House. I ' l l go down from the coast and


I'll meet the others and we'll buy a paper and then we'll
all know. A n d if the newspaper says I did it, I still won't
believe it until I get the letter.
I need to stop thinking of this like an execution. I need
to stop thinking and enjoy myself.
Whatever the weather is like I go to the beach early
because I'm in the habit of it. It's the best time. I swim and
the first cold wave always comes as a shock.
I swim in the sea right in front of the house. Even if
there are better waves to the north or south, I usually swim
here. These waves are mine.
This morning the waves aren't great but they're OK,
coming in unspectacular threes and fours with long spaces
between.
There are people out now, jogging, walking dogs, a girl
in the surf. I see her when I turn and she's on a wave, lifting
herself to a standing position on her board. And the sun is
behind her, reflecting off the water so I don't see her well.
One more wave and I'll go in. I always want to wait for
one last great wave but I know it won't come today. So I
take the next one and go off to the showers. This is all part
of my routine.

'Grammar in context
Zero conditional
5

1 Match t h e halves o f t h e sentences.


1

If you leave a can of cola in a freezer,

If you run as fast as y o u can,

If you write t o o quickly,

tf you read the newspaper every day,

If you look regularly at your vocabulary list,

If you w o r k on a c o m p u t e r all day,

If you w a n t t o be a professional musician,

you k n o w what's h a p p e n i n g in t h e w o r l d .

W r i t e c o m p l e t e sentences w i t h t h e first c o n d i t i o n a l using t h e


words given.

it's a g o o d idea t o start playing w h e n you're y o u n g .

your eyes sometimes hurt.

you often make mistakes.

you remember words more easily.

it explodes.

you get tired very quickly.

Look at t h e sentences in 1 a n d choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .


1

If/he/have a problem/he/speak t o the teacher.

l/go t o t h e doctor/if/my hand hurt t o m o r r o w .

He/not be happy/if/he/miss the bus.

If/my sister/go t o music lessons/my m u m / b u y her a guitar.

If/you/see t h e film t o m o r r o w / y o u / k n o w h o w the story ends.

The teacher/give me a bad mark/if/I/not give her my homework.

You/not see me/if/you/come late.

If/you/not switch off your m o b i l e phone/people/get angry.

The picnic/be a disaster/if/the weather/be bad.

10

If/we/not g o t o t h e shops/we/not have e n o u g h food.

We use the zero conditional t o talk a b o u t a specific, unique


sjtogtion/spmething that is generally true.

We use the present simple in Qnehgjffoth_hajy(x

of the

sentence.

Grammar extension

First conditional
3

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences in a l o g i c a l w a y w i t h t h e first
conditional.

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
1

If I like/will like their next CD, I buy/will buy, it.

She doesn't/won't c o m e t o n i g h t if you dgnf/won't invite her.

_
j you won't

pass your exams.

If our car doesn't/won't w o r k t o m o r r o w , my dad tgkes/willtgke

it t o the garage.
4

If it rains,

j I'll give
you a present.

If you need/will need help next week, I cgme/wjjhcome.


The police arrest/will arrest h i m t o m o r r o w if t h e y find/will find

If m y parents give m e e n o u g h money,

evidence.
6

If you play/will play that song again, I gg/wil.[go m a d .

If I don't speak English,

If she doesn't/won't play in t h e next match, her t e a m loses/will

If t h e plane isn't late,

lose.
4

Look at t h e sentences in 3 a n d choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .


1

We use the first conditional t o talk about possible/impossible

If t h e shop is o p e n ,

situations and their consequences.


2

., perhaps she'll w i n
the c o m p e t i t i o n .

,
I'll cry.

We use the present simple/will in the half of t h e sentence w i t h


10

if.
^

If t h a t noise doesn't stop,


,

^_
Unit 6

eveloping speai
Weekend plans

Describing photos

Read t h i s d i a l o g u e a n d c o m p l e t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b e l o w it.
KATIE:

Hi, Lauren.

LAUREN:

Hi, Katie.

KATIE:

Listen. Are you (a)

LAUREN:

Not really. W h a t (b)

t o anything t o m o r r o w ?
you?

KATIE:

Do you (c)

LAUREN:

Sure. W h a t t i m e (d)

KATIE:

(e)

c o m i n g s h o p p i n g w i t h me?

LAUREN:

Fine. Why (f)

KATIE:

OK, b u t where shall w e m e e t if it rains?

LAUREN:

Come straight t o my house.

KATIE:

Good idea. I'll ring A m y t o o and see if she wants t o

w e meet?

a b o u t half past ten?


w e meet at the bus stop next

to my house?

come.
LAUREN:

(g)

KATIE:

See y o u .

See you t o m o r r o w .

: Katie, Lauren

andpossibly

(1)

are going to

go (2)

tomorrow. They're

going to meet at (3)


at (4)

But if it rains,

''iey'll meet at ("'

Read t h e d i a l o g u e again a n d c o m p l e t e it w i t h t h e s e w o r d s .
about

don't

fancy

Great

How

shall

up

C o m p l e t e t h e list w i t h phrases f r o m t h e d i a l o g u e . T h e n t h i n k
o f o n e m o r e phrase f o r each b o x .
Asking about somebody's plans
a
b

Do you

Arranging to meet

Responding to plans and arrangements

Unit 6

Look at t h e p h o t o a n d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s . If you are n o t


sure o f s o m e t h i n g , use / think and/or / imagine.

t Developing w r i t i n g
A letter to a newspaper
1

Complete t h e t a b l e by p u t t i n g t h e linkers in t h e c o r r e c t place.


Finally

ermore
Furtherm

Firstly

Nevertheless

sentences.

However

What's more

Next

Plan a l e t t e r t o t h e n e w s p a p e r a b o u t t h e idea f o r a n e w
a i r p o r t . M a k e notes in t h e boxes. Do n o t w r i t e c o m p l e t e

Paragraph 1: Express your opinion andexplain your main reason


for it

Contrast

Addition

Sequence

Paragraph 2: Give an additional reason for your opinion.

Read t h i s n e w s p a p e r e d i t o r i a l . W h a t reasons does t h e e d i t o r


give for n o t w a n t i n g a n e w a i r p o r t ?

Paragraph 3: Finish with one final reason for your opinion.

W r i t e y o u r letter here. Use t h e linkers in 1.

The Editor writes ...


Let's m a k e i t clear r i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t . T h e g o v e r n m e n t
wants to b u i l d a n e w a i r p o r t here i n the city b u t this
newspaper

is

totally

against

government

realise

planes, a n d

more planes

the

that another
mean

idea.

Doesn't

the

airport means

more

more pollution?

That

means air p o l l u t i o n a n d noise p o l l u t i o n . A n d w h a t a b o u t


the p e o p l e w h o l i v e i n t h e area w h e r e t h e y w a n t t o b u i l d
this n e w airport? H o w w i l l t h e y l i v e w i t h all this p o l l u t i o n
f r o m the sky? A n d h o w w i l l they l i v e w i t h all the r o a d
t r a f f i c t h a t t h i s a i r p o r t w i l l b r i n g t o t h e area? A

new

I a i r p o r t ? W e say N O .

C o m p l e t e these sentences in a logical way, n o t necessarily


giving your o w n opinion.
1

I agree w i t h w h a t the editor says. Firstly,


. Next,

I think airports are i m p o r t a n t . However,

Airports create a lot of air pollution. Furthermore,.

Unit 6

Revision: Units 5-6


Grammar

Vocabulary

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
1

Greece is hotter/more hotter t h a n Britain in t h e summer.

I think Sam is t h i n n e r thanAhat Jake.

She's the best player of/in t h e t e a m .

rt

That's the sjllyest/silliest t h i n g I've ever seen.

d . _ .... m.... nt.... ry

Greg is t h e more/most intelligent person I know.

Do you t h i n k rainy weather is more bad/worse t h a n sunny


weather?

C o m p l e t e t h e t y p e s o f p r o g r a m m e w i t h t h e missing vowels.

/6

CO,
confused

Love is more i m p o r t a n t than money.


LESS

It's t o o cold t o s w i m in t h e sea today.

ENOUGH

Her sister is very intelligent and she's very intelligent.

He is t o o slow t o w i n t h e race.

funny

/6 points)

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
1

I don't really k n o w but Joe may/will w i n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n .

It 9!.9/^..01

r a

They say it is snowing/is going to snow next Christmas.


The effects will definitely/definitely will be tern ble.

N o b o d y is certain, b u t humans will/might travel t o Mars

It's w h e n s o m e t h i n g makes you feel frightened.


It's h o w you feel w h e n y o u don't understand something or a

It's w h e n s o m e t h i n g is really g o o d .

leungj

trsofe

tesdre

m i n t o a n u grean

(
4

/6 points)

Put t h e letters in o r d e r t o f i n d d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l features.

/4 points)

M a t c h these w o r d s w i t h t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s . There are m o r e


words than explanations.
drought

A : Someone's at t h e door! B: OK, 11l/'m going to go.

surprising

It's w h e n s o m e t h i n g makes you laugh.

tomorrow.

interested

surprised

around 2050.

cool
scary

FAST

confusing
relaxing

situation.

AS

He

/6 points)

It's w h e n s o m e t h i n g makes you w a n t t o k n o w more.

TOO

She's

dr.... m ...

k n o w it was g o i n g t o happen.

We aren't old e n o u g h t o see that film.

It's

ch ...t sh....w

It's h o w you feel w h e n s o m e t h i n g happens but you didn't

AS

We're

I t h i n k that biology is easier t h a n maths.


I t h i n k that maths

M a t c h t h e s e adjectives w i t h t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s . T h e r e are m o r e

interesting
inter

Money

.... dv... rt

adjectives t h a n e x p l a n a t i o n s .

points)

Rewrite t h e sentences u s i n g t h e w o r d s in b o l d . M a k e sure t h e

m e a n i n g stays t h e same.
1

sh w

flood

global w a r m i n g

ozone layer

/ 6 points)

recycle

greenhouse effect

save

waste

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e first or zero c o n d i t i o n a l f o r m

w h e n it rains a lot and rivers get t o o big

of t h e verbs g i v e n .

w h e n you save old things t o use t h e materials again

If she

(go) t o London, she'll be able t o see t h e

London Eye.
2

She w o n ' t say anything if you

(tell) her a secret.

If you p u t snow in your hand, your hand

(get)

w h e n y o u use things in an unnecessary w a y

t h e t h i n g w h i c h protects t h e earth f r o m the sun

w h e n it doesn't rain and there is n o water

w h e n y o u stop using s o m e t h i n g or use very little

cold.
4

If w e have t h e chance, w e

(travel) all around

Europe next summer.


5

If you look directly at t h e sun, it

(be) bad for

your eyes.
6

Sheila

(do) well in t o m o r r o w ' s exam if she


(think) carefully.

/7 points)

Find a s y n o n y m f o r get i n t h e s e sentences.


1

I'll get your bag.

Can you get m e t h e newspaper w h e n you g o t o t h e shops?

She usually gets h o m e early.

/25 points

/6 points)

/3 points)

Reading
1

Read a b o u t a c a m e r a m a n called M a t t H o w a r d a n d c h o o s e a, b o r t o c o m p l e t e t h e sentences.

a t t H o w a r d is a c a m e r a m a n

who

works o n nature documentaries.


H e has f i l m e d a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d ,

in j u n g l e s , r a i n f o r e s t s a n d deserts. H e r e
he tells u s a b o u t h i s j o b .
To

film

nature

documentaries, it's

important t o be good w i t h a

camera,

obviously. B u t , i n m y o p i n i o n , i t ' s m o r e
important t o be interested i n plants a n d
animals. I f y o u a r e n ' t , t h e w o r k c a n b e
really

boring. T o make

a two-minute

HD

camera, it looks m u c h worse

than

w i t h a n o l d c a m e r a . It's t r u e t h a t t h e n e w
c a m e r a s a r e n ' t as h e a v y as t h e o l d ones.'
But

sometimes

Matt

carries

35 kilos,

c l i m b s u p a m o u n t a i n , a n d tries t o f i l m
at t h e s a m e t i m e !
M a t t knows what he wants w h e n he
m a k e s f i l m s . ' I w a n t t o film t h i n g s t h a t
p e o p l e have never seen before. O r I w a n t
t o film t h i n g s t h e y ' v e seen, b u t i n a n e w
wav. I w a n t i t t o be a u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e

for the people watching.'


A n d t h e scariest e x p e r i e n c e he's ever
had? 'We were making a T V programme
a b o u t p o l a r bears i n t h e A r c t i c i c e cap.
We weren't

filming

at t h e t i m e , w e w e r e

sleeping. Suddenly I heard t h e s o u n d o f


a p o l a r bear r i g h t n e x t t o m y ear. I w a s
t o o f r i g h t e n e d t o o p e n m y eyes. I t stayed
there

and then

left.

Believe m e , t h e y w e r e t h e longest

f o r five m i n u t e s

five

m i n u t e s o f m y life!'

film o f a b i r d , insect o r a n i m a l , y o u c a n
sometimes spend a day o r a w e e k l o o k i n g
for t h e m . A n d a n i m a l s a r e n ' t l i k e a c t o r s .
They d o n ' t j u s t appear w h e n y o u w a n t
them to. Sometimes they never appear!'
Matt

knows

that

h i s j o b is

very

i m p o r t a n t . W h e n h e travels t o ice caps o r


deserts, h e sees t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t is
c h a n g i n g . H i s j o b is t o f i l m a w o r l d t h a t
mav disappear o n e day.' I f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t
continues t o change

because o f g l o b a l

w a r m i n g , t h e o n l y place w h e r e y o u ' l l be
able t o see s o m e a n i m a l s a n d insects is
in nature documentaries. I hope o u r w o r k
helps p e o p l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t w e a l l
need t o d o s o m e t h i n g t o save t h e p l a n e t . '
Generally,

changes

in

technology

make M a n ' s l i f e easier. ' H i g h - d e f i n i t i o n


( H D ) c a m e r a s h e l p t o get b e t t e r p i c t u r e s .
But i f v o u m a k e a s m a l l m i s t a k e w i t h a n

Matt says that


a

he doesn't like his j o b m u c h because it isn't very exciting.

it can take a long t i m e t o make a short film.

the most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g in his j o b is the camera.

Matt also says that animals

Write a letter t o a newspaper giving your opinion about


s o m e t h i n g y o u s a w o n TV last w e e k . Use these q u e s t i o n s for
ideas a b o u t w h a t t o w r i t e .

don't always d o w h a t you want.

W h a t t y p e o f p r o g r a m m e was it?

don't like actors.

Was it g o o d or bad? Why?

don't like appearing in films.

Matt thinks his work is i m p o r t a n t because


b

he is protecting some animals, insects and plants.


it may be the only way that people can see some animals
and insects in the future,

Writing

he makes programmes a b o u t saving the planet.

Matt thinks that n e w HD cameras


a

always take better pictures than old cameras.

are lighter than old cameras.

usually take worse pictures t h a n old cameras.

Matt
a

wants people t o see s o m e t h i n g new and different w h e n


they watch his work,

once had a bad experience w h e n he was w a t c h i n g a


polar bear.
had a scary experience because he's very frightened o f
filming polar bears.

H o w d i d it make you feel - happy, angry, interested,


frightened?

What d o you want? More programmes like this? To stop


programmes like this?

W h a t are other people's opinions?

D e a r Editor,
I a m w r i t i n g i n response to a T V p r o g r a m m e w h i c h I
s a w l a s t w e e k . T h e p r o g r a m m e ...

Grammar

Modal verbs of obligation, prohibition and advice (must, have to,

Vocabulary

Jobs, Personal qualities

> Second conditional

mustn% don't have to, should, shouldn 1)

7 Odd jobj

Compound adjectives

Speaking

Making polite requests

Writing

A letter of application and CV

Complete the jobs w i t h the missing vowels.

W r i t e t r u e (T) or false (F) a b o u t


t h e p e r s o n in t h e p h o t o .
1

He works w i t h children.

He works indoors.

He does paperwork.

He does manual work.

He deals w i t h the public.

He travels a lot.

He works in a team.

He works in an office.

T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F

He works w i t h numbers.

T/F

He works w i t h a computer. T/F

10
1

_ m p _ t.... r
P

....

r... .... p t

st

T/F
T/F
T/F

Personal qualities
3

Find adjectives in t h e w o r d search a n d w r i t e t h e m n e x t t o t h e


correct s y n o n y m or explanation.

Id

s h.... p

P.

.... s s.... s t.... n t

ff

w i t h lots o f imagination and n e w ideas:

healthy:

w i t h lots of physical energy:

intelligent:

kind, helpful and sympathetic t o other people:

a friendly person w h o likes being w i t h other people:

s o m e b o d y you can d e p e n d o n :

s o m e b o d y w h o doesn't easily get excited, worried or angry:

s o m e b o d y w h o wants t o be t h e b e s t .

W r i t e t w o personal q u a l i t i e s in 3 t h a t y o u t h i n k are necessary


in t h e s e j o b s .

7 f s h

n d s q n r
Unit 7

r n l s t

A sports teacher:.

A poet:

A scientist:

A shop assistant:.

t Reading
1

Read t h e t w o t e x t s a n d c o m p l e t e t h e t i t l e s t o s h o w w h a t j o b

each person d i d at first a n d in t h e e n d .


Text 1: Barry Cox - f r o m

of them?

to

Text 2: Aleksander Kudajczyk - f r o m

to

He lives and works in t h e c o u n t r y where he was born.

He has already started w o r k i n g full-time in the w o r l d of


music.

Textl
BARRY

Read t h e t e x t s a g a i n . Are these sentences a b o u t Barry Cox


(), A l e k s a n d e r Kudajczyk (AK), b o t h m e n (B) or n e i t h e r (N)

3
COX

IS

He has f o u n d a n e w j o b because s o m e b o d y discovered h i m


by accident.

famous

singer. He's f r o m L i v e r p o o l b u t

A w o m a n played an i m p o r t a n t part in his change o f career.

matter. T h e r e he's a superstar.

He practised a lot.

So how d i d t h a t h a p p e n ?

He's g o i n g t o act in a film.

he isn't f a m o u s i n E n g l a n d . I n
China it's a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t

Barry is 30 years o l d . W h e n
he left school h e w a s n ' t h a p p y

and d e c i d e d to do s o m e t h i n g

W r i t e sentences w i t h s i m i l a r i t i e s or differences b e t w e e n Barry


Cox a n d A l e k s a n d e r Kudajczyk. T h i n k a b o u t w h e r e t h e y live,

different w i t h his l i f e . T h e first step w a s t o l e a r n a n e w l a n g u a g e .

their old and new jobs and h o w they f o u n d their new jobs.

He started w i t h S p a n i s h b u t he d i d n ' t e n j o y t h e e x p e r i e n c e .
Then one d a y i n L i v e r p o o l ' s C h i n a T o w n he s u d d e n l y h a d a n

idea. N o t m a n y E n g l i s h p e o p l e l e a r n C h i n e s e so h e d e c i d e d to
try. He w e n t i n t o a l o c a l C h i n e s e r e s t a u r a n t a n d o r d e r e d a m e a l
... and some l a n g u a g e lessons. H e w a s l u c k y . T h e n e p h e w of t h e
restaurant o w n e r w a n t e d E n g l i s h lessons, so t h e y h e l p e d e a c h
other a n d b e c a m e f r i e n d s . A t t h a t time B a r r y d i d n ' t k n o w t h a t
there w e r e d i f f e r e n t C h i n e s e dialects. B a r r y l e a r n t C a n t o n e s e ,
which is a c t u a l l y m o r e d i f f i c u l t t h a n M a n d a r i n . H e s p o k e i t a l l
day w i t h his n e w C h i n e s e f r i e n d s a n d at a C h i n e s e s u p e r m a r k e t
where he s t a r t e d w o r k i n g . T h e n one d a y h e w e n t to a c o n c e r t
by a f a m o u s singer f r o m H o n g K o n g a n d i t c h a n g e d his l i f e . H e
started s i n g i n g i n C a n t o n e s e . H e t o o k i t m o r e seriously, h a d
singing lessons a n d e n t e r e d s i n g i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s . O n e

day

he d e c i d e d to m o v e t o H o n g K o n g . It w a s d i f f i c u l t to b e c o m e
a professional s i n g e r t h e r e b u t h e m o v e d to M a c a o , a sort of
Chinese Las Vegas. That's w h e r e h e b e c a m e f a m o u s a n d w h e r e
he lives n o w . H e has to s i n g six days a w e e k at a b i g casino b u t
he loves i t . A n d n o w t h e y m a y m a k e a f i l m a b o u t his l i f e !

Text 2
W H A T A C H A N G E ! A t the m o m e n t A l e k s a n d e r K u d a j c z y k has

Look u p in y o u r d i c t i o n a r y t h r e e w o r d s f r o m each t e x t t h a t
y o u d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a n d w r i t e t h e m e a n i n g next t o t h e m .
Textl
1

Word:

Meaning:

Word:

Meaning:

Word:

Meaning:

to clean the floors o f G l a s g o w U n i v e r s i t y b u t n e x t w e e k he is


going to b e g i n a n e w j o b , as a c o n c e r t p i a n i s t . T h e s u r p r i s i n g
story o f t h i s 28-year-old Polish m a n ,s l i k e a H o l l y w o o d
M r K u d a j c z y k a r r i v e d i n S c o t l a n d i n January. H e

film
wanted

Text 2
1

Word:

... M e a n i n g :

Word:

Meaning:

Word:

Meaning:

w o r k as a teacher b u t all he f o u n d was a j o b as a cleaner


a Glasgow U n i v e r s i t y . H e h a d t o w o r k there f o u r h o u r s a d a y
starting at 6 a m . O n e d a y m the u n i v e r s i t y he d i s c o v e r e d a g r a n d
piano a n d he asked p e r m i s s i o n t o p l a y o n i t . T h e y gave h i m
perrmsston b u t n o b o d y t h o u g h t a n y m o r e a b o u t , t . W h a t

Mr

K u d a j c z y k d i d n ' t k n o w was t h a t there was a w e b c a m i n the


piano r o o m . O n e d a y a u n i v e r s i t y secretary was c h e c k i n g the
w e b c a m p i c t u r e s a n d she saw A l e k s a n d e r p l a y i n g . T h e m u s i c

W h a t a b o u t you?

was so perfect that she t h o u g h t it was a C D . T h e n she saw ,t

W h i c h story did you like the most:

was the cleaner d o i n g h i s d a i l y p i a n o p r a c t i c e . She i m m e d i a t e l y

or 2? Explain why.

sent emails to o t h e r p e o p l e at the u n i v e r s i t y , t e l l i n g t h e m


watch. S o o n after, M r

Kudajczyk

was

music

playing

Chopin's

to

h u n d r e d s o f teachers a n d s t u d e n t s .
Since t h e n he has p l a y e d the p i a n o
at m a n y special concerts a n d events
but he has also c o n t i n u e d t o w o r k
as a cleaner. But n e x t w e e k t h a t w i l l
change w h e n he becomes a f u l l - t i m e
professional m u s i c i a n a n d teacher.

Unit 7

Modal verbs of obligation, prohibition and advice


1

Read t h e sentences a n d c h o o s e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h

describes t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e sentence.
1

You don't have t o be an expert t o use a computer. Obligation/


no obligation

2
3

You mustn't c o m e h o m e late No obligation/prohibition


You should w r i t e d o w n n e w vocabulary. Recommendation/

People

You

take medicine w h e n you aren't ill.

You

help your friends w h e n they have

Doctors have t o w o r k at unusual times. Obligation/prohibition

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h should or shouldn't.

problems.
4

Your essay doesn't have t o be perfect. No obligation/


You must t r y your best. Obligation/prohibition

You shouldn't g o t o bed late t h e n i g h t before an exam.

switch off their mobile phones in the

C h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e . If y o u t h i n k t w o alternatives
are c o r r e c t , m a r k b o t h o f t h e m .

&ghJbidgn/gg\Ke
8

People
cinema.

W h e n you aren't very g o o d at s o m e t h i n g , you


practise t o get better.

obligation
5

use violence t o solve their problems.

You mustn't start crying w h e n t h i n g s g o w r o n g .


No obligation/prohibnion

Children has to/have to/don't have to go t o school on Monday.

You must/mustn't/don't have to copy in exams.

Doctors must/mustn't/have to work hard.

You has to/have to/must wear g o o d clothes if you work in a


bank.

Visitors mus^Vmus^dgnXhgy?J&

talk in a loud voice or

shout because it is prohibited.


6

You must/don't have to/mustn't use a mobile phone in a plane.

Grammar extension
6

Each s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n s a m i s t a k e . Find t h e mistake a n d w r i t e


t h e sentence correctly.

W r i t e c o m p l e t e sentences using t h e w o r d s g i v e n a n d t h e
correct f o r m o f have to or don't have to.

Children under 16 must t o g o t o school.

This exercise is optional - you mustn't d o it.

You should t o do extra work if it's difficult.

Students haven't t o wear a u n i f o r m in our school and so you


can wear w h a t you want.

Normally teachers/wear a u n i f o r m .

Normally a police officer/wear a uniform.

l/go t o school o n Sunday.

A secretary/know h o w t o use a computer.

You musn't drink and drive - it's illegal.

You don't have t o o p e n the car door w h e n the car is moving.

You should eat chocolate just before you go t o bed because it


isn't g o o d for your teeth.

Builders/wear hard hats.

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h must or mustn't.


1

You

People

Students

Professional musicians
instrument.

58

Unit 7

w r i t e carefully in exams.
smoke in hospitals.

Smoking is prohibited here. You don't have t o d o it.

It's essential t o d o this exercise. You mustn't do it.

use m o b i l e phones in class.


practise playing their

10

You mustn't be 18 t o ride a bike.

Developing v o c a b u l a r y
Compound adjectives
1

Complete t h e c r o s s w o r d .
Across
1

He's t h e first person t o arrive at w o r k and the last person t o go. He does
more t h a n a n y b o d y else. He's very hard-

They're a beautiful couple. She's very beautiful and he's

good6
8

You've g o t t h e pen in your left hand. Are you left-

She's t h e director of a large multinational company. I'm sure she's

well-_

Down
2

You should be more relaxed and easy-

That teacher only teaches t w o lessons a day. He's part-

She's well-

She always knows where she should be

and w h a t she has t o do.


7

People f r o m Northern Europe sometimes have b l o n d e hair and are


blue-

Look at t h e a d j e c t i v e s in 1. W r i t e t h r e e w h i c h y o u t h i n k describe y o u
a n d t h r e e w h i c h d o n ' t describe y o u .
1

I'm
and

I'm not
or

Think o f a f r i e n d or f a m i l y m e m b e r a n d describe t h e m u s i n g t h e a d j e c t i v e s in 1 .

Vocabulary extension: more compound adjectives


4

Match these w o r d s t o m a k e c o m p o u n d adjectives. T h e n m a t c h


t h e m w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n s . Use y o u r d i c t i o n a r y if necessary.
1

self-

dressed

o p e n t o n e w ideas and
different opinions

open-

well-

4 bad-

known

-reliant -..

minded

rich, w i t h a lot o f m o n e y

famous, many people k n o w

well-

off

well-

tempered

you get angry often or quickly


able t o d o t h i n g s for yourself
and not d e p e n d on other
people

wearing g o o d clothes

Yes, she's very

b u t that's because she

spends all her m o n e y o n clothes.


2

I like h i m because he's very

He listens

t o y o u and thinks before he says yes or no.


3

She's very i n d e p e n d e n t and

.She

doesn't t h i n k her parents have t o d o everything for her.

you

-e
5

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o m p o u n d adjectives in 4.

My older brother is so

.He always

shouts at me, and for no reason!


5

She's a

writer. Lots of people have

b o u g h t her books and seen her face.


6

I think his family is q u i t e

because

they've g o t a really big house.

Unit 7

Working in

the

UK

Text!

international cultural knowledge


Two traditional jobs
1

Ernie Wilkins,
Milkman

Read t h e texts a b o u t Ernie W i l k i n s a n d Penny W i l c o x a n d w r i t e

Emie

o n e s e n t e n c e t o e x p l a i n w h a t t h e i r j o b s are.

Ernie Wilkins is a m i l k m a n . M i l k m e n bring

everybody can

Penny Wilcox is a lollipop person. Lollipop people h e l p .

Wilkins

milkman

He loves

has

been

20

years.

for

his job, b u t

not

understand

w h y . For a s t a r t , h e h a s

to

get u p e a r l y e v e r y day. He
gets u p a t o n e o ' c l o c k i n t h e
m o r n i n g a n d s t a r t s w o r k at
two. That's w h e n he puts all
the

WORD BOOSTER

milk

milk
I

Match the words and definitions.

o n t o his

float. A n d

milkmen
you

not long ago

don't

electric

nowadays
just

milk. They

bring

often

sell

I
I

1
2

float
item

a
b

a large vehicle

and

official

an individual t h i n g

takes h i m three quarters o f

recently

formal

juice, cream, yoghurt, bread


potatoes.

It

usually

an h o u r to prepare his float. T h e n he starts d r i v i n g r o u n d the


streets i n his t o w n , leaving bottles o f m i l k a n d other items
a t h i s c u s t o m e r s ' doors. W h e n t h e y w a k e up, e v e r y t h i n g is

Read t h e t e x t s a g a i n a n d c o m p l e t e t h e t a b l e .
1

W h a t Ernie likes a b o u t

a b o u t his j o b

his j o b

the peace and quiet of


r
t
/
the early mominq

W h a t Ernie d o e s n ' t like

there, w a i t i n g .
E r n i e loves t h e p e a c e a n d q u i e t o f t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g . He
loves b e i n g o u t d o o r s , e x c e p t w h e n it's v e r y c o l d i n t h e w i n t e r .
T h a t ' s t h e o n e t h i n g h e d o e s n ' t enjoy. B u t w a t c h i n g t h e s u n
c o m e u p is a l w a y s a s p e c i a l m o m e n t f o r h i m . E m i e is v e r y

c a r i n g . He loves t h e f a c t t h a t e v e r y b o d y k n o w s h i m a n d o l d
p e o p l e o f t e n ask h i m f o r h e l p . W h e n E m i e f i n i s h e s w o r k at

9 a m , he's t i r e d b u t h a p p y .

Text 2

W h a t Penny likes a b o u t

her j o b
e

W h a t Penny d o e s n ' t like

Penny Wilcox,
Lollipop person

a b o u t her j o b

Penny

Wilcox

is

55.

She

doesn't w a n t to w o r k l o n g

hours

and

so t h e j o b

s t a r t e d l a s t y e a r is
f

she

perfect

f o r her. She j u s t w o r k s f o r
half an h o u r i n the m o r n i n g
and

half

an

hour

in

the

afternoon. The official n a m e


3

Answer the questions.

for

her

job

is

C r o s s i n g G u i d e . She
1

works

W h a t personal qualities d o Ernie and Penny have?

outside

Ernie:

times w h e n students arrive

Penny:
2

School

What is a School Crossing Guide?

school

at

the

i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d leave i n
t h e a f t e r n o o n . W h e n t h e r e is a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s w a i t i n g , she
w a l k s i n t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e r o a d a n d s t o p s t h e t r a f f i c . She
w e a r s a b r i g h t y e l l o w j a c k e t a n d c a r r i e s a s i g n w h i c h says

Can Penny's j o b be dangerous or not? Why?

'STOP'. T h e s i g n l o o k s l i k e a l o l l i p o p , w h i c h is w h y e v e r y b o d y
calls Penny a n d h e r colleagues ' l o l l i p o p people'. W h e n drivers
see h e r a n d h e r s i g n , t h e y m u s t s t o p a n d l e t t h e c h i l d r e n
cross. P e n n y is a v e r y s o c i a b l e p e r s o n a n d she loves t a l k i n g

What about you?


Which of the t w o jobs w o u l d you prefer to d o and why?

t o t h e c h i l d r e n e a c h m o r n i n g . T h e o n l y t h i n g she d o e s n ' t l i k e
is t h a t s o m e d r i v e r s get a n g r y a n d s h o u t w h e n t h e y h a v e to
stop. Penny t h i n k s t h a t i n t h e past drivers were friendlier.
She's u n h a p p y t h a t r e c e n t l y t h e r e h a v e b e e n s o m e serious
a c c i d e n t s a n d l o l l i p o p p e o p l e h a v e b e e n h u r t . B u t Penny
k n o w s a l o t o f the c h i l d r e n a n d w o n ' t stop w o r k i n g i f they
n e e d her.

60

Unit 7

r Grammar in context

Second conditional
1

Match t h e halves o f t h e sentences.


If I were a president or prime minister,

If y o u gren't/w&enX m y brother, I'd be really angry w i t h you.

If I had a boat,

If it was h o t all year, I won't/wouldn't go out.

In Australia it w o u l d be unusual

If I were/am you, I'd buy a n e w m o b i l e phone.

I f t h e y gave m e a j o b in t h e summer,

I f t h e y didnydgn't have a pet, they'd be able t o g o away in t h e summer.

We'd go t o the USA in t h e s u m m e r

We would/will enjoy t h e concert more if w e k n e w t h e songs.

My parents w o u l d be really happy w i t h m e

They would/will c o n t i n u e r u n n i n g i f t h e y didn't get tired.

a
b

if we had e n o u g h money.
I'd spend a lot of m o n e y on health, education

I'd take it because I need t h e money,

if I became a famous singer,

I'd spend my holidays at sea.

if it snowed in t h e summer.

I'd d o w h a t he said if he yyas/.k boss.

Television w o u l d be better if there g/en't/weren't all those adverts.

10
4

Look at t h e sentences in 1. Are these sentences


about t h e second c o n d i t i o n a l t r u e (T) or false (F)?
1

and the environment,

Choose t h e c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e .

The second conditional talks a b o u t i m p r o b a b l e


and imaginary situations.

If I could/can sing, I'd start a band.


If y o u w e n t o u t more, you wgn't/wouldn't be lonely.

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l f o r m o f t h e verbs g i v e n .
1

If I

(have) a p r o b l e m , I'd call you.

If t h e bus didn't c o m e , w e

You w o u l d n ' t learn m u c h if you

If y o u

(walk).

(not be) h a p p y if m y parents didn't let m e g o out.


(play) c o m p u t e r games all day.

(learn) t o speak a n e w language, it w o u l d help you

find a j o b .

The second conditional talks about past


situations.
We use would m the half of the sentence w i t h If.

If John was faster, he

(play) football better.

They'd leave the restaurant immediately i f t h e y

(not like)

the food.
We can use was or were w i t h If l/he/she.
The half of the sentence w i t h If always comes
first.

If I k n e w t h e answer, I

If I

(tell) you.

(find) m o n e y in t h e street, I'd try t o find w h o it b e l o n g e d to.

10

I'd buy t h a t coat if I

11

If I were y o u , I

(have) e n o u g h money.
(ask) the teacher t o explain the h o m e w o r k again.

Grammar extension
5

Give these p e o p l e advice u s i n g If I were you...


1

You can a d d reasons t o e x p l a i n y o u r o p i n i o n .

I've g o t an exam t o m o r r o w b u t it's t h e c u p final t o n i g h t and

A g o o d friend has stopped talking t o me, b u t I don't k n o w why.


think he's angry w i t h me.

my favourite t e a m is playing.

My friends have invited m e t o play football t o n i g h t b u t m y leg


hurts.

I've g o t lots o f English h o m e w o r k t o do t o n i g h t b u t I forgot t o


bring my books home.

Another student copied m y answers in an exam yesterday.


It's my mum's birthday next week b u t I have no idea w h a t t o
buy her.

My friends are all g o i n g t o an expensive restaurant t o n i g h t b u t


I haven't g o t e n o u g h m o n e y t o go.
9

I'd like t o learn t o drive.

I can't understand the maths that we're studying at the


m o m e n t but I don't w a n t t o tell anyone because I feel stupid.

1 0 I w a n t t o be famous one day.

Unit 7

in .

evelopmg speaking

"

i llM

'^*

mini

Asking about a job

Describing photos

Put t h e w o r d s i n o r d e r t o m a k e p o l i t e requests.

Look at t h e p h o t o a n d answer t h e q u e s t i o n s . If y o u are n o t


sure o f s o m e t h i n g , use / think and/or / imagine.

me

y o u starts

if

y o u tell

we

Could

you me

need

Can

Could

me

you d o

apply

me

j o b when

y o u any

ask

h o w Could

tell

t h e wages

tell

tell

Can

to

ask

what

what

address

your

the ?

experience

can ?

have

are

Can ?

basic

what

is

C o m p l e t e t h e d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e p o l i t e requests i n 1.
HOLIDAY CAMP ORGANISER:

TEENAGER:

Good afternoon?

Good afternoon. I'm calling a b o u t a j o b t h a t was


in t h e newspaper yesterday. Could I ask for some
information?

H O L I D A Y C A M P O R G A N I S E R : Certainly.
TEENAGER:

Thanks, (a)

HOLIDAY CAMP ORGANISER:

Yes. It b e g i n s o n 1 July a n d i t
s t

finishes o n 3 1 July.
s t

TEENAGER:

O h , I see. (b)

HOLIDAY CAMP ORGANISER:

Well, you have t o give some sports

lessons in the m o r n i n g , and t h e n in t h e afternoon


you take groups of children o n excursions or you
organise games and c o m p e t i t i o n s w i t h t h e m .
TEENAGER:

I see. (c)

people who've d o n e similar w o r k before.


I understand, (d)

HOLIDAY CAMP ORGANISER:

It's 150 a w e e k , a n d l u n c h is

included.
TEENAGER:

(e)

HOLIDAY CAMP ORGANISER:

It's easy. You just need t o send a

letter o f application and CV t o m e and t h e n I'll call


people for interviews.
TEENAGER:

That's great, (f)

HOLIDAY CAMP ORGANISER:

Unit 7

Use t h e q u e s t i o n s in 3 t o t h i n k o f t h i n g s t o say a b o u t t h i s
p h o t o . M a k e notes a n d t h e n practise orally.

HOLIDAY CAMP ORGANISER: It's n o t essential, b u t w e prefer

TEENAGER:

Yes, it's

r Developing w r i t i n g
A letter of application and CV
1

Read t h i s letter o f a p p l i c a t i o n . W h a t t y p e o f j o b d o y o u t h i n k
Benjamin M a r t i n w a n t s ? D o y o u t h i n k h e is a g o o d p e r s o n f o r

1 s

the j o b ?

I look forward to h e a r i n g f r o m y o u
12 S e f t o n S t r e e t
Sunderland
SU7 8BV

M s Susan N i c h o l s o n
72 H i l l R o a d
Birmingham

Put t h e h e a d i n g s in t h e c o r r e c t place in t h e CV.

B06 3NJ

th

7 F e b r u a r y 2011

D e a r M s Nicholson,
I a m w r i t i n g i n r e s p o n s e t o y o u r advertisement i n
The Birmingham Sun. I w o u l d l i k e t o a p p l y for the j o b w h i c h

Interests

Education and qualifications

General information

Work experience

th

you a d v e r t i s e d i n this n e w s p a p e r o n 5 F e b r u a r y
C U R R I C U L U M

I enclose a C V w i t h information about myself, i n c l u d i n g


education a n d w o r k e x p e r i e n c e . A s y o u w i l l s e e , tennis is

V I T A E

Benjamin M a r t i n

one of m y m a m h o b t t e s and mterests. I have e x p e r i e n c e of


A

giving tennis lessons a n d of w o r k i n g w i t h children. I also think

that I a m patient, w e l l - o r g a n i s e d a n d h a r d - w o r k i n g .

..

20/7/1992
British

I look forward to h e a r i n g f r o m y o u .

Single

Yours s i n c e r e l y ,

12 Sefton Street, Sunderland, SU7 8BV

benjamin

Martin

( m o b i l e ) 0567 123 4567


6

( h o m e ) 651 10 11 12

Benjamin M a r t i n

benmart@binter.com
2

Look at t h e w o r d s a n d expressions in b o l d . Explain w h y t h e y

S u m m e r f i e l d School, S u n d e r l a n d

are i m p o r t a n t in letters o f a p p l i c a t i o n .

A levels m E n g l i s h Literature, French a n d E c o n o m i c s


12 S e f t o n S t r e e t

We write our own address in the lop

July 2 0 1 0

W o r k e d at Foxton Tennis C l u b g i v i n g lessons


5-10 year olds

July 2009
Ms

W o r k e d at Knightley Tennis C l u b as assistant

D
Tennis
Reading
G o o d k n o w l e d g e of c o m p u t e r s

72 H i l l R o a d

4
Dear

I a m w r i t i n g i nresponse to

I would like to

N o w p u t t h e specific titles in t h e c o r r e c t place in t h e CV.

Permanent address

Email

Nationality

Telephone

Marital status

Telephone

Date o f birth

Take a piece o f p a p e r a n d w r i t e o u t y o u r o w n CV. Use t h e


c o m p l e t e d CV o n t h i s p a g e as a m o d e l .
Unit 7

"

8 Good friends
Y

V o c a b u l a r y

Grammar

Past perfect

Vocabulary

Relationships

Gerunds and infinitives

Speaking

> Reporting a past event

Writing

A personal

Feelings

Noun suffixes

-ness. -ship,

description

11,11

Relationships
1

M a t c h these phrases t o t h e p i c t u r e s .
ask s o m e b o d y o u t

fall in love w i t h s o m e b o d y

get back t o g e t h e r again


get o n well w i t h s o m e b o d y
hove an a r g u m e n t

Are these stages usually at t h e start or t h e e n d o f a


relationship?
Start

g e t married
go out with somebody

split u p w i t h s o m e b o d y

W o u l d y o u like t o g o t o t h e
cinema w i t h m e o n Friday?

get o n well w i t h s o m e b o d y

ask s o m e b o d y o u t

have an a r g u m e n t

meet s o m e b o d y

split u p w i t h s o m e b o d y

fall in love w i t h s o m e b o d y

go o u t w i t h s o m e b o d y

End

Feelings
3

C o m p l e t e t h e puzzle by w r i t i n g t h e n o u n f o r m o f each
a d j e c t i v e . Is t h e w o r d in t h e s h a d e d c o l u m n positive or

negative?

have an argument

angry

bored

excited

afraid

happy

lonely

<0

s
'a
2

3
4
5
6

We like t h e same films, t h e

i same f o o d , the same people ...J

W r i t e y o u r o w n t r u e answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .

W h e n was t h e last t i m e you were angry? What happened?

When was the last t i m e you were bored? Why were you bored?

W h e n you were small, w h a t were you afraid of?

W h e n was t h e last t i m e you were very excited? What


happened?

I
Unit 8

W h e n was the last t i m e you were lonely? What did you do?

Read t h e t w o love stones f r o m British n e w s p a p e r s . W r i t e a t i t l e

Look a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . W h o does it describe - David,

for each story.

M i c h e l l e , Geraint o r Laura? Each piece o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d


describe m o r e t h a n o n e p e r s o n .

17 years old Michelle

stop

student

thinking about the number. H e started t h i n k i n g that

farmer

somebody h a d g i v e n h i m t h e n u m b e r . I n t h e e n d h e

lived more t h a n 100 kilometres f r o m his partner

sent a lot o f emails

sent a lot of text messages

m e t her partner w h e n she was o n holiday

FIVE Y E A R S A G O D a v i d B r o w n w o k e u p w i t h a m y s t e r y
mobile p h o n e

number

i n his head.

H e couldn't

decided t o send a text message. T h e n u m b e r

belonged

to M i c h e l l e K i t s o n , a 1 7 - y e a r - o l d s t u d e n t w h o w a s l i v i n g
w i t h h e r p a r e n t s a b o u t 100 k i l o m e t r e s a w a y . S h e d e c i d e d
to a n s w e r

t h e message.

it b e c a m e c l e a r
they

continued

messages

After a f e w more

that they h a d never

messages

m e t before. E

sending

and

started

calling each other o nt h e

g o t married

works many hours a day

10

phone. T h e n M i c h e l l e a n d

met her partner in an unusual w a y

D a v i d m e t ... a n d f e l l i n
Answer the questions.

love. N o t l o n g after, t h e y
got

married.

Michelle

said: 'It w a s a f a n t a s t i c d a y

H o w did David meet Michelle?

What was special a b o u t t h e day w h e n Michelle g o t married?

H o w did Geraint meet Laura?

when w e got married. T h e


weather

h a d been

that w e e k

awful

but when

we

went to the church it was


beautiful sunshine!'

2
7"es, m i l k I S g o o d f o r y o u . I t c a n e v e n f i n d y o u a
boyfriend

or girlfriend!

Just

ask farmer

Geraint

Evans. H e a n d f o u r o t h e r f a r m e r s , m e n a n d w o m e n , p u t
t h e i r p h o t o s o n t h e s i d e o f 2,000 m i l k c a r t o n s w i t h t h e i r
email addresses a s k i n g p e o p l e t o c o n t a c t t h e m . G e r a i n t
hadn't h a d a g i r l f r i e n d f o r f i v e y e a r s because o f his l o n g

days a t w o r k o n t h e f a r m . H e o f t e n f i n i s h e d a t 1 1 p m a n d
so h e h a d n o t i m e t o g o o u t a n d m e e t p e o p l e . H e w a s l u c k y .
A 28-year-old A m e r i c a n

student called Laura

W h y did Geraint decide t o look for a girlfriend in an unusual


way?

Allison

saw G e r a i n t ' s p h o t o a n d i m m e d i a t e l y f e l l i n l o v e . L a u r a
was o n l y i n B r i t a i n o n h o l i d a y . W h e n s h e g o t b a c k t o h e r
home i n Chicago, she c o n t a c t e d G e r a i n t . S i x m o n t h s h a v e
passed a n d t h e y h a v e sent h u n d r e d s o f e m a i l s , c a l l e d e a c h
other, s e n t l e t t e r s a n d v i s i t e d e a c h o t h e r ' s h o m e s . T h e

Find w o r d s in t h e t e x t s w h i c h have similar m e a n i n g s t o these


words or explanations.

couple m e t i n p e r s o n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e w h e n G e r a i n t f l e w
to C h i c a g o . ' A f t e r m e e t i n g a n d s p e n d i n g t i m e t o g e t h e r , I

obvious, evident (Text 1)

one person t o another person (Texts 1 and2)

container for liquids, especially milk or juice (Text 2)

i m m e d i a t e l y after (Text2)

k n o w this is t r u e love a n d I h o p e w e w i l l s p e n d t h e rest


of o u r l i v e s t o g e t h e r , ' s a i d L a u r a . ' I ' v e m e t t h e g i r l o f m y
dreams a n d I w a n t u s t o g e t m a r r i e d as s o o n as L a u r a ' s
finished h e r course i n America,' said Geraint.

W h a t a b o u t you?
W h i c h story d o you think is more unusual and why?

Unit8

65

Past perfect
1

M a t c h t h e halves o f t h e sentences. T h e n u n d e r l i n e t h e t h i n g

W r i t e a c o m p l e t e sentence for each p i c t u r e . Look at t h e

w h i c h h a p p e n e d first in each sentence. Is t h e v e r b in t h e past

example.

s i m p l e or t h e past perfect?

W h e n thev had finished the exam

He didn't have any m o n e y t h a t week

She started reading a n e w b o o k

They hadn't eaten a n y t h i n g all day

W h e n they had had their dinner

He didn't s w i m

They had w o n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n

they washed t h e dishes.

so they had a party t o celebrate.

they left the classroom.

because he had f o r g o t t e n t o bring his t o w e l .

so they ordered a big pizza.

because he had spent it the week before.

because she had finished the o n e she was reading.

W h i c h o f these t h i n g s h a d y o u d o n e by h a l f past e i g h t t h i s
m o r n i n g ? W r i t e c o m p l e t e sentences.
1

By 8.30am this m o r n i n g / h a d / h a d n ' t h a d a

shower.

(have a shower)
2
(read a book)
3
(arrive at school)
4
(have an a r g u m e n t )
5
(speak t o my parents)
6
(use my m o b i l e phone)
7
(send an email)
8
(watch TV)
9
(spend money)

Grammar extension
4

Look at t h e s e i m p o r t a n t dates in t h e h i s t o r y o f m a n k i n d a n d w r i t e sentences w i t h t h e past p e r f e c t . Look at t h e e x a m p l e .


1

4500 - i n v e n t t h e wheel

1 9 0 3 - f l y for the first t i m e

1455 - start t o print books

1928 - discover penicillin

1796 - give the first vaccination

1932-split the atom

1953 - find the molecular structure of DNA

make t h e first battery

1895 - d i s c o v e r X-rays

El

Unit 8

1 0 1969 - walk on the m o o n

Developing v o c a b u l a r y
Noun suffixes -ness, -ship, -dom
1

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e a d j e c t i v e or n o u n f o r m o f
t h e w o r d s in 1.

Put t h e letters in order t o m a k e n o u n s . T h e n c o m p l e t e t h e


table by w r i t i n g t h e n o u n s in t h e c o r r e c t c o l u m n .
dromfee
massend

slilens

moredob

redpinfish

peashspin

snakewes
sillensone

You don't look well. Are you

? Do you need

iff

a doctor?

dessans
tinshiporeal

I have a g o o d

w i t h my sister. We get on well.

After ten years in prison they finally let h i m o u t and gave h i m


back his

-ness

-dom

-ship

freedom
T

Why are you so

? Have you w o n the lottery

or something?
5

She hasn't g o t any brothers or sisters or any g o o d friends. I


t h i n k she's

w i t h n o b o d y t o talk to.

They're q u i t e

.They aren't strong e n o u g h t o

put t h e bags up there.


7

Can you imagine t h e

of sitting around for

five hours w i t h n o t h i n g t o do?


8

Your

is really i m p o r t a n t t o me. We've been

friends since w e were five.


9

You look like you are a b o u t t o cry. Why are you so


?

Vocabulary extension: other nouns ending in -ness, -ship, -dom


3

Match t h e w o r d s w i t h t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . Use y o u r d i c t i o n a r y if necessary.


1

dark

intelligent because you have a lot o f experience

wise

a m a n w h o rules a country, t h e oldest male m e m b e r o f a royal family

aware

not able t o see

leader

a person w h o is in control of other people

blind

black, or w i t h o u t m u c h light

king

k n o w i n g about a situation

Write t h e w o r d s in 3 in t h e correct c o l u m n in t h e t a b l e in 1. Use y o u r d i c t i o n a r y if necessary.

Look at t h e p h o t o s a n d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e correct f o r m o f t h e w o r d s in 3.
1

What is this?

The United

Why can't they see? Because

of t h e

W h a t is an i m p o r t a n t quality in this
t y p e of person?

Why can't he see? Because


he's

What is an i m p o r t a n t quality in
this t y p e o f person?

Unit 8

67

t h a t

h i s t o r y

Legend says that Cleopatra was incredibly beautiful. We don't

Cross-curricular- History
Antony and Cleopatra

k n o w if she was, but w e k n o w that she was very clever. She spoke
nine languages and was a great mathematician. While she was
queen she b r o u g h t prosperity and peace t o Egypt.
E

I INSIDE INFORMATION

In Rome some people started saying that Cleopatra had helped

The love story between Mark Antony and Cleopatra is one of the most
famous in history. William Shakespeare wrote a play about the two
characters and there have been other famous books and films about
them too.

t o kill Julius Caesar. Mark Antony, the n e w Emperor of Rome,


w a n t e d t o discover the t r u t h so he t o l d her t o come t o see him.
Cleopatra arrived in a g o l d e n boat.The legend says that Mark
A n t o n y and Cleopatra i m m e d i a t e l y fell in love. We k n o w that they
g o t married soon after and had three children.

WORD BOOSTER
Match the words and
powerful
rival
exile
follow
assassinate

definitions.

kill a famous or i m p o r t a n t person

strong and i m p o r t a n t

make s o m e b o d y leave a country

g o after

s o m e b o d y you c o m p e t e against

prosperity

Write three things that you t h i n k you k n o w a b o u t Cleopatra.

Read t h e t e x t a g a i n a n d p u t t h e p a r a g r a p h s in t h e correct
order.

situation where people have a lot


of m o n e y

Read t h e t e x t a n d see if it m e n t i o n s any o f y o u r facts in I . T h e

Put t h e e v e n t s i n t o t h e correct c h r o n o l o g i c a l order.

t e x t is n o t in order, b u t t h a t is n o t i m p o r t a n t at t h e m o m e n t .

Cleopatra g o t married t o her brother.

Cleopatra g o t married t o Mark Antony.

Cleopatra died.

Together Mark A n t o n y and Cleopatra had a very p o w e r f u l


political and romantic relationship. But Mark A n t o n y had a rival in

Cleopatra had a relationship w i t h Julius Caesar.

Rome, Octavian. Octavian declared war against Mark Antony. In a

Mark A n t o n y died.

terrible battle at A c t i u m , Mark A n t o n y lost and, w i t h Cleopatra, he

Julius Caesar died.

Cleopatra w e n t t o Rome.

ran away t o Egypt. Mark A n t o n y was losing the war and Roman
soldiers were g o i n g t o make h i m a prisoner. He decided t o kill
himself. W h e n Cleopatra f o u n d out, she t o o k a poisonous snake,

Answer the questions.

put it next t o her, and she also t o o k her o w n life.

Why d i d Cleopatra marry her brother?

Why d i d Cleopatra g o t o Rome?

Why did Mark A n t o n y w a n t t o see Cleopatra?

W h y d i d Mark A n t o n y kill himself?

Cleopatra VII o f Egypt is one o f t h e most f a m o u s w o m e n in


history. She was b o r n in 69 or 68 . W h e n her father died, she
became the queen. Her ten-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIII, was
the king. Because o f an old Egyptian tradition she and her brother
got married.

In 48 , Egypt became part o f t h e conflict b e t w e e n Julius Caesar


and Pompey. Caesar came t o Egypt and he and Cleopatra began
a romance. Ptolemy had exiled Cleopatra b u t Caesar helped
Cleopatra t o b e c o m e queen again. In 47 Cleopatra had a child,
possibly Julius Caesar's. Caesar w e n t back t o Rome and Cleopatra
and her son f o l l o w e d h i m . But w h e n they assassinated Caesar
in Rome, Cleopatra returned t o Egypt where once again she
became queen.
68

Unit 8

W h a t a b o u t youl
Do you enjoy d o i n g history at school? Why/Why not?

r Grammar in context
Gerunds and infinitives
1

Match t h e rules w i t h t h e sentences.


We use the g e r u n d as the subject of a sentence.

C o m p l e t e t h e questions w i t h t h e correct f o r m o f t h e verbs g i v e n .


1

We use the gerund w i t h go t o talk a b o u t physical

What d o y o u enjoy

(do) o n Saturday

afternoons?

activities.

We use the gerund after verbs o f liking or disliking.

H o w often d o y o u g o

(shop) w i t h your

friends?

We use the gerund after prepositions.


We use t h e infinitive t o explain w h y s o m e b o d y

does s o m e t h i n g .

We use the infinitive after adjectives.


We use the infinitive after certain verbs.
I hate g e t t i n g up early.

(do) sport. How i m p o r t a n t is it for you?


What are y o u g o o d at

H o w d o you feel a b o u t

What do you w a n t

(do) at school?
(read) in English?
(do) w h e n you finish

school?

I'm g o o d at d o i n g maths.

I want t o g o t o Egypt.
I go s w i m m i n g three times a week.

Do y o u find it easy

(make) n e w friends?

Why/Why not?

I w e n t h o m e t o s e e if my m u m was OK.

Reading fantasy novels is one o f m y hobbies.


It's difficult t o s e e w h e n it's dark.

What d o you hate

(do) at t h e weekend?

W r i t e y o u r o w n t r u e answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s in 3.
1

Grammar extension
5

W r i t e c o m p l e t e sentences a b o u t you using t h e w o r d s in b o l d .


You c a n n o t c h a n g e t h e f o r m o f t h e w o r d s in b o l d . You can use
verbs o f l i k i n g , adjectives, go, p r e p o s i t i o n s o r w o n t j u s t before
t h e w o r d s . The w o r d s can c o m e a t t h e start o f t h e sentence o r

y o u can e x p l a i n w h y y o u d o or d i d s o m e t h i n g .

Match t h e halves o f t h e sentences.


1

Professional football players should enjoy

Last week my grandfather and I w e n t t o

Wembley Stadium

I Jove watching films at the weekend.

WATCHING

TO SEE

Scoring goals is i m p o r t a n t

WALKING

It's i m p o r t a n t for football players

Professional football players don't often g o

TO DO

For professional football players, it usually isn't g o o d

TO BUY

to train hard.

LISTENING

to eat lots of burgers because they aren't very healthy.

LIVING

skiing because they could have an accident.

for football players.

TO BE

to watch a football match.

TO READ

playing football.

10

SHOPPING

Unit 8

Reporting a past event - a party


1

M a t c h t h e q u e s t i o n s a n d answers a b o u t a p a r t y .
Questions

Answers

Whose party was it?

It was his birthday.

Why did they have the party?

No, I didn't k n o w anybody there except m y cousin (and my sister of course!),

W h o did you g o with?

M y cousin was playing some old CDs w i t h songs that n o b o d y knew,

Where was the party?

It was in a cold, dark garage at m y cousin's house.

How many people were there?

No, I didn't dance because I didn't k n o w any o f the songs that my cousin was playing,

Did you k n o w all the people there?

Was there any food? What was it like?

Was there any music? W h a t was it like?

I m e t one or t w o people b u t I didn't like t h e m m u c h ,

Did you dance?

The party e n d e d at 9 p m .

10

Did you meet anybody?

I w e n t w i t h m y little sister.

11

What t i m e did the party end?

It was my cousin's.

There was some food, but w e didn't really eat anything because there were only
some cakes t h a t m y cousin had made and they weren't very g o o d ,

There weren't many because my cousin hasn't g o t many friends.

I m a g i n e t h a t last Saturday y o u w e n t t o t h e best p a r t y ever. W r i t e y o u r o w n answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s in 1. Make it clear t h a t it was the


p e r f e c t party. Use d i f f e r e n t past tenses w h e n necessary.

It was Will Smith's.

8
9
10
11

Describing photos
3

Look a t t h e p h o t o a n d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s . If y o u are n o t
sure o f s o m e t h i n g , use / think a n d / o r / imagine.

Use t h e q u e s t i o n s in 3 t o t h i n k o f t h i n g s t o say a b o u t this


p h o t o . M a k e notes a n d t h e n practise orally.

> Developing w r i t i n g
A personal description
1

Read this d e s c r i p t i o n o f Holly's best f r i e n d , Eleanor, a n d

Read t h e d e s c r i p t i o n a g a i n a n d c o m p l e t e it w i t h these w o r d s
a n d expressions o f s e q u e n c e a n d t i m e .

answer t h e q u e s t i o n s .
1

Where did they meet?

Why was it unusual t o meet there?

at first
3

before

in the end

that s u m m e r

then

years ago

Look at t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t an i m a g i n a r y best f r i e n d . Use


t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n t o w r i t e a n e m a i l like
Holly's. R e m e m b e r t o use expressions o f sequence a n d t i m e .

N a m e : Alfie

M e t : t h r e e y e a r s ago, a t a party, f r i e n d o f a f r i e n d ,
chatting, goes t o s a m e school b u th a d n e v e r

spoken

Good f r i e n d because:
like playing same sports,
funny, Interesting, doesn't
get a n g r y
Physical description
not v e r y tall (like m e ! ) ,
long dark hair

Get Mail

Write

Contacts

Reply

Foiward

Print

Delete

i i i i m i i

Hi Alicia,
How are you? I hope you and your family are all w e l l .
I thought I'd tell you a b i t about my best friend, Eleanor. I met
her two (a)

. (b)

my family

Get Mail

Write

Contacts

Reply

Forward

Delete

4
Print

Dear Jake,
How are you? I hope you're w e l l .

and I were spending our holidays in Spain. Eleanor was staying

I t h o u g h t I ' d tell you a b i t about my best friend, Alfie.

at the same hotel as us. I t ' s incredible t h a t we met in another

I met him

country because at home we actually live very close to each


other but we'd never met (c)
(d)

j I d i d n ' t get on w i t h Eleanor because she

didn't speak much. But (e)

we went out one

evening and we started to chat, ( f )

we found

that we had lots of things in c o m m o n . For example, we both


love music and we like the same singers. We also love dancing.
People say we're like sisters because we're both t a l l , we both
have long fair hair and we've both got blue eyes.
Write back and tell me about your best friend. How did you
meet?
All the best,
Holly

Unit 8

Revision: Units 7-8


Grammar

Vocabulary

C o m p l e t e these sentences a b o u t y o u r school in a logical w a y .


1

At our school, students must

a j o b for creative people:

At our school, students shouldn't

a j o b w i t h a lot of paperwork:

At our school, students don't have t o

a j o b where you need t o be calm:

a j o b w h e r e you w o r k outdoors:

a j o b for people w h o are sociable:

At our school, students mustn't

At our school, students should

At our school, students have t o

At our school, teachers don't have t o

/5 points)

M a t c h t h e s e w o r d s t o m a k e c o m p o u n d adjectives. After each


c o m p o u n d a d j e c t i v e , say if it describes a person or a j o b .

(
2

T h i n k o f a d i f f e r e n t j o b for each e x a m p l e .

easy

/7 points)

handed

working

right

going
looking

paid
time

part

hard

well

good

C o m p l e t e each s e n t e n c e w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e w o r d .
If I

a millionaire, I'd buy m y parents a n e w car.

I w o u l d be really happy

w e lived in N e w York.

If it didn't rain for m o n t h s , w e

have m u c h water.

If I k n e w w h e n his birthday was, I'd

h i m a present.

you run away if you saw a ghost?


If it

, w e w o u l d n ' t g o o u t because w e

haven't g o t an umbrella.

-workin

<3

person/job

. person/job

. P. .UQ.0/JQ.b

.. person/job

person/job

/6 points)

/10 points)

C o m p l e t e t h e expressions.
3

Decide w h i c h a c t i o n h a p p e n e d first a n d p u t o n e v e r b in t h e
past p e r f e c t a n d t h e o t h e r in t h e past s i m p l e .
1

I haelgot

up, I mage

t o have a g o o d relationship w i t h s o m e b o d y = t o

t o start a relationship w i t h s o m e b o d y again = t o get

t o start t o love s o m e b o d y = t o

on well w i t h s o m e o n e

I g o t up/I m a d e m y breakfast.
After

together again

my breakfast,

he finished his lunch/he wasn't hungry.


4

in love w i t h

somebody

she g o t in the s w i m m i n g pool/she s w a m for 20 minutes.

t o ask s o m e b o d y t o g o somewhere w i t h you because you


w a n t t o start a romantic relationship w i t h t h e m = to ask
somebody
t o e n d a relationship w i t h s o m e b o d y = t o
somebody

I sent t h e email/l w r o t e it.

up with

/5 points)

Find t h e w o r d s w h i c h describe these feelings. All t h e w o r d s

(
4

/6 points)

t h e feeling w h e n you aren't happy =

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e s e w o r d s .
doing

to d o

swimming

to swim

watching

are n o u n s .

t h e feeling w h e n you w a n t to be w i t h other people but


to watch

n o b o d y is w i t h you =
the feeling w h e n you are afraid of s o m e t h i n g =

1
2

sport is g o o d for you.


It's i m p o r t a n t

I enjoy

I g o t up early

Are you g o o d at

Do you w a n t

the feeling w h e n s o m e t h i n g really g o o d is g o i n g

your h o m e w o r k every day.


cartoons and dramas.

to happen =
the feeling w h e n you are angry =

the news o n TV.

/5 points)

? Can you g o under the water?


in t h e sea this afternoon?

/6 points)

/25 points
intsj

Reading
1

Read t h e t e x t . Does t h e p h o t o s h o w child work or child labour!

Answer the questions.


1

W h a t examples of dangerous jobs appear in the text?

In typical child labour, do children w o r k long hours? How


m u c h m o n e y d o they get for their work?

What are the problems for children w h o w o r k in agriculture?

W h a t happens t o these children w h e n they have an accident?

Writing
L . T .
Most teenagers in Europe have

children not only w o r k in bad

busy lives. They w o r k hard at

conditions. They also w o r k very

school, then maybe they d o

long hours. Often t h e y get no

after-school activities or sport,

m o n e y for their w o r k .

they go o u t w i t h their friends,


and sometimes they do a
Saturday job. But d o n ' t forget
that there are approximately
218 million children in the w o r l d
between the ages of 5 and 17
who have t o w o r k almost every
day of the year.

child labour a r o u n d the w o r l d ,


the majority (69%) w o r k in
agriculture. They w o r k in very

like knives or machetes. Their


w o r k i n g conditions are dirty and

of t h e day t h e y are very tired.

type of jobs that these y o u n g

But that's w h e n t h e y have t o

people have t o do. Working in

be m o s t careful because, if not,

a supermarket is an example

they can suffer fatal accidents.

of child work. Child w o r k is

A n d you should also r e m e m b e r

an economic activity w h i c h

that these children d o n ' t usually

isn't bad for a child's health or

receive any medicine or medical

education. But the other is w h a t

treatment.

and pesticides in agriculture,


or w o r k i n g w i t h dangerous
machines in factories. These

or ring 0 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

Look at t h e j o b a d v e r t i s e m e n t . You n e e d a j o b this s u m m e r .


W r i t e a l e t t e r t o M r L.T. Jones. Use t h e s e q u e s t i o n s f o r ideas
a b o u t w h a t t o w r i t e (you can i n v e n t i n f o r m a t i o n ) .

in a supermarket and the

or w o r k i n g w i t h chemicals

W r i t e t o M r L.T. Jones, 3 6 A t l a n t i c Drive, Bristol, B06 3LP

use dangerous e q u i p m e n t

long hours and so at the end

children are w o r k i n g in mines,

t o deliver newspapers this summer.

between a job at the w e e k e n d

conditions. Right n o w millions of

S H O P

We need a hard-working teenager

high t e m p e r a t u r e s and they

unhealthy. They have t o w o r k

children w o r k in dangerous

N E W S P A P E R

Of the 218 million children in

There's a big difference

we call child labour. That is w h e n

J O N E S

/5 points)

Why are you writing?


What other i n f o r m a t i o n are you sending w i t h the letter (CV,
p h o t o , other)?

W h a t personal qualities do you have that could help t o get


t h e job?

What experience do you have?

D e a r M r Jones,

So next t i m e y o u think t h a t y o u r
life is difficult, r e m e m b e r t h a t
there are people of your age in
w o r s e conditions. Maybe w e
should all think about d o i n g
s o m e t h i n g t o help t h e m .

/10 points)

Grammar

Reported speech - statements and questions

Vocabulary

Fiction

Non-fiction

Phrasal verbs connected with reading and writing


Speaking

Making offers

Writing

A questionnaire

Fiction
1

C o m p l e t e t h e puzzle w i t h t h e t y p e s o f f i c t i o n .
1

Macbeth, Waiting for Godot, The Importance of Being Earnest

X-Men, Spider-man, Dragonball

Frankenstein, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, The Vampire

Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter, Eragon

Love Story, Antony and Cleopatra, Women in Love

The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, The Last Assassin, The Bourne Identity

Cinderella, Snow White, Flapunzel

Murder on the Orient Express, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes,


The No. I Ladies'Detective Agency

The Time Machine, War of the Worlds, Journey to the Centre

of the Earth
10
2

Viking, Pompeii, Centurion

Look a t these f i c t i o n a l characters. C h o o s e t h e t y p e o f b o o k in 1 t h a t each o n e c o m e s f r o m .

Non-fiction
3

M a t c h each t y p e o f n o n - f i c t i o n b o o k w i t h t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t it gives.
Type of non-fiction
1 atlas
2 autobiography

I n f o r m a t i o n it g i v e s
a

It tells you h o w t o f i n d a place and w h a t you can d o there.

It tells you w h a t you need t o k n o w a b o u t a subject that you study at school.

biography

It tells you w h i c h ingredients you need for a dish and h o w t o prepare t h e m .

4 cookbook

It shows you t h e geographic location of different places.

5 dictionary

It tells you w h a t has happened very recently or w h a t is h a p p e n i n g now.

6 encyclopedia

It tells you a b o u t somebody's life.

7 guidebook

It tells you h o w t o use or operate s o m e t h i n g .

manual

It tells you a b o u t t h e writer's life.

newspaper

It tells you a b o u t almost a n y t h i n g in t h e w o r l d .

It tells you the meaning, f o r m , spelling and pronunciation o f words.

1 0 textbook

Choose o n e t y p e o f n o n - f i c t i o n t h a t y o u s o m e t i m e s read a n d o n e t h a t y o u never read. W r i t e a s e n t e n c e f o r each e x p l a i n i n g w h y .


1

I sometimes read
because

Unit 9

I never read
because

eading
1

Read t h e speech by t h e f a m o u s novelist, Paul Auster. Do y o u


t h i n k he is h a p p y b e i n g a w r i t e r ? W h y / W h y not?

Read t h e speech a g a i n a n d m a t c h t h e halves o f t h e sentences.


Auster thinks that
1

Paul Auster is one of America's greatest living novelists.


His books include The New York Trilogy, Mr Vertigo and Moon
Palace.
In 2006 Auster w o n the Prince of Asturias Prize for Letters,
Spain's most important literary honour. The text you are going
to read is the speech that he read out at the ceremony where
he accepted the prize.

I want to tell you a story


I don't k n o w w h y I do w h a t I do. If I did know, I probably w o u l d n ' t

the life of a writer is

books are n o t

art makes us

fairy tales are

TV and films are

useful in a practical way.

f r i g h t e n i n g b u t can't hurt us.

strange.

different f r o m other living things,

popular because w e all need stories.

Answer the questions.


1

W h e n did Paul Auster b e c o m e interested in w r i t i n g stories?

Why does he w r i t e fiction?

Why does he t h i n k books and stories are i m p o r t a n t for us?

feel the need t o do it. All I can say is that I have needed t o w r i t e
stories since my earliest adolescence. It is an unusual way t o
spend your life - sitting alone in a room w i t h a pen in your hand,
hour after hour, day after day, year after year, trying t o put words
on pieces of paper in order t o give birth t o w h a t does not exist except in your o w n head. Why w o u l d anyone w a n t t o d o such a
thing? The only answer I have ever been able t o give is: because

M a t c h these w o r d s f r o m t h e t e x t w i t h t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s .

you have to.


allow

This need t o make, t o create, t o invent is essential for humans.

except

innocent

passion

safe

vast

But fiction has no practical use in the real w o r l d . A book has never
put food in the stomach of a hungry child. A book has never

let, p e r m i t

stopped a bullet f r o m entering a murder victim's body. A book

very big, e n o r m o u s

apart f r o m

not dangerous

example, t o the work of a doctor or an engineer. But is that a bad

not guilty of a crime

thing? Does that mean that books are just a waste of our time?

strong feeling o f love or interest

has never stopped a b o m b f r o m falling on inn_oce_nt people in the


middle of a war.
In other words, art is no use w h e n you compare it, for

Many people think so. But I w o u l d say that art is w h a t makes us


different from anything else on this planet. It is w h a t defines us as
human beings.
Children love listening t o stories. Why? Fairy tales are often

W h a t a b o u t you?
1

Do you t h i n k stories are important? Why/Why not?

What d o you prefer - reading stories, listening t o t h e m ,

cruel and violent. You w o u l d t h i n k this w o u l d be t o o f r i g h t e n i n g


for a young child. But these stories aJJ.oyy children t o meet their
o w n fears - in a perfectly safe and protected e n v i r o n m e n t . This is
the magic of stories.
For years, in every country of t h e western w o r l d , journalists
have w r i t t e n article after article a b o u t the fact that fewer and
fewer people are reading books. This may be true, but at the

w a t c h i n g t h e m on TV or in films? Why?

same t i m e this has not stopped the universal need for stories.
Films and television and even comic books are creating vast
quantities o f narratives, and the public continues t o read t h e m
w i t h great passion. That is because h u m a n beings need stones. It
w o u l d be impossible t o imagine life w i t h o u t t h e m .

Unit 9

75

Reported speech - statements


l a Decide if t h e w o r d s g i v e n are necessary in t h e s e n t e n c e o r n o t .

R e w r i t e t h e sentences in r e p o r t e d speech.

I f t h e y are necessary, w r i t e t h e m in t h e c o r r e c t place.


1

My friend said I c o u l d use his bike, (me)

They t o l d they w a n t e d t o g o h o m e , (us)

The teacher told they had an exam on Wednesday, (the

students)
4

He said it was his birthday, (him)

He said it wasn't his book, (me)

She t o l d she w a n t e d t o g o s h o p p i n g , (her mum)

I said she was my favourite writer, (the teacher)

They t o l d t h e exam was on Friday. (James)

l b Look a t y o u r answers in 1a. W h a t is t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n say

a n d telll

'I'm g o i n g t o play basketball in July,'said Jamie.

1 w a n t t o g o swimming,'said Becky.

'My friend has g o t a new c o m p u t e r game,' said Jack.

'We finish school on Friday,'said Emily and Evie.

'I think this is t h e answer,'said Charlotte.

'We don't need help,'said t h e students.

'My dad works in an office,' said Steven.

I'm n o t g o i n g t o t h e meeting,'said George.

2 a C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t w o r d s .
1

1 love hip-hop,'said Dylan.


Dylan said

loved hip-hop.

'Those are my keys,'said Chloe.


Chloe said those were

'We are t h e police,'said t h e m e n .


The m e n said

extension

5 a M a t c h t h e p e o p l e w i t h t h e t h i n g s t h e y said. T h e n w r i t e
c o m p l e t e sentences in r e p o r t e d speech.

were t h e police.

'Our parents are away,'said Ben and Amy.


Ben and A m y said

Grammar

keys.

parents were away.

'It's my turn t o pay,'said Henry.


Henry said it was

turn t o pay.

2 b Look at y o u r a n s w e r s in 2a. W h a t w o r d s c h a n g e in r e p o r t e d
speech?
1

t h a t film.

'We're g o i n g by bus,' said Danny.


Danny said

I came, I saw, I conquered.

Education is t h e most p o w e r f u l w e a p o n

w h i c h you can use t o change t h e w o r l d .

bike.

I t isn't a problem,'Ellie t o l d me.


m e it

a problem.

'My dad needs help,'said Olivia.


Olivia said

Oscar Wilde

'That's my bike,'said Jacob.

Ellie
5

b (

g o i n g by bus.

Jacob said that


4

except t e m p t a t i o n .

Nelson Mandela ...

'I love that film,'said Megan.


Megan said

I can resist everything

3 a C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t w o r d s .
1

Julius Caesar...

dad

help.

'Our lesson is a b o u t t o start,'said Poppy and Freya.


Poppy and Freya said

lesson

a b o u t t o start.

3 b Look a t y o u r answers in 3a. W h a t h a p p e n s t o t h e verbs in


r e p o r t e d speech?

Unit 9

5 b Do y o u k n o w any o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t f a m o u s p e o p l e said?
W r i t e t h e m here.

Copernicus said that the earth went round ike sun.

Developing v o c a b u l a r y

Phrasal verbs connected with reading and writing


l a Match t h e parts o f t h e phrasal verbs.

W r i t e sentences w i t h t h e phrasal verbs in 1 a n d 2 saying w h a t


y o u s h o u l d d o in each s i t u a t i o n .

cross

read

in

over

flick

out

read

out

fill

turn

through

look

on

up

1b Write t h e c o m p l e t e d phrasal verbs n e x t t o t h e correct


definition.
a

continue reading

t u r n a page t o see t h e other side

turn t h r o u g h the pages o f a book quickly

read so t h a t other people can hear you

try to find a particular piece of i n f o r m a t i o n

You need to put information into boxes on an application form.

You've finished the page and w a n t t o read the next one.

The teacher wants t o hear your answer t o the next question.

You're looking at a book in a bookshop that you possibly


w a n t t o buy.

draw a line t h r o u g h s o m e t h i n g t o show it


isn't correct

g
2

You're reading s o m e t h i n g really interesting and you don't


w a n t t o stop.

in a book
f

You make a spelling mistake w r i t i n g the w o r d which.

You should cross it out.

write information in e m p t y spaces

You need t o find o u t t h e m e a n i n g o f the w o r d

antidisestablishmentarianism.

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
1

In some exercises you have t o fill in/on the gaps.

He w r o t e wich b u t t h e n he crossed it out/up and w r o t e which.

I don't k n o w this w o r d . I need t o look/read it up in m y


dictionary.

4
5

We've finished this page. Turn on/over t o the next one.


I'm g o i n g t o flkk/tum t h r o u g h this magazine quickly t o see if I
can find any g o o d photos.

Read on/out the answer in a loud voice so t h a t w e can all


hear you.

I really w a n t t o k n o w h o w this story ends, so I'm g o i n g t o read

on/out.

Vocabulary extension: more phrasal verbs connected with reading and writing
4

Match these phrasal verbs w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g . Use y o u r d i c t i o n a r y if necessary.


1

read up on

read only small parts (of a book, for example)

sum u p

w r i t e s o m e t h i n g d o w n t o r e m e m b e r it

note d o w n

give a s u m m a r y of s o m e t h i n g

dip into

get i n f o r m a t i o n on a subject by reading a lot a b o u t it

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e correct f o r m o f t h e phrasal verbs in 4.


1

Have you g o t a pen? Good. You can

my

In our geography lesson, t h e teacher explains and w e

address.
2

the most i m p o r t a n t points in our

I didn't read all of the book. I just


if I liked it.

I need t o

it.

In the last paragraph of your essay, it's a g o o d idea t o


the main ideas.

Finally, I w o u l d like t o

m y o p i n i o n by

repeating w h a t I said at t h e start o f this talk.

Next week our history teacher is g o i n g t o ask us lots o f


questions about Ancient Rome. I don't k n o w m u c h a b o u t it.

notebooks.

it t o see

He never reads t h e w h o l e magazine. He

it

and reads t h e t h i n g s he finds the most interesting.


8

I've f o r g o t t e n all t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n h o w t o use that old


camera. I need t o

it again.
Unit 9

File Edit View

Libraries
International cultural knowledge
^ Libraries in the UK

History Jools Window

L i b r a r y

s e r v i c e s

Help

f o r y o u n g

p e o p l e

BOOKS

L i v e r p o o l L i b r a r i e s h a v e over 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 b o o k s for children


of all a g e s a n d abilities. There a r e b o o k s for b a b i e s a n d
y o u n g c h i l d r e n a n d t h e r e a r e stories a n d i n f o r m a t i o n books
for p l e a s u r e or t o h e l p w i t h s c h o o l w o r k . Look at o u r online
c a t a l o g u e t o s e e if w e h a v e y o u r f a v o u r i t e author. W h y not
o r d e r a c o p y if w e d o n ' t ? A p a r t f r o m b o o k s , y o u c a n also find
m a g a z i n e s for t e e n a g e r s .
AUDIO/VISUAL ITEMS

M o s t L i v e r p o o l L i b r a r i e s h a v e a s e l e c t i o n of 'talking b o o k s '
a v a i l a b l e o n C D or c a s s e t t e . T h e s e are g r e a t for the t i m e s w h e n
y o u p r e f e r t o listen t o a story i n s t e a d of r e a d i n g o n e .
Plenty of p o p u l a r c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k s a r e a v a i l a b l e a s 'talking
b o o k s ' a n d w e will try t o g e t y o u r f a v o u r i t e for y o u if w e don't
a l r e a d y h a v e it. V i d e o s a n d D V D s a r e also available in s o m e
libraries.
INFORMATION ANDCOMMUNICATION T E C H N O L O G I E S

(ICT)

All L i v e r p o o l L i b r a r i e s h a v e p u b l i c c o m p u t e r s w h i c h y o u c a n
u s e t o surf t h e Internet for free - v e r y p o p u l a r with c h i l d r e n ,
w h o c a n play g a m e s or look for i n f o r m a t i o n for their h o m e w o r k .
There's a s m a l l c h a r g e for p r i n t i n g .
HOMEWORK

W r i t e f o u r t h i n g s y o u can d o in a library. T h e n read t h e t e x t


a n d check y o u r answers.
1

EVENTS, QUIZZES, E T C

M a n y L i b r a r i e s h a v e c h i l d r e n ' s activities, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g
h o l i d a y p e r i o d s . C e n t r a l L i b r a r y a l s o h a s a L o r d of the Rings
G a m e s W o r k s h o p e v e r y S a t u r d a y b e t w e e n 10.00 a m a n d
2.00 p m . This is v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h t e e n a g e r s .

2
3
4
2

A s well a s c o m p u t e r s with free a c c e s s t o t h e Internet, all


L i v e r p o o l L i b r a r i e s h a v e c o l l e c t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n books
w h i c h are p e r f e c t for h o m e w o r k p r o j e c t s . L i b r a r y staff c a n help
c h i l d r e n t o start their h o m e w o r k . C o n t a c t y o u r local Library or
the C h i l d r e n ' s Team o n 0 1 5 1 2 3 3 5 8 4 1 t o f i n d o u t m o r e .

Read t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r y o u n g p e o p l e a b o u t u s i n g libraries
in L i v e r p o o l a n d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s .
1

You are g o i n g t o g o t o Central Library o n Saturday b e t w e e n


10.00 am and 2.00 p m . What special t h i n g can y o u d o then?

You have a three-year-old brother. Do they have books for

C e n t r a l L i b r a r y also has C D p l a y e r s a n d sofas to chill out on


listening to your favourite music.
To f i n d out w h a t ' s a v a i l a b l e in y o u r nearest L i b r a r y c h e c k
out the i n d i v i d u a l L i b r a r y p a g e s o r call us o n 0 1 5 1 2 3 3 5 8 4 1 .

An investigation by the National Literacy Trust in 2008 discovered that


5 8 % of y o u n g people in Britain said that they enjoyed reading very much
or quite a lot.

him?

INSIDE INFORMATION

In 2004 people b o r r o w e d 341 million books f r o m UK libraries.

The library doesn't have a b o o k t h a t you want. W h a t can y o u

WORD BOOSTER

do?

Match t h e words and definitions.


4

You w a n t t o find o u t about special events at the library. What


can you do?

You w a n t a story b u t you're t o o tired t o read. W h a t can you


get at the library?

You w a n t t o surf the net at t h e library. H o w m u c h d o you


have t o pay?

available

people w h o w o r k in a place

charge

lots of

staff

m o n e y t o pay for a service or product

printing

m a k i n g a paper copy of a d o c u m e n t

plenty of

that you can find, take or use

W h a t a b o u t you?
1

W o u l d you be interested in using Liverpool Libraries? Why/


W h y not?

You w a n t t o relax. H o w can y o u d o this at t h e library?

You w a n t t o d o your h o m e w o r k at t h e library. H o w can the


library help you?

78

Unit 9

W h a t are libraries like in your country?

Grammar in context
Reported speech - questions
1

Look a t t h e d i r e c t a n d r e p o r t e d q u e s t i o n s a n d d e c i d e if t h e
rules are t r u e (T) or false (F).
a

'When d i d you arrive?'Aaron asked Ben.

Aaron asked Ben w h e n he had arrived.

'Why d o you w a n t t o go?' Ruby asked Isaac.

Ruby asked Isaac w h y he w a n t e d t o go.

'Are you hungry?'Sylvia asked Helen.

Sylvia asked Helen if she was hungry.

We don't change tenses and p r o n o u n s in t h e same


way in reported statements and reported questions.

We don't use question marks in reported questions.

We use t h e auxiliary verb do in reported questions.

We don't put t h e verb before t h e subject in reported

questions.
5

We use /for whether in reported questions w h e n there

is no question w o r d (who, what, why, etc) in t h e

Customer: What is this fly doing in my soup?


Waiter: / think it's swimming.

original question.
2

Rewrite t h e j o k e s in r e p o r t e d s p e e c h .

The customer

Rewrite t h e q u e s t i o n s in r e p o r t e d speech.
1

The waiter

'Are you sure a b o u t this answer?'the teacher asked t h e boy.


The teacher

Customer: There's a dead fly in this salad.

'Why are you crying?'the girl asked t h e boy.

Waiter: Oh no! Who's going to take care of its family?

The girl

The customer
The waiter

'Is it your birthday today?'Beth asked Nathan.


Beth

Customer: / can't eat this meat.

'Do you k n o w t h e t i m e ? ' A d a m asked Mia.

Waiter: Why can't you eat it?

Adam

Customer: You haven't brought me a knife and fork.

'Where have you put my glasses?'Eric asked his granddaughter.

The customer

Eric

The waiter

William
7

Customer: Why is there a little spider in my ice cream?

'Have you read this book?'Sophie asked Tom.


Sophie

The customer

'How d i d you k n o w m y name?'William asked t h e girl.

Waiter: / wasn't able to find a big one.


,.

The customer

'Do you like crime novels?'Mark asked Sally.


The waiter

Mark

Grammar extension
4

Look at t h e d i r e c t q u e s t i o n . Is t h e r e p o r t e d q u e s t i o n c o r r e c t o r not? If it isn't, c o r r e c t i t .


1

'Do you like vanilla ice cream?'Jamie asked Becky.

The students asked t h e teacher i f t h e y needed their books that day.

Jamie asked Becky w h e t h e r she liked vanilla ice cream.


2

'Are you listening t o this p r o g r a m m e ? ' m y m u m asked me.

'Where does Daisy live?'asked Isabel.

'Why isn't your m o b i l e p h o n e working?'Jack asked Emma.


Jack asked Emma w h y her m o b i l e p h o n e wasn't w o r k i n g .

'Did y o u enjoy t h e meal?'the waiter asked t h e customers.


The waiter asked t h e customers i f t h e y had enjoyed t h e meal?

Isabel asked where Daisy d i d live.


4

'Why are you looking at m e ? ' A m a n d a asked Pete.


A m a n d a asked Pete w h y was he looking at her.

My m u m asked me if you're listening t o this p r o g r a m m e .


3

'Do w e need our books today?'the students asked t h e teacher.

'Have y o u finished your ice cream?'Sam asked Joe.


Sam asked Joe if he had finished his ice cream.

Unit 9

eveloping speaking

At a bookshop

Describing photos

1 Look a t t h e c u s t o m e r ' s side o f t h i s d i a l o g u e .

S H O P ASSISTANT:

(a)

CUSTOMER:

Yes, please. I'm looking for a book called

Look at t h e p h o t o a n d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s . If y o u are n o t
sure o f s o m e t h i n g , use / think and/or / imagine.

Dragon Horse. It's a novel. They t o l d m e t h a t it


w o u l d be in the fantasy section.
S H O P ASSISTANT:

(b)

CUSTOMER:

Yes, I have, but I can't see it.

SHOP ASSISTANT:

OK, I'll just check on the computer.


(c)

CUSTOMER:
SHOP ASSISTANT:

Yes, it's Peter Ward.


Let me see. No, I'm sorry. We don't have it at
the m o m e n t , (d)

CUSTOMER:

How long will it take?

S H O P ASSISTANT:

(e)

CUSTOMER:

That's great.

S H O P ASSISTANT:

(f)

CUSTOMER:

Yes, please. Do you w a n t me t o give you m y

W h o can you see in t h e photo?

Where are they?

W h a t are they doing?

H o w d o you think t h e people are feeling? Why?

n a m e and t e l e p h o n e number?
SHOP ASSISTANT:

(g)

CUSTOMER:

M y n a m e is Philip Reeve and m y n u m b e r is


0123 4567890.

SHOP ASSISTANT:

Thank you. We'll call you w h e n t h e book


arrives. Bye!

l b Answer the questions.


1

What book does the customer want?

Use t h e q u e s t i o n s in 4 t o t h i n k o f t h i n g s t o say a b o u t this


p h o t o . M a k e n o t e s a n d t h e n practise orally.

What t y p e o f book is it?

W h o is t h e author?

Does t h e customer find, buy, order or leave t h e book?

Put t h e s h o p assistant's q u e s t i o n s a n d answers in t h e c o r r e c t


place in t h e d i a l o g u e .

Have you looked there?

Yes, please.

Shall I order it for you?

Can I help you?

It should be here in a week.

Do you k n o w t h e n a m e of the author?

W o u l d you like m e t o call y o u w h e n t h e b o o k gets here?

Look at t h e c o m p l e t e d i a l o g u e a n d u n d e r l i n e f o u r w a y s o f
m a k i n g offers.

* Developing w r i t i n g
A questionnaire
1

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e in t h e s e q u e s t i o n s f r o m a
questionnaire a b o u t free t i m e .
1

HowJWbo d o y o u u s u a l l y s p e n d y o u r f r e e t i m e ?
I read, l i s t e n t o music nn-d g o o u t w i t h /. fri.eiA.ds. i

Wtich/Who i s y o u r f a v o u r i t e h o b b y o f all?
j I d o a ' t fei^ow. reaolli/vg.

3 .( d o y o u l i k e it?
JB.ecnu.se i fli/vd I t relaxl^^g. i , 'escape'.
4

How/Who o f t e n d o y o u g o o u t d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l w e e k ?
i Never, i oiA-ly g o o u t at t h e weeteei/td.

Who

dges.^end/^ends

m o r e t i m e w i t h y o u at t h e

weekend, your family o r your friends?


j i t depends, b u t p r o b a b l y

Where/When d o

friends.

you like g o i n g with your friends

j w e line goli/tg t o t h e civ^tw.a or g o l i ^ g t o t h e p a r t e t o |


j p l a y f o o t b a l l an^t b a s k e t b a l l or g o steateboardli/Lg.

Hgwmuch/many_ m o n e y

hobbies

do you spend on your

i dovct speiA-d w.u,tv\. Ttie rn.ost expensive t h l k v g I s


i qouvq out a t the weekends.

N o w w r i t e y o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e b y c o m p l e t i n g these q u e s t i o n s .

Write y o u r o w n t r u e answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s in 1.
1

How long

You are g o i n g t o w r i t e q u e s t i o n s for a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a b o u t


w h a t y o u d o in t h e holidays. Before y o u w r i t e t h e q u e s t i o n s ,

When

H o w often

D o y o u usually

Have you ever

b r a i n s t o r m ideas.
>estii<vatbyvs

Months

import

r t O U r s A y S People
M o i/vey

-Ttotwgs t o tatee

Unit 9

10 Cyberspace
^^

Vocabulary

Grammar

The passive - present simple and other tenses

Vocabulary

Computers and computing

Speaking

Talking about photos

Writing

Text messages

The Internet

Collocations with

Computers and computing


1

Join these w o r d s or parts o f w o r d s a n d w r i t e t h e m u n d e r t h e c o r r e c t p i c t u r e . You can use s o m e w o r d s m o r e t h a n once.

>
8

Which part of the c o m p u t e r d o you


1

use t o click on things?

use t o connect cameras, etc?

listen t o music with?

w r i t e with?

make videos with?

t w o halves o f t h e w o r d s t o g e t h e r (e.g. download).


1

The Internet
3

M a t c h t h e halves t o f o r m q u e s t i o n s .
1

Have you g o t a broad

load films f r o m t h e Internet?

Do you ever chat

site do you visit the most?

Which search

online w i t h friends?

How long d o you spend surfing

t h e Internet at the weekend?

H o w often d o you d o w n

engine d o y o u usually use?

Which w e b

band c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e Internet?

Do you read or write

a blog?

Unit 1 0

W r i t e y o u r o w n t r u e answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s in 3. Write
c o m p l e t e sentences a n d d e c i d e if y o u need t o w r i t e t h e

emai\

r Reading
1

Before y o u read t h e t e x t , a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s .

Read t h e t e x t a g a i n a n d p u t t h e sentences in t h e correct


place (A-E) in t h e t e x t .

Do you have an MP3 player?

What can you d o w i t h an MP3 player?

So, are schools right t o stop students taking MP3


players t o school?
Not long ago, US schools stopped students from
wearing baseball caps in exams.
Some students just can't stop t r y i n g t o cheat in exams.

Read t h e t e x t . A p a r t f r o m l i s t e n i n g t o music, f i n d o n e p o s i t i v e a n d

There are also some schools that disagree w i t h

one n e g a t i v e use o f MP3 players by school s t u d e n t s .

s t o p p i n g t h e use o f MP3 players.


The latest t y p e o f t e c h n o l o g y t o be banned is t h e
MP3 player.
4

Answer t h e questions.
1

H o w exactly d i d students cheat in exams w i t h baseball


caps a n d m o b i l e phones?

In w h a t different ways d o students use MP3 players t o


cheat in exams?

MP3

p l a y e r s

And o f c o u r s e

a t

school

yes

o r

no?

it's one of the teachers'

jobs

to

stop

this c h e a t i n g . T o d o t h i s , t h e y h a v e t o k e e p u p t o d a t e
with n e w t e c h n o l o g y . T h a t ' s
are a l w a y s l o o k i n g
teachers

because students who cheat

for new ways to cheat without

W h y d o some students think that it's w r o n g t o stop


t h e m taking MP3 players t o school?

their

realising.

Students

were

writing

came t h e m o b i l e

answers

inside

phone. Schools

also

was j u s t t o o e a s y f o r s t u d e n t s

the caps.

stopped

t h e s e . It

to send each other

messages or even

connect to the Internet.

Lots o f s t u d e n t s

take MP3 players

W h y d o some schools w a n t students t o take MP3


players t o school?

Then
text

Find w o r d s in t h e t e x t w h i c h have similar m e a n i n g s t o


to

music

at

break

times.

players, you can watch


some

uses

Some

students

of MP3 players

onto t h e i r

download

And

music

usually

videos

listen

with

new MP3
too. But

so

and other

use them

to

or films

are not quite

formulas

players. Others

to school

these words or explanations.


1

information

to record

answers

download

and t h e n

their

put them

own notes

in t h e 'song

onto

t h e i r p l a y e r

lyrics' text

files.

students

say n o . They're

angry

because

they

say

that they used to listen t o their M P 3 players to listen


to m u s i c
don't

and

relax

see why

students

before

they

use them

exams,

should

not to cheat.

suffer

for the wrong

just

because

reasons.

Others

t h e words t o a song (paragraph Q

places w h e r e you keep papers and d o c u m e n t s


t o g e t h e r (paragraph Q

They
some

say
7

an M P 3 p l a y e r .

makes people interested and excited about d o i n g


s o m e t h i n g (paragraph E)

that t h e s t u d e n t s w h o c h e a t a r e a l w a y s g o i n g t o c h e a t ,
with or w i t h o u t

groups of letters or n u m b e r s that represent rules in


science or maths (paragraph Q

D
Some

p u t sounds or images o n t o a CD, DVD, MP3, etc

(paragraph

before an e x a m a n d t h e n l i s t e n t o t h e m d u r i n g t h e e x a m .
Others

a hat w i t h a part t o keep t h e sun from your eyes

(paragraph B)

innocent.

positive, w i t h g o o d results (paragraph E)

W h a t a b o u t you?
That isn't because they w a n t students to be able to use
t h e m f o r l i s t e n i n g t o m u s i c . T h e y w a n t t h e m t o u s e
players

to l e a r n . Some

educational

material

read, watch

and listen

and

at any t i m e . T h i s

too. It's clear


can b e u s e d

that

in h i g h l y

schools
for

have

started

p l a y e r s .

to this
helps

material

them

technology
productive

H o w d o you use n e w t e c h n o l o g y t o learn better?

preparing

Students

can

in a n y

place

and motivates

them

is n o t always

b a d . It

ways t o o .

Unit 1 0

The passive - present simple


l a C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e w o r d .
1

Dictionaries

used by many students w h o are

action.

learning English.
2

Football is

Rewrite t h e s e active sentences in t h e present passive f o r m .


O n l y use by plus t h e a g e n t if y o u k n o w exactly w h o does t h e

on TV by thousands of people every

BMW make the n e w

Sometimes they find g o l d in this river.

They don't stop football matches if it rains.

The waiter brings your meal t o the table.

They give a prize to the best actor.

In this hotel they take your bags t o your room.

They don't g r o w tea in Britain.

In Japan students clean t h e classrooms.

A lot of people use public transport.

weekend.
3

Coffee

drunk by babies.

The Wii is made

This television p r o g r a m m e

Nintendo.
w a t c h e d by people

in many different countries.


6

The French language is

by people in France,

Belgium, Switzerland, Senegal and other countries.


1 b Look a t t h e c o m p l e t e d sentences in 1 a a n d c h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t
alternative.
1

To make the passive w e use t h e verb to be and the past

simple/past participle.
To introduce the person w h o does the action w e use by/for.

2
2

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
1

These computers is/gre made in China.

A lot of mineral water is drgnWdrunk in t h e summer.

Portuguese is speak/spoken in Brazil.

The students in my class are written/write essays once a

10

month.
5

Christmas presents are gave/given on 2 5

th

December in

Britain.

Grammar extension

A lot of rice is/are eaten every day.

M y sister does/is done the s h o p p i n g o n Saturday.

German teqches/is taught at m y school.

In this song my brother plays the guitar.

Each s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n s a m i s t a k e . Find t h e mistake a n d


r e w r i t e t h e s e n t e n c e correctly.

That song sinqs/issung on special occasions.

10

New roads is/gre built each year.

11

M y friends send/are sent emails t o each other every day.

12

Thousands of miles are /.. by pilots every year.

The song Jingle Bells is sang at Christmas in Britain.

The city of Florence is visited for hundreds of people every


day.

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e p r e s e n t passive f o r m o f
these verbs.
check

drink
speak

drive
teach

make
wear

Jeans

This sport

Spanish

On computers, many d o c u m e n t s

play

sell

Tennis played by t w o or four players.

Many products made in China nowadays.

write

by people all over t h e w o r l d .


by many people every w e e k e n d .
in many South American countries.

More manga comics are d r a w i n g in Japan than in any other


country.

by using

Microsoft Word.
5

Paella

Thousands o f litres of orange juice

Maths

Your passport

w i t h rice.
every day.

in almost all schools.


at t h e airport before you get

Buses

by bus drivers.

Bread

in a bakery

Unit 1 0

Sometimes spectacular eclipses is seen in this part of the


world.

on the plane.

10

That book is w r o t e by a famous novelist.

More ice creams eaten in the summer than in the winter.

> Developing v o c a b u l a r y
Collocations with email
1

Find e i g h t w o r d s w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y g o w i t h emrj/7.

M a t c h t h e d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h t h e w o r d s in 1. N o t e t h a t t h e
d e f i n i t i o n s give t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d s .

w h e n s o m e t h i n g hits a surface and t h e n immediately moves


away

an arrangement where a bank looks after your money

examine s o m e t h i n g t o get information, or t o see if it is g o o d


or correct

arrange for s o m e t h i n g (for example a letter) t o arrive for


someone in another place

take s o m e t h i n g away, for example f r o m a c o m p u t e r

t h e name of the place where you live

C o m p l e t e t h e s e sentences w i t h t h e correct f o r m o f t h e w o r d s
in 1.

C o m p l e t e these sentences w i t h a w o r d in 1.
1

Could you give me your email

so t h a t I can

My

W h e n you finish an exam, you should

you an email?
My inbox is full. I need t o

I have sent h i m an email b u t I a m still w a i t i n g for h i m t o

some emails.

I w r o t e h i m a letter inviting h i m t o the party and t h e n


I

it by post b u t he didn't

so

I don't k n o w if he's c o m i n g or not.

t o it.
Didn't you receive her email? I still have it and will

I haven't g o t any m o n e y in my bank

it t o you.

In basketball w h e n you have the ball you have t o

If you type in the w r o n g address, the email will

I want t o o p e n a n e w email

it w h e n you run.
6

w i t h a different

I don't need that d o c u m e n t on this computer. I'm g o i n g t o


it.

provider.
7

your

answers carefully.

is 167 Rothfuss Road, Leeds.

I am looking for an Internet cafe. I need t o

my

I received this letter b u t it's for t h e person w h o lived in this


house before. I'll

emails.

it t o h i m at his new house.

Vocabulary extension
5

With new t e c h n o l o g y such as t h e Internet w e o f t e n use


abbreviations to name t h i n g s more easily and quickly. Find t h e
full names in the box for t h e abbreviations below. Use your

Match the abbreviations w i t h these explanations.


1

dictionary if necessary. You can use some w o r d s more t h a n once.


asked

compact

identification

memory

positioning
service
1

WWW

DVD =

digital

number

read

recordable

questions
system

won

CD-ROM =

CD-R =

CD-RW =

SMS =

GPS =

FAQ =

PIN =

frequently

message

short

disc

versatile

wide

global

only

personal

rewritable

w e b wide

web

world

a secret n u m b e r you need t o operate a m o b i l e phone, for


example

a disc that people usually use t o watch films

a disc that you can use t o record data once

a disc that you can use t o record data more than once

typical questions t h a t people ask on a w e b s i t e .

a large collection o f d o c u m e n t s , pictures and sounds kept on


computers in many different places and connected t h r o u g h
the Internet

a disc that c o m p u t e r s can read, containing text, image and


sound

a system for f i n d i n g exactly where you are in the w o r l d using


satellites

a way o f sending a text message t o a m o b i l e p h o n e

Unit 1 0

Global communication
Iross-curricular - Geography/Science
A real web around the world
1

Look at t h e m a p a n d h e a d l i n e f r o m a
newspaper. It is f r o m an article a b o u t a real
incident. What do you think happened?

Just o n e s h i p w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r e a k i n g a n essential
submarine cable

that connects

the M i d d l e

East a n d

How one ship cut off the web for 75 million people

I n d i a w i t h t h e rest o f the w o r l d v i a the I n t e r n e t . T h i s


has l e f t 7 5 m i l l i o n p e o p l e w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d access t o
5

the I n t e r n e t .
The accident was caused on Wednesday b y a ship i n

Read t h e n e w s p a p e r article a n d check y o u r ideas in 1. W h a t are the


b o l d lines o n t h e m a p ?

b a d w e a t h e r near the coast o f E g y p t , c l o s e t o A l e x a n d r i a .


Since then, there have been

terrible problems

with

phones a n d the Internet i n countries i n c l u d i n g India.


Egypt and the United Arab Emirates.

I t has b e e n a

WORD BOOSTER

p r o b l e m f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 0 % o f users t h e r e .
Tens o f m i l l i o n s o f people have had p r o b l e m s w i t h

Match the words and definitions.

p h o n e s a n d the N e t . I t has a l s o m a d e a b i g d i f f e r e n c e
to
15

economies

across

Asia

and the M i d d l e

East.

G o v e r n m e n t s have started to take d i r e c t a c t i o n . T o h e l p


businesses, the E g y p t i a n C o m m u n i c a t i o n s M i n i s t r y has
a s k e d s u r f e r s n o t t o c o n n e c t t o the I n t e r n e t . " P e o p l e w h o
d o w n l o a d m u s i c a n d films are g o i n g t o m a k e p r o b l e m s

submarine

strong, thick metal rope

cable

easy t o break

businesses

under t h e water

fragile

organisations that buy or sell


products or services

f o r businesses w h o h a v e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t o d o . '
Experts

say that

this

shows

that

our global

c o m m u n i c a t i o n s n e t w o r k is v e r y f r a g i l e . ' P e o p l e d o n ' t
k n o w that a l l these t h i n g s g o t h r o u g h c a b l e s u n d e r the
sea,' said A l a n M a u l d i n , a n e x p e r t i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .
' I n g e n e r a l , the I n t e r n e t uses r e a l , p h y s i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s ,
25

not satellites.'
P e o p l e t h i n k the I n t e r n e t a l w a y s w o r k s b y s a t e l l i t e .
But

a b i g part

o f the w o r l d

needs

real,

physical

c o n n e c t i o n s . I t w a s n o t easy t o create these c o n n e c t i o n s .


T h e e x p e n s i v e c a b l e s g o i n l o n g l i n e s a r o u n d the w o r l d .
30

c a r r y i n g m i l l i o n s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s a l l at the s a m e t i m e
f r o m one c o u n t r y t o a n o t h e r .
One expert said that this w e e k ' s accident s h o u l d m a k e
governments

u n d e r s t a n d that t h e y m u s t s p e n d

t i m e a n d energy t o protect essential


35

Choose t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t message in t h e t e x t : 1,2 or 3.


1

It is i m p o r t a n t t o create Internet connections by satellite.

It is i m p o r t a n t t o defend existing cables because something or


s o m e b o d y could break t h e m again.

Read t h e t e x t a g a i n a n d d e c i d e if these sentences are t r u e (T) or


false (F). W r i t e t h e line(s) in t h e t e x t w h e r e y o u f o u n d t h e answer.
1
2

be v e r y easy t o a t t a c k g l o b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , '

The incident has caused problems in the financial markets of some


of these countries.

W i t h o u t cables under the sea, the Internet w o u l d not work in many


parts o f t h e w o r l d .

said

M u s t a f a A l a n i . h e a d o f s e c u r i t y a n d t e r r o r i s m at t h e

Since Wednesday it has been impossible for anyone in India t o


connect t o t h e Internet.

s u c h as m o b i l e p h o n e s a n d t h e N e t . W e m u s t p r o t e c t
t h e m f r o m n a t u r a l disasters o r f r o m t e r r o r i s t s . ' I t w o u l d

An accident at sea on Wednesday made it difficult for people to


access the Internet.

more

communications

It is i m p o r t a n t t o learn better ways of creating n e w technology.

It is quite cheap and easy t o install submarine cables.

G u l f Research Centre i n D u b a i . ' T h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g


40

i s n ' t b u i l d i n g great

new technology. T h e important

t h i n g is t o p r o t e c t it."
One

o f the cables that w a s b r o k e n this w e e k

is

c a l l e d the Sea-Me-We 4 . I t i s o n e o f the m o s t i m p o r t a n t


information
4

lines between

Europe

a n d t h e East. I t

goes i n a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e f r o m G e r m a n y
It covers

to Singapore.

a total o f 39.000 kilometres and connects

32 d i f f e r e n t countries. It t o o k three years a n d cost a n


i n c r e d i b l e 5 0 0 m t o p u t the l i n e i n p l a c e .

86

Unit 1 0

W h a t a b o u t you?
H o w i m p o r t a n t is t h e Internet in your daily life and w o u l d you survive
w i t h o u t it?

> Grammar in context


The passive - other tenses

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e correct passive f o r m o f t h e


verbs g i v e n .

l a Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .

Radioactivity is/wasdiscovered

by Henri Becquerel in 1896.

Thousands of silicon chips are/are being, made at this very

Listen! That song

That film

The pictures

moment.
3
4

given t o actors since 1927.

(sing) in Japanese.
(see) for t h e first t i m e in
(draw) in prehistoric

times.

The book One Hundred Years of Solitude was/has been w r i t t e n

The criminal

(follow) by the police

right now.

Many useful things have been/were invented since the start o f

the 2 0 century.
th

(create) in 1985.

1919.

Oscarsgje/hgyebeen

by Gabriel Garcia Marquez in 1967.


5

That cartoon

The first cheap cars

(produce) nearly

100 years ago in the USA.

741 burgers are/were eaten by Don Gorske in 2003. In total

he's already eaten over 20,000 in his lifetime!

Look! The w i n d o w

(break) by the

wind.
4

W r i t e passive sentences u s i n g t h e w o r d s g i v e n .

The novel Animal Farm/write/by George Orwell in 1944.

The race/organise/by the school each year.

Dynamite/invent/by Alfred Nobel in the 19 century.

th

Cartoons/watch/by thousands o f children around t h e w o r l d


at this very m i n u t e .

1b Look at t h e sentences in l a a n d choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e

The FA World Cup/win/by Brazil five times since 1958.

The planet Uranus/find/by William Herschel in 1781.

in t h e rule b e l o w .

The men's 100-metre w o r l d record/break/by Usain Bolt in


August 2009.

To change the tense in passive sentences, w e change to be/the

past participle
2

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e or past

Grammar extension

simple passive f o r m o f these verbs.


make
1

paint

The film

see

send

wash

w i n write

by 6,000 spectators last

was seen

Yesterday's prize

3,000 cars

The towels in this hotel

Those novels

Thousands of Valentine's Day cards

by a 16-year-old boy.

in this factory every week.


every day.

in 1962.
every

14 February in the UK.

th

Those pictures
aqo.

l/Vas Animal farm written by Qeorge Orwell in 1144?

week.
2

M a k e t h e passive sentences in 4 i n t o q u e s t i o n s .

by Picasso about 50 years

._ :
Unit 1 0

A conversation based on a photo


1

Look at t h e p h o t o s a n d m a k e s p e c u l a t i o n s t o c o m p l e t e t h e sentences

I'm not sure, but I think t h a t it

It's p r o b a b l y .
or

Look at p h o t o A. W r i t e five q u e s t i o n s t o ask a b o u t it.


1
2
3
4
5

Write answers t o y o u r q u e s t i o n s in 2. Use t h e d i f f e r e n t w a y s o f


s p e c u l a t i n g in 1 w h e n y o u aren't sure.

Use y o u r q u e s t i o n s in 2 t o t h i n k o f t h i n g s t o say a b o u t
p h o t o B. M a k e notes a n d t h e n practise orally.
Unit 1 0

Writing text messages


1

The text message abbreviations for the words below are just
one letter or number. Write the abbreviation for each one.
Think about the pronunciation!

Write these sentences using text message abbreviations.


1

What are you d o i n g tonight?

1 for
2

you

are

to/too

see

be

A m y and I are g o i n g t o eat o u t because it's her birthday


today. Do y o u w a n t t o come?

These text message abbreviations all use numbers. Think


about how w e pronounce the numbers and write t h e
complete words with normal spelling.

2day

2nite

2moro

B4

L8

GR8

W8

L8R

OK. Thanks. W h a t t i m e are you meeting?

In these text message abbreviations some letters (especially


vowels) are missing or have been c h a n g e d . Write t h e
complete words with normal spelling.
1

YR

PLS

WOT

BCZ

SPK

WKND

THX

XLNT

MSG

10
4

At eight because before that I have t o study for an exam


tomorrow.

W h a t t i m e is your exam?

At t e n . I have t o g o now. I'll speak t o you later.

Great!

HMWK

W r i t e these t e x t messages as c o m p l e t e sentences.


1

Can U PLS c o m e 2 me L8R?

rilCU2moroB4school.

I'll W 8 4 YR next MSG.

Wot R U doing at the WKND?

WillUBathomeL8R2day?

THX 4 the presents. They RGR8.

lcanCU@6BCZIhaven'tgotanyHMWK.

Unit 1 0

Revision: Units 9-10


Vocabulary

Grammar

Rewrite t h e u n d e r l i n e d w o r d s as t h e y w o u l d a p p e a r i n
reported speech.

Choose t h e best t y p e o f b o o k f o r each p e r s o n .


1

Sam wants t o learn h o w t o make a n e w pasta dish.

'I was in London last week,'said Cameron.

Sophia likes stories a b o u t robots.

'Today is g o i n g t o be a g o o d day,' said O w e n .

Ryan wants t o learn h o w t o use his n e w digital camera.

'She's been t o Africa twice,' said the TV presenter.


4

Jasmine is four years old and she likes stories about princes

'It's m y birthday,' said Katie.

'I w a n t e d t o g o o u t last weekend,' said Lucy.

'The exam is tomorrow,'said the teacher.

TJ! c o m e t o your house,'Alex said t o his friend.

and princesses.

/ 7 points)

Edward likes reading a b o u t the lives o f famous people,


w r i t t e n by the person him- or herself.

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .

Ben loves t h e theatre and he loves reading the story again at


home.

Ella asked the boy w h a t your/his/her n a m e was.

The teacher asked her students ^QtAvnether/hgw they


w a n t e d t o see the concert.
Ava asked Henry w h e r e isht^gsh^ewgs

going.

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
1

W h e n a story is g o o d , y o u w a n t t o read on/out t o the end.

ever had a serious accident.

W h e n you make a mistake, you cross it on/out.

Jack asked Isabella ifshe liked/does like/did like that music.

The d o c t o r asked h i m if he

^i!^Jl^/^Qd^Jsd.

W h e n y o u w a n t t o get a quick idea of a book, you flick/turn


t h r o u g h it.

Harry asked w h o saw/did see/had seen t h e film.

/6

points)

At the e n d o f an essay it's a g o o d idea t o sum on/up your


ideas and opinions.

Rewrite t h e active sentences in t h e passive f o r m a n d t h e

passive sentences in t h e active f o r m . All t h e sentences are


f r o m t h e s e w o r d s o r parts o f w o r d s .

British children eat a lot o f chocolate.

The TV p r o g r a m m e is presented by Stephanie Z i m m e r m a n .

The race is organised by a school.

David Spencer writes these books.

Robots build many different products.

The tickets are sold by m e m b e r s of t h e club.

/4 points)

M a k e n i n e w o r d s c o n n e c t e d w i t h c o m p u t e r s or t h e I n t e r n e t

present s i m p l e .

/6 points)

/6

/9 points)

Complete the text w i t h these words.


address

points)

bounces

delete

receive

reply

A simple guide to email

Correct t h e passive sentences if necessary.


1

The new film is be m a d e in Australia now.

First f i n d o u t the email (a)

The Four Seasons was w r i t t e n by Vivaldi.

W h e n did the Euro Cup w o n by Spain?

w r i t i n g to. Write t h e email, t h e n (b)

My g r a n d m o t h e r is being helped across t h e road w i t h a

(c)

an email, (d)

of the person you are


it. W h e n you
t o it quite quickly.

W h e n you have a lot of old emails, (e)

policeman.
5

Five cats has been rescued by firefighters today.

don't w a n t t o keep t h e m . If an email (f)

The DVD has been b o u g h t by thousands of people.

probably because y o u made some type of mistake.

send

/6 points)
/25

points

t h e m if you
back, it's

/6 points
/25 points

Reading
1

Read this i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e i n v e n t o r o f m o b i l e p h o n e s , M a r t i n Cooper, a n d choose a, b or t o c o m p l e t e t h e sentences.


BBC:

Tell us h o w you created the m o b i l e phone.

MARTIN:

The t i m e was the late 1960s. AT&T were t h e largest


telephone company in the w o r l d and they had invented
car telephones. Can you imagine? We believed people
didn't w a n t t o talk t o cars and that people w a n t e d t o talk
to other people. So at Motorola, a small c o m p a n y at the
time, w e decided t o build a m o b i l e telephone.

BBC:

What about that first call on the streets o f Manhattan?


W h o did you call and w h a t d i d you say?

MARTIN:

W h o do you think I called? I called m y rival at another


p h o n e company and said:Tm calling you f r o m a'real'
mobile telephone.'

BBC:

Do you agree t h a t your first m o b i l e p h o n e looks big now?

MARTIN:

Yes! Between 1973, w h e n w e made that phone, and 1983,


w h e n the first commercial mobile p h o n e service started,
we actually built five different phones. Each one g o t
smaller and smaller and by 1983 w e had g o n e f r o m one
kilo t o 450 grams. The p h o n e w h i c h I carry w i t h m e today
weighs just 85 grams!

BBC:

Did you really think your invention w o u l d b e c o m e so


popular, w i t h millions o f people using t h e m around the

BBC:

Do you like people calling you the father of t h e mobile


phone?

world?
MARTIN:

Well, not at the t i m e because in 1983 those first phones

MARTIN:

w o r k i n g on it and we're still t r y i n g t o make it better.

phones w o u l d get really small.


BBC:
MARTIN:

It was my idea b u t w e needed t e a m w o r k and hundreds of


people t o create the mobile p h o n e as it is today. We're still

cost $3,500.That was a lot of money! But w e did think t h a t


How do you feel w h e n you see so many people walking

BBC:

d o w n the street talking into your invention?

MARTIN:

H o w will p h o n e t e c h n o l o g y change in the future?


In t h e future, t h e Internet will be everywhere you go.

It makes m e really happy. I've made a small difference t o

BBC:

As the inventor of the personal m o b i l e phone, are you very


rich?

people's lives because these phones d o make people's

lives better. They make people more comfortable, they

MARTIN:

I'm extremely rich in satisfaction and in happiness.

make t h e m feel safe. It makes me feel g o o d t o k n o w that I

BBC:

But not in dollars and cents?

made a small c o n t r i b u t i o n there.

MARTIN:

Not necessarily.

Writing

The company w h i c h invented m o b i l e phones


a

was one of the most i m p o r t a n t t e l e p h o n e companies


in the USA.

W r i t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t e n q u e s t i o n s t o ask p e o p l e a b o u t

began by inventing telephones for cars.

t h e I n t e r n e t . Use t h e s e q u e s t i o n w o r d s a n d t h e w o r d s g i v e n

w a n t e d t o do more than make phones for cars.

b e l o w f o r ideas a b o u t w h a t t o w r i t e .

Martin Cooper and his team couldn't

What?

Why?

H o w long?

make smaller mobile phones.

Which?

How?

Where?

imagine a very small mobile phone,

When?

H o w often?

Who?

sell a very small m o b i l e phone.


blog

Martin Cooper knew


a

online

mobile phones w o u l d be popular because they were

broadband

chat

search engine

Do/Did?

connect

download

surf the Net

website

very useful.
b

mobile phones were very useful b u t didn't think many


people w o u l d buy t h e m ,

people only w a n t e d t o buy small m o b i l e phones.

Martin Cooper thinks that


a

he made the m o d e m mobile p h o n e and has made a big


change t o the w o r l d ,

he helped t o create the m o d e r n mobile p h o n e and this

6
7

w h e n the mobile p h o n e is finished it will make the

10

feel g o o d .

a lot of money,

i m p o r t a n t for many people.

8
9

The mobile p h o n e has made Martin Cooper


a

has been a g o o d t h i n g for the w o r l d ,


world better.
5

/5

/10

points)
/15 points

points)

Progress Test: Units 1-2


Grammar

Vocabulary

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e or p r e s e n t
c o n t i n u o u s f o r m o f t h e verbs g i v e n .

t h e period of life w h e n y o u are a child

t h e brother o f your husband or wife

an o l d adult

t h e period of life w h e n you stop w o r k i n g

(watch) o n Mondays.

a child w i t h n o brothers or sisters

n o t married

She

(go) t o yoga classes three times a week.

We

(study) g r a m m a r at t h e m o m e n t .

Do you w a n t t o use t h e computer? I

What p r o g r a m m e

they.

(watch) now?
2

What p r o g r a m m e

she

(not do) m y h o m e w o r k after 9 p m usually.

Why

You don't need m u c h

in French? M y friend here understands English.

What an i

/7 points)

g o o d idea for t h e m t o talk a b o u t (d)

(e)

friend. In general, (f)

! Before you weren't a very g o o d

That state wants i

They don't w a n t any

There's n o big d ...f

between h i m and his

brother. They're very similar.

problem with

people always need

t o g o running.

other state or c o u n t r y t o control t h e m .

p r o b l e m , it can be

(c)

pr

q u.... p m

guitarist b u t n o w you're great.

C o m p l e t e t h e t e x t w i t h a, an, the or 0 ( n o article).

to talk.'

/6 points)

C o m p l e t e t h e n o u n s . T h e y all c o n t a i n t h e suffixes -menf

(speak)

teenagers have (b)

or -ence.

you

'When (a)

(not use) it now.

Find t h e w o r d s .

(
3

/6

points)

/4 points)

Choose t h e correct a l t e r n a t i v e .
l a s t n i g h t a m a n tried t o (a) steal/burgle a lot of m o n e y f r o m

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e past s i m p l e or past

a bank. While he was (b) robbing/stealing, t h e bank, t h e police

c o n t i n u o u s f o r m o f t h e verbs g i v e n .

came and arrested t h e (c) Weft/thief. At the police station, w h e n

While I was walking h o m e , I

they started investigating, t h e y f o u n d o u t the man was also

(meet) m y

a (d) mugger/rnurder because a victim recognised him. They

friend.
2

M y parents

discovered t h a t t h e criminal often attacked people in t h e park

(have) an a r g u m e n t w h e n I

and (e) stole/robbed their money. He's g o i n g t o g o t o prison for

walked into t h e r o o m .
3

q u i t e a long t i m e ! '

The students were talking all t h e t i m e w h i l e t h e teacher

(explain) t h e exercise.
4

What were you d o i n g w h e n y o u

(hear)

the news?
5

The students

My m u m

(write) an essay w h e n t h e

(drive) w h e n her m o b i l e p h o n e

started t o ring.
7

The birds

M a t c h t h e parts o f t h e phrasal verbs. T h e n m a t c h t h e phrasal


verbs t o t h e i r m e a n i n g s .

teacher t o l d t h e m t o stop.
6

/5 points)

(sing) w h e n w e left h o m e this

morning.

/ 7 points)
/20

points

look

lor

investigate

look

across

discover

turn

into

appear or arrive unexpectedly

come

out

find by accident

find

up

try t o find

/5 points

/20 points

Progress Test: Units 1-4


Grammar

Vocabulary

Correct t h e sentences if necessary.

Correct t h e sentences if necessary.

We haven't g o t many bread.

I did three mistakes in the exam.

We've g o t a little apples in the fridge - t w o or three, I think.

In Brazil they speak Spanish.

There's a little s h a m p o o in the bottle, but not m u c h .

In Germany they speak Dutch.

We've g o t a f e w CDs here b u t n o t many.

My sister t o o k three exams last week.

We don't need m u c h books t o d o this project.

Have you m a d e that English exercise yet?

Have w e g o t any paper in the classroom? Yes, there's a lot of.

I need t o make a lot o f those exercises.

We haven't g o t some milk.

C~
2

/7points)

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t w o r d .

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences in a logical w a y using these w o r d s .

He can't talk because he's g o t a very sore

Use each w o r d once.

He had a

when

where

which

Summer is the t i m e of year

Japan is a c o u n t r y

Hip h o p is a t y p e of music

who

whose

attack and died.

I didn't just have a cold. It was m u c h worse. I think it


was

We ate s o m e t h i n g bad at the w e e k e n d and n o w we've g o t


food

Madonna is a singer

Beethoven was a c o m poser

I need an aspirin. I've g o t a

On each f o o t w e have five

(_

/6 points)

/5 points)

C o m p l e t e t h e t e x t by c h o o s i n g t h e correct o p t i o n to fill each

M a t c h t h e c o r r e c t w o r d s w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n s . T h e r e are 16
words but only eight definitions.

g a p : , , or D.
'My father usually (1)

burglary

a lot because he has

translations o f a lot of famous novels. He has

(3)

c o m e back (yesterday, in fact) f r o m a trip t o

Italy. He (4)

talking at a conference for translators

there. He has (5)

translated a lot o f famous books

from Italian into English, b u t he has (6)

translated

any books by U m b e r t o Eco. N o w he's ( 7 )


by a new writer. He ( 8 )

on a book

started w o r k on it

A travelled

travel

travelling

D travels

A writing

writes

written

wrote

A just

not

wanted

A is

was

has

D have

A already

yet

just

D ever

A ever

yet

D always

A working

worked

work

D works

A has

D is

never
hasn't

(1

nephew

death

improvement
niece

stepfather

robber
theft

equipment
invisible

illegal
look into

senior citizen
work out

w h e n you steal f r o m somebody's house

t h e daughter o f your brother or sister

solve a p r o b l e m by considering the facts

w h e n s o m e t h i n g goes f r o m bad t o g o o d , or f r o m g o o d to
very g o o d

last year.'

been

cousin

impractical

(2)

/6 points)

s o m e t h i n g that is not practical

s o m e t h i n g y o u c a n n o t see

t h e objects or things you need for a particular activity

s o m e o n e w h o is more t h a n 60 years old

/8 points)

/20 points
/8 points)
/20

rntsj
points

Progress Test: Units 1-6


Grammar

Vocabulary

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e correct w o r d .
1

This c o m p u t e r is m u c h faster

The film isn't as g o o d

A mobile p h o n e is

W h e n you are 15, you aren't old

W h e n you're 17, you're

t h a t one.

adverts

the book.

interested

boring

interesting

t o drive a car.

comedies
relaxed

informative

relaxing

soaps

I think it's t h e best c o u n t r y

are programmes that are funny and make


you laugh.

y o u n g t o vote in a

the w o r l d .

(
2

bored

expensive t h a n a computer.

general election.
6

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e correct w o r d .

A g o o d d o c u m e n t a r y needs t o be

/6 points)

People often feel

Each sentence c o n t a i n s a m i s t a k e . Find t h e m i s t a k e a n d

A lot of people think


are

The teacher and the students g o i n g t o g o on an excursion.

What d o you do t o m o r r o w ?

They say it's raining next week.

The Prime Minister will make a decision today?

I can't meet you t o m o r r o w because I'll d o an exam.

If scientists don't find a solution for this p r o b l e m , t h e planet

w h e n they listen t o soft,

slow music.

r e w r i t e t h e sentence correctly.

and

for soap or toothpaste


so they switch the TV off.

The stories in

are usually about romance,

family relationships, m o n e y and health problems.

(
2

Label t h e p i c t u r e s .

gets m u c h hotter.

-4r

^ 4

I may definitely arrive at the station at six o'clock.

(
3

/7 points)

/7 points)

Choose t h e c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e .

On Sundays I always (a) wgtch/gmwatching, a TV d o c u m e n t a r y


series a b o u t nature. I (b) sgw/hgyeseen every p r o g r a m m e in

/6 points)

Answer the questions.


1

What prefix d o w e need t o make the opposite of correct?

the series since it (c) started/has started in 2008. The presenter


is a really interesting m a n (d) who/whose name is Jack Wild.

W h a t is a s y n o n y m for get in this sentence? I got home at ten

o'clock.

He doesn't always give (e) many/much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e


different things they s h o w b u t there are (f) any/some cool scenes

W h a t crime does a thief c o m m i t ?

w i t h animals t h a t you (g) aren't usually seeing/don't usuallysee

What w o r d d o w e need t o c o m p l e t e the c o m p o u n d n o u n

meaning a place to go when we are III? health

on TV.

/7

/20

points)

W h a t n o u n d o w e make f r o m t h e verb improve?

What w o r d d o w e need t o c o m p l e t e this phrasal verb w h i c h

means find by accident? come

points
7

W h a t is a synonym for get in this sentence? Can you get the

bread when you go out?


(

/7 points)

Progress Test: Units 1-8


Grammar

Vocabulary

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e correct w o r d .
1

My father

You're always tired in the m o r n i n g . You

Join t h e w o r d s t o f i n d t w o j o b s , t h r e e personal qualities a n d


t w o adjectives t o describe j o b s . T h e n c o m p l e t e t h e t a b l e by

t o wear a uniform - he's a police officer.

w r i t i n g t h e m in t h e correct c o l u m n .

go t o bed

earlier.
3

If I

you, I'd g o t o bed earlier.

You

My m u m

g o t o the g y m e v e r y d a y if she had t i m e .

You don't

t o d o t h e essay this week. You can d o it

well

time

hard

assistant

fashion

paid

full

minded

shop

organised

open

working

badly

designer

smoke here. It's illegal.

next week if you like.


7

You

eat chocolate just before you g o t o bed. It's

Jobs

Personal qualities

Describing jobs

bad for your teeth.

(
2

/7 points)

Correct t h e sentences if necessary.


1

Are you interested in go t o Cambridge next week?

Dancing is my favourite hobby.

I don't enjoy t o play basketball.

/7 points)

Answer the questions.


1

What is t h e n o u n w h i c h w e make f r o m excited?

H o w do w e c o m p l e t e this phrase w h i c h means end a


4

relationship with somebody? split

My friends and I g o s w i m m i n g every day in the summer.

somebody

W h a t is the n o u n w h i c h w e make f r o m bored?


5
6

I w e n t t o Liz's house yesterday for seeing if she was OK.

H o w d o w e c o m p l e t e this phrase w h i c h means have a good

relationship with somebody?

He f o u n d the answer by using a calculator.

H o w can you explain get back together again in other words?

/6 points)

M a t c h t h e sentences w i t h t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s .
W h e n I'd eaten m y lunch, I w a t c h e d a film on TV.

What is the adjective for the n o u n fear? _

What n o u n can w e make f r o m friend?

W h e n I ate my lunch, I w a t c h e d a film on TV.

W h e n I had w a t c h e d a film on TV, I ate m y lunch.

While I was having m y lunch, m y p h o n e rang.


W h e n I eat m y lunch, I watch a film on TV.
I've just had m y lunch.
Tomorrow I'm g o i n g t o have lunch and t h e n I'm

/7 points)

Complete the words.


1

father = your mother's n e w husband

throat = w h e n your throat hurts and you can't

g o i n g t o watch a film on TV.

speak, for example


3

a plan for t w o actions in t h e future


an action that finished very recently

shop

an action that came in the middle of another action

= stealing f r o m a shop
show = a TV p r o g r a m m e w i t h a c o m p e t i t i o n ,

often to win money

in the past
5

t w o actions in the past t h a t happened at the


same t i m e

t w o actions that happened in the past, one after t h e

mountain
global

= a line of mountains like t h e Andes


= t h e change in the temperature around

the w o r l d

other - first eating lunch, t h e n w a t c h i n g a film


f

well with somebody

/6

t w o actions that happened in the past, one after


the other - first w a t c h i n g a film, t h e n eating lunch

/20

t w o actions that are part of a routine

/7
/20

points)
points

points)

points

Progress Test: Units 1-10


Grammar

Vocabulary

Rewrite t h e sentences in r e p o r t e d speech.


1

1 b o u g h t a c o m p u t e r in this shop,'said Lily.

r e

Lily said
2

'We've g o t an exam today,'Jessica said t o her m u m .


Jessica t o l d

'Where is your jacket?' Sam's m u m asked h i m .


Sam's m u m asked

C o m p l e t e t h e w o r d s w i t h t h e m i s s i n g letters a n d t h e n
c o m p l e t e t h e t a b l e by w r i t i n g t h e m in t h e correct c o l u m n .
n = read on

m _ nu_ I

I .... .... p

thr J

f...nt

ad

g r.... p h
r

yt

Ie

'Has Thomas seen this film?'they asked Jim.

Phrasal verbs
Fiction

They asked
5

connected with

Non-fiction

reading

I'm g o i n g t o London tomorrow,' said Helen.


Helen said

read on

'My sister is d o i n g her homework,'Jack said t o Chloe.


Jack t o l d

'Why are you here today?'the teacher asked t h e students.

The teacher asked

(I
2

/7 points)

Google is a popular search

passive sentences in t h e active f o r m .


1

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t w o r d s .
1

Rewrite t h e active sentences in t h e passive f o r m a n d t h e

The hard

Grandparents play c o m p u t e r games too.

The USB
Emails

A m u s e u m is being o p e n e d by t h e q u e e n t o m o r r o w .

Yesterday I received an email f r o m m y cousin so I decided to


t o it quickly.

The concert was seen by 40,000 people.

You m o v e t h e mouse on t h e mouse

40,000 people
5

back if t h e email address isn't

correct.
5

The q u e e n
4

is where you can connect a

keyboard or a camera, for example.


4

Arthur W y n n e invented crosswords in 1913.


Crosswords

is t h e part of t h e c o m p u t e r

w h i c h has t h e information t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r needs t o work.

C o m p u t e r games
2

A broad

Internet c o n n e c t i o n is faster than

a normal c o n n e c t i o n .

Alex Smith has w o n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n .

The c o m p e t i t i o n
6

They design Honda motorbikes in Japan.

M a t c h t h e w o r d s or p a r t s o f w o r d s a n d t h e n w r i t e a s i m p l e

Definition/explanation

/6 points)

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f t h e verbs

have

into s o m e t h i n g

g i v e n , or f i n d t h e c o r r e c t w o r d .
1

If I

(be) t h e Prime Minister, I

(build) m o r e hospitals.
2

This is t h e city

Yesterday I

(have) an accident w h e n I

Emma

c o m e t o t h e party t o n i g h t b u t she

hasn't decided yet.


5

ice

hood

look

an a r g u m e n t

first

somebody out

child

aid

cap

I was born.
(play) tennis.

(surf) t h e Net is m y favourite hobby.

/7 points)

d e f i n i t i o n or e x p l a n a t i o n f o r each.

Honda motorbikes

/ 7 points)

/7 points)
/20

points
ints^

ask

Gateway Bi Dictionary
/a,knma'deif(a)n/ noun [U]
a place for someone to
stay, l i v e or w o r k i n : The hotel provides accommodation for up to
100 people.

INTRODUCTION

This M a c m i l l a n D i c t i o n a r y has been especially designed to


meet the needs of Gateway students who are at B l level. The
words have been selected f r o m the B l student's book and t h i s
workbook. Other words that often appear i n school-leaving
exams have also been included.
The most common and useful words are m a r k e d according to the
M a c m i l l a n D i c t i o n a r y 'star r a t i n g ' . T h i s is so that you can easily
recognise the vocabulary you need to k n o w especially w e l l .
*** = v e r y common words
= common words
= f a i r l y common words

/a'kaunt/ noun ic]


1 an arrangement i n w h i c h a bank
looks after y o u r money: There was only 50 in his bank account.
2 a n a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h a company or I n t e r n e t p r o v i d e r to use a
service t h e y p r o v i d e : an email account.
/a'kju:z/ verb [T]
to say t h a t someone has done s o m e t h i n g
w r o n g or i l l e g a l : Her employers accused her of theft.

GRAMMAR CODES

a c h e /eik/ noun [C] a p a i n t h a t is c o n t i n u o u s but u s u a l l y not v e r y


s t r o n g verb [i] to feel a c o n t i n u o u s b u t not v e r y s t r o n g p a i n i n p a r t
of y o u r body

[C] countable nouns that are used w i t h a or an or a n u m b e r


and have a p l u r a l : car, soldier
[U] uncountable nouns that cannot be used w i t h a or an or a
number and have no p l u r a l : happiness,
pasta
[ s i n g u l a r ] nouns that are used w i t h a, an, or the but are
never used i n the p l u r a l : heat, mess
[ p l u r a l ] nouns that are used only i n the p l u r a l and always
take a p l u r a l verb: congratulations,
surroundings

[ I ] i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs that have no d i r e c t object: He paused


for a moment. Could you speak up please?
[ T ] t r a n s i t i v e verbs that have a direct object: late my lunch.
She handed the note over to me.

/a'tfi:vmant/ noun [C]


a particular t h i n g that
someone has achieved: Winning the gold medal was a remarkable
achievement.
a c u p u n c t u r e /'aekju.pAnktfa/ noun [U] a m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t t h a t
involves p u t t i n g needles i n t o p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s of someone's body
a d a p t a t i o n /.ai'daep'teijiajn/ noun [C] a f i l m or T V p r o g r a m m e made
f r o m a book or play
a d d i c t /'aedikt/ noun [C] someone w h o cannot stop t a k i n g i l l e g a l or
h a r m f u l d r u g s : a heroin addict

[ l i n k i n g v e r b ] verbs that are followed by a n o u n or adjective


complement describing the subject: They looked happy. /
feel better now.
W O R D C L A S S E S U S E D IN THI

/a'ka:din ,tu:/ prep


1 used for s t a t i n g where
i n f o r m a t i o n or ideas have come f r o m : According to newspaper
reports, fighting has broken out in the northern provinces. 2 i n a
way that agrees w i t h or obeys a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n , system, or set of
r u l e s : The game was played according to the rules.

)ICTIONARY

adj (=adjective)

phrase

adv (=adverb)

p h r v b ( = p h r a s a l verb)

conj (=conjunction)

p r e p (=preposition)

det ( = determiner)

p r o n (=pronoun)

noun

verb

A
/'aebs(a)ns/ noun [C/u] a t i m e w h e n someone is not where
they should be or where they u s u a l l y are: We are concerned
about
your child's frequent absences from school.
/aeka'demik/ adj 1 r e l a t i n g to education, especially i n
colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s : We expect our students to meet high
academic standards. 2 based on l e a r n i n g f r o m study r a t h e r t h a n
p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s and experience: The college offers both academic
and vocational qualifications,
noun a teacher at a college or
university
/ak'sept/ verb [T]
to take s o m e t h i n g that someone gives
you: It gives me great pleasure to accept this award, verb [l/Tl
to say yes to an i n v i t a t i o n , offer, or suggestion: Our clients will
never accept this proposal.
/'aeksid(a)nt/ noun [C]
1 an unexpected event that
causes i n j u r y or damage: He was killed in a climbing
accident.
2 s o m e t h i n g t h a t happens w i t h o u t b e i n g p l a n n e d : I didn't mean
to do it! It was an accident.
/,aeksi'dent(a)li/ adv 1 by chance, as the r e s u l t o f a n
accident: Police believe the fire was started accidentally. 2 by
mistake r a t h e r t h a n deliberate i n t e n t i o n : The program
prevents
files from being accidentally
erased.

a d d i c t e d /a'diktid/ adj unable to stop t a k i n g an i l l e g a l or h a r m f u l


d r u g : He was addicted to cocaine.
a d d i c t i v e /a'diktiv/ adj a n a d d i c t i v e d r u g is d i f f i c u l t to stop t a k i n g
a d j u s t /a'd3Ast/ verb [T] to change or move s o m e t h i n g s l i g h t l y so
t h a t i t w o r k s or fits better: She stopped to adjust the strap on her
sandal, verb [i] to get used to a new s i t u a t i o n by c h a n g i n g y o u r
ideas or the way y o u do t h i n g s : It took her two years to adjust to
life in England.
/ad'mit/ verb [l/T]
to agree t h a t s o m e t h i n g bad is t r u e , or
to agree t h a t y o u have done s o m e t h i n g w r o n g : Davis
admitted
causing death by careless
driving.
a d o l e s c e n c e /,a?da'les(a)ns/ noun [ui the p e r i o d of y o u r life w h e n y o u
are c h a n g i n g f r o m b e i n g a c h i l d to b e i n g an adult, especially
w h e n y o u are a y o u n g teenager: He spent his adolescence in a
children's
home.
/'aedAlt, / noun [C]
someone w h o is no longer a c h i l d
a n d is l e g a l l y responsible for t h e i r actions: Tickets are 2.50for
adults and 1.50 for
children.
/ad'va:ntid3/ noun [C/U]
s o m e t h i n g t h a t makes
one person or t h i n g m o r e l i k e l y to succeed t h a n others: the
advantages of a good education noun [C]
a good feature or
q u a l i t y t h a t s o m e t h i n g has: Having children when you're older
has both advantages and
disadvantages.
a d v e r t i s e m e n t /ad'v3:tismant/ noun [C] a n a n n o u n c e m e n t i n a
newspaper, on t e l e v i s i o n , on the I n t e r n e t etc t h a t is designed to
persuade people to b u y a p r o d u c t or service, go to a n event, or
apply for a j o b
/ad'vais/ noun [U]
an o p i n i o n that someone gives y o u
about the best t h i n g to do i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n : Ask your
father for
advice.
/ad'vaiz/ verb [l/T]
to give y o u r o p i n i o n to someone about
the best t h i n g to do i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n : Her doctor advised
her to rest.
a e r i a l /'earial/ noun [C] a piece of equipment made of w i r e or t h i n
m e t a l , used for r e c e i v i n g r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n signals
/a'fekt/ verb [T]
to change or influence s o m e t h i n g , often
i n a negative way: Did the newspapers really affect the outcome of
the election?
/a'freid/ adj
1 w o r r i e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g bad m i g h t
happen: / was afraid that you'd miss the flight. 2 f r i g h t e n e d : Don't
be afraid -1 won't hurt you.

97

afterwards

art

/"a:ftawadz/ adv
after something else that you have
a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d : Let's go and see a film and afterwards
we
could go for a meal.

apparent

a g o n y a u n t /'aegani ,a:nt/ noun [] a w o m a n w h o g i v e s a d v i c e a b o u t


p e r s o n a l problems i n a n e w s p a p e r or m a g a z i n e by a n s w e r i n g
readers' letters
/a'gri:/ verb [l/T]
to h a v e t h e s a m e o p i n i o n a s s o m e o n e
e l s e : Doreen thought that the house was too small, and Jim
agreed.
verb [l]
to s a y t h a t y o u w i l l do s o m e t h i n g t h a t s o m e o n e e l s e
w a n t s o r s u g g e s t s : I asked her to marry me, and she agreed.
/a'hed/adv
1 i n t h e d i r e c t i o n i n f r o n t of y o u : There's a
motel just a few miles ahead. 2 u s e d for s a y i n g w h a t w i l l h a p p e n
i n t h e f u t u r e : Where will the money come from in the years
ahead?
/'ea.lain/ noun [C] a c o m p a n y t h a t o w n s a i r c r a f t a n d t a k e s
p e o p l e o r g o o d s b y p l a n e f r o m o n e p l a c e to a n o t h e r
a l i e n /'eilian/ noun [C] a c r e a t u r e f r o m a n o t h e r p l a n e t
/'1/ verb [T]
to g i v e s o m e o n e p e r m i s s i o n to do
s o m e t h i n g o r h a v e s o m e t h i n g : I'm sorry, sir, but smoking
allowed.

ready?'

/'admaust/ adv
n e a r l y b u t n o t c o m p l e t e l y : 'Are
Almost! I'm just putting my shoes on.'

is

you

/a:l't3:nativ/ noun [C]


something that you c a n choose
to do i n s t e a d of s o m e t h i n g e l s e : There was no alternative
- we had
to close the
bridge.
a m a t e u r /'aemata, 'aematjua/ adj d o n e for p l e a s u r e i n s t e a d of a s a
j o b : amateur photography
noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o d o e s s o m e t h i n g
b e c a u s e t h e y e n j o y it, i n s t e a d of a s a j o b
I was amazed

that

he

/a'meizm/ adj v e r y g o o d , s u r p r i s i n g , o r i m p r e s s i v e : Her


story was quite
amazing.
a m b i t i o u s /aem'bifas/ adj d e t e r m i n e d to b e c o m e s u c c e s s f u l , r i c h , o r
f a m o u s : an ambitious young
lawyer
/ ' / prep
1 i n c l u d e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p of p e o p l e
o r t h i n g s : Robert was the only one among them who had ever
ridden a horse. 2 w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e o r t h i n g s a l l a r o u n d : It was
pleasant strolling among the olive trees.
a m u s e m e n t p a r k /a'mju:zmant ,pa:k/ noun [] a p l a c e w h e r e p e o p l e
p a y m o n e y to go o n r i d e s
a n a l y s e /'aena,laiz/ verb [T] to e x a m i n e s o m e t h i n g i n d e t a i l i n o r d e r
to u n d e r s t a n d o r e x p l a i n it: Scientists analysed samples of leaves
taken from the area.
a n a t o m y /a'naetami/ noun [Cj t h e b o d y of a h u m a n o r a n i m a l , o r t h e
s t r u c t u r e of a p l a n t
/'ein[(a)nt/ adj
1 v e r y old: an ancient city Ibook I tradition
2 r e l a t i n g to a p e r i o d of h i s t o r y a v e r y l o n g t i m e ago: the ancient
Greeks I Britons I
Egyptians
/'/ noun [U]
t h e s t r o n g f e e l i n g y o u get t h a t m a k e s y o u
w a n t to h u r t s o m e o n e o r s h o u t at t h e m : Some people express
their
anger through
violence.
/'aerjgri/ adj

v e r y a n n o y e d : There's

no point in

getting

angry.
a n k l e /')()1/ noun [C] t h e p a r t at t h e b o t t o m of y o u r l e g w h e r e
y o u r foot j o i n s y o u r l e g
a n n i v e r s a r y /,3eni'v3:s(a)ri/ noun [C) a d a t e w h e n y o u c e l e b r a t e
s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n e d i n a p r e v i o u s y e a r t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t to
y o u : a wedding
anniversary
/'aenjual/ adj
1 h a p p e n i n g o n c e a y e a r : an
annual
conference/festival/holiday
2 c a l c u l a t e d o v e r a p e r i o d of o n e y e a r :
an annual
salary
a n o r a k /'aena,raek/ noun [C] a s h o r t c o a t w i t h a h o o d
a n t /aent/ noun [C] a s m a l l i n s e c t t h a t l i v e s u n d e r t h e g r o u n d i n l a r g e
organised groups
a p a r t f r o m /a'pa:t ,fram/ phrase i n a d d i t i o n to s o m e o n e o r
s o m e t h i n g : Apart from providing
humanitarian
aid, the UN is
also supposed to enforce
agreements.
/a'pDla.dsaiz/ verb [I]
to t e l l s o m e o n e t h a t y o u a r e s o r r y
for d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w r o n g : I apologise for taking so long to reply.

98

was

/a'pi:l/ noun [c] a n u r g e n t r e q u e s t for p e o p l e to do


s o m e t h i n g o r g i v e s o m e t h i n g : There have been several appeals for
an end to the fighting,
noun [U] a q u a l i t y t h a t s o m e t h i n g h a s t h a t
m a k e s p e o p l e l i k e it o r w a n t it: How do you explain the appeal
of horror films? verb [I] 1 to m a k e a n u r g e n t r e q u e s t for p e o p l e
to do s o m e t h i n g o r g i v e s o m e t h i n g : She appealed to her former
husband to return their baby son. 2 i f s o m e t h i n g a p p e a l s to y o u ,
y o u l i k e it o r w a n t it: The show's mixture of comedy and songs will
appeal to
children.
/ ' / verb [linking verb]
to m a k e o t h e r p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t
y o u a r e s o m e t h i n g , o r t h a t y o u feel s o m e t h i n g : Matt
appears
unaffected by all the media attention, verb [l]
1 i f s o m e o n e or
s o m e t h i n g a p p e a r s s o m e w h e r e , y o u s e e t h e m s u d d e n l y o r for the
f i r s t t i m e : Cracks began to appear in the ceiling. 2 to s t a r t to exist,
o r to s t a r t to b e a v a i l a b l e for t h e f i r s t t i m e : the latest
Internet
guide to appear on the market
/a'piarans/ noun [u]
1 t h e w a y t h a t s o m e o n e or
s o m e t h i n g l o o k s : The twins are almost identical in
appearance.
2 t h e t i m e w h e n s o m e t h i n g s t a r t s to e x i s t , o r s t a r t s to be s e e n :
the appearance offast food restaurants
on every high street 3 the
f a c t t h a t s o m e o n e a r r i v e s s o m e w h e r e : She was startled by Julie's
sudden appearance in the
doorway.

not

/'1/ adj, adv


i f y o u a r e alone, no one else is w i t h you:
Shelley is divorced and lives alone.

a m a z e d /a'meizd/ adj v e r y s u r p r i s e d : Frankly.


was
interested.

/a'paerant/ adj e a s y to s e e o r u n d e r s t a n d : It
that the two women knew each other.

/,aepli'keif(a)n fa:(r)m/ noun


a p r i n t e d l i s t of
q u e s t i o n s t h a t y o u a n s w e r i n o r d e r to t r y to get a j o b , b o r r o w
m o n e y , get a p l a c e at u n i v e r s i t y e t c
/a'plai/ verb [I]
to m a k e a f o r m a l r e q u e s t to do s o m e t h i n g
o r h a v e s o m e t h i n g : Students can apply for money to help with
their living costs, verb [T]
to p u t a l a y e r of s o m e t h i n g s u c h a s
paint onto a s u r f a c e
/a'pamtmant/ noun [C]
a n a r r a n g e m e n t to see
s o m e o n e , for e x a m p l e a d o c t o r , at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e : Why don't
you make an appointment
with one of our
doctors?
/a'praopriat/ adj
s u i t a b l e for a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n :
This isn't the appropriate
time to discuss the
problem.
/a'proksimatli/ adv u s e d for s h o w i n g t h a t a n
a m o u n t o r n u m b e r i s n o t e x a c t : Approximately
60,000people filled
the
stadium.
a r c h e o l o g i s t /,a:ki'Dlad3ist/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o s t u d i e s a r c h e o l o g y
a r c h e r /'a:(r)tja(r)/ noun [q s o m e o n e w h o s h o o t s a r r o w s f r o m a b o w
a r c h i t e c t /'u:ki,tekt/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to d e s i g n
buildings
/'a:gju:/ verb [l]
to d i s c u s s s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u d i s a g r e e
a b o u t , u s u a l l y i n a n a n g r y w a y : Those girls are always
arguing!
/'a:gjomant/ noun [C]
an angry disagreement
b e t w e e n p e o p l e : The decision led to a heated
argument.
/:/ noun [C]
o n e of t h e t w o l o n g p a r t s of y o u r b o d y w i t h
y o u r h a n d s at t h e e n d : I put my arm around his
shoulders.
a r m b a n d /'a:m,baend/ noun [C] 1 a p l a s t i c r i n g t h a t i s filled w i t h a i r .
w o r n a r o u n d e a c h a r m b y p e o p l e l e a r n i n g to s w i m 2 a s m a l l
p i e c e of c l o t h t h a t y o u w e a r a r o u n d o n e a r m
a r m c h a i r /'u:m,tj'ea/ noun [C] a l a r g e c o m f o r t a b l e c h a i r w i t h p a r t s for
y o u to r e s t y o u r a r m s o n
/'a:mi/ noun []
a l a r g e o r g a n i s a t i o n of s o l d i e r s w h o a r e
t r a i n e d to fight w a r s o n l a n d : an army
officer/colonel
/a'reind3mant/ noun [plural]
arrangements:
p r a c t i c a l p l a n s for o r g a n i s i n g a n d m a n a g i n g t h e d e t a i l s of
s o m e t h i n g : sleeping/seating
arrangements
noun [C]
an
a g r e e m e n t o r p l a n t h a t y o u m a k e w i t h s o m e o n e e l s e : They have
an arrangement
with Pepsi-Cola to share distribution
facilities.
/a'rest/ verb [T]
i f t h e p o l i c e a r r e s t s o m e o n e , t h e y t a k e that
p e r s o n to a p o l i c e s t a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y t h i n k t h a t h e o r s h e h a s
c o m m i t t e d a c r i m e : Police raided the building and arrested
six
men.
a r s o n i s t /'a:(r)s(a)nist/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o d e l i b e r a t e l y s t a r t s fires,
especially in buildings
/a:t/ noun [U]
p a i n t i n g s , d r a w i n g s , a n d other objects that
a r e c r e a t e d i n o r d e r to b e b e a u t i f u l o r i n t e r e s t i n g : the art of
ancient
Mexico
/,a:ti'fif(a)l/ adj not n a t u r a l o r r e a l , b u t m a d e b y people:
The growers use both natural and artificial
light.

artificial

behaviour

/'a:tist/ noun [C]


someone w h o creates p a i n t i n g s or other
objects t h a t are b e a u t i f u l or i n t e r e s t i n g
ask s o m e b o d y o u t /,a:sk s.\mbddi 'aut/ phr vb to i n v i t e someone to
go somewhere w i t h y o u because y o u w a n t to s t a r t a r o m a n t i c
relationship w i t h t h e m

/'beibi/ noun [C]


w a l k : their new baby

/3,seesi'neif(a)n/ noun [C/u] the m u r d e r of a famous


or i m p o r t a n t person, especially for p o l i t i c a l reasons: an
assassination
attempt

/a'sesmant/ noun [U]


the process of m a k i n g a
judgment or f o r m i n g a n o p i n i o n , after c o n s i d e r i n g s o m e t h i n g or
someone c a r e f u l l y : The investigation was reopened after careful
assessment of new evidence.
/a'sist(a)nt/ noun [C]
someone whose j o b is to help
another person i n t h e i r w o r k , for example by d o i n g the easier
parts of it: a personal
assistant
a t l a s /'aetlas/ noun [C] a book of maps

a t t r a c t i o n /|()/ noun [C] a n i n t e r e s t i n g place or object t h a t


people come to see noun [c/u] a reason for l i k i n g s o m e t h i n g or
someone or b e i n g interested i n i t / t h e m
attractive

woman
au p a i r / '/ noun [] a y o u n g w o m a n w h o lives w i t h a f a m i l y i n
a foreign c o u n t r y and helps to look after t h e i r c h i l d r e n
/b:dians/ noun [C]
the people w h o w a t c h or l i s t e n t o a
performance: Chaplin's films were loved by audiences
throughout
the world.
/a:nt/ noun [C]
the sister of y o u r m o t h e r or father, or the
wife of y o u r uncle: I loved visiting my aunt and uncle.

certainly

/3:'6Drati/ noun [U]


1 the power to m a k e decisions a n d
make people do w h a t y o u w a n t : The president's authority is being
questioned in the press. 2 official p e r m i s s i o n to do s o m e t h i n g : We
do not release the names of our customers without their
authority.
noun [plural]
the a u t h o r i t i e s : the police or other o r g a n i s a t i o n s
w i t h legal power to m a k e people obey l a w s : The French
authorities have refused to issue him a visa.
a u t o b i o g r a p h y /.-rtaubai'ografi/ noun [C] a book about y o u r life t h a t
you w r i t e y o u r s e l f
a u t o g r a p h noun [C] a famous person's n a m e t h a t they
sign on s o m e t h i n g
/3'veilab(9)l/ adj
1 able to be o b t a i n e d , t a k e n , or used:
We'll notify you as soon as tickets become available. 2 not too busy
to do s o m e t h i n g : Vm available next Tuesday if you want to meet
then.
a v a l a n c h e /'aevd,la:ntf/ noun [] a large a m o u n t of snow t h a t
suddenly falls d o w n a m o u n t a i n

/b:f(a)l/ adj

e x t r e m e l y bad: This wine tastes

awful.

b a d g e /baed3/ noun [C] 1 a s m a l l r o u n d object w i t h w o r d s or symbols


on i t . You fasten i t onto y o u r clothes w i t h a p i n , for example to
show t h a t y o u s u p p o r t a n idea o r a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . 2 a special
piece of m e t a l , c l o t h , o r plastic w i t h w o r d s o r symbols on i t . You
w e a r i t o r c a r r y i t to show y o u r o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n : a police badge
b a d l y - p a i d /'baedli peid/ phrase i f someone is badly-paid, they do not
e a r n m u c h money, or they e a r n less money t h a n is f a i r for the
w o r k they do
b a d - t e m p e r e d /,beed 'tempad/ adj made a n n o y e d or a n g r y v e r y
easily

b a n /baen/ noun [C] a n official statement o r d e r i n g people not to


do s o m e t h i n g : There is a total ban on smoking anywhere in the
college, verb [T] to say o f f i c i a l l y t h a t someone is not a l l o w e d to
do s o m e t h i n g : She was banned from competing for two years after
failing a drugs test.
/baenk/ noun [C]
1 a financial i n s t i t u t i o n where people can
keep t h e i r money, o r c a n b o r r o w money: / need to go to the bank
this morning. 2 a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o r store of s o m e t h i n g : a blood
bank
b a r g a i n /'ba:gm/ noun [C] s o m e t h i n g y o u buy t h a t costs m u c h less
t h a n n o r m a l : Her dress was a real bargain.
/'beisik/ adj
1 f o r m i n g the m a i n o r most i m p o r t a n t p a r t
or aspect of s o m e t h i n g : Rice is the basic ingredient of the dish.
2 simple, w i t h n o t h i n g special o r e x t r a : The state provides only
basic health care.
/bi:tJ7 noun [C]
sea o r a l a k e

a n area of sand or s m a l l stones beside the

b e a n / b i : n / noun [C] 1 a seed of v a r i o u s p l a n t s t h a t is cooked and


eaten, or a p l a n t t h a t produces these seeds 2 a d r i e d bean t h a t
y o u g r i n d a n d use to m a k e d r i n k s such as coffee and cocoa

/bi:t/ verb [T]


1 to defeat someone i n a game, c o m p e t i t i o n ,
election, o r b a t t l e : England needed to beat Germany to get to the
final. 2 to h i t someone v i o l e n t l y several t i m e s : They were arrested
for beating their
children.

/s'vjrd/ verb [T]


1 to t r y to prevent s o m e t h i n g f r o m
happening: Try to avoid confrontation. 2 to stay away f r o m
someone or s o m e t h i n g : We went early to avoid the crowds.

u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a subject, issue, o r s i t u a t i o n : There was a


general lack of awareness about safety issues.

b a d d y /'baedi/ noun [C] someone i n a film o r book w h o does u n k i n d


or i l l e g a l t h i n g s

b e a r d /biad/ noun [C] h a i r t h a t grow's o n a man's c h i n and cheeks

/'aev(a)rid3/ noun [C/u] the t y p i c a l a m o u n t or level:


Unemployment here is twice the national
average.

k n o w l e d g e or

/'baek,graund/ noun [C]


1 the general experiences
a n d influences t h a t have f o r m e d someone's character, or the
t y p e of e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g they have had: students from very
different backgrounds 2 the p a r t of a p i c t u r e or p a t t e r n t h a t is
b e h i n d the m a i n people o r t h i n g s i n i t : a picture of palm trees
with mountains in the background

b a l d /b:>:kl/ adj w i t h l i t t l e o r no h a i r o n y o u r head

/:/ noun [C]


1 someone w h o w r i t e s books o r a r t i c l e s as
their j o b 2 the person w h o w r o t e a p a r t i c u l a r d o c u m e n t or other
piece of w r i t i n g : the author of the report

/a'wea(r)nas/ noun [singular/U]

/bask/ noun [C]


1 the p a r t of y o u r body between y o u r neck
a n d y o u r b o t t o m , o n the opposite side to y o u r chest a n d stomach:
1 have a pain in my back. 2 the p a r t o r side of s o m e t h i n g t h a t is
f u r t h e s t f r o m the f r o n t : Get in the back of the car.

b a l c o n y /'baelkani/ noun [C] a place s t i c k i n g out f r o m the outside of a


b u i l d i n g w h e r e y o u c a n sit o r stand

/
adj r e a l , not false o r copied: The letter is
authentic.

/a'wea/ adj
k n o w i n g about a s i t u a t i o n o r fact: As far
I'm aware, he didn't tell her anything.

b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e /'baetjalaz di.gri:/ noun [C] a f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y degree

b a c k u p // noun [U] people o r e q u i p m e n t t h a t can be used


w h e n e x t r a help is needed: The gang was armed, so the police
called for backup, noun [C] a copy of i n f o r m a t i o n o n y o u r computer
t h a t y o u m a k e i n case y o u lose the o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n

/'aetmas.fia/ noun [singular]


1 the m o o d t h a t exists
in a place and affects the people there: There is an atmosphere
of tension in the city today. 2 the a i r r o u n d the E a r t h o r r o u n d
another planet: The Earth's atmosphere is getting
warmer.

nice to look at: a stunningly

a v e r y y o u n g c h i l d w h o cannot yet t a l k or
daughter

b a c h e l o r /'baetjata/ noun [C] a m a n w h o has never been m a r r i e d

a s s e s s /a'ses/ verb [T] to t h i n k about s o m e t h i n g c a r e f u l l y a n d m a k e a


judgment about i t : We tried to assess his suitability for the job.

/a'traektiv/ adj

as

b e a u t i c i a n /bju:'tif(3)n/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to give people


beauty t r e a t m e n t s
/bi'heiv/ verb [I]
to do t h i n g s i n a p a r t i c u l a r way: The
children behaved very badly, verb [l/T]
to be p o l i t e a n d not cause
t r o u b l e : Mum's always telling me to behave when we go out.
Anna

/bi'heivja/ noun [u]


was sick of her brother's

the w a y t h a t someone behaves:


behaviour.

99

behind

brother

/bi'haindV adv, prep


1 at the back of someone or
s o m e t h i n g : The teacher was standing behind me, looking over
my shoulder. 2 used for s a y i n g w h a t causes s o m e t h i n g or who
is responsible for m a k i n g it happen, especially w h e n t h i s is not
obvious: Police believe that a racist group is behind the attacks.
3 late or too slow i n d o i n g t h i n g s t h a t y o u have to do: The project
is already a month behind
schedule.
b e l o n g t o /bi'lon ta/ phr vb to be owned by someone: The car
to the woman next door.

belongs

b e s t - s e l l e r /best'sela/ noun [C] a book t h a t m a n y people b u y


b i g - h e a d e d /.big'hedid/ adj b e h a v i n g i n a way t h a t shows that y o u
t h i n k y o u are v e r y i m p o r t a n t or i n t e l l i g e n t
/ b i l / noun [C]
a w r i t t e n statement that shows how m u c h
money you owe for goods or services t h a t y o u have received: a
telephone bill
b i o d e g r a d a b l e /,bai3udi'greid3b(3)l/ adj d e c a y i n g n a t u r a l l y i n a w a y
t h a t is not h a r m f u l to the e n v i r o n m e n t
b i o g r a p h y /bai'Dgrafi/ noun [C] a book t h a t someone w r i t e s about
someone else's life
/:9/ noun [c/u]
the occasion w h e n a baby is b o r n : We are
happy to announce the birth of our son, Andrew.
b i s c u i t /'biskit/ noun [C] a s m a l l flat d r y cake t h a t is u s u a l l y sweet: a
packet of chocolate
biscuits
a b i t Is 'bit/ phrase s l i g h t l y , or a l i t t l e : I'm feeling

a bit tired.

/bleim/ noun [U] r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a n accident, p r o b l e m , or


bad s i t u a t i o n : Why do I always get the blame for everything? & [T]
to say or t h i n k t h a t someone or s o m e t h i n g is responsible for
an accident, problem, or bad s i t u a t i o n : If it all goes wrong, don't
blame me.
b l e e d /bli:d/ verb [i] to have blood f l o w i n g f r o m y o u r body, for
example f r o m a cut: He was bleeding from a wound in his
shoulder.
/blamd/ adj unable to see: Blind
the same school.

and sighted children

attend

b l o g // noun [C] a b i o g r a p h i c a l web log: a type of d i a r y on a


website that is changed r e g u l a r l y , to give the latest news.
/bUd/ noun [U]
the r e d l i q u i d that flows a r o u n d inside
y o u r body: Oxygen is carried in the blood.
// verb [l]
1 i f w i n d or a i r blows, the a i r moves: A strong
wind was blowing across the island. 2 to p u s h out a i r f r o m y o u r
m o u t h : He bent towards the candle and blew gently.
Iby.ul noun [C]
1 a t h i n flat piece of wood or other
m a t e r i a l t h a t is used for a p a r t i c u l a r purpose: a chopping/
ironing board 2 a flat w i d e surface such as a noticeboard or
blackboard that is used for s h o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : The exam
results were pinned up on the board, verb [i/] to get onto a ship,
a i r c r a f t , t r a i n , or bus
b o a r d g a m e / ,geim/ noun [C] a n y game i n w h i c h y o u move
objects a r o u n d on a special b o a r d
b o a r d i n g s c h o o l /'bo:dii] sku:l/ noun [C] a school i n w h i c h the
students l i v e d u r i n g the p a r t of the y e a r t h a t t h e y go to lessons
// noun [C]
a vehicle for t r a v e l l i n g on water: The only
way to get there was by boat.
or i f y o u b o i l i t , i t becomes so
When the water boils, add the
water, or to be cooked i n t h i s
egg?

// noun [C]
a w r i t t e n w o r k t h a t is p r i n t e d on pages
fastened together inside a cover: Please open your books at page
25. verb [l/T] to a r r a n g e to have or use s o m e t h i n g at a p a r t i c u l a r
t i m e i n the f u t u r e : Shall I book a room for you?
b o o s t /bu:st/ noun [singular] s o m e t h i n g t h a t helps s o m e t h i n g to
increase or i m p r o v e : The festival has been a major boost for the

100

Iby.ul adj
feeling i m p a t i e n t and annoyed because n o t h i n g
is i n t e r e s t i n g : The waiter looked very bored.
b o r e d o m / t a d a m / noun [U] the feeling of being bored
/'boirirj/ adj

not at a l l i n t e r e s t i n g : a boring, badly-paid

job

/by.nl adj
1 w h e n a baby is b o r n , it comes out of its
mother's body and s t a r t s its life: Her grandfather died before she
was born. 2 i f s o m e t h i n g such as a new o r g a n i s a t i o n or idea is
b o r n , i t begins to exist
/'bDrau/ verb [T]
to receive and use s o m e t h i n g that
belongs to someone else, and promise to give it back: Can I
borrow your
calculator?
b o s s y /'bDsi/ adj someone who is bossy is a n n o y i n g because they
keep t e l l i n g other people w h a t to do
b o u n c e /baons/ verb [i/T] 1 i f a b a l l or other object bounces, or i f you
bounce i t , i t h i t s a surface t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y moves away: The
ball bounced twice before hitting the net. 2 i f an e m a i l message
bounces, i t is sent back to y o u w i t h o u t r e a c h i n g the person you
sent i t to
/baol/ noun [C]
1 a r o u n d container that you use for eating,
s e r v i n g , or p r e p a r i n g food: In a large bowl, mix together the eggs,
sugar, and butter. 2 a large c o n t a i n e r w i t h o u t a l i d , used for
h o l d i n g l i q u i d s : a washing-up
bowl
b o w l i n g /'bauhq/ noun [u] a n i n d o o r game i n w h i c h players r o l l
heavy balls along a t r a c k and t r y to k n o c k d o w n a group of pins
/bDks/ noun [C]
1 a c o n t a i n e r w i t h s t r a i g h t sides and a flat
base: a cardboard box 2 a space for w r i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on a
p r i n t e d f o r m , or a space on a computer screen w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n
i n i t : a dialogue box
b o x e r Arokss/ noun [C] someone who takes p a r t i n the sport of
boxing

/bmk/ noun [C]


1 a large b u i l d i n g w i t h a lot of different
levels: an apartment/office
block 2 a solid piece of wood, stone, ice
etc w i t h s t r a i g h t sides: a block of marble 3 an area of b u i l d i n g s
i n a t o w n or c i t y w i t h streets on a l l four sides: / was early, so
I walked around the block a couple of times, verb m to stop
s o m e t h i n g f r o m m o v i n g along or passing t h r o u g h s o m e t h i n g : A
car was blocking the road.

/bod/ verb [l/T] 1 i f a l i q u i d boils,


hot that bubbles rise to the surface:
rice. 2 to cook s o m e t h i n g i n b o i l i n g
way: How long does it take to boil an

local economy, verb [T] to help s o m e t h i n g to increase or improve:


The cold weather boosted demand for
electricity.

/brein/ noun [C]


the o r g a n inside y o u r head that allows you
to t h i n k a n d feel, a n d c o n t r o l s y o u r body: The illness had affected
his brain.
/bra:ntJ7 noun [C]
1 one of the parts of a tree that grows
out of its t r u n k 2 a shop or office r e p r e s e n t i n g a large company
or o r g a n i s a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r area: The store has branches in
over 50 cities.
/breiv/ adj
able to deal w i t h danger, p a i n , or trouble
w i t h o u t b e i n g f r i g h t e n e d or w o r r i e d : the brave soldiers who
fought and died for their country
/breik/ verb [l/T]
1 i f s o m e t h i n g breaks, or i f you break it,
it separates i n t o t w o or more pieces w h e n i t is h i t , dropped etc: /
broke two dishes this morning. 2 i f a piece of equipment breaks,
or i f y o u b r e a k i t , it stops w o r k i n g c o r r e c t l y : Don't play with the
camera - you 11 break it. verb [T]
to f a i l to obey a r u l e or law:
Students who break these rules will be punished.
b r i d e /braid/ noun [C] a w o m a n who is g e t t i n g m a r r i e d , or one who
has r e c e n t l y m a r r i e d
/brait/ adj
1 b r i g h t colours are strong but not dark: She
was wearing a bright red scarf. 2 f u l l of strong s h i n i n g l i g h t : It
was a bright sunny day. 3 i n t e l l i g e n t : one of the brightest
students
in the class
// verb [T]
to take someone or s o m e t h i n g w i t h you
f r o m one place to another: Bring a coat in case it turns cold.
b r o a d b a n d /'br3:d,baend/ noun [U] a type of connection between a
computer and the I n t e r n e t that allows y o u to send or receive a
large a m o u n t of i n f o r m a t i o n i n a short t i m e
b r o a d c a s t /'brj:d,ka:st/ noun [] a p r o g r a m m e that is broadcast:
Channel 5's main news broadcast verb [l/T] to send out messages or
p r o g r a m m e s to be received by radios or televisions: The BBC will
be broadcasting
the match live from
Paris.
// adj
1 a b r o k e n object has been damaged w i t h
the r e s u l t t h a t i t is i n t w o or more pieces: Nearly all the houses
had broken windows. 2 i f a piece of equipment is broken, it is not
w o r k i n g c o r r e c t l y : You can't use the microwave - it's broken.
b r o k e n - h e a r t e d / 'ha:tid/ adj extremely sad
/'/ noun [C]
a boy or m a n who has the same
parents as y o u : his younger/older/little/big
brother

brother-in-law

chat show

b r o t h e r - i n - l a w /'5(),:/ noun [C] 1 y o u r sister's h u s b a n d 2 the


brother of y o u r husband o r wife
b r o w s e r /'brauzs/ noun [C] a computer p r o g r a m t h a t a l l o w s y o u to
use the I n t e r n e t
b u i l d e r /'bilda/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to b u i l d a n d r e p a i r
houses
/'bildm/ noun [C] + * a s t r u c t u r e such as a house t h a t has a
roof and w a l l s : The town hall was a large, impressive
building.
bully /'buli/ noun [C] someone w h o uses t h e i r s t r e n g t h or status to
threaten or f r i g h t e n people verb m to f r i g h t e n o r h u r t someone
who is smaller or weaker t h a n y o u
b u n k e r /)/ noun [c] a r o o m w i t h v e r y s t r o n g w a l l s t h a t is b u i l t
underground as a shelter against bombs
b u r g l a r /:1/ noun [C] someone w h o enters a b u i l d i n g i l l e g a l l y i n
order to steal t h i n g s
b u r g l a r y /':1/ noun [c/u] the c r i m e of e n t e r i n g a b u i l d i n g
illegally i n order to steal t h i n g s
burgle /':()1/ verb [T] to enter a b u i l d i n g i l l e g a l l y a n d steal t h i n g s
/:/ verb [T]
1 to damage or destroy s o m e t h i n g w i t h
fire: Demonstrators burned flags outside the embassy. 2 to i n j u r e
someone or a p a r t of y o u r body w i t h s o m e t h i n g hot: The sand
was so hot it burnt my feet. 3 to put i n f o r m a t i o n onto a CD-ROM
/'beri/ verb [T] to put s o m e t h i n g i n the g r o u n d a n d cover i t
w i t h e a r t h : There's supposed to be treasure buried around here.
// noun [C]
a p l a n t t h a t is s m a l l e r t h a n a tree a n d has a
lot of t h i n branches: a holly/rose/currant
bush
/'bizros/ noun [U] + * 1 t h e w o r k of b u y i n g o r s e l l i n g
products or services: the music/fashion
business 2 the w o r k t h a t
you do as y o u r job: a business trip
sy /"bizi/ adj * * * 1 h a v i n g a lot of t h i n g s to do: He is an extremely
busy man. 2 f u l l of people or vehicles: a busy main road
b u t c h e r /'but/a/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to sell meat. T h e shop
they w o r k i n is c a l l e d a butcher's o r a butcher's shop.
b u t t e r f l y /'bAtd,flai/ noun [C] a n insect w i t h large c o l o u r f u l w i n g s
/ ' b A t ( 9 ) n / noun [C]
1 a s m a l l object t h a t y o u press to make
a machine do s o m e t h i n g : Press this button to start the computer.
2 a s m a l l r o u n d object t h a t is used for f a s t e n i n g clothes by
pushing i t t h r o u g h a hole: He had undone the top button of his
shirt.

c a r b o n d i o x i d e /,: dai'Dksaid/ noun [U] the gas t h a t is produced


w h e n y o u breathe out
// verb [l/T]
to be interested i n someone or s o m e t h i n g
and t h i n k t h a t they are i m p o r t a n t : Her son didn't care enough to
come and visit her.
/'/ noun [C]
a j o b or profession t h a t y o u w o r k at for
some t i m e : the problems of combining a career and a family
c a r i n g /'/ adj k i n d , h e l p f u l a n d s y m p a t h e t i c t o w a r d s other
people
c a r p e n t e r /'ka:pmta/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to make or
r e p a i r wooden t h i n g s
c a r t o o n /ka:'tu:n/ noun [C] 1 a f i l m o r T V p r o g r a m m e made by
p h o t o g r a p h i n g a series o f d r a w i n g s so t h a t t h i n g s i n t h e m
seem to move 2 a h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r series of d r a w i n g s i n a
newspaper or magazine
/keis/ noun [C]
a s i t u a t i o n t h a t involves a p a r t i c u l a r person
or t h i n g : In the majority of cases, it's easy to keep costs down.
c a s h i e r /kaejia/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to receive o r give
money to customers i n a shop, b a n k etc
c a s t /ka:st/ noun [] 1 a l l the p e r f o r m e r s i n a f i l m , play etc 2 a h a r d
cover for p r o t e c t i n g a b r o k e n p a r t of y o u r body w h i l e i t is g e t t i n g
better
c a t a s t r o p h i c /kaeta'strofik/ adj c a u s i n g a l o t o f damage, or m a k i n g a
lot o f people suffer: catastrophic
floods
/kastf/ verb [l/T]
1 to stop s o m e t h i n g t h a t is f a l l i n g or
m o v i n g t h r o u g h the a i r , and h o l d i t : Stewart caught the ball with
one hand. 2 to get on a t r a i n , bus, plane, or boat t h a t is t r a v e l l i n g
somewhere: I caught the next train to London, verb [T]
1 i f the
police catch someone, they f i n d t h e m a n d a r r e s t t h e m 2 to get a
disease o r i l l n e s s : Brian caught chickenpox from his nephew.
c a t w a l k /'kaet,w:>:k/ noun [C] the r a i s e d area at a fashion show t h a t
the models w a l k along
/'sela.breit/ verb [l/T]
to do s o m e t h i n g enjoyable i n order
to show t h a t a n occasion o r event is special: Let's have a party to
celebrate.
/sa'lebrati/ noun [C] a famous e n t e r t a i n e r or sports
p e r s o n a l i t y : TV/sports
celebrities
/'sentfsri/ noun [C]
a p e r i o d of 100 years, u s u a l l y
c o u n t e d f r o m a year e n d i n g i n -00:16th century
paintings
/'s3:t(3)nli/ adv
1 used for emphasising t h a t
s o m e t h i n g is definitely t r u e o r w i l l definitely happen: There
certainly wasn't any point in going now. 2 used for expressing
agreement or for g i v i n g p e r m i s s i o n : 'We'd like you to explain your
proposal to us in greater detail.'
'Certainly.'

c a b l e /'keib(a)l/ noun [c/u] 1 t h i c k w i r e used for c a r r y i n g e l e c t r i c i t y


or electronic signals 2 s t r o n g t h i c k m e t a l rope
/'kaelkju.leit/ verb [T]
using mathematics: Calculate

to discover a n u m b e r or a m o u n t by
the size of the angle.

/'tfaelmd3/ noun [C/U]


s o m e t h i n g t h a t needs a lot of
s k i l l , energy, a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n to deal w i t h o r achieve: I felt
I needed a new challenge at work, verb m to i n v i t e someone to
compete o r fight: The girls challenged the boys to a cricket match.
/'tjaempian/ noun [C] someone w h o has w o n a n
i m p o r t a n t c o m p e t i t i o n , especially i n sport: the world
heavyweight boxing
champion

/ka:m/ adj
1 not affected by s t r o n g emotions: a calm voice
2 peaceful: The city appears calm after last night's missile attach.

/tja:ns/ noun [C]


an o p p o r t u n i t y to do s o m e t h i n g ,
especially s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u w a n t to do: Students are given the
chance to learn another
language.

/'()/ noun [C]


1 a piece of e q u i p m e n t for t a k i n g
photographs 2 a piece of equipment for m a k i n g t e l e v i s i o n
programmes, f i l m s , o r videos

/'tjaen(d)l/ noun [C]


a t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n and the
p r o g r a m m e s t h a t i t broadcasts: What's on the other channel?

/ / noun [C/U]
a place where people go for a h o l i d a y
that often has tents or other t e m p o r a r y shelters: music camp

Chapter

/'kaensa/ noun [U] a serious i l l n e s s t h a t is caused w h e n cells


in the body increase i n a n u n c o n t r o l l e d way: He died of lung
cancer.
/'kaendi,deit, 'kamdidat/ noun [C] one of the people w h o
is competing i n a n election or c o m p e t i n g for a job: the Labour/
Liberal/Conservative
candidate
c a n t e e n /kaen'tim/ noun [C] a r o o m i n a factory, school, or h o s p i t a l
where meals are served
/'kaeptja/ verb [T]
to catch a person or a n i m a l and stop
them f r o m escaping: Most of the men had been either killed or
captured.

/'tjaepta/ noun [C]


Three for more

one of the sections of a book: See


details.

/'kaerikts/ noun [C]


a person i n a book, play, f i l m etc:
The film's main character is played by George Clooney.
/'tfaerati/ noun [C/u]
a n o r g a n i s a t i o n t h a t gives money and
help to people w h o need i t : a registered
charity
c h a r t /tfa:t/ noun [c] a l i s t , d r a w i n g , o r g r a p h t h a t shows i n f o r m a t i o n
/tjaet/ verb [i] 1 to t a l k i n a f r i e n d l y way: They sat waiting,
chatting about their families. 2 to exchange messages w i t h
someone u s i n g computers, i n a way t h a t lets y o u see each other's
messages i m m e d i a t e l y
c h a t s h o w /'tjaet ,// noun [C] a t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o p r o g r a m m e i n
w h i c h famous people t a l k about themselves a n d t h e i r w o r k

I 0 l

cheap

c h e a p /tj'i:p/ adj
1 not expensive: People should have access to
cheap, fresh food. 2 not expensive a n d not of good q u a l i t y : cheap
wine
/tfi:t/ verb [I] to behave dishonestly, o r to not obey r u l e s :
Kids have always found ways of cheating in school exams.
/tfek/ verb [l/T]
t o e x a m i n e s o m e t h i n g i n o r d e r to get
i n f o r m a t i o n , o r to find out w h e t h e r i t is good o r c o r r e c t : Always
check your spelling, verb [T]
t o give y o u r bags a n d cases to
an official at a n a i r p o r t so t h a t they c a n be put o n a plane: How
many bags do you have to check?
c h e c k o u t /'tjekaut/ noun [C] the place w h e r e y o u pay i n a
s u p e r m a r k e t o r o t h e r l a r g e shop
/tfi:k/ noun [C]
the soft p a r t o n each side o f y o u r face below
y o u r eyes: Sarah kissed him on the cheek.
c h e e r u p /.tfiafr) / phr vb t o become less sad, o r to m a k e someone
feel less sad: / tried to cheer him up, but he just kept staring out of
the window.
c h e f /Jef/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to cook food i n a r e s t a u r a n t
/'()1/ noun [C]
a substance used i n c h e m i s t r y ,
or one produced by a process t h a t involves c h e m i s t r y : toxic
chemicals
c h e m i s t /'kemist/ noun [C] 1 a shop t h a t sells m e d i c i n e s , beauty
products, and t o i l e t r i e s 2 someone whose j o b is p r e p a r i n g and
s e l l i n g medicines i n a chemist's shop 3 a scientist w h o studies
chemistry
/tjek/ noun [C] a piece of p r i n t e d paper t h a t y o u c a n use
instead of money: a cheque for 50
c h e s s /tjes/ noun [u] a game t h a t t w o people play o n a b o a r d w i t h
black a n d w h i t e squares. T h e pieces t h a t y o u use have d i f f e r e n t
shapes a n d move i n d i f f e r e n t ways.
/tfest/ noun [C]
the upper f r o n t p a r t of y o u r body between
y o u r neck a n d y o u r stomach: a broad/hairy
chest
c h e w i n g g u m /'tju:in , / noun [u] a t y p e of sweet t h a t y o u chew
for a l o n g t i m e but do not s w a l l o w
/tfaild/ noun [C]
1 a y o u n g person f r o m the t i m e w h e n they
are b o r n u n t i l they a r e about 14 years o l d : The nursery has places
for 30 children. 2 someone's son o r d a u g h t e r o f any age: All of our
children are grown and married.
c h i l d h o o d /'tjaild,hud/ noun [c/u] the t i m e of y o u r l i f e w h e n y o u a r e a
c h i l d : We spent our childhood in a small town in the mountains.
c h i l d i s h /'tfaildif/ adj b e h a v i n g i n a s i l l y a n d a n n o y i n g way. l i k e a
small child
c h i l l y /'tjili/ adj cold enough to be unpleasant: The evenings are
getting chilly.
/tjip/ noun [C]
1 a l o n g t h i n piece of potato cooked i n hot
o i l : fish and chips 2 a v e r y s m a l l piece o f s i l i c o n t h a t is m a r k e d
w i t h e l e c t r o n i c connections. I t is used i n computers a n d other
machines 3 a s m a l l piece of s o m e t h i n g such as w o o d o r glass t h a t
has b r o k e n off s o m e t h i n g : wood chips
/tfois/ noun [singular/u]
the o p p o r t u n i t y o r r i g h t to choose
between different t h i n g s : We try to provide greater choice for
our customers, noun [C]
a decision t o choose someone o r
s o m e t h i n g : He was facing a difficult choice between staying with
his family or working
abroad.
c h o k e /tjaok/ verb [l/T] i f y o u choke, o r i f s o m e t h i n g chokes y o u ,
you cannot breathe because t h e r e is not enough a i r , o r because
s o m e t h i n g is b l o c k i n g y o u r t h r o a t : Joe took a bite of the steak and
started to choke, verb [T] t o squeeze someone's neck so t h a t they
cannot breathe
c h o p /tjbp/ noun [C] a s m a l l piece of meat w i t h a bone i n i t : Iambi
pork chops verb [T] t o cut s o m e t h i n g such as food o r w o o d i n t o
pieces: Chop the meat into small cubes.
c h r i s t e n i n g /'kns(a)nir)/ noun [C] a r e l i g i o u s ceremony d u r i n g w h i c h
a baby is made a member of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n a n d is g i v e n a
name

condition
/'kleva/ adj
good at l e a r n i n g or u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h i n g s : I'd
like to be a doctor but I'm not clever enough.
c l i f f /klif/ noun [C] the steep side of a n area of h i g h l a n d
/ k l a i m / verb [l/T]
to use y o u r hands and feet to move up,
over, d o w n , o r across s o m e t h i n g : He climbed onto the roof.

/ktaus/ adj
1 o n l y a s h o r t distance away: We can walk to
the swimming pool - it's quite close. 2 g i v i n g c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to
every d e t a i l : I'll take a closer look at it tomorrow. 3 connected by
s h a r e d feelings such as love and respect: My brother and I are
very close.
/'klati6in/ noun [U]

clothes: a piecelitem/article

of

clothing

/kautf/ noun [C] 1 someone w h o t r a i n s a sports player o r


t e a m : a baseball coach 2 a comfortable bus for l o n g j o u r n e y s verb
[T] t o t r a i n a sports player o r t e a m
/ k a o s t / noun [C]

east coast of

an area of l a n d along the edge of a sea: the

England

/ / noun [C]
a flat r o u n d piece of m e t a l used as money:
Put a coin into the slot.
Id // adj * * * w i t h a l o w t e m p e r a t u r e , o r a t e m p e r a t u r e that
is l o w e r t h a n n o r m a l : The water was too cold for a shower, noun [C]
a m i n o r i l l n e s s t h a t blocks y o u r nose and makes y o u cough: I
didn't go to the game because I had a cold.
/ ' / verb [l/T]
i f y o u combine t h i n g s , o r i f they
c o m b i n e , they a r e used, done, o r put together: an attempt to
combine the advantages of two systems
c o m e a c r o s s / a'kros/ phr vb t o meet someone o r find something
by chance: / came across a word I'd never seen before.
Pkomadi/ noun [C]
programme

a f u n n y film, play o r t e l e v i s i o n

c o m i c / ' / noun [C] a magazine t h a t contains stories told i n a


series o f d r a w i n g s
/ka'm3:J"(a)l/ adj r e l a t i n g to the business of b u y i n g
a n d s e l l i n g goods and services: One of their first
commercial
products was an electronic typewriter, noun [C] a n advertisement on
television or radio
/ k a ' m i t / verb [T]
to do s o m e t h i n g that is i l l e g a l or
m o r a l l y w r o n g : The study aims to find out what makes people
commit crimes.
/ ' k n m a n / adj
h a p p e n i n g frequently, or e x i s t i n g i n
large a m o u n t s o r n u m b e r s : Today smog is a common occurrence
in many major cities.

/ka'mju:nati/ noun [C]


area: small rural
communities

the people w h o l i v e i n a n

/ ' ( ) / noun [C]


a n o r g a n i s a t i o n t h a t sells
services o r goods: Max works for a large oil company.
c o m p a r t m e n t / k a m ' p a : t m a n t / noun [C] one o f t h e separate p a r t s of a

c o n t a i n e r o r place wdiere t h i n g s are stored


/kDmpa'tif(a)n/ noun [C]
1 a n organised event
i n w h i c h people t r y to w i n prizes by b e i n g better t h a n other
people: He'd entered a competition in the local newspaper. 2 t h e
c o m p e t i t i o n : the person, company, o r t h i n g t h a t someone is
c o m p e t i n g w i t h : Let's look at what the competition is doing and do
it better.
/'kDmpli.keitid/ adj

d i f f i c u l t to do, deal w i t h , o r

understand
c o m p l i m e n t / ' k o m p h m a n t / noun [C] s o m e t h i n g nice t h a t y o u say to

praise someone: He kept paying me compliments on my cooking.


verb [T] t o say s o m e t h i n g nice to o r about someone: Everybody
complimented her on the way she handled the emergency.
/ k a m ' p a u n a n t / noun [C]

a p a r t of a m a c h i n e or piece of

equipment
c o m p o s e r / ' / noun [C] someone w h o w r i t e s music
/kam'pAlsari/ adj s o m e t h i n g t h a t is c o m p u l s o r y must
be done o r used because of a r u l e o r law: compulsory
exams

/'sitiz(a)n/ noun [C]


someone w h o l i v e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r
c o u n t r y , t o w n o r c i t y : the citizens of
Edinburgh

/'kDns(a)n,treit/ verb [l/T]


t o give a l l y o u r a t t e n t i o n
to the t h i n g t h a t y o u a r e d o i n g : Shh! I'm trying to concentrate.

// adj
1 obvious and c e r t a i n t o be t r u e : It appears
to be a clear case of discrimination.
2 easy to u n d e r s t a n d : Clear
instructions
are provided. 3 t r a n s p a r e n t : a clear glass bottle

/kan'dif(3)n/ noun [singular/u]


the p h y s i c a l state of
s o m e t h i n g o r someone: Engineers will examine the condition of
the damaged buildings, noun [C]
a n i l l n e s s o r h e a l t h problem

conference

cruelty

that lasts a long t i m e and affects the way y o u l i v e : a heart


condition
/'kDnf(a)rans/ noun [C]
a large m e e t i n g where people
who are interested i n a p a r t i c u l a r subject discuss ideas: a
conference
hall/room/centre
/'kDnfid(a)nt/ adj * * * c e r t a i n about y o u r a b i l i t i e s a n d
not nervous or f r i g h t e n e d : a confident
mood/smile/manner
/kan'fju:zd/ adi unable to u n d e r s t a n d s o m e t h i n g or
t h i n k clearly about i t : She was completely
confused.
/kan'fjuizin/ adj
confusing
message.

not easy to u n d e r s t a n d : She left a very

/kan'fju:3(a)n/ noun [U] a feeling t h a t y o u do not


understand s o m e t h i n g or cannot decide w h a t to do: There
to be some confusion about who actually won.

seems

/kan,graetjb'leif(a)n/ noun [plural] c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s :


used for t e l l i n g someone that y o u are pleased about t h e i r
success, good luck, or happiness on a special occasion:
'I'vepassed my driving test.' 'Congratulations!'
noun [u]
an
expression of pleasure to someone for t h e i r success, good l u c k ,
or happiness on a special occasion: We had thousands of letters of
congratulation.
c o n n e c t e d /ka'nektid/ adj 1 related to each other: Were the two
deaths connected? 2 j o i n e d to each other or to s o m e t h i n g else:
connected underground
tunnels

/'ka:na/ noun [C]


1 the p a r t of a n object, space, or r o o m
where t w o edges or sides meet: The baby banged his head on the
corner of the table. 2 a place where t w o roads meet, or where
there is a s h a r p bend i n the road: I get my newspaper from the
shop on the corner.
/kDst/ noun [c/U]
the a m o u n t of money t h a t y o u need i n
order to b u y s o m e t h i n g or to do s o m e t h i n g : The cost of basic foods
has risen
dramatically.
c o s y /'kauzi/ adj w a r m and comfortable, r e l a x i n g or f r i e n d l y
c o u g h /(/ noun [C] a n i l l n e s s i n w h i c h y o u c o u g h a lot and y o u r
t h r o a t h u r t s verb [I] to force a i r up t h r o u g h y o u r t h r o a t w i t h
a sudden noise, especially w h e n y o u have a cold or w h e n y o u
w a n t to get someone's a t t e n t i o n : My chest felt painful, and I was
coughing
uncontrollably.
/kaunt/ verb [l/T]
to calculate h o w m a n y people or t h i n g s
there are i n a g r o u p : All the votes have been counted, verb [I]
to
say n u m b e r s one after another i n order: lean count up to ten in
German.
/'kAntri/ noun [C]
a n area of l a n d t h a t has its o w n
g o v e r n m e n t and official borders: We have offices in 15 European
countries, noun [singular]
the c o u n t r y : areas away f r o m towns
a n d cities, c o n s i s t i n g of fields, f a r m s , v i l l a g e s etc: We went for a
picnic in the country.
/'kAntri,said/ noun [U]
areas away f r o m t o w n s and
cities, w i t h f a r m s , fields a n d trees

/ka'nekftajn/ noun [C]


1 a r e l a t i o n s h i p between
things or people: I don't see a connection between the two cases.
2 a t r a i n , bus, or plane that a l l o w s y o u to c o n t i n u e a j o u r n e y : My
train was late and I missed my connection.

/'()1/ noun [singular]


t w o t h i n g s or people of the same
t y p e : 'Has he had any serious girlfriends?'
A couple.' noun [C]
t w o people w h o are m a r r i e d to each other, or w h o have a
r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h each o t h e r

/'kDnsikwans/ noun [C]


a r e s u l t or effect of
something: Climate change could have disastrous
consequences.

/ka:s/ noun [C]


a series of lessons or lectures i n an
academic subject or a p r a c t i c a l s k i l l : a
drama/secretarial/
Spanish course 2 one of the p a r t s of a m e a l : We both chose fish as
our main course. 3 an area where a race or sport takes place: a
golf/race
course

/kan's3:vativ/ adj 1 not w i l l i n g to accept m u c h


change: The small farming communities tend to be very
conservative. 2 conservative c l o t h i n g or styles are t r a d i t i o n a l
/kan'sida/ verb [l/T]
to t h i n k about s o m e t h i n g c a r e f u l l y
before you make a decision: The jury went out to consider its
verdict, verb m
to have a p a r t i c u l a r o p i n i o n about someone or
something: We all considered him a hero.
c o n s i s t o f /kan'sistav/ verb to be made of p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s or t h i n g s :
Breakfast consisted of dry bread and a cup of tea.
/'kDnsanant/ noun [C]
except for 'a', 'e', T , 'o', and ' u '

any l e t t e r of the E n g l i s h alphabet

/'kDnstant/ adj
1 c o n t i n u o u s or r e g u l a r over a l o n g
period of t i m e : the constant noise of traffic 2 c o n t i n u i n g at the
same rate, level, or a m o u n t over a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f t i m e :
Maintain a constant speed.
/kan'tem/ verb [T]
containing toys and books

to have s o m e t h i n g inside: boxes

c o n t e s t /'kDntest/ noun [C] a c o m p e t i t i o n : a writing


/kan'vi:niant/ adj
your needs: If it's convenient,

contest

easy for you to do, or suitable for


call me tomorrow.

/kan'ven/(a)n/ noun [C/U]


a way of b e h a v i n g t h a t
is generally accepted as n o r m a l and r i g h t : social
conventions
noun [C]
a large m e e t i n g of people f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r profession
or o r g a n i s a t i o n
c o n v i c t /'kDnvikt/ noun [C] someone w h o is i n p r i s o n because they
have c o m m i t t e d a c r i m e
/kan'vikt/ verb [T] to prove i n a c o u r t o f l a w t h a t someone
is g u i l t y of a c r i m e : There wasn't enough evidence to convict her.
// verb [l/T]
to prepare and heat food so t h a t i t is ready
to eat: What's the best way to cook fish? noun [C] someone w h o cooks
food, either as t h e i r job or for pleasure
c o o k b o o k /'kuk,buk/ noun [C] a cookery book
c o o k e r y /'kuk(a)ri/ noun [uj the s k i l l or a c t i v i t y of p r e p a r i n g or
c o o k i n g food
/ku:l/ adj
f a i r l y cold: The water was wonderfully cool and
refreshing. 2 fashionable and a t t r a c t i v e : one of Britain's
coolest
young designers 3 good or enjoyable: The restaurant was really
cool.

/'()/ noun [C]

a c h i l d of y o u r uncle or aunt

/'kAva/ noun [C]


1 s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u put over s o m e t h i n g
else i n order to hide i t , protect i t , or close i t : She put plastic
covers on all the furniture.
2 the outside page on the front or back
of a book or magazine: Her face was once on the cover of Vogue
magazine, verb [T]
to p u t one t h i n g over another i n order to
protect or hide i t : Cover the food until you are ready to eat it.
c o w b o y /'kau.bai/ noun [C] a m a n whose job is to look after cows on a
r a n c h i n the US
/kraef/ noun [C] a n accident that happens w h e n a vehicle
h i t s s o m e t h i n g : He was seriously injured in a car crash. 2 a l o u d
noise l i k e the sound of t h i n g s h i t t i n g each other a n d b r e a k i n g
3 a n occasion w h e n a c o m p u t e r or a computer p r o g r a m suddenly
stops w o r k i n g
/kri'eitiv/ adj h a v i n g a lot o f i m a g i n a t i o n and new ideas:
The programme offers children the chance to be creative.
/'kredit/ noun [u]
a n a r r a n g e m e n t to receive money f r o m
a b a n k , or receive goods f r o m a shop, and to pay for t h e m later: /
don't like buying things on credit, noun [plural]
the credits: a l i s t
at the b e g i n n i n g or end of a f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m m e that
shows the people w h o were i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g i t
c r e d i t c a r d /'kredit ,ka:d/ noun [] a s m a l l plastic c a r d t h a t you use to
buy t h i n g s n o w a n d pay for t h e m later
/'kntik/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to give t h e i r o p i n i o n s
about t h i n g s such as books, films or plays
/'knti,saiz/ verb [i/]
to say w h a t y o u t h i n k is w r o n g
or bad about s o m e t h i n g : We were told not to criticise the policy
publicly.
c r o s s /kros/ adj a n g r y
c r o s s o u t /kros 'aut/ phr vb to d r a w an X or a l i n e t h r o u g h w r i t i n g
because i t is w r o n g , or because y o u w a n t to w r i t e s o m e t h i n g else
c r o s s r o a d s /'kros,raudz/ noun [C] a place where one r o a d crosses
another
c r o s s w o r d /'kros,w3:d/ noun [C] a w o r d game i n w h i c h the answers to
questions are w r i t t e n i n r o w s of squares t h a t cross each other
c r u e l t y /'kru:alti/ noun [C/u] c r u e l b e h a v i o u r : cruelty to
animals

children/

103

cruise

difference

c r u i s e / k r u : z / noun [C] a j o u r n e y o n a s h i p f o r p l e a s u r e , o f t e n

/di'lib(a)rat(3)li/ adv

v i s i t i n g a s e r i e s of places
//

noun [q

a s m a l l r o u n d c o n t a i n e r for a d r i n k , u s u a l l y

w i t h a h a n d l e : She filled my cup with hot


/ k j u a / noun []

/di'liv(a)ri/ noun [C/u]

2 a s o l u t i o n to a p r o b l e m : It's the only possible

possible

cure for

1 t h e p r o c e s s o f b r i n g i n g goods,

l e t t e r s o r a s e r v i c e to a p l a c e o r p e r s o n : Please allow ten days


delivery.

/deman'streif(a)n/ noun [C]

a n occasion when

p e o p l e p r o t e s t a b o u t s o m e t h i n g i n p u b l i c : Angry

c u r l y /':/ adj f o r m i n g c u r v e s : curly


/ k A S t a m a / noun [C]

students

a n occasion w h e n someone

s h o w s h o w s o m e t h i n g w o r k s o r h o w to do s o m e t h i n g :

a p e r s o n or c o m p a n y that b u y s

g o o d s o r s e r v i c e s : Supermarkets

noun [C/U]

held demonstrations,

hair

use a variety

of tactics

to

for

2 t h e p r o c e s s o f g i v i n g b i r t h to a b a b y

high

unemployment.

started

deliberately.

tea.

1 a medicine or treatment that m a k e s someone

w h o i s i l l b e c o m e h e a l t h y : Doctors say there are several


cures.

w i t h a definite intention, a n d

n o t b y c h a n c e o r b y a c c i d e n t : Police believe the fire was

cookery

demonstrations

attract

customers.

d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e /di'pu:tmant ,sta:/ noun [C] a l a r g e s h o p t h a t


is divided into separate sections, w i t h e a c h section selling a

c u t d o w n / , k A t ' d a u n / phr vb to c u t t h r o u g h a t r e e a n d m a k e it f a l l to
the g r o u n d
c u t l e r y /'kAtlari/ noun [U] t h e k n i v e s , f o r k s , a n d s p o o n s t h a t y o u u s e
for e a t i n g food

d e p e n d o n /di'pend p n / phr vb 1 i f o n e t h i n g d e p e n d s o n a n o t h e r , it
i s c h a n g e d o r a f f e c t e d b y t h e o t h e r t h i n g : Their future
how well they do in these exams.

c u t t i n g - e d g e /kAtin'ed3/ adj e x t r e m e l y m o d e r n a n d a d v a n c e d :
cutting-edge

different type of t h i n g

technology

of y o u r qualifications a n d the jobs y o u h a v e h a d

i n o r d e r to c o n t i n u e to e x i s t o r to b e s u c c e s s f u l : The

project's

success

3 if you can

depends

on the support

of everyone

concerned.

/ knew I could depend

on you.

d e p r e s s i n g /di'presir]/ adj m a k i n g y o u f e e l v e r y u n h a p p y a n d

c y c l e /'saik(a)l/ verb [I] to go s o m e w h e r e o n a b i c y c l e

w i t h o u t a n y feelings of hope or e n t h u s i a s m

c y c l i s t /'saiklist/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o r i d e s a b i c y c l e

/di'sknpj(a)n/ noun [C]

a statement about w h a t

s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g i s l i k e : a brief description
/'dezat/ noun [C/u]
dry

of the area

a l a r g e a r e a of l a n d w i t h few plants a n d

weather

d e s e r t i s l a n d /dezat 'ailand/ noun [C] a s m a l l t r o p i c a l i s l a n d w i t h n o

p e o p l e l i v i n g o n it
/ d i ' z a m / noun [c/u]

t h e w a y t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s m a d e so

t h a t it w o r k s a n d l o o k s a c e r t a i n w a y , o r a d r a w i n g t h a t s h o w s

d a f f o d i l /'daefadil/ noun [C] a t a l l y e l l o w f l o w e r t h a t g r o w s i n s p r i n g


/'daemid3/ noun [U]
s o m e t h i n g : The damage
verb [T]

negative effects o n s o m e o n e o r
to the bank's

image

is extremely

to h a r m s o m e t h i n g p h y s i c a l l y : Many

been damaged

in the

had

wore a dress that she designed

s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to d e c i d e h o w to

dog

fashion

1 w i t h v e r y l i t t l e o r n o l i g h t : a dark

and

in a dark

stormy
suit.

rooms

designer
/di'z3:t/ noun [C/u]

s w e e t food that y o u eat after the m a i n

p a r t of a m e a l
/destrneiffajn/ noun [C]

were

darkness.

the place where someone or

something is going

/'deita, 'da:ta/ noun [u]

i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s u s e d for m a k i n g

c a l c u l a t i o n s o r d e c i s i o n s : The document

contained

data from

tests

weapons.

/di'strai/ verb [T]


destroyed

stored i n a computer i n a n organised w a y


/'da:ta/ noun [C]

the

earthquake

town.

/di'strAkf(a)n/ noun [u]

d a m a g e t h a t is so s e v e r e that

s o m e t h i n g c a n n o t e x i s t a s it w a s b e f o r e : the destruction

d e a d l y / ' d e d l i / adj c a p a b l e o f k i l l i n g p e o p l e : This

is a

potentially

d e s t r u c t i v e /di'strAktiv/ adj c a u s i n g s e v e r e d a m a g e o r h a r m
/dhteil/ noun [C/U]

disease.
t h e e n d o f s o m e o n e ' s l i f e : Sandra

was

death.

one of m a n y s m a l l facts or pieces

o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to a s i t u a t i o n : No details
were revealed,

noun [U]

of the offer

a l l the s m a l l a s p e c t s o r features that

s o m e t h i n g h a s , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n t h e y a r e d i f f i c u l t to n o t i c e :

/ d f s ^ f a j n / noun [C]

a choice that y o u m a k e after y o u

h a v e t h o u g h t c a r e f u l l y a b o u t s o m e t h i n g : The committee
by the end of the

will

Attention

to detail

is important

/di'velap/ verb [l/T]

week.

in this

job.

1 to c h a n g e , g r o w o r i m p r o v e , o r to

m a k e s o m e t h i n g g r o w , c h a n g e o r i m p r o v e : All children
/ d i ' f e n d / verb [T]

1 to p r o t e c t s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g f r o m

a t t a c k : Can the military

defend

the city against

attack?

2 totry to

prevent y o u r team's opponents from s c o r i n g


/'def(a)natli/ adv

going

to Ben's party.

1 w i t h o u t a n y d o u b t : I'm
at 7o'clock?'

definitely

a situation i n w h i c h something

happens

l a t e r o r m o r e s l o w l y t h a n y o u e x p e c t e d : After a long delay, the

plane

to do s o m e t h i n g l a t e r t h a n i s p l a n n e d o r

e x p e c t e d : They delayed the decision for as long as

possible.

d e l e t e / d r l i : t / verb [] to r e m o v e s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s b e e n w r i t t e n ,
r e c o r d e d , o r s t o r e d i n a c o m p u t e r : I deleted

104

We've recently

developed

develop

2 to c r e a t e a n e w p r o d u c t o r m e t h o d :
new communications

software.

3 to t r e a t

d i a l /'daial/ noun [C] 1 t h e r o u n d p a r t of a c l o c k , w a t c h o r m a c h i n e


t h a t h a s n u m b e r s o n it 2 a r o u n d c o n t r o l o n a p i e c e of e q u i p m e n t
t u r n t h e d i a l o n a t e l e p h o n e i n o r d e r to c a l l s o m e o n e
d i a m e t e r /dai'aemita/ noun [C/u] a s t r a i g h t l i n e t h a t c r o s s e s a c i r c l e

trees f r o m a n a r e a of l a n d

took off. verb [i/T]

rates, verb [T]

t h a t y o u t u r n to c h a n g e s o m e t h i n g verb [l/T] to p r e s s t h e b u t t o n s or

'Definitely!'

d e f o r e s t a t i o n /di:,fDn'steif(a)n/ noun [U] t h e p r o c e s s o f r e m o v i n g t h e

/di'lei/ noun [C/u]

at different

a film w i t h c h e m i c a l s i n o r d e r to m a k e p h o t o g r a p h s

2 u s e d f o r e m p h a s i s i n g t h a t y o u m e a n 'yes':

'So we'll see you on Sunday

finally

of the

environment

y o u r female c h i l d

/de6/ noun [C/u]

to d a m a g e o r h a r m s o m e t h i n g s o

s e v e r e l y t h a t it c a n n o t e x i s t a s it w a s b e f o r e : An

d a t a b a s e /'deita.beis/ noun [C] a l a r g e a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s

make a decision

bride

herself.

m a k e t h i n g s , h o w they w i l l w o r k , a n d w h a t they w i l l look l i k e : a

d a r k n e s s / ' d a : k n a s / noun [u] t h e l a c k o f l i g h t : The front

very close to

verb [T]

l i k e l y to c a u s e s e r i o u s h a r m , o r to

night 2 c l o s e to b l a c k i n c o l o u r : He was dressed

of biological

designs

w h a t it w i l l l o o k l i k e , a n d o f t e n to m a k e d r a w i n g s o f it: The

/ d f z a i n a / noun [C]

h a v e a b a d effect: a dangerous
/da:k/ adj

p a t t e r n t h a t d e c o r a t e s s o m e t h i n g : simple geometric

to d e c i d e h o w s o m e t h i n g w i l l b e m a d e , h o w it w i l l w o r k , o r

serious.

buildings

noun []

w h a t it w i l l l o o k l i k e : The car has a new design,

blast.

/'demd3aras/ adj

deadly

on

d e p e n d o n s o m e o n e to do s o m e t h i n g , y o u c a n t r u s t t h e m to do it:

C V / s i : V i : / noun [C] c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e : a d o c u m e n t t h a t g i v e s d e t a i l s

all in

depends

2 to n e e d s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g

the file by

mistake.

t h r o u g h t h e centre, or the l e n g t h of t h i s l i n e
d i c t i o n a r y /'dikfan(a)ri/ noun [C] a b o o k t h a t g i v e s a n a l p h a b e t i c a l
list of w o r d s w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g s or t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s
/'difrans/ noun [C/U]

s o m e t h i n g that m a k e s one

p e r s o n o r t h i n g not the s a m e a s a n o t h e r p e r s o n or thing:


cultural/social/political

differences

noun [C]

the amount by

difficult

dynamic

w h i c h one t h i n g i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m a n o t h e r t h i n g : The same

costs 500 less here which is quite a


/'difik(a)lt/ adj

Choosing

the winner

car

difference!

not e a s y to do, d e a l w i t h , o r u n d e r s t a n d :

was a difficult

task.

/'difik(3)lti/ noun [C]


a p r o b l e m : Many students have
serious financial difficulties,
noun [U]
t h e d e g r e e to w h i c h
s o m e t h i n g i s d i f f i c u l t : The courses vary in content and
difficulty.
d i m e n s i o n /dai'men/(a)n/ noun [C] l e n g t h , h e i g h t o r w i d t h
dip i n t o /,dip i n t u : / phrvb to r e a d d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of a b o o k , b u t not
the w h o l e b o o k
/da'rekta, d a r r e k t a / noun [C]
1 s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to
tell t h e a c t o r s a n d t e c h n i c a l s t a f f w h o a r e i n v o l v e d i n a film, p l a y
or p r o g r a m m e w h a t to do 2 s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to m a n a g e a l l
or p a r t of a c o m p a n y , o r g a n i s a t i o n o r i n s t i t u t i o n : the
finance/

marketing/personnel

director

d i s a b i l i t y /disd'bilati/ noun [c/u] a c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h s o m e o n e i s n o t


able to u s e a p a r t of t h e i r b o d y o r b r a i n n o r m a l l y : children
with

learning

disabilities

/,disad'va:ntid3/ noun [C]


something that m a k e s
someone or s o m e t h i n g less effective, s u c c e s s f u l or a t t r a c t i v e :

One of the disadvantages

of the job is the long hours I

/disa'gri:/ verb [I]

s o m e o n e e l s e : Teenagers

work.

/disa'grkmant/ noun [c/U]

often

symptoms should

within

a few

The

days.

/disa'pamtid/ adj
unhappy because something did
not h a p p e n o r b e c a u s e s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g w a s not a s good a s

you e x p e c t e d : She was disappointed


letter.

that he never replied to her

d i s a p p o i n t i n g /disa'pamtin/ adj not a s good a s y o u h a d h o p e d o r

e x p e c t e d : This year's sales figures were very

disappointing.

/dfza:std/ noun [C/u]


1 something v e r y bad that happens
a n d c a u s e s a lot of d a m a g e o r k i l l s a lot of p e o p l e : A series of

disasters forced

the company to close down. 2 a v e r y b a d o r

a n n o y i n g s i t u a t i o n , o r a c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e : Our party

complete

was

disaster.

d i s a s t r o u s /di'za:stras/ adj v e r y b a d , h a r m f u l o r u n s u c c e s s f u l :

spending

cuts would be disastrous

for

The

schools.

/'disa,plm/ noun [U]


t h e p r a c t i c e of m a k i n g p e o p l e o b e y
r u l e s a n d p u n i s h i n g t h e m i f t h e y do not: He believes in strict

discipline.
d i s c o u r s e /'diska:s/ noun [C] a l o n g s e r i o u s s p e e c h o r p i e c e of w r i t i n g
on a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t
/di'skAVd/ verb [T]
to find s o m e t h i n g t h a t w a s h i d d e n
or t h a t n o o n e k n e w a b o u t before: William Herschel
discovered

Uranus in 1781.
/di'skAv(3)ri/ noun [C]

s o m e t h i n g that is found, or

s o m e t h i n g n e w t h a t i s l e a r n e d : This is one of the most


archeological discoveries of the century.
/di'skAs/ verb [T]

important

to w r i t e o r t a l k a b o u t a s u b j e c t i n

d e t a i l : The causes of stress have already


Chapter 3.

been discussed

in

d i s g u s t e d /dis'gAstid/ adj 1 f e e l i n g v e r y a n g r y a n d u p s e t a b o u t
s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u do not a p p r o v e of: / was disgusted by the

way he treated

those women. 2 f e e l i n g p h y s i c a l l y i l l b e c a u s e

s o m e t h i n g i s e x t r e m e l y u n p l e a s a n t to s e e , s m e l l o r t a s t e
d i s g u s t i n g /dis'gAstm/ adj 1 e x t r e m e l y u n p l e a s a n t 2 v e r y b a d o r
shocking
d i s h o n e s t /dis'Dnist/ adj w i l l i n g to do t h i n g s t h a t a r e not h o n e s t
/ d i s i a i k / verb [T]

knew Philip disliked

to not l i k e s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g :

/'distans/ noun [c/u]


the a m o u n t of space between t w o
people or t h i n g s : the distance from the Earth to the sun
distant

/'distant/ adj far away f r o m the place where y o u are: the


sound of traffic

/di'vaid/ verb [i/]


to separate i n t o groups or p a r t s , or to
m a k e people or t h i n g s separate i n t o groups or p a r t s : Divide the
class into three
groups.
d i v i n g /'daivm/ noun [U] 1 the a c t i v i t y or sport of s w i m m i n g deep
u n d e r w a t e r 2 the a c t i v i t y or sport of j u m p i n g i n t o w a t e r w i t h
y o u r head first a n d y o u r a r m s stretched out i n f r o n t of you
/di'vj:s/ noun [c/U]
divorce.

a legal way of e n d i n g a m a r r i a g e : I want

d i z z y /'dizi/ adj f e e l i n g t h a t the t h i n g s a r o u n d y o u are s p i n n i n g and


t h a t y o u are g o i n g to f a l l

a situation in w h i c h

to n o l o n g e r h a p p e n o r e x i s t :

disappear

d i s s a t i s f i e d /dis'saetis,faid/ adj a n n o y e d because s o m e t h i n g is not as


good as y o u expected i t to be: a dissatisfied
customer

/di'vjist/ adj no longer m a r r i e d because y o u r m a r r i a g e


has been legally ended: a divorced mother of three

disagree.

people do not a g r e e : Bowen resigned from the club following


disagreement with the head coach.
/disa'pia/ verb [l]

d i s q u a l i f y /dis'kwDh.fai/ verb [T] to not a l l o w someone to take p a r t i n


s o m e t h i n g , u s u a l l y because t h e y have done s o m e t h i n g w r o n g

to h a v e a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n f r o m

and their parents

/di'splei/ noun [C]


1 a n a r r a n g e m e n t of t h i n g s for people
to look at: a window display 2 a p e r f o r m a n c e for people to look
at: a firework display verb [T]
to put s o m e t h i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r
place so t h a t people can see i t easily: She displayed some of her
paintings
at the local arts
festival.

She

her.

d i s o b e y /disa'bei/ verb [i/] to d e l i b e r a t e l y not p a y a t t e n t i o n to a r u l e


or a n o r d e r f r o m s o m e o n e i n a u t h o r i t y
d i s o r g a n i s e d /dis'o:(r)ganaizd/ ad 1 not a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g to a
clear p l a n or s y s t e m 2 s o m e o n e w h o is d i s o r g a n i s e d does not
deal w i t h things i n a c l e a r or sensible w a y

/'dDkjumant/ noun [C]


1 a piece of paper or a set of
papers c o n t a i n i n g official i n f o r m a t i o n : He refused to sign the
documents. 2 a c o m p u t e r file t h a t you can w r i t e i n : The
program
will automatically
save any documents you have open.
d o c u m e n t a r y /,dDkjo'ment(3)ri/ noun [C] a film or television
p r o g r a m m e t h a t deals w i t h r e a l people and events
d o l l /dDl/ noun [C] a c h i l d r e n ' s toy i n the shape of a s m a l l person
d o w n l o a d /daun'laud/ verb [l/T] to move i n f o r m a t i o n to y o u r
c o m p u t e r f r o m a c o m p u t e r system or f r o m the I n t e r n e t
/draeg/ verb m 1 to p u l l s o m e t h i n g a l o n g w i t h d i f f i c u l t y ,
especially s o m e t h i n g heavy: She dragged her suitcase down the
path. 2 to move s o m e t h i n g across a c o m p u t e r screen u s i n g the
mouse
d r a g o n /'draegan/ noun [C] i n stories, a n i m a g i n a r y large a n i m a l
t h a t breathes out fire
/'dra:ma/ noun [C] a play for the t h e a t r e , television, or
r a d i o noun [U] plays i n g e n e r a l or as a subject t h a t y o u study: He
teaches
drama.
d r e s s u p /dres / phr vb to put on clothes t h a t m a k e y o u look
l i k e someone else, for f u n : They had dressed up as princes
and
princesses.
/'draiva/ noun [C]
someone w h o d r i v e s a vehicle,
especially as t h e i r j o b : a taxi driver
d r o u g h t /draut/ noun [C/u] a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e w h e n t h e r e is l i t t l e
or no r a i n
1/ noun [C]
1 a n i l l e g a l substance t h a t affects
p h y s i c a l l y or m e n t a l l y w h e n they put i t i n t o t h e i r body:
smuggling
2 a substance t h a t a doctor gives y o u i n o r d e r
a disease or m e d i c a l p r o b l e m : Your doctor may prescribe
for this
condition.

someone
drug
to t r e a t
drugs

/ d r a i / adj
1 s o m e t h i n g t h a t is d r y has l i t t l e or no w a t e r or
o t h e r l i q u i d i n s i d e or on i t : Are your hands dry? 2 w i t h no r a i n :
warm dry places like southern Spain verb [T]
to r e m o v e the
w a t e r f r o m s o m e t h i n g by w i p i n g i t , h e a t i n g i t , or b l o w i n g a i r
onto i t : We washed and dried all the sheets.
d u b /dAb/ verb [T] to change the sound i n a film by r e p l a c i n g the
o r i g i n a l speech w i t h w o r d s spoken i n a different language
D u t c h /dAtJ7 adj 1 someone w h o is D u t c h is f r o m the N e t h e r l a n d s
2 r e l a t i n g to the N e t h e r l a n d s , or to the language a n d c u l t u r e of
the N e t h e r l a n d s
D V D / d i : v i : 'di:/ noun [C] a n object l i k e a CD t h a t has a film or
t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m m e r e c o r d e d on it
d y n a m i c /dai'naemik/ adj v e r y l i v e l y and e n t h u s i a s t i c , w i t h a lot of
energy a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n : dynamic
leadership

exhausting

ear

/m'geid3d/ ad: i f t w o people are engaged, they have


f o r m a l l y agreed to get m a r r i e d : She's engaged to someone she met
at work.
/end3i'nia/ noun [C] someone w h o designs t h i n g s such as
roads, r a i l w a y s or m a c h i n e s
/ noun []
one o f the t w o p a r t s at the sides o f y o u r head
that you hear w i t h

e n j o y a b l e .->()1/ adj s o m e t h i n g t h a t is enjoyable gives you


pleasure: an enjoyable
evening

e a r a c h e /iareik/ noun jc/ui p a i n i n y o u r ear


e a r t h q u a k e /'3:9,kweik/ noun [C] a sudden s h a k i n g m o v e m e n t of the
ground
/i:st/ noun (U]
the d i r e c t i o n t h a t is i n f r o n t of y o u w h e n
you are f a c i n g the r i s i n g sun: driving from east to west noun
[singular] the East: the e a s t e r n p a r t of the w o r l d , especially C h i n a
and J a p a n
e a s y g o i n g /i:zi'gauin/ adj r e l a x e d , c a l m , a n d not easy to upset
e c l i p s e /fklips/ noun [C] a s h o r t p e r i o d w h e n a l l o r p a r t o f the S u n
o r M o o n becomes d a r k : a total eclipse of the Sun is when all of the
Sun is dark
e c o n o m i s t A'kDnamist/ noun [C] a n e x p e r t i n economics
/I'fektiv/ adj
w o r k i n g w e l l a n d p r o d u c i n g the r e s u l t
t h a t was i n t e n d e d : You need more effective communication
within
the
organisation.
/i'fif(a)nt/ adj
w o r k i n g w e l l a n d p r o d u c i n g good r e s u l t s
by u s i n g the a v a i l a b l e t i m e , money, supplies etc i n the most
effective w a y : The new machine is far more efficient than the
old one.
/'efat/ noun [singular/u]
p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l energy needed
to do s o m e t h i n g : Writing a book takes a lot of time and effort.
/'elbau/ noun [C]
the p a r t i n the m i d d l e o f y o u r a r m ,
w h e r e i t bends: She sat with her elbows on the table.
/.elek'tronik/ adj
using electricity and extremely
s m a l l e l e c t r i c a l p a r t s such as m i c r o c h i p s : an electronic
calculator
e l f /elf/ noun [C] a s m a l l i m a g i n a r y p e r s o n w i t h m a g i c powers
e m a i l a d d r e s s /'i:meil a.dres/ noun [q a n i n d i v i d u a l n a m e t h a t y o u
use to receive e m a i l o n the I n t e r n e t
Am'baerast/ adj f e e l i n g s l i g h t l y a s h a m e d , a n d
w o r r i e d about w h a t o t h e r people w i l l t h i n k of y o u : She looked
embarrassed
when we asked her about her
boyfriend.
Am'beerasin/ adj m a k i n g y o u feel n e r v o u s ,
ashamed or s t u p i d : an embarrassing
situation
/i , m3:d3(a)nsi/ noun [C]
an unexpected situation i n
w h i c h i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n is necessary, often because t h e r e is
danger: The club is now facing a financial emergency.
/im'pbis/ noun [C]
a person or o r g a n i s a t i o n t h a t
pays w o r k e r s t o w o r k for t h e m : The factory is the largest single
employer in the area.
e n c l o s e Anklauz/ verb [T] to send s o m e t h i n g such as a d o c u m e n t
w i t h a letter: Please enclose a copy of your birth certificate
with
your
application.
e n c y c l o p e d i a An,saikla'pi:dia/ noun [C] a book o r set o f books
t h a t gives i n f o r m a t i o n about a lot of d i f f e r e n t subjects o r one
p a r t i c u l a r subject
e n d u p /end / phr vb to be i n a place o r state after d o i n g
s o m e t h i n g , or because of d o i n g s o m e t h i n g : Somehow they all
ended up at my house.
e n d a n g e r e d s p e c i e s An,deind3ad 'spi:fi:z/ noun [C] a t y p e o f a n i m a l
or p l a n t t h a t m a y soon stop e x i s t i n g because not m a n y of t h e m
are left i n the w o r l d

enormous

/'enad3i/ noun [u]


1 the power t h a t y o u r body needs
i n o r d e r to do p h y s i c a l t h i n g s : She didn't even have the energy
to get out of bed. 2 e l e c t r i c i t y a n d o t h e r f o r m s o f power used for
m a k i n g t h i n g s w o r k : energy
sources/supplies

106

v e r y large i n size or q u a n t i t y : an

e n q u i r e /m'kwaia/ verb [i/] to ask someone for i n f o r m a t i o n about


s o m e t h i n g : lam writing to enquire whether you have any
positions
available.
/'enta/ verb [l/T]
1 to go o r come i n t o a place: The man
had entered through the back door. 2 to a r r a n g e to be i n a race
o r c o m p e t i t i o n , o r t o a r r a n g e for someone else to do t h i s : The
competition is free, and anyone over the age of 18 can enter.
/enta'temmant/ noun [c/u]
performances t h a t
people enjoy: A jazz band provided entertainment for the evening.
/m'vairanmant/ noun [C]
the place i n w h i c h
people l i v e a n d w o r k , i n c l u d i n g a l l the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s
t h a t affect t h e m : Parents are responsible for providing the right
environment for their children to learn in. noun [singular]
the
e n v i r o n m e n t : the n a t u r a l w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g the l a n d , water,
air, plants a n d a n i m a l s : Industrial development is causing
widespread damage to the
environment.
/in,vairan'ment(a)l/ adj
r e l a t i n g to the n a t u r a l
w o r l d a n d the effect t h a t h u m a n a c t i v i t y has o n i t : The Minister
discussed environmental
issues.
e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y f r i e n d l y /invairan,mentali 'frendli/ adj not
h a r m i n g the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t
e p i s o d e /'episaod/ noun [C] one p a r t o f a series i n a t e l e v i s i o n or
radio story
/'i:kwali/ adv
i n e q u a l a m o u n t s or q u a n t i t i e s : The
money raised will be divided equally among the charities.
A'kwipmant/ noun [U]
the tools, m a c h i n e s or other
t h i n g s t h a t y o u need for a p a r t i c u l a r j o b o r a c t i v i t y : camping
equipment
/rskeip/ verb [I]
to get away f r o m a dangerous or
u n p l e a s a n t place: Three people died in the fire, but John escaped
through the bedroom
window.
A'sen/(a)l/ adj
other essential
supplies

basic a n d i m p o r t a n t : food, fuel,

and

e s t a t e a g e n t /tsteit ,eid3ant/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to help


people to buy, sell or r e n t p r o p e r t y
/'evri.wea(r)/ adv, conj, pron
used for t a l k i n g about a
v e r y l a r g e area such as a r e g i o n , a c o u n t r y o r the whole w o r l d :
I'd like to thank all my fans everywhere for their support.
/'evid(a)ns/ noun [U]
facts or p h y s i c a l signs t h a t help
t o prove s o m e t h i n g : The study found no evidence that fish feel
pain.
e v i l /'i:v(a)l/ adj v e r y bad o r c r u e l : a dangerous

and evil

dictator

/ig'zaek(t)li/ adv
no m o r e and no less t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r
a m o u n t o r t i m e : It's exactly three o'clock.
/ik'sept/ conj, prep
used for i n t r o d u c i n g the o n l y person,
t h i n g or fact t h a t is n o t i n c l u d e d i n y o u r m a i n statement: All the
team were there except Eddie Stratton, who was ill.
/ik'saitid/ adj
v e r y happy and e n t h u s i a s t i c because
s o m e t h i n g good is g o i n g to happen: I was so excited I couldn't
sleep.

The
/'enami/ noun [C]
someone w h o is opposed to someone
else a n d t r i e s to h a r m t h e m : They searched for information
on
political
enemies.

A'na:mas/ adj
birthday
cake

/ik'saitmant/ noun [U]


long wait only added to our

the feeling of b e i n g excited:


excitement.

e x c u r s i o n /ik'sk3:J'(a)n/ noun [C] a s h o r t j o u r n e y t h a t y o u m a k e for


pleasure
e x h a u s t e d Ag'zaistid/ adj e x t r e m e l y t i r e d and w i t h o u t enough
energy to do a n y t h i n g else: After two days of travel the children
were completely
exhausted.
e x h a u s t i n g /ig'zjxstm/ adj e x t r e m e l y t i r i n g

exhibition

/eksfbiftajn/ noun [C]


a p u b l i c show w h e r e a r t or
other i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s are p u t so t h a t people c a n go a n d look at
them: an exhibition
hall/centre/space
e x o t i c Ag'zDtik/ adj i n t e r e s t i n g o r e x c i t i n g because o f b e i n g
u n u s u a l or n o t f a m i l i a r
c t /ik'spekt/ verb [Tj * * * 1 t o t h i n k t h a t s o m e t h i n g w i l l
happen: We're expecting good weather at the weekend. 2 to t h i n k
that i t is r i g h t or reasonable t h a t s o m e t h i n g s h o u l d happen: Our
customers expect good service.
Ak'spensiv/ adj
s o m e t h i n g t h a t is expensive costs a
lot of money: He always wears expensive
clothes.
Ak'spiarians/ noun [U]
knowledge and s k i l l that
you get by d o i n g a p a r t i c u l a r j o b o r a c t i v i t y : You don't need any
experience to work here, noun [C]
s o m e t h i n g t h a t happens
to y o u , or a s i t u a t i o n t h a t y o u are i n v o l v e d i n : our childhood
experiences
Akspenmant/ noun [C]
a scientific test to f i n d
out w h a t happens to someone o r s o m e t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r
conditions: laboratory
experiments
e x p l o r a t i o n /,ekspla'reif(3)n/ noun [C/U] a j o u r n e y a r o u n d a n area
i n order to l e a r n about i t o r i n o r d e r to search for s o m e t h i n g
valuable such as o i l
Ak'spb:/ verb [l/T]
to t r a v e l a r o u n d a n area i n o r d e r to
l e a r n about i t , o r i n o r d e r to search for s o m e t h i n g v a l u a b l e such
as o i l : The town is a good base from which to explore this part of
Italy.
/'ekspa:t/ noun [C]
a p r o d u c t t h a t is sold to a n o t h e r
c o u n t r y : Agricultural
produce is the country's largest export.
Ak'spa:t/ verb [l/T] to send a p r o d u c t to a n o t h e r c o u n t r y so
that i t can be sold t h e r e : Their flowers are exported around the
world.

childish

Ak'spre/(s)n/ noun [C]


a w o r d o r phrase: He uses
expressions like
'easy-peasy'.

e x t i n c t Ak'stmkt/ adj i f s o m e t h i n g such as a t y p e of a n i m a l or


plant is e x t i n c t , i t no longer exists
e x t r a /'ekstra/ noun [C] s o m e t h i n g t h a t is added to a basic service,
product etc: A virus checker is available as an optional extra for
your computer.
e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r /ekstraka'nkjub/ adj e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are
t h i n g s t h a t y o u do at school o r college t h a t are n o t p a r t o f y o u r
usual classes

/'faekta/ noun [C]


one o f the t h i n g s t h a t i n f l u e n c e
w h e t h e r a n event happens o r the w a y t h a t i t happens: Several
factors have contributed to the increase in the number of road
accidents.
/'faektri/ noun [C]
a b u i l d i n g where large quantities of
goods are p r o d u c e d u s i n g m a c h i n e s : She works in a factory.
f a i n t /feint/ verb [i] t o suddenly become u n c o n s c i o u s for a s h o r t
time
/fea/ adj
1 i f a s i t u a t i o n is f a i r , everyone is t r e a t e d
e q u a l l y a n d i n a reasonable way: free and fair elections 2 f a i r
h a i r is blonde o r v e r y l i g h t b r o w n i n c o l o u r
f a i r y t a l e /'feari ,teil/ noun [C] a t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y i n
w h i c h magic things happen
/fad/ verb [i]
1 to move q u i c k l y d o w n w a r d s f r o m a h i g h e r
p o s i t i o n by accident: I keep falling off my bike. 2 to come d o w n
to the g r o u n d f r o m the s k y : Snow began to quietly fall.
f a l l i n l o v e /fail m 'Uv/ phrase t o s t a r t t o love someone: Why do we
fall in love with one person rather than
another?
f a l l a s l e e p /fad a'slkp/ phrase to s t a r t to go to sleep

fill i n

/fa'milia/ adj
w e l l k n o w n to y o u , o r easily r e c o g n i s e d
by y o u : People are more relaxed in familiar
surroundings.
f a m i n e /'faemm/ noun [C/U] a serious l a c k o f food t h a t causes m a n y
people to become i l l o r to die
f a n t a s y /'faentasi/ noun [c] a pleasant, e x c i t i n g o r u n u s u a l
experience t h a t y o u i m a g i n e is h a p p e n i n g to y o u
F A Q /ef ei 'kju:/ noun [C] f r e q u e n t l y asked questions: a l i s t of t y p i c a l
q u e s t i o n s t h a t people ask a n d t h e i r a n s w e r s
/fa:/ adj, adv
1 used for t a l k i n g about a l o n g distance, o r for
a s k i n g o r s t a t i n g h o w great a d i s t a n c e is: You can go outside and
play, but don't go far. 2 used for e m p h a s i s i n g a difference w h e n
y o u are m a k i n g a c o m p a r i s o n : The situation is bad in England,
but it is far worse in Scotland. 3 used for t a l k i n g about the
degree to w h i c h s o m e t h i n g happens o r h o w e x t r e m e a n a c t i o n
is: The opinion polls show how far his popularity has
fallen.
f a r m e r / ' : / noun someone w h o o w n s o r manages a f a r m
f a s c i n a t e d /'faesmeitid/ adj v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n , o r a t t r a c t e d by,
someone o r s o m e t h i n g
/'fae/(a)n/ noun [U]
1 t h e a c t i v i t y o r business t h a t
i n v o l v e s styles of clothes a n d people's appearance: the world of
fashion 2 the state of b e i n g p o p u l a r at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e : High
heels are back in
fashion.
f a s h i o n d e s i g n e r /'faefan di,zama/ noun someone whose j o b is

to decide h o w to m a k e clothes o r t o decide t h e i r shape o r


appearance
fashionable

/'fae/(a)nab(a)l/ adj
clothes

/fa:st/ adj
q u i c k l y : Simon

p o p u l a r at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e :

m o v i n g , happening or doing something


loves fast
cars.

/faet/ adj
a p e r s o n o r a n i m a l t h a t is fat has too m u c h flesh
on t h e i r b o d y a n d w e i g h s too m u c h : She can eat whatever she
likes and she never gets fat. noun [u] a soft w h i t e substance t h a t
y o u store i n a l a y e r u n d e r y o u r s k i n
f a t h e r - i n - l a w /'fa:6a(r)m,b:/ noun [C] t h e f a t h e r o f y o u r h u s b a n d o r
wife
/fy.lt/ noun [C]
1 a f e a t u r e t h a t m a k e s someone o r
s o m e t h i n g less good: She has her faults, but on the whole she's
very nice. 2 a p r o b l e m w i t h a m a c h i n e o r piece o f e q u i p m e n t
t h a t stops i t f r o m w o r k i n g c o r r e c t l y : The fire was caused by an
electrical
fault.
f a u l t y /'fadti/ adj n o t w o r k i n g c o r r e c t l y , o r n o t made c o r r e c t l y :
faulty
brakes
/fia/ noun [U]
t h e f e e l i n g t h a t y o u have w h e n y o u are
f r i g h t e n e d : She eventually managed to overcome her fear of the
dark, noun [C]
s o m e t h i n g bad o r u n p l e a s a n t t h a t y o u are
a f r a i d m i g h t happen: He expressed fears for his missing wife's
safety.
//
noun [C]
a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o r aspect o f
s o m e t h i n g : The latest model has a lot of new safety features, verb
[T]
i f s o m e t h i n g features a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n o r t h i n g , t h e y
are a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f i t : a concert featuring
music by Haydn
and
Mozart
f e d u p /fed / adj a n n o y e d o r b o r e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u feel
y o u have accepted for too l o n g : I'm fed up with this job.
Itr.l noun [C]
a n a m o u n t o f m o n e y t h a t y o u pay to be a l l o w e d
to do s o m e t h i n g such as j o i n a n o r g a n i s a t i o n : The gallery
charges a small entrance
fee.
f e v e r /'fi:va/ noun [c/u] a m e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h the
t e m p e r a t u r e o f y o u r b o d y is v e r y h i g h
fiance
fiancee

/fibnsei/ noun [C] the m a n t h a t a w o m a n is g o i n g t o m a r r y


/fi'tmsei/ noun [C] t h e w o m a n t h a t a m a n is g o i n g to m a r r y

/'fikf(a)n/ noun [U]


books a n d stories about i m a g i n a r y
events a n d people: Hardy wrote poetry as well as fiction.
/fait/ noun [C]
1 a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h people h i t each
other: He had a fight with a man in the pub. 2 a s i t u a t i o n i n
w h i c h people d i s a g r e e o r a r g u e w i t h each other: All teenagers
have fights with their
parents.
fill i n / f i l i n / phr vb t o add i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e e m p t y spaces o n a n
o f f i c i a l d o c u m e n t : Please fill in the application
form.

107

film

fussy

/ f i l m / noun [C]
m o v i n g p i c t u r e s t h a t t e l l a s t o r y : Have you
seen the new James Bond film?
f i n d o u t /faind 'aut/ phr vb to discover a fact or piece of i n f o r m a t i o n :
I don't want Jerry to find out about this.
f i n e /fain/ noun [CI a n a m o u n t of money t h a t y o u m u s t pay because
you have b r o k e n the l a w : / had to pay a $40 fine for parking on the
street
overnight.
/'/ noun
hands

the long t h i n p a r t s o n the end of y o u r

/faia/ noun [c/U]


flames a n d heat f r o m s o m e t h i n g t h a t is
b u r n i n g i n an u n c o n t r o l l e d way: Lightning may have started the
fire, verb [l/T]
i f a weapon fires, or i f someone fires i t , someone
uses i t to shoot s o m e t h i n g : The rebels fired their machine guns
into the air. verb [T]
to m a k e someone leave t h e i r j o b as a
p u n i s h m e n t : She was fired for refusing to include the
information
in her report.

f o o t s t e p /'futstep/ noun [C] the sound of a foot t o u c h i n g the g r o u n d


as someone w a l k s
/b:s/ noun [U]
p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , violence or energy: The
force of the bomb blast shattered windows in 15 buildings, verb m
to m a k e s o m e t h i n g happen: Opposition to the plans forced a
rapid change of policy.
f o r e c a s t /'fj:ka:st/ verb [T] to m a k e a statement about w h a t is l i k e l y
to happen, u s u a l l y r e l a t i n g to the weather business, or the
economy
/'bonn/ adj
f r o m another c o u n t r y , or i n another
c o u n t r y : Working in a foreign country takes some getting used to.
/'fDrist/ noun [C/u]
a large area of l a n d t h a t is covered by
trees a n d other plants g r o w i n g close together
/fo'giv/ verb [T] to decide to stop b e i n g a n g r y w i t h someone
who has done s o m e t h i n g t h a t is bad: John has never forgiven
himself for the accident.

f i r e f i g h t e r /'faia.faita/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to put out fires


a n d help people to escape f r o m other dangerous s i t u a t i o n s

f o r t u n a t e /'b:tfanat/ adj l u c k y : Not everyone is as fortunate


are.

f i r e p l a c e /'faia,pleis/ noun [C] a place i n a r o o m w h e r e a fire b u r n s

f o r w a r d /'faiwad/ verb [T] to send a letter, parcel, e m a i l etc t h a t has


been sent to y o u r address to someone else at another address

f i r s t a i d /,f3:st 'eid/ noun [u] basic m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t t h a t is g i v e n as


soon as someone is i n j u r e d or i l l
/fit/ adj healthy, s t r o n g a n d able to do p h y s i c a l exercise:
Running around after the kids keeps me fit.
f i t n e s s /'tunas/ noun [u] the state of b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y h e a l t h y a n d
s t r o n g : a high level of physical
fitness
f i z z y /'fizi/ adj a fizzy d r i n k is a sweet d r i n k w i t h o u t a l c o h o l t h a t
has bubbles
/flaet/ adj
s m o o t h and level on the surface, w i t h no l u m p s
or slopes: The farmland
is very flat.

f r a n c /fra?nk/ noun [C] the u n i t of money used i n France a n d


B e l g i u m before the E u r o replaced i t and s t i l l used i n Switzerland
and some other c o u n t r i e s
/fri:/ adj
1 s o m e t h i n g t h a t is free does not cost a n y t h i n g :
There is plenty of free parking. 2 not held, tied or fixed
somewhere: Hand me the free end of the rope. 3 not a prisoner or
a slave: He'll soon be a free man. 4 available to see someone or do
s o m e t h i n g : I'm busy at the moment, but I'll be free this afternoon.
/'fri:dam/ noun [U]
you w a n t : a law that restricts

f l a t m a t e /'flaet.meit/ noun [C] someone y o u share a flat w i t h


/'fleiva/ noun [C] the p a r t i c u l a r taste t h a t food o r d r i n k
has: The drink has a very strong citrus
flavour.
f l i c k t h r o u g h / f h k 'Gru:/ phr vb to look q u i c k l y at the pages of a
magazine o r book.
f l i r t /fb:t/ verb [l] to behave t o w a r d s someone i n a w a y t h a t shows
t h a t y o u are s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t e d to t h e m
/ f U d / noun [C/u] a l a r g e a m o u n t o f w a t e r t h a t covers a n area
t h a t was d r y before: The southwest of England has been badly hit
by floods.
/fb:/ noun [C]
1 the flat area t h a t y o u w a l k o n i n s i d e a
b u i l d i n g o r r o o m : The house has polished wooden floors. 2 one of
the levels i n a b u i l d i n g : a first-floor flat
f l o r i s t /'florist/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to a r r a n g e a n d s e l l
flowers
/'flaua/ noun [C]
the c o l o u r e d p a r t o f a p l a n t f r o m w h i c h
the plant's seeds develop: The plant has small white flowers.
flu /flu:/ noun [U] a v e r y c o m m o n i n f e c t i o u s disease t h a t lasts for a
short t i m e and makes y o u feel weak a n d t i r e d
f l u e n t /'fluiant/ adj able to speak a f o r e i g n language v e r y w e l l : I'm
fluent in three
languages.
f o g /fix;/ noun [u] t h i c k clouds t h a t f o r m close to the g r o u n d a n d are
d i f f i c u l t to see t h r o u g h
f o l d e r /'foulda/ noun [C] 1 a t h i n flat c o n t a i n e r for sheets of paper 2 a
g r o u p of p r o g r a m s or documents t h a t are stored i n a c o m p u t e r
f o l l o w i n g /'fDbum/ noun [C] a g r o u p of people w h o s u p p o r t o r
a d m i r e a n o t h e r person or g r o u p
f o o d p o i s o n i n g /'fu:d ,pjizamn/ noun [U] a n i l l n e s s caused by e a t i n g
food t h a t c o n t a i n s h a r m f u l b a c t e r i a
/fut/ noun [C]
1 the p a r t of y o u r body at the end of y o u r
leg, o n w h i c h y o u stand: He wiped his feet on the mat. 2 a u n i t
used for m e a s u r i n g l e n g t h t h a t is e q u a l to 12 inches o r about 30
centimetres: We had over two feet of snow last night.
/'futbad/ noun [u]
a game i n w h i c h t w o teams of 11
players k i c k a b a l l a n d t r y to score goals noun [C]
a b a l l used for
p l a y i n g football
f o o t p r i n t /'fut.pnnt/ noun [C] a m a r k made by a h u m a n o r a n i m a l
foot i n a soft surface such as e a r t h , snow or sand

108

as we

becoming

the r i g h t or o p p o r t u n i t y to do what
religious
freedom

/'fri:kwant/ adj h a p p e n i n g often: Their arguments


more and more frequent.

were

If rej/ adj
1 c l e a r l y new and different: We need a
completely fresh approach to the problem. 2 fresh food has not
been preserved i n any way: You can use fresh or tinned tomatoes
for this recipe. 3 food t h a t is fresh is s t i l l good to eat because i t
was p r e p a r e d or produced recently: Cooked meat will keep fresh
for several days in the fridge. 4 fresh water is w a t e r i n lakes and
r i v e r s t h a t does not c o n t a i n any salt
/fnd3/ noun [C] a piece of equipment t h a t is used for s t o r i n g
food at l o w t e m p e r a t u r e s
/'f ren(d)Jip/ noun [C/U] a r e l a t i o n s h i p between people
who are friends: Whatever happened, I did not want to lose
Sarah's
friendship.
/'frait(a)nd/ adj f e e l i n g or s h o w i n g fear: The puppy
looked cold and
frightened.
/'frait(a)nir)/ adj m a k i n g y o u feel a f r a i d , nervous, or
w o r r i e d : a frightening
noise/thought/experience
f r u s t r a t i n g /'frA,streitmg/ adj m a k i n g y o u feel annoyed and
i m p a t i e n t because y o u are prevented f r o m a c h i e v i n g something:
It's frustrating
to wait all day for a repairman who doesn't show
up.
f u l l - t i m e / f o f t a i m / adj done o r d o i n g s o m e t h i n g for the n u m b e r of
h o u r s t h a t people n o r m a l l y w o r k o r study i n a complete week: a
full-time
student
f u m e s /fju:mz/ noun [plural] smoke o r gas t h a t has a n unpleasant
smell and t h a t may be h a r m f u l : traffic/petrol
fumes
/'fju:n(a)ral/ noun [C] a ceremony t h a t takes place after
someone dies, and the f o r m a l process of t a k i n g the body to the
place w h e r e i t is b u r i e d or cremated: He flew home to arrange for
his father's
funeral.
/'fAni/ adj
you l a u g h : a funny
funny.

1 someone or s o m e t h i n g t h a t is f u n n y makes
story 2 strange or u n u s u a l : This tea tastes

f u r -.l noun [U] the soft h a i r t h a t covers the body of some a n i m a l s


f u r i o u s /'fjuarbs/ adj e x t r e m e l y a n g r y : Rosie was absolutely
that I'd borrowed her car without
asking.

furious

f u s s y /'fAsi/ adj o n l y satisfied i f t h i n g s are exactly as y o u w a n t them


to be

gadget

grow up
g h o s t /gaust/ noun [C] t h e s p i r i t o f a d e a d p e r s o n t h a t s o m e o n e
believes that they c a n see or h e a r
g i a n t /'d3aiant/ adj e x t r e m e l y l a r g e : a giant

bronze

statue

g i v e u p / g i v '/ phr vb 1 to stop t r y i n g to do s o m e t h i n g b e c a u s e


g a d g e t /'gaedst/ noun [C] a s m a l l t o o l o r p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t t h a t d o e s

it i s too d i f f i c u l t : I give up. Tell me the answer.


s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u do r e g u l a r l y : I'm trying

2 to stop d o i n g

to give up

new arrangement

g a m e s h o w /'geim jav/ noun [C] a t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m m e i n w h i c h

/gla:s/ noun [U]

g a n g / / noun [C] 1 a g r o u p o f y o u n g p e o p l e w h o s p e n d t i m e
t o g e t h e r a n d often c a u s e t r o u b l e : a study of Chicago street

would mean giving

up some of their

political

independence.

people p l a y g a m e s o r a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r to w i n p r i z e s

gangs

a h a r d c l e a r s u b s t a n c e t h a t i s u s e d for

m a k i n g o b j e c t s s u c h a s w i n d o w s o r b o t t l e s : the sound of
glass

2 a g r o u p o f c r i m i n a l s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r : a gang of thieves 3 a

noun [C]

1 a b u i l d i n g for k e e p i n g a c a r i n

2 a p l a c e t h a t r e p a i r s o r s e l l s c a r s 3 a p l a c e w h e r e y o u go to b u y

breaking

a s m a l l c o n t a i n e r m a d e o f g l a s s t h a t y o u u s e for

d r i n k i n g f r o m , o r t h e d r i n k i n it: a wine/brandy/beer

g r o u p of f r i e n d s
/', 'ga?nd3/ noun []

smoking.

3 to a l l o w s o m e o n e to h a v e s o m e t h i n g t h a t w a s y o u r s : The

something that is useful or i m p r e s s i v e

glass

g l o b a l w a r m i n g / g b u b d l ' w j : m i n / noun [uj t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e


t e m p e r a t u r e of the E a r t h that is c a u s e d p a r t l y by i n c r e a s i n g
a m o u n t s of c a r b o n dioxide i n the a t m o s p h e r e

petrol
/'ga:(r)d(3)na(r)/ noun [C]
a f t e r a g a r d e n : the head gardener

1 s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to l o o k

G M /d3i: 'em/ adj g e n e t i c a l l y m o d i f i e d : u s e d for d e s c r i b i n g c r o p s


w h o s e g e n e s h a v e b e e n c h a n g e d , o r for d e s c r i b i n g foods m a d e

on an estate 2 s o m e o n e w h o

from these crops

e n j o y s g r o w i n g p l a n t s a n d i s good a t it

g o o u t / 'aut/ verb 1 to l e a v e y o u r h o u s e a n d go s o m e w h e r e ,

g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n /1 I'lekfan/ noun [C] a n e l e c t i o n i n w h i c h


e v e r y a d u l t i n t h e c o u n t r y c a n v o t e for t h e p e o p l e w h o w i l l

e s p e c i a l l y to do s o m e t h i n g e n j o y a b l e : / wanted

represent them

forgoing

out with friends

the evenings

free

2 to h a v e a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s o m e o n e

a n d s p e n d a lot o f t i m e w i t h t h e m : How long have Rob and


/'d3em,reit/ verb [T]

to p r o d u c e s o m e t h i n g , o r to c a u s e

s o m e t h i n g to e x i s t : The food processing


of dollars

industry

generates

billions

a year.

been going

Sue

out?

/1/ noun [C]

1 i n g a m e s s u c h a s football, the net or

s t r u c t u r e t h a t y o u t r y to get t h e b a l l i n t o i n o r d e r to s c o r e p o i n t s
/'d3enar3s/ adj

g i v i n g people m o r e of y o u r t i m e o r m o n e y

t h a n i s u s u a l o r e x p e c t e d : She is a warm and generous

human

in the last ten

being.
/get/ verb [T]
Ross's father

/'gAv(3)nmant/ noun [C/U]

got a new job. 2 to b u y s o m e t h i n g : They had to

s o m e w h e r e else: She went and got a photograph

from

the

desk.

4 to s t a r t to h a v e a n i d e a o r f e e l i n g : I got a strange feeling

What time did you get home last

to a r r i v e a t a p l a c e :

night?
to

get back. 2 to r e c e i v e o r h a v e s o m e t h i n g a g a i n a f t e r a t i m e w h e n
train and she doesn't know how to get it

has announced

back.

t h e i r s e x u a l o r r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p get b a c k t o g e t h e r , t h e y s t a r t
we

is suitable for finer

wage

next

1 a l e v e l of q u a l i t y o r i m p o r t a n c e : Their
grades

wool

of cloth. 2 a l e t t e r o r n u m b e r t h a t s h o w s

t h e q u a l i t y o f a s t u d e n t ' s w o r k : You need to improve your


/'graed3uat/ noun [C]

grades.

someone w h o h a s a degree from a

history

graduates

g r a n d d a u g h t e r /'graen(d),d:>:ta/ noun [C] t h e d a u g h t e r o f o n e of y o u r


children
/'graen(d),fa:6d/ noun [C]

together.

the father of one of y o u r

parents

g e t b e h i n d /get bi'haind/ phr vb i f y o u get b e h i n d w i t h w o r k o r

/ graen(d) mA6d/ noun [C]


l

p a y m e n t s , y o u h a v e not d o n e a s m u c h w o r k o r m a d e a s m a n y

the m o t h e r of one of y o u r

parents

payments a s y o u should have done


g e t o f f /get / phr vb 1 to l e a v e a b u s , p l a n e , o r t r a i n 2 to h a v e a
p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d of t i m e a s a h o l i d a y : Do you get much time off at
Christmas?

g r a n d s o n /'graen(d),SAn/ noun [C] t h e s o n o f o n e o f y o u r c h i l d r e n


/ g r a : n t / noun [C]

a n a m o u n t of m o n e y that the government

o r a n o r g a n i s a t i o n g i v e s y o u for a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e a n d d o e s not

g e t o n /get bnj phr vb 1 to c o n t i n u e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w i t h m o r e


effort o r m o r e q u i c k l y t h a n before: Can we please get on,
there are a lot of things still

to discuss.

because

2 u s e d for a s k i n g a b o u t o r

t a l k i n g about h o w w e l l s o m e o n e h a s done a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y :
How did you get on in your

exams?

teacher screamed

ready to go

out.

have to get rid of a lot of our

so we

i n o r d e r to do s o m e t h i n g o r i n o r d e r to s p e n d t i m e t o g e t h e r :
usually gets together

at

The

Christmas.

g e t u p /get / phr vb to get o u t o f b e d a f t e r s l e e p i n g : He never

gets

nine.

g e t w e l l ( s o o n ) /get 'wel/ phrase u s e d for g i v i n g good w i s h e s to


someone w h o is i l l

grave.

g r e e n g r o c e r / . / noun [c] 1 g r e e n g r o c e r ' s : a s h o p t h a t


s e l l s f r u i t a n d v e g e t a b l e s 2 s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to s e l l f r u i t a n d
g r e e n h o u s e /'gri:n,haus/ noun [C] a b u i l d i n g m a d e o f g l a s s t h a t i s
u s e d for g r o w i n g p l a n t s t h a t n e e d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e w e a t h e r

furniture.

g e t t o g e t h e r /get ta'ge6d/ phr vb i f p e o p l e get t o g e t h e r , t h e y m e e t


whole family

the place w h e r e a dead body is b u r i e d i n a

vegetables i n a shop

g e t r i d o f /get 'rid av/ phrase to t h r o w a w a y , g i v e a w a y , o r s e l l


s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u n o l o n g e r w a n t o r n e e d : We're moving,

g r a p h i c n o v e l /graefik 'nDval/ noun [C] a n o v e l t h a t u s e s d r a w i n g s to

d e e p h o l e i n t h e g r o u n d : He's never even visited his mother's

g e t ( s o m e o n e ) r e a d y /get 'redi/ phrase to p r e p a r e y o u r s e l f o r


getting

grant

b u n c h e s o n a v i n e a n d t h a t i s o f t e n u s e d for m a k i n g w i n e

/greiv/ noun [C]

at him to get out.

s o m e o n e e l s e to do s o m e t h i n g : She's upstairs

a s k y o u to p a y b a c k : a research

g r a p e /greip/ noun [C] a s m a l l g r e e n o r p u r p l e f r u i t t h a t g r o w s i n

tell the story

g e t o u t /get 'aut/ phr vb u s e d for t e l l i n g s o m e o n e to l e a v e : The

up before

to raise the minimum

satellites

u n i v e r s i t y : careers for

h a v i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e a c h o t h e r a g a i n : / kept hoping

plans

finding exactly w h e r e y o u a r e a n y w h e r e i n the world u s i n g

on the

g e t b a c k t o g e t h e r /get baek ta'geda/ phr vb [I] i f t w o p e o p l e w h o e n d e d

would get back

government

/greid/ noun [C]

g e t b a c k /get 'baek/ phr vb 1 to r e t u r n to a p l a c e : It's late, I ought


it w a s t a k e n a w a y f r o m y o u o r lost: She left her briefcase

the people w h o control a

c o u n t r y o r a r e a a n d m a k e d e c i s i o n s a b o u t i t s l a w s a n d t a x e s : The

G P S /d3i: p i : 'es/ noun [u] g l o b a l p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m : a s y s t e m for

this winter. 6 to a n s w e r

the d o o r o r p h o n e : It's OK, I'll get it. verb [I]

goals

year.

as

the house. 5 to s t a r t to h a v e a n i l l n e s s o r a

towards

m e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n : I hope I don't get the flu

scored two

minutes.

g o o d - l o o k i n g / g u d 'lukin/ adj p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e

1 to o b t a i n , r e c e i v e , o r b e g i v e n s o m e t h i n g :

stop and get some petrol. 3 to go a n d b r i n g s o m e t h i n g b a c k f r o m

we walked

2 t h e a c t i o n o f p u t t i n g a b a l l i n t o a g o a l : Nielsen

g r e e n h o u s e e f f e c t , t h e / 'grknhaus i.fekt/ noun [singular] t h e


s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h h e a t i s u n a b l e to e s c a p e f r o m t h e a t m o s p h e r e ,
w h i c h c a u s e s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e E a r t h to r i s e
g r i p p i n g / ' / adj v e r y e x c i t i n g a n d i n t e r e s t i n g
g r o o m / : / noun [C] a b r i d e g r o o m
g r o w u p / / phr vb t o c h a n g e f r o m b e i n g a c h i l d to b e i n g a n
a d u l t : She's really starting

to grow up

now.

guarantee

honest

/gaeran'ti:/ noun [C] a p r o m i s e t h a t s o m e t h i n g w i l l


d e f i n i t e l y happen: I can't give you any guarantees at the moment.

h a r d c o p y /'ha:d ,kDpi/ noun [] a p r i n t e d copy of i n f o r m a t i o n that is


held on a computer

/ga:d/ noun [C]


1 someone whose j o b is to p r o t e c t a place
or person: a prison guard 2 a n o f f i c i a l o n a t r a i n whose j o b is to
check t i c k e t s

h a r d d r i v e /'ha:d ,draiv/ noun [C] a h a r d disk

/ges/ verb [i/]


t o say o r decide w h a t y o u t h i n k is t r u e ,
w i t h o u t b e i n g c e r t a i n about i t : a competition to guess the weight
of the pig

h a r d w a r e /'ha:d,wea/ noun [U] computer equipment

/gaid/ noun [C]


1 a book t h a t gives i n f o r m a t i o n : It is
worth buying a good travel guide. 2 someone whose j o b is to
give i n f o r m a t i o n to people w h o are v i s i t i n g a place: a tour
guide verb [T] 1 to show someone w h e r e to go b y g o i n g w i t h
t h e m : He guided them through the forest. 2 to help someone to do
s o m e t h i n g o r m a k e a decision: There was no research to guide
them.
g u i d e b o o k /'gaid,buk/ noun [ci a book for t o u r i s t s t h a t p r o v i d e s
i n f o r m a t i o n about a place
/'gilti/ adj
1 a s h a m e d a n d s o r r y because y o u have done
s o m e t h i n g w r o n g : a guilty look/expression
2 someone w h o is
g u i l t y has c o m m i t t e d a c r i m e or has done s o m e t h i n g w r o n g :
Patrick knew that he was guilty of lying.
// noun [C]
Enemy guns fired

a weapon t h a t shoots b u l l e t s o r l a r g e shells:


a shell every two or three minutes.

g y m / d j i m / noun [C] a r o o m o r c l u b w i t h e q u i p m e n t for d o i n g


p h y s i c a l exercises

h a r m /ha:m/ verb [T] to i n j u r e , damage or have a bad effect on


someone or something: chemicals that harm the environment
h a y f e v e r /'hei,fi:va/ noun [U] a medical c o n d i t i o n that affects your
nose and eyes. It is caused by pollen.
/hed/ noun [C]
1 the top part of y o u r body that has your
b r a i n , eyes, m o u t h etc i n i t : Lynn had a bruise on the side of her
head. 2 the leader or most i m p o r t a n t person i n a group: the head
waiter 3 the teacher who is i n charge of a school
headache

/'hedeik/ noun [C]


yesterday.

a p a i n i n your head: / had a bad

h e a d b a n d /'hed,baend/ noun [C] a n a r r o w piece of cloth that you wear


a r o u n d y o u r head to keep h a i r or sweat out of y o u r eyes
h e a d l i g h t /'hedjait/ noun [C] one of the two lights on the front of a
vehicle
h e a d l i n e /'hedjam/ noun [C] the t i t l e of a newspaper story, p r i n t e d i n
large letters
h e a d p h o n e s /'hed,faunz/ noun [plural] a piece of equipment that you
wear over y o u r ears i n order to listen to the radio or recorded
sound

h e a d t e a c h e r /hedthtja/ noun a teacher who is i n charge of a school


s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u do often:

healthy

/heie/ noun [U]


the c o n d i t i o n of y o u r body, especially
whether or not y o u are i l l : His health improved once he stopped
working.

h a b i t a t /'haebi.taet/ noun [C] t h e t y p e of place t h a t a n a n i m a l


n o r m a l l y l i v e s i n or t h a t a p l a n t n o r m a l l y g r o w s i n

h e a l t h c e n t r e /'heie .senta/ noun [C] a b u i l d i n g where people can go to


see a doctor or nurse

h a i r d r e s s e r /'hea.dresa/ noun someone whose j o b is to c u t


people's h a i r

/'heiei/ ad]
1 physically strong and not i l l : a healthy baby
2 w o r k i n g w e l l and l i k e l y to continue to be successful: The country
still has a healthy economy.

h a l f b r o t h e r /'had ,/ noun [] a b r o t h e r w h o has e i t h e r the


same m o t h e r o r the same f a t h e r as y o u have
h a l f s i s t e r /'had ,sista/ noun [] a sister w h o has e i t h e r the same
m o t h e r or the same f a t h e r as y o u have
/haend/ noun [C]
1 the p a r t of y o u r body at the end o f each
a r m t h a t y o u use for h o l d i n g t h i n g s : Mrs Bennet put her hands
over her ears to shut out the noise. 2 the h a n d s o n a clock are the
l o n g p a r t s t h a t move r o u n d a n d show the t i m e
h a n d b a g /'haenjdj.baeg/ noun [C] a s m a l l bag t h a t w o m e n use for
c a r r y i n g p e r s o n a l t h i n g s such as money a n d keys
/'heend(a)l/ noun [C] t h e p a r t of s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u use for
h o l d i n g i t : knives with plastic
handles
/'haens(a)m/ adj
a t t r a c t i v e face

a h a n d s o m e m a n or boy has a v e r y

h a n d w r i t i n g /'haend.raitir)/ noun [u] the p a r t i c u l a r w a y t h a t


someone w r i t e s w h e n t h e y use a pen o r p e n c i l
h a n g o u t /haen 'aut/ phr vb to spend t i m e i n a p a r t i c u l a r place o r
w i t h p a r t i c u l a r people: She knew all the clubs where he usually
hung out.
/'haepan/ verb [l]
to t a k e place, u s u a l l y w i t h o u t b e i n g
p l a n n e d : The accident happened at 4.30pm
yesterday.
h a p p i n e s s /'haepinas/ noun [U] the f e e l i n g of b e i n g happy
/'haepi/ adj
f e e l i n g pleased a n d r e l a x e d , w i t h no
w o r r i e s : The children seem very happy at school.
h a r b o u r /'ha:ba/ noun [C] a n area o f w a t e r n e x t to the l a n d w h e r e
boats can stop
/ha:d/ adj
1 stiff, firm, and not easy to bend o r b r e a k :
hard wooden benches 2 d i f f i c u l t to do: Some of the questions were
very hard. 3 s t r o n g a n d not easily f r i g h t e n e d : He likes to pretend
he's hard, but he's really soft
underneath.

n o

h a r d - w o r k i n g /'ha:d'w3:kir)/ adj p u t t i n g a lot of effort into your work

h e a d q u a r t e r s /hed'kwa:tez/ noun [plural] the place where a company,


o r g a n i s a t i o n or m i l i t a r y u n i t has its m a i n offices or its m a i n
centre of c o n t r o l

Hh
/'haebit/ noun [c/u]
eating
habits

h a r d h a t /'ha:d ,haet/ noun [C] a hat made of metal or h a r d plastic w o r n


by workers to protect t h e i r heads

h e a r t a t t a c k /'ha:t a,taek/ noun an occasion when someone suddenly


has a lot of p a i n because t h e i r heart stops w o r k i n g n o r m a l l y
/hi:t/ noun [singular/u]
the q u a l i t y of being hot, or how hot
s o m e t h i n g is: We felt the intense heat from the fire, verb [i/]
to make
something hot, or to become hot: Heat the oil gently in a large frying
pan.
h e l m e t /'helmit/ noun [C] a h a r d hat that y o u wear to protect your
head
/haid/ verb [T]
to put something i n a place so that no one
can find i t or see i t : She hid the key in the drawer, verb
to go
somewhere or be somewhere where no one can find you or see you:
He ran and hid behind a bush.
/ n i l / noun [C]
an area of l a n d that is higher t h a n the l a n d
s u r r o u n d i n g it but that is smaller and lower t h a n a m o u n t a i n :
They climbed slowly to the top of the hill.
/hit/ verb [l/T]
1 to move q u i c k l y against something, or
move an object q u i c k l y against something, t o u c h i n g i t w i t h
The glass smashed as it hit the ground. 2 to move your hand
object h a r d against someone's body, so that you h u r t them:
hitting your brother!

to
force:
or an
Stop

/hauld/ verb [T]


1 to c a r r y something or someone using your
hands or a r m s : Can you hold my bag for a moment? 2 to organise
s o m e t h i n g such as a meeting or event: The government agreed to
hold a referendum.
h o m e t i m e /'haum ,taim/ noun [U] the end of the school day when the
students go home
h o m e l y /'haumli/ adj simple and pleasant i n a way that makes you
feel comfortable and at home
/'Dnist/ adj 1 a person who is honest does not t e l l lies or
cheat people, and obeys the law: an honest man 2 t e l l i n g the t r u t h ,
or not cheating people: I want you to give mean honest answer.

honeymoon

innovation

h o n e y m o o n / ' . / noun [Ci a h o l i d a y t h a t t w o people take


after they get m a r r i e d
h o o d / h u d / noun [C] the p a r t o f a coat or jacket that covers y o u r
head

h o p e l e s s /'hauplas/ adj 1 i f a s i t u a t i o n is hopeless, it seems v e r y


u n l i k e l y to succeed or i m p r o v e 2 not s k i l f u l at a l l : lam
hopeless
at tennis.
/'horab(a)l/ adj
day at work.

to b u y a p r o d u c t f r o m a n o t h e r c o u n t r y

/im'pDsab(a)l/ adj

h o o d i e /'hudi/ noun [C] a piece of c l o t h i n g w i t h a hood that you w e a r


on the top p a r t of y o u r body, u s u a l l y made of t h i c k c o t t o n . Some
people t h i n k t h a t y o u n g m e n w e a r hoodies because they are
t r y i n g to hide t h e i r face w h e n they c a r r y out c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s .

horrible

/im'poit/ verb [T]

a n d b r i n g it to y o u r c o u n t r y : We import most of our coal


other
countries.

v e r y unpleasant or u n k i n d : I've had a

i f s o m e t h i n g is impossible,

n o o n e c a n do it o r it c a n n o t h a p p e n : We were faced
impossible
task.
/ i m ' p r u i v / verb [l/T]

/ i m ' p r u : v m a n t / noun [C]

/ i n s i d ( a ) n t / noun [C]

a person: The disease can be fatal

in

h u m i d /'hju:mid/ ad; hot and wet i n a way t h a t makes y o u feel


uncomfortable: a humid
climate
h u n g e r /'hArjga/ noun [U] 1 the feeling t h a t y o u have w h e n y o u need
to eat: a nutritious snack that will satisfy your hunger 2 a lack of
food that can cause illness or death: a new chance to fight world
hunger and poverty
Ihxtl verb
to feel p a i n somewhere i n y o u r body: Fred's
knees hurt after skiing all day. verb [l/T]
to cause someone
physical p a i n or i n j u r y : You're hurting my arm!
/'hAzband/ noun [C]

with

a change that you m a k e


improvements

the m a n that a w o m a n is m a r r i e d

to

h y g i e n e /'haid3i:n/ noun [u] the practice of keeping y o u r s e l f and the


things a r o u n d you clean i n order to prevent illness and disease

incident

1 to c o n t a i n , o r to h a v e s o m e o n e o r

s o m e t h i n g a s a p a r t : The book includes


advice.

practice.

s o m e t h i n g that happens that is

/ m ' k l u : d / verb [T]

/'hju:man/ noun [C]


humans.

will improve

to s o m e t h i n g i n o r d e r to m a k e it b e t t e r : home

practical

with an

to b e c o m e b e t t e r , o r to m a k e

s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r : Your English

u n u s u a l , v i o l e n t o r d a n g e r o u s : an embarrassing

h o r r o r /'hDra/ noun [c/U) a s t r o n g feeling of shock or fear, or the


t h i n g that makes you feel shocked or a f r a i d : Millions
watched
in horror as the disaster unfolded on TV. noun [U] a t y p e of book or
film that is intended to f r i g h t e n people: a horror
story/film

from

activities,

stories

and

2 to m a k e s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g b e p a r t of a

g r o u p , s e t , o r c o l l e c t i o n of t h i n g s : Please include a photograph


yourself with your
application.

of

/ ' / noun [c/U]


m o n e y t h a t s o m e o n e gets f r o m
w o r k i n g o r f r o m i n v e s t i n g m o n e y : What is your
approximate

annual

income?

i n c o r r e c t / m k a ' r e k t / adj w r o n g , o r n o t a c c u r a t e o r t r u e
/ m ' k r n s / verb [l/T]
to b e c o m e l a r g e r i n n u m b e r o r
a m o u n t , o r to m a k e s o m e t h i n g do t h i s : We have managed to

increase

the number

of patients

treated.

i n d e c i s i v e /mdi'saisiv/ adj u n a b l e to m a k e d e c i s i o n s
/ m d i ' p e n d a n s / noun [U]
1 freedom from control
by a n o t h e r c o u n t r y o r o r g a n i s a t i o n : Lithuania
was the first of the

Soviet republics

to declare its independence.

2 t h e a b i l i t y to m a k e

d e c i s i o n s a n d l i v e y o u r life free f r o m the c o n t r o l or influence

of o t h e r p e o p l e : Employment
independence,

gave young

/ i n d i ' p e n d a n t / adj

p e o p l e : Michelle

is young,

women a measure

of

not d e p e n d i n g on other

independent

and

confident.

i n d i g e n o u s / i n ' d ^ a n a s / adj 1 i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e l i v e d i n a p l a c e
for a v e r y l o n g t i m e b e f o r e o t h e r p e o p l e c a m e to l i v e t h e r e
2 i n d i g e n o u s p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s b e l o n g to a r e g i o n b e c a u s e
they developed there
/ i n f l u a n s / noun [C/U]

t h e effect t h a t a p e r s o n o r t h i n g

h a s o n s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g : He couldn't
/ais/ noun [U]
water t h a t has frozen a n d become s o l i d : a
block/lump of ice
ice c a p /'ais ,kaep/ noun [C] a large area o f ice t h a t covers the l a n d
and sea a r o u n d the N o r t h or South Pole
/ai'dial/ adj of the best or most suitable t y p e :
your computer seems the ideal
solution.

Upgrading

i d e n t i f i c a t i o n /ai,dentifi'keif(a)n/ noun [U] s o m e t h i n g t h a t proves


who y o u are, especially a d o c u m e n t w i t h y o u r n a m e a n d a
photograph: Can you show me some
identification?
/ai'denti,fai/ verb [T]
to recognise someone a n d be able
to say who they are: One of the thieves has been identified by
witnesses, verb m
to recognise s o m e t h i n g a n d to u n d e r s t a n d
exactly w h a t i t is: Several key problems have already been
identified.
/aidentiti/ noun [C/U]
the fact of w h o y o u are or w h a t
your name is: Do you have any proof of identity?
i g l o o /iglu:/ noun [C] a b u i l d i n g made f r o m snow or ice
/i'li:g(a)l/ adj
Alnas/ noun [ci
i l l : a serious
illness

not a l l o w e d by the l a w : illegal

drugs

a p a r t i c u l a r disease, or a p e r i o d of b e i n g

hope to exert any real

influence in the new department,


noun [C]
a p e r s o n or t h i n g
t h a t h a s a n effect o n s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g verb [T]
to affect

s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g : What factors
take the job?

influenced

your decision

to

/m'fy.m/ verb ] * * * t o o f f i c i a l l y t e l l s o m e o n e a b o u t

s o m e t h i n g : The President
developments.
/ : ( ) 1 / adj

hotel has an informal

has been fully

informed

of

r e l a x e d , f r i e n d l y a n d n o t o f f i c i a l : The

atmosphere.

,/infa'meif(a)n/ noun [U]

knowledge or facts

a b o u t s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g : We're not allowed


information
about our clients' medical
records.

to give you

any

i n f o r m a t i v e /in'fjimativ/ adj g i v i n g a lot of u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n


i n g o t / i n g a t / noun [C] a b l o c k o f g o l d , s i l v e r o r o t h e r m e t a l
i n g r e d i e n t / m ' g r k d i a n t / noun [c] o n e o f t h e foods o r l i q u i d s t h a t y o u
u s e i n m a k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r m e a l : Mix all the ingredients
together

carefully.
/ ) / noun [c/U] a d r u g t h a t i s i n j e c t e d i n t o y o u r
b o d y , o r t h e p r o c e s s o f i n j e c t i n g it i n t o y o u r b o d y : vaccines that

are given by

injection

/ind3ari/ noun [C/u]

p h y s i c a l h a r m : an eye/leg

injury

/imid3/ noun [C]


a p i c t u r e , especially one i n a m i r r o r or
on a computer, t e l e v i s i o n or c i n e m a screen: the flickering
blackand-white images on the first cinema
screens

i n - l a w noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o y o u a r e r e l a t e d to b y m a r r i a g e ,
e s p e c i a l l y t h e f a t h e r o r m o t h e r o f y o u r h u s b a n d o r w i f e : We're

/ r m i i d i a t l i / adv, conj
very quickly and w i t h o u t
delay: She decided to leave
immediately.

i n n o c e n c e / i n a s ( a ) n s / noun [u] t h e s t a t e of n o t b e i n g g u i l t y of a

/impaekt/ noun [C]


a n effect or influence Her paper
discusses the likely impact of global warming, noun [C/u]
the
force or act of one object h i t t i n g a n o t h e r : the point of impact

going to stay with the in-laws this

weekend.

c r i m e o r a n y t h i n g b a d : This new evidence


his
innocence.

would hopefully

i n n o v a t i o n /inau'vei/(a)n/ noun [c/U] a n e w i d e a o r p i e c e of


e q u i p m e n t , o r t h e u s e of n e w i d e a s o r e q u i p m e n t

prove

inquiry

knowledge

/m'kwairi/ noun [C]


a q u e s t i o n t h a t is i n t e n d e d to get
i n f o r m a t i o n about someone or s o m e t h i n g : There have already
been over 300 inquiries from people interested, noun [/]
a
process o f t r y i n g to f i n d out m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n about s o m e t h i n g :
The public is demanding an official inquiry into the incident.
i n s e r t /m's3:t/ verb [T] t o p u t s o m e t h i n g i n t o s o m e t h i n g else:
the plug into the earphone
socket.

Insert

i n s p i r a t i o n /,mspa'reif(a)n/ noun [c/u] someone or s o m e t h i n g t h a t


gives y o u the e n t h u s i a s m a n d new ideas to create s o m e t h i n g , o r
a f e e l i n g of e n t h u s i a s m l i k e t h i s : Her short story was the original
inspiration for the film.
/in'sted/ adv
used for s a y i n g t h a t one person, t h i n g ,
or a c t i o n replaces another: If you don't have olive oil, you can use
sunflower oil instead.
/ i n s t r u m e n t / noun [C]
1 a t o o l t h a t is used i n
science, m e d i c i n e o r t e c h n o l o g y : scientific instruments
such as
microscopes 2 a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t , for example a p i a n o o r a
g u i t a r : Do you play an
instrument?
/mtar'aekjtajn/ noun [C/U]
the a c t i v i t y o f b e i n g w i t h
a n d t a l k i n g to o t h e r people, a n d the w a y t h a t people react t o
each other: I enjoy the constant interaction with people from other
departments.
/intrastid/ adj
1 w a n t i n g to k n o w about o r t a k e
p a r t i n s o m e t h i n g : Joe's always been interested in politics.
2 w i l l i n g o r keen to do s o m e t h i n g : We're going to the cinema. Are
you interested? Would you like to come too?
/intrastm/ adj
or k n o w m o r e : an interesting

m a k i n g y o u w a n t to pay a t t e n t i o n
topic

/m,t3:pn'teif(a)n/ noun [C/U]


1 an explanation
of the m e a n i n g or i m p o r t a n c e of s o m e t h i n g : The Catholic
interpretation
of the Bible is slightly different. 2 a w a y of
p e r f o r m i n g a piece o f m u s i c , a p a r t i n a play etc t h a t shows h o w
you u n d e r s t a n d i t a n d feel about i t : He was best known for his
interpretation
of English folk music.
i n t e r p r e t e r /m't3:pnta/ noun ic] someone whose j o b is to t r a n s l a t e
w h a t someone is s a y i n g i n t o a n o t h e r language
i n t r i g u e /m'tri:g/ verb [T] to m a k e someone v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n
k n o w i n g m o r e about s o m e t h i n g : That old house has always
intrigued
me.
I n u i t /'muit, i n j u i t / noun [c/U] a m e m b e r of a g r o u p of people w h o
l i v e i n n o r t h e r n S i b e r i a , Canada, A l a s k a , a n d G r e e n l a n d , o r the
language t h a t t h e y speak
/in'vent/ verb [T]
not exist before: Alfred

to d e s i g n o r create s o m e t h i n g t h a t d i d
Nobel invented
dynamite.

/m'venf(a)n/ noun [c/u]


s o m e t h i n g t h a t someone has
made, designed o r t h o u g h t o f for the f i r s t t i m e , o r the act o f
i n v e n t i n g s o m e t h i n g : Inventions like the electric light bulb
changed the way people lived.
i n v e n t o r /m'venta/ noun [C] someone w h o has i n v e n t e d s o m e t h i n g ,
or whose j o b is to i n v e n t t h i n g s
/m'vest/ verb [l/T] to use y o u r m o n e y w i t h the a i m of
m a k i n g a p r o f i t f r o m i t , for example b y b u y i n g shares i n a
company: Banks invested 20 million in the scheme.
i n v i s i b l e /in'vizab(a)l/ adj s o m e t h i n g t h a t is i n v i s i b l e c a n n o t be
seen
/m'vDlv/ verb [T]
to i n c l u d e s o m e t h i n g as a necessary
p a r t of a n a c t i v i t y , event o r s i t u a t i o n : The course involves a lot of
hard work.
/'aian/ noun [U]
steel

a h a r d h e a v y m e t a l t h a t is used for m a k i n g

i r r e g u l a r A'regjula/ adj 1 not h a p p e n i n g r e g u l a r l y : His breathing


had become irregular. 2 not f o l l o w i n g the u s u a l r u l e s o f
g r a m m a r . F o r example, 'eat' is a n i r r e g u l a r v e r b because its
past tense is 'ate' a n d its past p a r t i c i p l e is 'eaten'.
/'ailand/ noun [C]
a piece o f l a n d t h a t is c o m p l e t e l y
s u r r o u n d e d by w a t e r : the best hotel on the island
/iju:, isju:/ noun [C]
1 a subject o r p r o b l e m t h a t people
discuss o r a r g u e about: environmental
issues 2 a m a g a z i n e t h a t
is p u b l i s h e d at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e : The article appeared in the
November
issue.

12

// noun [C]

a s h o r t coat: a

linen/denim/leather

jacket
j a m 1?/ noun [C/u] a sweet s t i c k y food made f r o m b o i l e d f r u i t
a n d sugar, t h a t is u s u a l l y spread onto bread: strawberry
jam
j a r /:/ noun [C] a glass c o n t a i n e r for food, w i t h a l i d and a w i d e
o p e n i n g : a jar of
marmalade
j a y w a l k i n g /'d3ei,wa:kin/ noun [U] a d a n g e r o u s o r i l l e g a l w a y of
c r o s s i n g a street at a place w h e r e c a r s do not u s u a l l y stop.
Someone w h o does t h i s is c a l l e d a j a y w a l k e r .
/'d33:nalist/ noun [C]
someone whose j o b is to r e p o r t
the news for a newspaper, magazine, r a d i o p r o g r a m m e o r
television programme
/ : / noun [C]
a n occasion w h e n y o u t r a v e l f r o m
one place to another, e s p e c i a l l y over a l o n g distance: a train
journey
/d^AUTj noun [C]
1 someone whose j o b is to m a k e
decisions i n a c o u r t o f law: The judge sentenced her to ninety
days in prison. 2 someone w h o decides w h o the w i n n e r of a
c o m p e t i t i o n w i l l be: All entries will be examined by a panel of
judges, verb [l/T]
to f o r m a n o p i n i o n about s o m e t h i n g after
c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the d e t a i l s o r facts: He left the room when he
judged that she was asleep, verb [T]
to decide i n a c o u r t of law
w h e t h e r o r n o t someone is g u i l t y
j u m p i n / i n / hr vb [i] t o become i n v o l v e d i n s o m e t h i n g
w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g c a r e f u l l y about i t
j u n g l e /()1/ noun [c/U] a t h i c k t r o p i c a l forest

Kk
k e e p u p /,ki:p / phr vb 1 t o move o r develop at the same speed as
someone o r s o m e t h i n g : By studying hard, she managed to keep
up. 2 to c o n t i n u e to do s o m e t h i n g : Keep up the good work.
k e t c h u p /'ketjap/ noun [U] a t h i c k r e d sauce made f r o m tomatoes
k e y b o a r d /'ki:,ba:d/ noun [C] 1 a piece of c o m p u t e r e q u i p m e n t w i t h
keys o n i t , used for p u t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c o m p u t e r 2 a
m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t t h a t has a k e y b o a r d , especially an electric
piano
k i d n a p /'kidnaep/ verb [T] t o i l l e g a l l y t a k e someone away and make
t h e m a p r i s o n e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n o r d e r to m a k e t h e i r f a m i l y o r a
g o v e r n m e n t give y o u m o n e y
/ k i l / verb [i/T]
to m a k e a p e r s o n o r o t h e r l i v i n g t h i n g die:
Each year thousands of people are killed and injured on the
roads.
k i n d e r g a r t e n /'kmda,ga:t(a)n/ noun [C/u] 1 a n u r s e r y school 2 the
f i r s t y e a r o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n the US, for c h i l d r e n aged 5 or 6
/ k m / noun [C]
a m a n w h o r u l e s a c o u n t r y a n d is the
s e n i o r m a l e m e m b e r o f the r o y a l f a m i l y : King George VI
k i n g d o m /'kmdam/ noun [C] a c o u n t r y o r a r e a t h a t is r u l e d b y a
k i n g o r queen
k i w i / ' k i : w i : / noun [C] 1 t h e b i r d t h a t is the s y m b o l o f New Zealand.
I t has a l o n g t h i n beak a n d c a n n o t fly. 2 someone f r o m New
Zealand
/ n i : / noun [C]
t h e p a r t i n the m i d d l e o f y o u r leg, where i t
bends: a serious knee injury
/naif/ noun [C]
a n object w i t h a blade, used for c u t t i n g
food o r as a w e a p o n : knives and
forks
/'nDhd3/ noun [U]
w h a t y o u k n o w , o r w h a t is
k n o w n about a p a r t i c u l a r subject: She had a lot of knowledge
and
experience.

laboratory

lose

surface: The gun was lying on the ground next to him. 3 to


d e l i b e r a t e l y say s o m e t h i n g t h a t is n o t t r u e : It was obvious that
she was lying.

L
/b'bDr3t(a)ri, laebra,tj:ri/ noun [C] a b u i l d i n g o r l a r g e
r o o m w h e r e people do scientific r e s e a r c h : our new research
laboratory
l a n d s c a p e /'lasnidj.skeip/ noun [] 1 a n a r e a of l a n d t h a t has
p a r t i c u l a r features: a green, rural landscape 2 a p a i n t i n g o f a n
area o f l a n d
l a p t o p /'1? / noun [C] a s m a l l c o m p u t e r t h a t y o u c a n c a r r y w i t h
you
(

/la:st/ verb [I]


to c o n t i n u e h a p p e n i n g for a p a r t i c u l a r
p e r i o d , o r u n t i l a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e : The game lasts 80 minutes.
verb [l/T]
to c o n t i n u e to be a v a i l a b l e , o r to be e n o u g h for w h a t
people need: The water won't last long.
/leit/ adj
1 i f y o u are late, y o u a r r i v e s o m e w h e r e after the
c o r r e c t or u s u a l t i m e : She phoned to say she'd be late. 2 n e a r the
end o f a p e r i o d o f t i m e such as a day, m o n t h o r season: the late
18th century 3 n e a r the end o f a n e v e n i n g o r n i g h t : If it weren't
so late I would give Donna a call.
/'leita/ adv
at some t i m e i n the f u t u r e , o r after the t i m e
that y o u have been t a l k i n g about: She'll be home later.
/lad/ verb [I]
to m a k e the noise w i t h y o u r voice t h a t
shows t h a t y o u t h i n k t h a t s o m e t h i n g is f u n n y : We talked and
laughed late into the night.
I\y.l noun [singular]
the l a w : the system o f r u l e s t h a t m u s t be
obeyed i n society: Failing to declare any extra income is against
the law.
/'b:ja/ noun [C]
someone whose profession is to p r o v i d e
people w i t h legal advice a n d services: Mayer's lawyer spoke to
the press today.
/'leizi/ adj n o t w i l l i n g to w o r k o r do a n y t h i n g t h a t i n v o l v e s
effort: Get out of bed, you lazy slob!

l i f e s t y l e /iaif.stail/ noun [c/u] t h e t y p e o f life t h a t someone has,


for example t h e t y p e o f t h i n g s t h a t t h e y o w n a n d the t y p e o f
a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e y do: a healthy, outdoor
lifestyle
/ l i f t / noun [C] 1 a n occasion w h e n someone takes y o u
s o m e w h e r e i n t h e i r car: lean give you a lift into town. 2 a
m a c h i n e t h a t c a r r i e s people up o r d o w n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t
levels o f a t a l l b u i l d i n g
/ l a i t / adj
1 v e r y b r i g h t because o f l i g h t f r o m the s u n
The room is light and airy. 2 i f i t is l i g h t , y o u c a n see because i t
is day a n d n o t n i g h t : It gets light around 5 am. 3 n o t w e i g h i n g
m u c h , o r w e i g h i n g less t h a n y o u expect: The table is a lot lighter
than it looks.
l i g h t b u l b /Tart ,1/ noun [C] a glass object t h a t y o u p u t i n a n
e l e c t r i c l i g h t to p r o d u c e l i g h t
l i g h t n i n g / i a i t n i n / noun [u] t h e b r i g h t flashes of l i g h t t h a t y o u see
i n the s k y d u r i n g a s t o r m : The ship was struck by lightning
soon
after it left the port.
l i m e / l a i m / noun [C/U] a f r u i t w i t h a h a r d green s k i n a n d s o u r j u i c e
/'limit/ noun [C]
1 t h e greatest a m o u n t o r l e v e l of
s o m e t h i n g t h a t is possible or a l l o w e d : The speed limit here is
40 miles an hour. 2 the o u t e r edge o f a n a r e a : No bombs
landed
within the city limits.
l i n g u i s t /'lirjgwist/ noun [C] 1 someone w h o s t u d i e s a n d speaks a lot
of l a n g u a g e s 2 someone w h o teaches o r s t u d i e s l i n g u i s t i c s
/ l m k / verb [T]
t o connect t w o o r m o r e places o r t h i n g s :
Several new roads will link the southern and northern regions of
the country.
l i t t e r /'lita/ noun [U] t h i n g s t h a t people have d r o p p e d o n the g r o u n d
i n a p u b l i c place, m a k i n g i t u n t i d y
l i v e h a p p i l y e v e r a f t e r / l i v 'haepili: eva(r) ,adta/ phrase t o be happy

for the rest of y o u r life

/'li:dd/ noun [C]


1 someone w h o is i n c h a r g e o f a g r o u p ,
o r g a n i s a t i o n or c o u n t r y : a political/military/religious
leader
2 someone or s o m e t h i n g t h a t is the most successful, most
popular, most advanced etc: He is a world leader in his field.

/tok/ noun [C] t h e t h i n g t h a t is used for f a s t e n i n g a door,


d r a w e r etc so t h a t no one c a n open i t : All the windows were fitted
with locks, verb [i/]
to fasten s o m e t h i n g such as a door w i t h a
key, o r t o be fastened w i t h a key: Have you locked the car?

/'lkdafip/ noun [U]


the p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g a leader: The
war was fought under the emperor's
leadership.

l o g i c /'iDdjik/ noun [U] 1 the w a y t h a t someone connects ideas w h e n


t h e y are e x p l a i n i n g s o m e t h i n g o r g i v i n g a reason 2 the study o f
t h e w a y t h a t ideas c a n be connected a n d used to e x p l a i n t h i n g s

/ l i : v / verb [l/T]
1 to go away f r o m a place: We left London
at three in the afternoon. 2 to end a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h someone
and stop l i v i n g w i t h t h e m : His wife has threatened to leave
him. verb [T]
1 t o p u t s o m e t h i n g s o m e w h e r e a n d forget to
take i t away w i t h y o u : / left my homework on the bus. 2 t o p u t
s o m e t h i n g somewhere, especially i n a place w h e r e i t w i l l stay:
Leave your things by the door.
l e f t - h a n d e d /left 'hasndid/ adj b o r n w i t h a n a t u r a l tendency to
use the left h a n d to do t h i n g s
/leg/ noun [C]
1 one of the p a r t s o f a person's o r a n i m a l ' s
body to w h i c h the feet are attached: an exercise to strengthen
the
leg muscles 2 the p a r t o f a piece of f u r n i t u r e t h a t s u p p o r t s i t a n d
raises i t off the floor: a stool with three legs 3 a p a r t o f a j o u r n e y ,
race o r c o m p e t i t i o n
/let/ verb [T]
to a l l o w s o m e t h i n g to h a p p e n , or to a l l o w
someone to do s o m e t h i n g : Alice's mum won't let her come with
us.
/'lev(3)l/ noun [C]
the a m o u n t o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t exists at
a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e : Unemployment
is now at its lowest level for
15years, noun [C/U]
1 a s t a n d a r d of academic a b i l i t y : This is
an excellent book for advanced level students. 2 a p a r t o r stage
i n a system t h a t has several p a r t s o r stages: Decisions
should
be taken at local, not national, level. 3 one o f the floors i n a
b u i l d i n g : a garage at basement
level
/'laibrari/ noun [C]
1 a place w h e r e books, d o c u m e n t s ,
CDs etc are available for y o u to l o o k at o r b o r r o w : the
university/school
library 2 a p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f books, o r the
r o o m t h a t i t is kept i n
/lai/ verb [I]
1 to be o r p u t y o u r s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h
y o u r body is flat o n a surface such as the floor o r a bed: She
was lying on the beach reading a book. 2 t o be o n a p a r t i c u l a r

/ ' b u n l i / adj
f r i e n d s : a lonely

u n h a p p y because y o u are alone o r have no


childhood

l o o k a f t e r / 'a:fta/ phr vb t o t a k e c a r e o f someone or s o m e t h i n g :


It's hard work looking after three children all day.
l o o k a h e a d / a'hed/ phr vb to t h i n k about w h a t is l i k e l y to
happen, or to p l a n w h a t you are going to do i n the f u t u r e : Looking
ahead, I think the company needs to develop some new services.
l o o k b a c k / 'bask/ phr vb to t h i n k about a t i m e o r event i n the
past: Most people look back on their schooldays with
fondness.
l o o k f o r /'luk fx/ phuvb to s e a r c h for someone o r s o m e t h i n g : I'm
looking for Jim. Have you seen him?
l o o k f o r w a r d t o / 'fD:wad t u : / phr vb t o feel h a p p y a n d excited
about s o m e t h i n g t h a t is g o i n g to h a p p e n
l o o k i n t o / i n t u : / phr vb t o t r y t o d i s c o v e r the facts about
s o m e t h i n g such as a p r o b l e m o r c r i m e : The airline
have
promised to look into the matter.
l o o k o u t f o r / l u k 'aut fx/ phr vb to l o o k c a r e f u l l y at people o r
t h i n g s a r o u n d y o u i n o r d e r to t r y to find a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n o r
t h i n g : We were told to look out for a blue van.
l o o k r o u n d / ' r a u n d / phr vb [l/T] to w a l k a r o u n d a r o o m , b u i l d i n g
o r place a n d see w h a t is t h e r e
l o o k u p / / phr vb to t r y to find a piece o f i n f o r m a t i o n b y
l o o k i n g i n a b o o k o r o n a l i s t , o r b y u s i n g a c o m p u t e r : I had to
look the word up in a
dictionary.
/lu:z/ verb [T]
1 to no l o n g e r have s o m e t h i n g : Mike lost his
job last year. 2 t o be u n a b l e to f i n d someone o r s o m e t h i n g : I've
lost my bag. Have you seen it? verb [l/T]
t o n o t w i n a race o r
c o m p e t i t i o n : England
lost 2-1 to Germany.

lottery

mix

l o t t e r y /'kotari/ noun [C] a game i n w h i c h people w i n money i f t h e y


guess the c o r r e c t n u m b e r s
/laud/ aoj
a loud sound is s t r o n g a n d v e r y easy to hear:
There was a loud knocking on the door.
/'1/ verb m 1 to move s o m e t h i n g or someone slowly d o w n
f r o m a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n : He lowered himself into the chair. 2 to
reduce s o m e t h i n g i n number, a m o u n t , value, or s t r e n g t h : The
voting age was lowered from 21 to 18 years.
/ ' U k i / adj
i f y o u are l u c k y , s o m e t h i n g good happens to y o u
as a r e s u l t of luck: Five lucky winners will each receive 1,000.
l y r i c / l i n k / noun [C] the words of a song

/mi:t/ verb [l/T)


1 to come together i n order to spend time
w i t h someone who you have arranged to see: I'll meet you in the
bar later. 2 to be i n t r o d u c e d to someone that you do not know:
Have you met my wife?
m e l o d r a m a t i c /meladra'maetik/ adj behaving i n a way that is too
e m o t i o n a l or too serious
/melt/ verb [l/T] to change a solid substance into a l i q u i d , or
to be changed f r o m a solid into a l i q u i d : Melt the butter in a small
saucepan.
/'memba/ noun [C]
someone who belongs to a group or
an organisation: a trade union member
/'membajip/ noun [u] the fact of being a member of
a club, o r g a n i s a t i o n or group: Several countries have applied for
membership of the EU.

m e m o r i s e /'mema,raiz/ verb [T] to l e a r n something so that you can


remember it perfectly: The children had memorised a poem.

/maed/ adj 1 v e r y s i l l y or stupid: You'll think I'm mad - I've


just left my job. 2 an offensive way of describing someone who is
mentally i l l
m a d n e s s /'maednas/ noun [u] ideas and actions that show a lack of
good j u d g m e n t and careful thought: It would be madness to give up
your job just now.
/maega'ziin/ noun [C]
a large t h i n book w i t h a paper
cover that is u s u a l l y published once a m o n t h or once a week: a
fashion/gardening/motoring
magazine
m a g i c i a n /()/ noun [ci someone whose job is to e n t e r t a i n
people by p e r f o r m i n g magic t r i c k s
/ / adj
most i m p o r t a n t or largest: We eat our main
meal in the evening.
/'memli/ adv
1 used for t a l k i n g about the largest or
most i m p o r t a n t p a r t of something: This sauce is made mainly of
milk and flour. 2 i n most cases: Our customers are mainly young
mothers.
m a k e u p /meik '/ phr vb 1 to become f r i e n d l y w i t h someone again
after an argument: Why don't you two forget your differences and
make up? 2 to invent something such as a story or an explanation:
He made up some excuse about the dog eating his homework.
m a k e - u p /'meik,\p/ noun [U] substances that people put on t h e i r faces
to make t h e m look attractive: Gina wears no make-up at all.
m a n u a l /'maenjual/ noun [CI a book that contains i n s t r u c t i o n s for
doing something, especially for operating a m a c h i n e
/'maend3/ noun [c/u]
the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t w o
people who are husband and wife: a long and happy marriage
/'masri/ verb [T]
to p e r f o r m the ceremony i n w h i c h t w o
people become husband and wife
m a r v e l l o u s /'ma:valas/ adj extremely enjoyable, good or impressive:
a marvellous
performance/trip/party
m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e /'ma:staz di,gri:/ noun [C] a u n i v e r s i t y degree that
a student gets i f t h e y study for one or two years after t h e i r first
degree
m a t e /meit/ noun [q a friend
/ma'tiarial/ noun [C/u]
dress made from?
/'msta/ verb [il

cloth: What sort of material

to be i m p o r t a n t : Education

is your

matters.

/mid/ noun [C]


an occasion w h e n y o u eat, such as breakfast
or l u n c h , or the food that y o u eat at that t i m e : He cooked us a
delicious meal.
Imv.nl adj 1 c r u e l or u n k i n d : Don't do that - it's mean. 2 not
w i l l i n g to spend money: She was too mean to put the heating on.
verb [T]
to have a p a r t i c u l a r m e a n i n g : What does 'maudlin'
mean?
m e a s l e s /'mi:z(a)lz/ noun [u] a n infectious disease i n w h i c h you have
red spots a l l over y o u r body and a h i g h temperature
m e c h a n i c /mi'kaenik/ noun [ci someone whose job is to r e p a i r vehicles
and machines

14

m e c h a n i c a l /mi'ka;nik(a)l/ adj operated by a machine, or r e l a t i n g to


machines: a mechanical device

/'mem(a)ri/ noun [C]


1 something that you remember:
What are your most vivid memories of that period? 2 the part of
a computer i n w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n is stored noun [singular]
the
a b i l i t y to remember t h i n g s : Your memory tends to get worse as you
get older.
m e n d /mend/ verb [T] to r e p a i r something that is broken or damaged:
Have you mended the gate?
/'menf(a)n/ verb [T]
to refer to something, but not
discuss it m u c h : He didn't mention her all evening.
/mes/ noun [C/U] a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a place is d i r t y , u n t i d y
or i n bad c o n d i t i o n : The garden was a real mess, noun [singular] a
difficult s i t u a t i o n w i t h a lot of problems: an economic mess
/'mesid3/ noun [C]
a piece of w r i t t e n or spoken
i n f o r m a t i o n that you give or send to someone: I got your email
message, thank you.
m e s s y /'mesi/ adj d i r t y or v e r y u n t i d y
m i d d l e - a g e d /midl'eidsd/ adj no longer young but not yet old,
u s u a l l y between 40 and 60 years of age
/'milit(a)ri/ adj
forces: military service

r e l a t i n g to armed forces, or using armed

m i m e / m a i m / verb [l/T] to t e l l a story u s i n g only the movements of


y o u r body and face, not u s i n g words
/mamd/ noun [C/U]
y o u r thoughts and attention, or the part
of you that t h i n k s , knows and remembers t h i n g s : You never know
what's going on in her mind, verb [i/]
to feel annoyed, upset or
unhappy about something: We had to cancel, but Rosa didn t seem
to mind, verb [T]
to be careful about something: Mind the step!
m i n e r /'mama/ noun [C] someone whose job is to d i g coal f r o m a mine
/'mira/ noun [C]
a piece of special glass i n w h i c h you can see
y o u r s e l f or w h a t is b e h i n d you: a bathroom
mirror
m i s b e h a v e /misbi'heiv/ verb [i] to behave badly
m i s e r y /'mizari/ noun [u] the state of being extremely unhappy or
uncomfortable
/mis/ verb [l/T]
to f a i l to catch, h i t or reach something: /
tried to catch the ball but missed, verb [T] 1 to f a i l to be present for
someone or something: I had to miss a week of school. 2 to feel sad
because someone is not w i t h you any longer, or because you do not
have or cannot do something any longer: We miss him enormously.
m i s s i o n /'mif(a)n/ noun [C] an i m p o r t a n t piece of w o r k that a person or
group of people has to do for a government or large organisation,
especially one that involves t r a v e l : a
fact-finding/rescue
mission noun [singular] an a i m that is very i m p o r t a n t to a person or
organisation: Helping homeless people was Gina's mission in life.
/mi'steik/ noun [C]
1 something that you have not done
correctly, or something you say or t h i n k that is not correct:
spelling/grammar
mistakes 2 something that you do that you later
w i s h you had not done, because it causes a lot of problems: You're
making a big mistake.
/miks/ verb [l/T]
1 to combine t w o or more substances so that
they become a single substance: Add the eggs and mix thoroughly.
2 to combine t h i n g s such as a c t i v i t i e s , ideas, or styles: In this
room, antique and modern furniture have been successfully
mixed.

mixture

/'mikstfa/ noun [singular]


a c o m b i n a t i o n of t w o or m o r e
different people or t h i n g s : Her face showed a mixture offear and
excitement, noun [C/U]
a substance such as food t h a t is the r e s u l t
of m i x i n g different t h i n g s : Spoon the mixture into the cake tins.
/'mDd(d)n/ adj
1 r e l a t i n g to o r b e l o n g i n g to the present
time: the role of women in modern society 2 u s i n g the most recent
methods, ideas, designs or equipment: We should replace the
equipment with something more modern.
/ / noun [C]
1 one of the 12 periods t h a t a year is
divided i n t o , for example J a n u a r y or F e b r u a r y : Could we meet
earlier in the month? 2 a p e r i o d of about four weeks: They're
getting married in a month's time.
m o n u m e n t /'monjumant/ noun [C] 1 a s t r u c t u r e t h a t is b u i l t i n a
public place i n order to celebrate a n i m p o r t a n t person or event
2 a place of h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e
/mu:d/ noun [C/U]
the w a y t h a t someone is feeling, or
the way t h a t a g r o u p of people is feeling at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e :
Politicians have to be in touch with the public mood, noun []
a
group of verb forms t h a t are used to show whether, for example, a
sentence is a statement, question o r o r d e r
/'moral/ adj r e l a t i n g to r i g h t and w r o n g and the w a y t h a t
people should behave: moral
standards/principles/values
m o s q u e /nrosk/ noun [C] a b u i l d i n g i n w h i c h M u s l i m s w o r s h i p
m o t h e r t o n g u e / / noun [] the f i r s t language t h a t y o u
learn to speak
m o t h e r b o a r d / ' , / noun [C] the m a i n c i r c u i t b o a r d i n a
computer
m o t h e r - i n - l a w /'mAda(r)in,b:/ noun [C] the m o t h e r of y o u r husband
or wife

nuclear

N
n a t i v e s p e a k e r /neitiv 'spkka/ noun [q someone who speaks a
p a r t i c u l a r language as t h e i r first language
n a v y /'neivi/ noun [C] the p a r t of a c o u n t r y ' s a r m e d forces t h a t uses
ships
/'nesas(a)ri/ adj
i f s o m e t h i n g is necessary, y o u
m u s t have i t or must do it: I don't want to be disturbed unless it's
absolutely
necessary.
// noun [C]
1 the p a r t of y o u r body that j o i n s y o u r head
to the rest of y o u r body 2 a l o n g n a r r o w p a r t of s o m e t h i n g such as
a bottle or a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t
and

/'neiba/ noun [C]


neighbours

someone w h o lives near you:

friends

n e i g h b o u r h o o d /'neiba.hud/ noun [C] a p a r t i c u l a r area of a t o w n


/'(), '()/ conj, det, pron
used for s h o w i n g t h a t
a negative statement also applies to someone or s o m e t h i n g else:
Adam was not invited, and neither were any of his
friends.
n e p h e w /'nefju:, 'nevju:/ noun [C] a son of y o u r b r o t h e r or sister, or a
son of y o u r husband's or wife's b r o t h e r or sister
/net/ noun [c/U]
a m a t e r i a l made of s t r i n g or rope t h a t is
woven i n t o a loose p a t t e r n w i t h spaces i n i t noun []
1 i n some
sports, a n object made of net t h a t y o u h i t , k i c k or t h r o w the b a l l
over or i n t o 2 the Net: the i n t e r n e t

m o t o r w a y /'mauta,wei/ noun [C] a w i d e fast r o a d w i t h several lanes


of traffic g o i n g i n each d i r e c t i o n

/nju:z/ noun [U]


1 i n f o r m a t i o n about s o m e t h i n g t h a t
has happened recently: I'm afraid I've got some bad news.
2 i n f o r m a t i o n about recent events t h a t is r e p o r t e d i n newspapers
or on t e l e v i s i o n o r r a d i o : foreign/sports/financial
news

/'mauntm/ noun [C]


1 a v e r y h i g h h i l l : They went
walking and climbing in the mountains. 2 a l a r g e pile or a m o u n t
of something: a mountain of
paperwork

/'nju:z,peipa/ noun [C]


a set of large p r i n t e d sheets of
folded paper c o n t a i n i n g news, a r t i c l e s and other i n f o r m a t i o n that
is p u b l i s h e d every day or every week: a local newspaper

m o u n t a i n r a n g e /'mauntm ,remd3/ noun [q a l o n g r o w o f m o u n t a i n s


/maus/ noun []
1 a small f u r r y a n i m a l w i t h a long t a i l
2 a s m a l l object connected to a c o m p u t e r t h a t y o u move i n order
to do t h i n g s on the computer screen: Click on the left mouse
button.
m o u s e p a d /'maus,paed/ noun [C] the flat p a r t o n a laptop t h a t y o u
operate w i t h y o u r fingers to do t h i n g s o n a c o m p u t e r screen
m o u s t a c h e /im'sta:J7 noun [q h a i r t h a t g r o w s above a man's m o u t h
/'mu:vmant/ noun [C/U]
1 a w a y of m o v i n g y o u r
body, or the a b i l i t y to move y o u r body: rhythmic movements 2 the
process of m o v i n g s o m e t h i n g f r o m one place to another: The
agreement governs the free movement of goods between
countries.

n e w s r e a d e r /'nju:z,ri:da/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to read the


news o n t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o
n i e c e /ni:s/ noun [C] a daughter of y o u r b r o t h e r o r sister, or a
daughter of y o u r husband's o r wife's b r o t h e r or sister
n i g h t m a r e /'nait,mea/ noun [C] a v e r y f r i g h t e n i n g and unpleasant
d r e a m : / still have terrible nightmares about the crash.
/'naizi/ adj
neighbours

m a k i n g a lot of noise, or f u l l of noise: noisy

n o n - a l c o h o l i c /nonadka'holik/ adj non-alcoholic d r i n k does not


c o n t a i n alcohol

m o v i n g /'mu:virj/ adj 1 m a k i n g y o u feel sad or s y m p a t h e t i c 2 a


moving object is s o m e t h i n g t h a t moves: He was pushed from a
moving train.

n o n - r e s i d e n t /nnn'rezidant/ adj 1 not based i n a p a r t i c u l a r


c o u n t r y : The island does not tax non-resident companies. 2 not
l i v i n g i n a house t h a t y o u o w n : These houses all belong to non
resident owners. 3 not l i v i n g at the place w h e r e y o u w o r k : non
resident teaching
staff

m u g / / verb [T] to attack someone i n a p u b l i c place and steal


their money or possessions

n o n - s m o k i n g /nnrismaukirj/ adj a n o n - s m o k i n g area is one where


you are not a l l o w e d to smoke

m u g g e r /'()/ noun [C] someone w h o attacks people i n p u b l i c


places and steals t h e i r money, j e w e l l e r y , o r other possessions

n o n - s t o p /nDn'stDp/ adj c o n t i n u i n g w i t h o u t stopping: non-stop


entertainment

m u g g i n g /'/ noun [C/U] a n attack o n someone i n a p u b l i c place


i n order to steal t h e i r money, j e w e l l e r y o r other possessions
/ ' / noun [c/U]
the c r i m e of deliberately k i l l i n g
someone: The murder was committed over five years ago.
m u r d e r e r /'m3:dara/ noun [C] someone w h o c o m m i t s m u r d e r
/'m.As(d)l/ noun [C/u]
a piece of flesh t h a t connects bones
and moves a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of y o u r body: These exercises are
good for your stomach
muscles.
m y s t e r i o u s /mi'stiarias/ adj not e x p l a i n e d , u n d e r s t o o d or k n o w n :
They are investigating the mysterious disappearance of a young
man.
/'mist(d)ri/ noun [C] 1 s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u cannot
understand, e x p l a i n , or get i n f o r m a t i o n about: The exact origin
of the universe remains a mystery. 2 a story, film or play i n w h i c h
events take place t h a t are not e x p l a i n e d u n t i l the end: a murder
mystery

/nauz/ noun [C]


the p a r t of y o u r face t h a t is above y o u r
m o u t h t h a t y o u use for s m e l l i n g and b r e a t h i n g : I'd like to punch
him on the nose.
/naut/ noun [C]
1 a short w r i t t e n message to someone: I've
written him a note asking him to meet me tonight. 2 a piece of paper
money: a 5 note noun [plural]
notes: details f r o m s o m e t h i n g
such as a l e c t u r e or a book t h a t y o u w r i t e on a piece of paper so
t h a t y o u can remember t h e m : It'll help you later if you take notes.
/'nDv(a)l/ noun [C] a long w r i t t e n s t o r y about i m a g i n a r y
characters and events
n o v e l i s t /'novelist/ noun [C] someone w h o w r i t e s novels
divorced

/'naua,deiz/ adv
nowadays.

at the present t i m e : Lots of people get

/'njurklia/ adj
r e l a t i n g to energy t h a t is produced by
c h a n g i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the c e n t r a l p a r t of an atom: nuclear
power/energy

15

obey

partner

/a'bei/ verb [l/T] to do w h a t a person, law or r u l e says t h a t you


must do: Officers expect their troops to obey them without
question.
/db'd3ektiv/ noun [C] s o m e t h i n g t h a t you p l a n to achieve:
I'm not sure I understand the objective of this exercise.
/'Dbvias/ adj

clear to almost anyone: an obvious

mistake

/ n b v i a s l i / adv
i n a way t h a t is clear for almost anyone
to see or u n d e r s t a n d : Richards was obviously disappointed at being
left out of the team.
/'5()/ adv
sometimes, but not frequently or
r e g u l a r l y : Simmer the sauce for ten minutes, stirring
occasionally.
/bfa/ verb [T]
to let someone k n o w t h a t you w i l l give t h e m
something or do something for t h e m i f t h e y w a n t i t : They haven't
offered me the job yet.
/Wis/ noun [C]
a r o o m or b u i l d i n g where the people i n an
o r g a n i s a t i o n or department w o r k , or the people w h o w o r k there:
the company's Los Angeles office
o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l y / w A n pearant 'faemali:/ noun [C] a f a m i l y i n w h i c h
o n l y one parent lives i n the home and looks after the c h i l d r e n
/'onlam/ adj
connected to or available t h r o u g h a computer
or a computer n e t w o r k , especially the Internet: an online
bookshop
o p e n - m i n d e d /eupan'maindid/ adj w i l l i n g to consider new ideas
o p e r a t o r /'Dpa,reita/ noun [C] 1 someone who w o r k s for a telephone
company and helps people w i t h calls 2 someone wdiose j o b is to
operate a machine or piece of equipment: a crane operator
/a'paunant/ noun [C]
1 someone who is c o m p e t i n g
against y o u : His opponent received only 36 per cent of the vote.
2 someone who disagrees w i t h s o m e t h i n g and t r i e s to change or
stop i t : opponents of the legislation
/npa'tjuinati/ noun [C/u]
a chance to do something,
or a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h i t is easy for you to do something: The trip
sounds like a wonderful
opportunity.
/'Dpazit/ adj
1 across f r o m , or on the other side of,
someone or something: They sat at opposite ends of the room.
2 completely different: The car smashed into a lorry coming in the
opposite direction.
/'Dpjbjn/ noun [C]
s o m e t h i n g t h a t you can choose to
do: We discussed all the marketing options and chose television
advertising.
/'a:da/ verb [T]
1 to t e l l someone to do something, i n a way
that shows that you have a u t h o r i t y : The government has ordered
an investigation into the cause of the accident. 2 to put t h i n g s i n a
p a r t i c u l a r order: The list of books is ordered alphabetically,
verb [l/T]
to ask for s o m e t h i n g to be brought to you or be made for y o u :
Are you ready to order?
/'a:d(a)n(a)ri/ adj
n o r m a l or average, and not u n u s u a l or
special: It was just an ordinary Saturday
morning.
o r g a n i s e d /'a:ga,naizd/ adj 1 planned c a r e f u l l y and effectively 2 an
organised person arranges and plans a c t i v i t i e s c a r e f u l l y and
effectively
o r g a n i s e r /'a:ga,naiza/ noun [C] someone who makes a l l the
arrangements for an event or a c t i v i t y
/'1()1/ adj
1 e x i s t i n g at the b e g i n n i n g of a p e r i o d
or process, before any changes have been made: Do you know who
the car's original owner was? 2 new, i n t e r e s t i n g , and different
from a n y t h i n g else: a highly original design 3 not copied f r o m
something else: The original painting is in a museum in Vienna.
o u t d o o r s /aut'da:z/ adv not i n a b u i l d i n g
o u t f i t /'autfit/ noun [C] a set of clothes t h a t are w o r n together
o u t l a w /'autla:/ noun [C] a c r i m i n a l

/aut'said/ adj, adv, noun, prep


1 not inside a b u i l d i n g :
Outside the sun was shining. 2 away f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y ,
area or t o w n : The postal service is better outside London. 3 not
w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , range or s i t u a t i o n : classes
held outside normal school hours

16

/'auva(r)/ adv, prep


1 m o v i n g across the space above
someone or s o m e t h i n g : Government troops fired a few shots over
their heads. 2 on someone or s o m e t h i n g and c o v e r i n g them: She
put her hands over her ears. 3 on the opposite side of a n area,
l i n e , r o a d , r i v e r etc: Sandra's brother lives just over the road from
our house. 4 f a l l i n g , h a n g i n g o r l o o k i n g d o w n f r o m the edge of
s o m e t h i n g : Lava flowed over the rim of the volcano. 5 more t h a n a
p a r t i c u l a r a m o u n t , n u m b e r o r age: Yeltsin was elected by a large
majority with over 45 million votes.
o v e r t i m e /'aova.taim/ noun [U] e x t r a h o u r s t h a t someone w o r k s at
t h e i r job, or money t h a t is p a i d for w o r k i n g e x t r a h o u r s
o v e r w e i g h t /auva'weit/ adj heavier t h a n y o u should be
/'/ noun [C]
someone w h o owns s o m e t h i n g : a
restaurant/supermarket/hotel
owner
o z o n e l a y e r /'auzaun ,leia/ noun [singular] a layer of ozone i n the
E a r t h ' s atmosphere t h a t protects the E a r t h f r o m the h a r m f u l
effects of the S u n

P
p a c i f i s t /'paesifist/ noun [C] someone w h o believes t h a t violence is
w r o n g a n d refuses to fight i n w a r s
p a c k a g i n g /'paekid3in/ noun [U] the boxes, plastic etc t h a t are used for
w r a p p i n g products
/'paekit/ noun [C] 1 a box, bag or piece of plastic w r a p p i n g ,
c o n t a i n i n g food t h a t is ready to be sold: The ingredients should be
listed on the packet. 2 a s m a l l parcel or envelope c o n t a i n i n g a set
of s i m i l a r t h i n g s : A packet of brochures arrived in the post.
/ / noun [c/U]
a bad feeling i n p a r t of your body when you
are h u r t or become i l l : An old injury was causing him intense pain.
/'pemf(a)l/ adj causing p h y s i c a l p a i n : The sting can be
excruciatingly
painful.
p a i n k i l l e r /'pem,kda/ noun [C] a medicine t h a t reduces p a i n
// noun [C]
1 a set of t w o t h i n g s of the same type: The
vases were sold as a pair. 2 a single u n i t made up of two s i m i l a r
p a r t s j o i n e d together: My glasses are getting old and I probably
need a new pair.
p a l /pad/ noun [C] a f r i e n d
/peil/ adj
1 l i g h t and not b r i g h t i n colour: pale
blue/yellow/
green 2 a pale person has s k i n t h a t is l i g h t e r t h a n usual because
they are i l l , shocked or w o r r i e d : He looked pale and weary.
p a l m t r e e /'pa:m ,tri:/ noun [] a t r o p i c a l tree w i t h o u t branches that
has large w i d e leaves g r o w i n g f r o m the top of its t r u n k
p a p e r w o r k /'peipa,w3:k/ noun [U] the documents t h a t you need for a
p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y or occasion
p a r a c e t a m o l /paera'sktamDl, ,paera'setamDl/ noun [c/U] a c o m m o n type
of p a i n k i l l e r
p a r a c h u t i n g /'paerajictin/ noun [U] the a c t i v i t y of j u m p i n g out of a
plane w e a r i n g a parachute
p a r c e l /'pa:s(a)l/ noun [C] s o m e t h i n g w r a p p e d i n paper or i n a large
envelope so t h a t i t can be sent by post
p a r r o t /'paerat/ noun [C] a b r i g h t l y coloured t r o p i c a l b i r d that is often
kept as a pet and can be taught to copy what people say
p a r t i c l e /'pa:tik(a)l/ noun [C] 1 an extremely s m a l l piece or amount of
s o m e t h i n g 2 an adverb or preposition used w i t h a verb to f o r m a
p h r a s a l verb. For example i n the sentence 'He q u i c k l y put on his
clothes', 'on' is a p a r t i c l e .
/pa'tikjula/ adj
used for emphasising t h a t you are
t a l k i n g about one specific person or t h i n g and not anyone or
a n y t h i n g else: Are there any particular topics that you would like
me to explain
further?
/paitna/ noun [C]
1 someone who you live w i t h and have
a sexual relationship w i t h : Are partners invited to the office party?
2 someone who you do a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y wdth: John is my tennis
partner. 3 one of two or more people who o w n a company and share
its profits and losses: He became a partner in his father's law firm.

part-time

positive

p a r t - t i m e / pa:t'taim/ adj d o n e for o n l y p a r t o f t h e t i m e t h a t a n

p i c t u r e s q u e /piktfa'resk/ adj a p i c t u r e s q u e p l a c e o r s c e n e i s a t t r a c t i v e

a c t i v i t y i s u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d : a part-time

job

/ p i l / noun [C]

t y /"parti/ noun [C] * * * 1 a s o c i a l e v e n t a t w h i c h p e o p l e m e e t i n


o r d e r to c e l e b r a t e s o m e t h i n g o r h a v e f u n : Did you invite her to
your birthday

party?

/ p m / noun [q

2 a n o r g a n i s e d group of people w h o s h a r e

the s a m e i d e a s a b o u t h o w a c o u n t r y s h o u l d b e g o v e r n e d , a n d w h o
t r y to get e l e c t e d : the two main political
/'pa?f(a)n/ noun [c/u]
refugees, noun [q
classical

about

u s e d for h o l d i n g cloth i n place w h i l e y o u a r e s e w i n g

n u m b e r s t h a t y o u p u t i n t o a c a s h m a c h i n e i n o r d e r to t a k e m o n e y

the plight

out of y o u r b a n k a c c o u n t

of the

a s t r o n g e n t h u s i a s m o r i n t e r e s t : a passion

for

p i r a c y /'pairasi/ noun [u] 1 t h e c r i m e o f m a k i n g a n d s e l l i n g i l l e g a l


copies of c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s , books, videos o r C D s 2 the c r i m e

music

p a s s w o r d /'pa:s,w3:d/ noun [] a s e c r e t w o r d o r p h r a s e t h a t y o u n e e d
i n o r d e r to get i n t o a r o o m , b u i l d i n g o r a r e a

of s t e a l i n g t h i n g s f r o m s h i p s w h i l e t h e y a r e s a i l i n g
p i r a t e /'pairat/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o s t e a l s t h i n g s f r o m s h i p s w h i l e
they a r e s a i l i n g

/ : 6 / noun [C]

a w a y f r o m o n e p l a c e to a n o t h e r t h a t p e o p l e

c a n w a l k a l o n g : Amy

walked

up the path

to the

/pitJ7 noun [C]

house.

pitch

s o m e o n e w h o i s p a t i e n t i s a b l e to w a i t for
/pleis/ verb [T]

a long t i m e o r d e a l w i t h a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g
a n g r y o r u p s e t : Susan's

very patient

/'pa?t(a)n/ noun [C]

with the

of behaviour

in young

children.

the dish on the

/ p l a : n t / noun [C]

1 a s e r i e s of a c t i o n s o r events that

patterns

to p u t s o m e t h i n g s o m e w h e r e , u s u a l l y i n a

c a r e f u l w a y : Ella placed

children.

together s h o w h o w t h i n g s n o r m a l l y h a p p e n o r a r e d o n e :

with

3 a d r a w i n g or shape that you use w h e n you a r e

m a k i n g s o m e t h i n g , so t h a t y o u get t h e s h a p e a n d s i z e c o r r e c t

/'plaet,fa:m/ noun [C]

plant
1 a r a i s e d s t r u c t u r e for p e o p l e

to s t a n d o n s o t h a t t h e y c a n b e s e e n b y a n a u d i e n c e : The
candidates
session.

PC / pi: 'si:/ noun [C] 1 p e r s o n a l c o m p u t e r : a c o m p u t e r t h a t i s

table.

a l i v i n g t h i n g that grows i n soil a n d h a s

l e a v e s a n d r o o t s : a strawberry

The
2 a set of

l i n e s , s h a p e s o r c o l o u r s t h a t a r e r e p e a t e d r e g u l a r l y : a carpet
a pretty pattern

a flat a r e a o f g r o u n d t h a t i s u s e d for p l a y i n g

s p o r t s o n : a football/cricket/rugby

/'peif(a)nt/ adj

study examined

pills

a s m a l l t h i n piece of m e t a l w i t h a s h a r p point,

P I N / p i n / noun 1] p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n n u m b e r : a s e t of f o u r

parties

a p o w e r f u l emotion s u c h a s love

or a n g e r : She spoke with great passion

a s m a l l piece of solid m e d i c i n e that y o u s w a l l o w

w i t h w a t e r : vitamin

shared

the platform

for the question

and

two

answer

2 a n a r e a n e x t to a r a i l w a y t r a c k w h e r e p a s s e n g e r s

get o n t o a n d o f f t r a i n s : The train

to Brussels

will depart

from

d e s i g n e d to b e u s e d b y o n e p e r s o n a t h o m e o r i n a n office 2 p o l i c e
constable: a police officer of t h e lowest r a n k
/pi:s/ noun [U]

peace in Europe.

/ p l e i / noun [C]

in

/'pi:sf(a)l/ adj

wanted

to

solution

to the crisis

surroundings.

t i m e , q u a n t i t y , d i s t a n c e e t c : He is paid 10 per

the

job.

of
a

/'pokit/ noun [C]

a s m a l l b a g that forms p a r t of a piece of

pockets for

the car

her

keys.

y o u i l l i f y o u e a t , d r i n k o r b r e a t h e it verb [T] 1 to k i l l s o m e o n e , o r

1 u s e d for s a y i n g that y o u a r e not

m a k e t h e m v e r y i l l , b y g i v i n g t h e m p o i s o n : He was suspected

for

poisoning

moved away. 2 u s e d w h e n y o u a r e

factories

m a k i n g a suggestion, g i v i n g a d v i c e or m a k i n g a polite request:


You don't look well - perhaps

plot

p o i s o n /'poiz(a)n/ noun [c/U] a s u b s t a n c e t h a t c a n k i l l y o u o r m a k e

school.

they've

a s e c r e t p l a n to do

c l o t h i n g a n d i s u s e d f o r h o l d i n g s m a l l o b j e c t s : She searched

the s t a n d a r d of s u c c e s s that

c e r t a i n w h e t h e r s o m e t h i n g i s t r u e : I haven't seen them


months - perhaps

a series of related events that m a k e up

t h e m a i n s t o r y i n a b o o k , film e t c noun [C]

p i p e s a n d e q u i p m e n t t h a t a r e u s e d for s u p p l y i n g a n d s t o r i n g w a t e r

s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g a c h i e v e s : A healthy diet can improve

/pa'haeps/ adv

c a n play, e s p e c i a l l y at a s c h o o l

the act of p e r f o r m i n g a play,

d a n c e o r o t h e r f o r m o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t : The first performance


the opera was in 1936. noun [c/U]

2 someone who plays a m u s i c a l

p l u m b e r / ' 1 / noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to fit a n d r e p a i r t h e

t h i n g s to b e d o n e i n a p e r f e c t w a y
/pa'fa:mans/ noun [C]

player

player

s o m e t h i n g b a d , m a d e b y t w o o r m o r e p e o p l e : a kidnap

p e r f e c t i o n i s t /pa'fekf(a)nist/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o a l w a y s w a n t s

in

1 someone who plays a particular game

o r s p o r t : a tennis/cricket

/phot/ noun [c/u]


hour for

play

p l a y g r o u n d /'plei.graund/ noun [C] a n a r e a o f l a n d w h e r e c h i l d r e n

talks

2 c a l m a n d quiet:

u s e d f o r s t a t i n g t h e r a t e o r c o s t for e a c h u n i t o f

child's performance

West End

i n s t r u m e n t : a piano

1 not i n v o l v i n g w a r or violence:

The hotel is set in peaceful

a p i e c e o f w r i t i n g t h a t i s i n t e n d e d to b e

/'pleia/ noun []

peace.

aimed at finding a peaceful

/ , : / prep

Shakespeare/

agreement

2 a c a l m quiet situation i n w h i c h

you a r e not a n n o y e d b y n o i s e o r o t h e r p e o p l e : He just


read his newspaper

3.

performed by actors i n a theatre or on television or the radio: a

1 a situation i n w h i c h there is no w a r

b e t w e e n c o u n t r i e s o r g r o u p s : For many years the


maintained

platform

you should

go to the

doctor.

of

his wife. 2 to p u t p o i s o n i n s o m e t h i n g : Waste from


is poisoning

the water

the

supply.

p o l i c e f o r c e /'p(a)li:s ,fa:s/ noun [C] a n o r g a n i s e d g r o u p o f p o l i c e


o f f i c e r s i n c h a r g e of a c o u n t r y o r a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a

/ ' : / adj

h a p p e n i n g or e x i s t i n g for a

long t i m e , o r for a l l t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e : The illness can


permanent

p o l i c e o f f i c e r /'p(a)li:s pfisa/ noun [ci a m e m b e r o f t h e p o l i c e

cause

/pa'laitli/ adv

blindness.
/pa'mif(a)n/ noun [u]

t h e r i g h t to do s o m e t h i n g t h a t

is g i v e n to y o u b y s o m e o n e i n a u t h o r i t y : You are not allowed


camp here without

/pa'sweid/ verb (Tj


come with us, although

/'1:)/ noun [u]

1 to m a k e s o m e o n e a g r e e to do
it took a long time to persuade

2 to m a k e s o m e o n e b e l i e v e t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s t r u e : I managed
persuade

him that it was not his

/'petral/ noun [u]

i n a p o l i t e w a y : 'Didyou

him.
to

a l i q u i d that is u s e d a s a fuel for c a r s a n d

other vehicles:

pollution

someone who h a s a job i n politics


chemicals a n d other substances

/ : / adj

levels from

2 not a s good a s e x p e c t e d o r needed:


3 u s e d for s h o w i n g t h a t y o u feel

poor health/eyesight/hearing

s o r r y f o r s o m e o n e : The poor child

most popular

girls

in the

had lost both his

l i k e d b y m a n y p e o p l e : Jenny

p o p u l a t i o n /pDpjo'leif(a)n/ noun [singular]


w h o l i v e i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a : Los Angeles

p h o t o g r a p h e r /fa'tografa/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o t a k e s p h o t o g r a p h s ,

than 40% of the population

over 3 million.

the science that deals w i t h heat, light a n d

p i c n i c / ' p i k n i k / noun [ci a m e a l t h a t y o u e a t o u t s i d e

about

1 the n u m b e r of people

voted in the last

has a population

of
Less

election.

1 c o m p l e t e l y c e r t a i n : We'd met before - 1

that. 2 b e l i e v i n g t h a t g o o d t h i n g s w i l l h a p p e n ,

o r t h a t a s i t u a t i o n w i l l get b e t t e r : a positive

attitude

e x p e r i e n c e , s i t u a t i o n , r e s u l t e t c i s a g o o d o n e : School
totally positive

is one of the

2 a l l the people w h o live i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a :

/'pDzativ/ adj
was positive

parents.

school.

p h a r m a c y /'fa:masi/ noun [C] a p l a c e w h e r e m e d i c i n e s a r e p r e p a r e d


and sold

especially as their job

to

rising

1 h a v i n g little m o n e y a n d few p o s s e s s i o n s : a

poor family/area/country

p o p u l a r /'popjula/ adj

p e t r o l s t a t i o n /'petral .steifan/ noun [C] a g a r a g e t h a t s e l l s p e t r o l for


your c a r

/'fiziks/ noun [U]

well?'she

t h a t h a v e a h a r m f u l effect o n a i r , w a t e r o r l a n d : new measures


prevent

fault.

other f o r m s of e n e r g y a n d h o w t h e y affect objects

sleep

politely.
/,pDla'ti/(a)n/ noun [C]

to

permission.

s o m e t h i n g b y g i v i n g t h e m r e a s o n s w h y t h e y s h o u l d : He did
finally

asked

experience

for

me.

3 a positive
was a

possession

/pa'zef(a)n/ noun [C]


s o m e t h i n g that you o w n : Their
family home and possessions were destroyed in the fire.
/paust/ noun [ui
the letters and parcels that are d e l i v e r e d
to someone, or the system used for c o l l e c t i n g , c a r r y i n g a n d
d e l i v e r i n g t h e m : There was no post for you today, verb [T] 1 to send
a letter or p a r c e l to someone i n the post 2 to put i n f o r m a t i o n or
a message where the p u b l i c can see i t , for example on a w a l l : The
menu and prices are posted outside the door. 3 to put i n f o r m a t i o n
on the I n t e r n e t : New job openings are posted every day on their
website.
p o t i o n /'/()/ noun [C] a d r i n k t h a t is believed to be magic,
poisonous or useful as a m e d i c i n e
/'/ noun [u]
1 the a b i l i t y to influence or c o n t r o l
people: a power struggle within the party 2 energy t h a t is used for
o p e r a t i n g equipment a n d machines: solar power 3 p h y s i c a l force
or s t r e n g t h : The boy was thrown backwards by the power of the
blast.
/'praektik(a)l/ adj
1 i n v o l v i n g , or r e l a t i n g to, r e a l
situations r a t h e r t h a n theories or ideas alone: Unfortunately
this
research has no practical use. 2 m a k i n g sensible decisions a n d
choices based on w h a t can be successfully achieved: Despite their
wealth, they were always practical about money. 3 intended to be
useful or suitable, not j u s t fashionable or a t t r a c t i v e : a practical
car for the family 4 able to m a k e r e p a i r s or do t h i n g s w i t h y o u r
hands i n a s k i l f u l way
/'praektis/ noun [C/U]
occasions w h e n y o u do s o m e t h i n g
i n order to become better at i t , or the t i m e t h a t y o u spend d o i n g
t h i s : piano/basketball
practice
/'praektis/ verb [l/T]
to repeat a n a c t i v i t y r e g u l a r l y so
t h a t y o u become b e t t e r at i t : How many hours a day do you
practise?
/prei/ verb [l/T] to speak to God or a saint, for example to give
t h a n k s or to ask for help: They prayed for peace.
p r e d a t o r /'predata/ noun [C] a n a n i m a l t h a t k i l l s and eats other
animals
/prfdikt/ verb [T] to say w h a t y o u t h i n k w i l l happen i n the
f u t u r e : They're predicting heavy rain for tomorrow.
p r e s c r i p t i o n /prfsknpjan/ noun [C] a piece o f paper t h a t a doctor
gives y o u t h a t says w h a t t y p e of m e d i c i n e y o u need: The drug is
only available on
prescription.
/pres/ noun
the press: newspapers a n d news magazines,
or the j o u r n a l i s t s w h o w o r k on t h e m : the
national/local/
American
press
/'preja/ noun [c/U]
1 a t t e m p t s t o persuade o r force
someone to do s o m e t h i n g : Pressure for political
change
increased in the 1990s. 2 a w o r r i e d f e e l i n g t h a t y o u get w h e n
you have to deal w i t h a d i f f i c u l t or c o m p l i c a t e d s i t u a t i o n :
With greatly increased workloads, everyone is under
pressure
now. noun [U] a p h y s i c a l force t h a t is p r e s s i n g o n someone o r
s o m e t h i n g : She became aware of the pressure of his hand on her
shoulder.
/'prhvias/ adj
a p r e v i o u s event, p e r i o d or t h i n g
happened or existed before the one t h a t y o u are t a l k i n g about:
Mark has two children from a previous
marriage.
/prkst/ noun [C] 1 someone whose j o b is to p e r f o r m r e l i g i o u s
duties and ceremonies i n some C h r i s t i a n churches: a Roman
Catholic priest 2 a m a n w h o p e r f o r m s r e l i g i o u s duties i n some
r e l i g i o n s t h a t are not C h r i s t i a n

quickly
/ p r a i z / noun [C]
a r e w a r d t h a t y o u get for b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l
i n a c o m p e t i t i o n , o r for b e i n g g o o d at s o m e t h i n g : the Nobel Prize

for

chemistry

/prodAkt/ noun [C/u]


s o m e t h i n g that is made, g r o w n
or o b t a i n e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s so t h a t it c a n be s o l d : dairy/

pharmaceutical/software

1 r e l a t i n g to w o r k t h a t n e e d s

s p e c i a l s k i l l s a n d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : Teachers

must be free to exercise

their professional
judgment. 2 p l a y i n g a s p o r t o r t a k i n g p a r t i n
a n a c t i v i t y a s a j o b r a t h e r t h a n for e n j o y m e n t : a
professional

actor/photographer
/pra'fesa/ noun [C]

u n i v e r s i t y : a professor

a s e n i o r t e a c h e r i n a college or

of

English

/'praugraem/ noun [C]

1 a s e r i e s of p l a n n e d e v e n t s :

a festival with an exciting musical programme 2 a t e l e v i s i o n


o r r a d i o b r o a d c a s t : More people watch the news than any other
programme.
3 a document that tells you what w i l l happen i n a
p e r f o r m a n c e or event
p r o g r a m m e r / ' / noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to c r e a t e
computer programs
/'prDd3ekt, ' p r a u d j e k t / noun [C]
a p i e c e of w o r k t h a t
i n v o l v e s c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : The university has set up a new

research project to study language development


/'promis/ verb [l/T]

in babies.

1 to t e l l s o m e o n e t h a t y o u w i l l

d e f i n i t e l y do s o m e t h i n g : The police chief promised tougher action


against young criminals. 2 to m a k e s o m e t h i n g s e e m l i k e l y : This
evening promises to be a lot of fun.
/'propati/ noun [U]
t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u o w n : The books
are my personal property, noun [c/U]
l a n d a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s on

it: He owns several properties


/pra'tekt/ verb [T]

Are you prepared

in

London.

to k e e p s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g safe:

to protect yourself

/pra'tekf(a)n/ noun [U]

in case of

attack?

t h e p r o c e s s of k e e p i n g

s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g safe: the protection

of the

countryside

p r o t e i n / ' p r a u t k n / noun [U] a s u b s t a n c e i n f o o d s s u c h a s m e a t , eggs


and m i l k that keeps you healthy
/'prautest/ noun [C/u]

a strong complaint or disagreement:

protest against the nuclear testing noun [C]

a formal

a n occasion

w h e n p e o p l e s h o w s t r o n g p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n to s o m e t h i n g : a

protest

march

p r o t e s t /pra'test/ verb [i]

to s h o w p u b l i c l y t h a t y o u o p p o s e

s o m e t h i n g : Workers are protesting

against high

unemployment.

/ p r a o d / adj 1 f e e l i n g h a p p y a b o u t y o u r a c h i e v e m e n t s , y o u r
p o s s e s s i o n s , o r p e o p l e w h o y o u a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h : We're so
proud of her for telling the truth. 2 a p r o u d p e r s o n d o e s not l i k e
o t h e r p e o p l e to h e l p t h e m o r to t h i n k t h a t t h e y a r e w e a k : a proud

and

independent

nation

/pAbli'keif(a)n/ noun [U]

t h e p r o c e s s of p r o d u c i n g a

b o o k for people to buy: She became famous


her first novel, noun [Ci

financial

after the publication

p u b l i s h e r /'// noun [C] a p e r s o n o r c o m p a n y t h a t p r o d u c e s a n d


sells books
/ ' ] / verb [T]
to do s o m e t h i n g u n p l e a s a n t to s o m e o n e
b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e d o n e s o m e t h i n g b a d o r i l l e g a l : He was

punished

for

/-s/

stealing.

noun [C]

a s m a l l b a g for c a r r y i n g m o n e y

/print/ verb [l/T]


to produce words, n u m b e r s , p i c t u r e s etc on
paper, u s i n g a p r i n t e r or p r i n t i n g press: The book is beautifully
printed on quality paper, verb m 1 to p u b l i s h s o m e t h i n g i n a
newspaper or magazine: They refused to print my letter. 2 to
produce a p h o t o g r a p h on paper

/'printa/ noun [C] 1 a piece of equipment that y o u use for


p r i n t i n g documents t h a t y o u have created on a computer 2 a
person or business that p r i n t s books, newspapers etc

q u e s t i o n n a i r e /kwestfa'nea/ noun [q a set of q u e s t i o n s t h a t a lot


of p e o p l e a r e a s k e d a s a w a y o f g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t w h a t
p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y t h i n k o r do

/'pnz(a)n/ noun [C/u]


a n i n s t i t u t i o n where people are kept
as a p u n i s h m e n t for c o m m i t t i n g a c r i m e : He's currently in prison
for tax fraud.

of

a m a g a z i n e , n e w s p a p e r o r book: a weekly

publication

p r i m e m i n i s t e r / p r a i m 'minista/ noun [C]


the p o l i t i c a l leader i n
c o u n t r i e s such as the U K t h a t are governed by a p a r l i a m e n t

18

products

/pra'fej"(a)nal/ adj

/ k j u : / noun [C]

a l i n e of p e o p l e t h a t a r e w a i t i n g for

s o m e t h i n g : There was a long queue for


/ ' k w i k l i / adv

tickets.

at a fast s p e e d : We have to work

quickly.

race

respect
/'ref(d)rans/ noun [C/U]
a comment that mentions
s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g : He made no reference to my untidy
appearance, noun [C]
a statement g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about you
that you a s k someone who k n o w s you or h a s worked w i t h you
to p r o v i d e w h e n y o u a p p l y for a n e w j o b : Her former
employer
provided a reference for her.

/reis/ noun [C]


a competition that decides who is the fastest
at d o i n g s o m e t h i n g : He is training for a big race, noun [C/u]
a g r o u p of people w h o a r e s i m i l a r b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e t h e s a m e
s k i n c o l o u r or o t h e r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , o r b e c a u s e t h e y s p e a k t h e
s a m e l a n g u a g e or h a v e t h e s a m e h i s t o r y or c u s t o m s : We do not
discriminate on the basis of race or gender.
r a i n f o r e s t /'rem.fDnst/ noun [C/U] a forest i n a t r o p i c a l r e g i o n of t h e
w o r l d w h e r e it r a i n s a lot
r a i s e y o u r v o i c e /,reiz j3 'VDIS/ phrase to s p e a k i n a l o u d a n g r y w a y : We
told him not to raise his voice to our
children.
r a s h /// noun [c] a n a r e a of s m a l l r e d s p o t s o n y o u r s k i n t h a t i s
c a u s e d by a n i l l n e s s or a r e a c t i o n to s o m e t h i n g
/ri:t|7 verb [T]
to a r r i v e s o m e w h e r e : We hoped to reach
the camp before dark, verb [I]
to m o v e y o u r h a n d t o w a r d s
s o m e t h i n g y o u a r e t r y i n g to t o u c h o r p i c k u p : He turned round and
reached for the phone, verb [i/]
to m a n a g e to t o u c h s o m e t h i n g
or p i c k it u p b y s t r e t c h i n g out y o u r a r m : We keep the bottles up here
so the children can't reach them.
r e a d o u t /,ri:d 'aut/ phr vb to s a y t h e w o r d s t h a t y o u a r e r e a d i n g so
that people c a n h e a r t h e m : He read the list of names

out.

r e a d u p o n / r i : d ' on/ phr vb to get i n f o r m a t i o n o n a p a r t i c u l a r


subject by r e a d i n g a lot a b o u t it: I need to read up on my

r e b e l l i o u s /n'beljds/ adj o p p o s i n g a u t h o r i t y or t h e a c c e p t e d r u l e s of
society

s o m e o n e r e b o o t s it, it s t a r t s a g a i n a f t e r it h a s b e e n t u r n e d off
/n'si:t/ noun [C] a d o c u m e n t t h a t y o u get f r o m s o m e o n e
s h o w i n g t h a t y o u h a v e g i v e n t h e m m o n e y or goods: Keep all your
credit card receipts.
h a p p e n i n g or s t a r t i n g a s h o r t t i m e ago: a

r e c e p t i o n i s t /n'sepjlajmst/ noun [q s o m e o n e w h o w o r k s i n r e c e p t i o n
at a hotel o r office a n d w h o s e j o b i s to w e l c o m e v i s i t o r s , d e a l w i t h
q u e s t i o n s etc
/'resspi/ noun [C] a set of i n s t r u c t i o n s for c o o k i n g or
p r e p a r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r food: a recipe for apple pie
/ r e k s ' m e n d / verb [T]
to s a y t h a t s o m e o n e o r
s o m e t h i n g i s good a n d w o r t h u s i n g , h a v i n g or e x p e r i e n c i n g :
you recommend a good
restaurant?

Can

/'rek3:d/ noun [C]


1 i n f o r m a t i o n that is kept about
s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s h a p p e n e d or t h a t s o m e o n e h a s done: medical/
historical records 2 t h e best a c h i e v e m e n t so f a r i n a p a r t i c u l a r
a c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y a s p o r t : She holds the world record in the 800
metres. 3 a l a r g e c i r c u l a r b l a c k p i e c e of p l a s t i c c o n t a i n i n g m u s i c
or o t h e r s o u n d s : an original Beatles'
record
/ri'kj:d/ verb [T]
to m a k e a r e c o r d of s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s
h a p p e n e d , u s u a l l y by w r i t i n g it d o w n : They were asked to record
the time at which the attack happened, verb [i/]
to p u t s o u n d s o r
i m a g e s onto a DVD, CD or v i d e o : Can you record the football for me
at 10 o'clock?
/ ' / verb [I]

to b e c o m e fit a n d h e a l t h y a g a i n a f t e r a n

i l l n e s s o r i n j u r y : I haven't fully recovered from the flu.

verb [T]

to get b a c k s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s b e e n lost o r s t o l e n o r i s o w e d :
thieves were caught, but many of the items were never

The

recovered.

r e c y c l e /rirsaik(a)l/ verb m to t r e a t w a s t e m a t e r i a l s so t h a t t h e y c a n
be u s e d a g a i n
/n'dju:s/ verb [T]

to m a k e s o m e t h i n g s m a l l e r o r l e s s i n

size, a m o u n t , i m p o r t a n c e , p r i c e etc: Try to reduce the amount of fat


in your diet.
r e e f /ri:f/ noun [C] a l o n g l i n e of r o c k or c o r a l i n t h e s e a , w i t h its top
j u s t below or j u s t above t h e s u r f a c e
r e f e r e e /refd'ri:/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o s e j o b i s to m a k e s u r e t h a t
p l a y e r s i n a g a m e obey t h e r u l e s

/'regjutali/ adv
1 a f t e r e q u a l a m o u n t s of t i m e h a v e
p a s s e d : The committee meets regularly. 2 f r e q u e n t l y : The
equipment needs to be checked
regularly.
/ri'leitid/ adj 1 c o n n e c t e d : We think the two crimes are
related in some way. 2 b e l o n g i n g to t h e s a m e f a m i l y : Annie's
related to the director.
/ri'leif(3)nfip/ noun [C]
1 the w a y i n w h i c h two or m o r e
people or t h i n g s a r e c o n n e c t e d : There is a close relationship
between
poverty and crime. 2 a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h two people a r e s e x u a l or
r o m a n t i c p a r t n e r s : / was already in a relationship when I met Ben.
/'reldtivli/ adv

i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s o m e o n e or

s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r : a relatively

small

flat

/niaekst/ adj c a l m a n d not w o r r i e d : Bill came back from


holiday looking relaxed and
tanned.

his

/ri'li:s/ verb [T]


1 to let s o m e o n e l e a v e a p l a c e w h e r e t h e y
h a v e b e e n kept: The authorities had recently released two suspects.
2 to stop h o l d i n g s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g : She slowly released her
grip on Louisa's
hand.
/'1()1/ adj

r e b o o t /ri:'bu:t/ verb [l/T] i f a c o m p u t e r or s y s t e m r e b o o t s , or i f

/'ri:s(a)nt/ adj
discovery

ar /"regjula/ adj
1 a r r a n g e d so t h a t t h e r e i s t h e s a m e
a m o u n t of t i m e or s p a c e b e t w e e n t h i n g s : regular monthly meetings
2 d o i n g s o m e t h i n g o r done f r e q u e n t l y : a regular
customer
3 f o l l o w i n g t h e n o r m a l p a t t e r n s of g r a m m a r : regular
verbs

r e l a x i n g /n'laeksm/ adj p l e a s a n t a n d m a k i n g y o u feel r e l a x e d

British

history.

recent

r e f i n e /rffain/ verb m to r e m o v e t h i n g s f r o m a n a t u r a l s u b s t a n c e i n
o r d e r to m a k e it p u r e

able to be t r u s t e d : a reliable

workman/car

r e l y o n /n'lai pnl phr vb 1 to n e e d s o m e t h i n g i n o r d e r to c o n t i n u e


l i v i n g , e x i s t i n g , o r o p e r a t i n g : The museum relies on voluntary
donations to keep open. 2 to t r u s t s o m e o n e or s o m e t h i n g to do
s o m e t h i n g for y o u : Sometimes you just have to rely on your own
judgment.
/'reniddi/ noun [C] 1 a s o l u t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m :
There are no easy remedies for learning difficulties.
2 a c u r e for
p a i n o r for a m i n o r i l l n e s s : homeopathic/herbal
remedies
r e m o t e c o n t r o l /n.maut kan'traul/ noun [u] a s y s t e m of c o n t r o l l i n g a
m a c h i n e or a vehicle from a distance
r e n e w a b l e /n'nju:ab(3)l/ adj 1 a r e n e w a b l e c o n t r a c t o r a r r a n g e m e n t
c a n be c o n t i n u e d for a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e 2 r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y
a n d n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s r e p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s by n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s , so
t h a t they a r e n e v e r completely u s e d up
|y / r r p l a i / verb [l/T] * * to s a y , w r i t e o r do s o m e t h i n g a s a n
a n s w e r : Tknow,' Corbett replied quietly.
/':7 noun [C]
1 a s p o k e n o r w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of a
p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , s i t u a t i o n o r event: A new report shows violent
crime is on the increase. 2 a n a r t i c l e or b r o a d c a s t t h a t g i v e s
i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s o m e t h i n g i n t h e n e w s : Did you see that report
about house prices in London? 3 a d o c u m e n t t h a t i s w r i t t e n by a
t e a c h e r , g i v i n g d e t a i l s of a s t u d e n t ' s s c h o o l w o r k verb [i/]
to
give i n f o r m a t i o n about s o m e t h i n g i n a news a r t i c l e or broadcast:
Three journalists
were sent to report on the conflict, verb [T]
to p r o d u c e a n o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t o r a w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t a b o u t
a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t : The committee will report the results of its
investigation
tomorrow.
/,repju'teif(d)n/ noun [C/u]
t h e o p i n i o n p e o p l e h a v e about
h o w good o r b a d s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g i s : The town has a bad
reputation.
/rfsartf, 'ri:s3:tJ7 noun [U]
the d e t a i l e d s t u d y of s o m e t h i n g i n
o r d e r to d i s c o v e r n e w facts: medical/historical/linguistic
research
/'rezid(d)nt/ noun [C]
someone who lives i n a p a r t i c u l a r
p l a c e : Many local residents have objected to the new road.
/n'spekt/ noun [U]
1 the attitude that someone is
i m p o r t a n t a n d s h o u l d be a d m i r e d , a n d t h a t y o u s h o u l d t r e a t t h e m
p o l i t e l y : She has worked hard to gain the respect of her
colleagues.
2 a feeling that s o m e t h i n g is i m p o r t a n t a n d deserves s e r i o u s
a t t e n t i o n : a healthy respect for the law verb [T]
to t r e a t s o m e o n e
in a way that shows that you t h i n k they a r e important a n d should
b e a d m i r e d : He is highly respected in his
profession.

responsibility

/ri.spDnsa'bilati/ noun [u]


s o m e t h i n g t h a t you have
to do as a d u t y or a job: She has a lot of responsibility
as a nurse.
/ri'spDns3b(a)l/ adj
1 i f you are responsible for
something that has happened, you caused i t , or you deserve to be
blamed for i t : Parents feel responsible when things go wrong. 2 i n
charge of someone or s o m e t h i n g : The manager is responsible for
the running of the theatre.
/rest/ noun [singular]
the p a r t of s o m e t h i n g that r e m a i n s ,
or the people or t h i n g s t h a t r e m a i n : I'm not really hungry - do
you want the rest? noun [c/U]
a p e r i o d of t i m e t h a t you spend
r e l a x i n g or sleeping: Can we stop for a minute? I need a rest, verb [l]
1 to spend a period of t i m e r e l a x i n g or sleeping: It would be
nice to sit down and rest for a while. 2 to not use a p a r t of y o u r body
that is t i r e d or i n j u r e d , so that it can get better: You'll need to rest
your foot for at least two days.
r e s t r i c t i o n /ri'stnkftain/ noun [C] something, for example a law, that
l i m i t s what you can do
/n'zAlt/ noun [c/U]
s o m e t h i n g t h a t is caused d i r e c t l y
by s o m e t h i n g else: He said the argument was the result of a
misunderstanding,
noun []
1 the final score i n a sports game,
the n u m b e r of votes t h a t someone gets i n an election or the
n u m b e r of points that someone gets i n a c o m p e t i t i o n : The election
result was a disaster for the party. 2 a piece of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t you
get by e x a m i n i n g , s t u d y i n g or c a l c u l a t i n g something: The results
of the survey will be published shortly, noun [plural]
results:
success t h a t you achieve: He breaks rules, but he gets results.
// verb [I]
to stop w o r k i n g permanently, especially
when you are old: He retired from the army last month.

science fiction

/'/ noun [U] 1 t h i n g s that you t h r o w away because


they are no longer useful: The streets were littered with rubbish.
2 t h i n g s that someone says or w r i t e s t h a t are not reasonable or
sensible: As usual, he was talking complete rubbish. 3 something
t h a t is of v e r y low q u a l i t y : Critics have described the paintings as
worthless
rubbish.
r u c k s a c k /'rAk.sask/ noun [C] a bag that you c a r r y on your back
/ru:d/ adj
be alone.

not polite: I don't want to seem rude, but I'd

rather

r u i n /'ru:m/ verb [T] to spoil or destroy something: She had ruined


mother's chances of getting a job.

/rud/ noun [C]


a statement that explains what you can or
cannot do i n a p a r t i c u l a r situation: grammatical
rules noun [U]
the person, group, or c o u n t r y that officially controls a place:
British rule over Hong Kong ended in 1997.
r u n n e r /'/ noun [C] a person or a n i m a l that r u n s i n a race, or
someone who r u n s for pleasure

/ verb [T]

workers

to f o r c e s o m e o n e to l e a v e t h e i r j o b : Hundreds

are to be sacked

at the

/seed/ adj
f e e l i n g u n h a p p y , m a k i n g y o u feel u n h a p p y o r
s h o w i n g t h a t y o u feel u n h a p p y : It was a sad day when we sold

r e u n i o n /ri:'ju:nian/ noun [c] a social event for people who have not
seen each other for a long t i m e : a family
reunion

home.

r e v i s i o n /n'vi3(a)n/ noun [c/u] the process of c h a n g i n g , i m p r o v i n g or


m a k i n g additions to something: He intends to undertake a major
revision of the constitution,
noun [U] the w o r k of s t u d y i n g for an
e x a m i n a t i o n : I can't go out-I've
got to do some revision for my
exams.
/ritjy adj
1 h a v i n g a lot of money, p r o p e r t y or valuable
possessions: a rich man 2 c o n t a i n i n g a lot of t h i n g s such as butter,
eggs or cream that make y o u r stomach feel f u l l very q u i c k l y : a
rich chocolate
dessert
/raid/ verb [i/]
to sit on a bicycle, motorcycle or an a n i m a l
such as a horse and c o n t r o l i t as i t moves: / learned to ride a bike
when I was five.
r i g h t - h a n d e d /rait 'haendid/ adj n a t u r a l l y t e n d i n g to use y o u r r i g h t
h a n d r a t h e r t h a n y o u r left to do t h i n g s such as w r i t i n g
/nrj/ noun [C]
1 a piece of j e w e l l e r y i n the f o r m of a
circle t h a t you wear on a finger: She had a ring on every finger.
2 s o m e t h i n g t h a t is i n the shape of a circle: onion rings
/risk/ noun [C/U]
the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s o m e t h i n g unpleasant
or dangerous m i g h t happen: The risks to consumers are being
analysed, verb [T]
to do s o m e t h i n g a l t h o u g h you k n o w t h a t
something t h a t is bad could happen as a result: He risked a lot of
money on the company.
r i v e r b a n k /'nva ,baer)k/ noun [C] the l a n d at the side of a r i v e r

r o b /rob/ verb [T] to take money or p r o p e r t y f r o m someone i l l e g a l l y :


They were planning to rob the museum.

was filled with pain and

Joan's

s a i l i n g /'seihrj/ noun [U] t h e s p o r t o r a c t i v i t y of t r a v e l l i n g a c r o s s


w a t e r i n a s a i l i n g boat
/'sadari/ noun [C] a fixed a m o u n t of m o n e y t h a t y o u e a r n
e a c h m o n t h o r y e a r f r o m y o u r j o b : an annual salary of 25.000
/saend/ noun [U]
a p a l e b r o w n s u b s t a n c e t h a t y o u find at a
b e a c h o r i n t h e d e s e r t , f o r m e d f r o m v e r y s m a l l p i e c e s of r o c k :

The children

were playing

in the

sand.

/sa:s/ noun [c/U] a l i q u i d food t h a t y o u p u t o n o t h e r foods to


g i v e t h e m a p a r t i c u l a r f l a v o u r : tomato sauce
/seiv/ verb [T]
1 to m a k e it p o s s i b l e for s o m e o n e o r
s o m e t h i n g to a v o i d d a n g e r , h a r m , i n j u r y etc: campaigns to save
the planet 2 to a v o i d u s i n g s o m e t h i n g s u c h a s m o n e y , t i m e o r

e n e r g y , o r to u s e l e s s of it: You can save 25 if you buy your


before Saturday.

it i n t h e f u t u r e : Save some energy for the end of the race, verb [l/T]
if a g o a l k e e p e r s a v e s a b a l l i n a sport s u c h a s football, they
prevent the b a l l from going into the net
s c a n d a l /'skaend(a)l/ noun [c/U] a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h p e o p l e b e h a v e i n
a d i s h o n e s t o r i m m o r a l w a y t h a t s h o c k s people: a sex scandal
s c a n n e r /'skaena/ noun [] 1 a p i e c e of e q u i p m e n t t h a t y o u u s e for
c o p y i n g a p i c t u r e o r d o c u m e n t i n t o a c o m p u t e r 2 a p i e c e of
e q u i p m e n t t h a t i s u s e d for p r o d u c i n g a p i c t u r e of t h e i n s i d e of a n
o b j e c t o r a p a r t of y o u r b o d y
s c a r /ska:/ noun [] a p e r m a n e n t m a r k o n y o u r s k i n w h e r e y o u h a v e

b e e n i n j u r e d : He has a scar under his left eye.


the

/skead/ adj
operation.

f r i g h t e n e d o r w o r r i e d : I'm scared stiff of

s c a r y /'skeari/ adj f r i g h t e n i n g : a scary

s c h o l a r s h i p /'skDlaJip/ noun [C] a n a m o u n t of m o n e y t h a t a n


o r g a n i s a t i o n g i v e s to s o m e o n e s o t h a t t h e y c a n s t u d y at
a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l o r u n i v e r s i t y : Sophie was awarded a

// noun [C/U]
a type of v e r y t h i c k s t r i n g t h a t can be used
for t y i n g or p u l l i n g t h i n g s
/ru:t/ noun [C]
the roads or paths t h a t you use w h e n you go
from one place to another: The tunnel is the route taken by most
drivers.

tickets

3 to k e e p o r s t o r e s o m e t h i n g so t h a t y o u c a n u s e

r o b b e r y /'robari/ noun [c/U] the c r i m e of s t e a l i n g money or p r o p e r t y

r o o m m a t e /'ru:m,meit/ noun [C] someone who you share a r o o m w i t h

our

sadness.

r o b b e r /'/ noun [C] someone who steals money or p r o p e r t y


r o m a n c e /rau'maens/ noun [U] the b e h a v i o u r t h a t is t y p i c a l of t w o
people who love each other: She wasn't in a mood for romance, noun
[C] a book or film about a r o m a n t i c relationship

120

s a d n e s s /'saednas/ noun [u] t h e f e e l i n g of b e i n g u n h a p p y :

childhood

of

factory.

r e t i r e d /n'taiad/ adj no longer w o r k i n g at a job, especially when you


are old: a retired teacher/police
officer

r e v i s e /ri'vaiz/ verb [T] to change, i m p r o v e or make additions to


something: a revised draft of the treaty verb [l/T] to study y o u r notes
and i n f o r m a t i o n again i n order to prepare for an e x a m i n a t i o n

her

scholarship

to attend Boston

having

story

University.

/'saians/ noun [U]


t h e s t u d y a n d k n o w d e d g e of t h e
p h y s i c a l w o r l d a n d its b e h a v i o u r , t h a t i s b a s e d o n e x p e r i m e n t s
a n d f a c t s a n d i s o r g a n i s e d i n t o a s y s t e m : recent advances in

science
s c i e n c e f i c t i o n / s a i a n s 'fikfan/ noun [u] b o o k s a n d films a b o u t
i m a g i n a r y f u t u r e e v e n t s t h a t often i n c l u d e s p a c e t r a v e l a n d
creatures from other planets

scientist

simplify

/'saisntist/ noun [C]


someone w h o is t r a i n e d i n science,
especially someone whose j o b is to do scientific r e s e a r c h
/sky./ noun [C]
the n u m b e r of p o i n t s t h a t someone gains i n
a game o r test: The average score for the test was 75. verb [l/T]
to
get a p o i n t i n a game or sport: No one scored in the first half.
/skri:n/ noun [C]
the flat surface o n a computer, t e l e v i s i o n
or piece of electronic e q u i p m e n t where w o r d s and p i c t u r e s are
shown: Suddenly the screen went blank.
s c u b a d i v i n g /'sku:ba d a i v m / noun [ii] the a c t i v i t y of s w i m m i n g
under w a t e r w i t h a c o n t a i n e r of a i r o n y o u r back and a tube for
breathing through
s e a l e v e l /'si: ,leval/ noun [u] the average level of the sea. I t is used
for m e a s u r i n g the h e i g h t of p a r t s of the l a n d .
s e a r c h e n g i n e /'s3:tf .endjm/ noun [C] a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m t h a t is
used for s e a r c h i n g for i n f o r m a t i o n on the I n t e r n e t
s e a s i c k /'si:,sik/ adj feeling i l l f r o m the movement of the boat t h a t
you are t r a v e l l i n g o n
s e a s i c k n e s s /'si: siknis/ noun [u]
s e a s i d e /'si:,said/ noun [singular] a n area t h a t is n e a r the sea, especially
one where people go for a h o l i d a y : This was their first family
holiday together at the seaside.
/siit/ noun [C]
vans have leather

s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u c a n sit o n : Some of the


seats.

>n )/ Houn []
1 a p e r s o n , g r o u p , p a r t , or area t h a t
forms p a r t of s o m e t h i n g l a r g e r : The frozen-foods section is in
the rear of the shop. 2 a p a r t of a newspaper, book, o r other piece
of w r i t i n g t h a t may be considered separately: The story was
reported on the front page of the business section.
/si'kjuardti/ noun [U]
1 safety f r o m attack, h a r m ,
or damage: The information received is highly
confidential
and relates to national security. 2 the d e p a r t m e n t w i t h i n a n
organisation t h a t protects b u i l d i n g s a n d w o r k e r s : If you won't
leave, I'll have to call security.
/si:d/ noun [c/U]
a s m a l l h a r d p a r t produced by a p l a n t t h a t
can g r o w i n t o a new p l a n t of the same t y p e : a packet of seeds
/si:m/ verb [l]
to appear to be s o m e t h i n g , or t o appear to
have a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y : John seems nice.
s e l e c t i v e /si'lektiv/ adj c a r e f u l about w h a t y o u choose or accept: He
is very selective in his reading.
s e l f - c e n t r e d /selfsentad/ dj too interested i n yourself, so t h a t y o u
do not t h i n k about w h a t other people feel or need
s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e /self'konfidans/ noun [U] the f e e l i n g t h a t y o u can do
t h i n g s w e l l and t h a t people respect y o u
s e l f - e m p l o y e d /self i m ' p b i d / adj w o r k i n g for y o u r s e l f r a t h e r t h a n
being employed d i r e c t l y by a company or o r g a n i s a t i o n
s e l f i s h /'selfif/ adj t h i n k i n g o n l y about y o u r s e l f and not c a r i n g
about other people: a greedy selfish man
s e l f - r e l i a n t /selfn'laiant/ adj able to do t h i n g s for y o u r s e l f w i t h o u t
depending o n other people
/sel/ verb [T]
to let someone have s o m e t h i n g i n exchange for
money: We've decided to sell our house and move to Spain.
s e n i o r c i t i z e n /sknia 'sitizan/ noun [C] someone w h o is at or past the
age w h e n most people stop w o r k i n g
s e n s a t i o n /seriseif(3)n/ noun [C/U] the a b i l i t y to feel s o m e t h i n g ,
or s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u feel: When she awoke she had lost all
sensation in her legs.
s e n s a t i o n a l i s m /sen'seij(3)n3,liz(3)m/ noun [U] a w a y o f r e p o r t i n g
events, especially i n a newspaper, t h a t makes t h e m seem as
e x c i t i n g or s h o c k i n g as possible
/'sentans/ noun [C]
1 a g r o u p of words, u s u a l l y
i n c l u d i n g a subject a n d a verb, t h a t expresses a statement,
question or i n s t r u c t i o n 2 a p u n i s h m e n t t h a t is o f f i c i a l l y g i v e n by
a judge: She received the maximum sentence of ten years.
/'sep(3)ret/ adj
1 not together: My brother and I
always had separate rooms. 2 not connected w i t h s o m e t h i n g t h a t
is s i m i l a r : Police have arrested seven drug smugglers in three
separate incidents this week.
/'siariiz/ noun []
1 a set of t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o
programmes t h a t are a l l about a p a r t i c u l a r subject, person o r

g r o u p of people: Tonight's programme is the second in a three-part


series. 2 a set o f t h i n g s t h a t are made w i t h the same design, o r
made i n the same way: a popular new series of children's
books
/'siarias/ adj
1 bad or dangerous enough to m a k e y o u
w o r r i e d : It's not a serious problem. 2 m e a n i n g w h a t y o u say or do,
a n d not m a k i n g a j o k e : I'm sorry, I didn't realise you were being
serious.
/'s3:vis/ noun [] * * * 1 a system t h a t provides t h i n g s t h a t
the p u b l i c needs: transport/education
services 2 a r e l i g i o u s
ceremony: a church service
s e t u p /set / phr vb [l/T] to s t a r t s o m e t h i n g such as a business,
o r g a n i s a t i o n o r i n s t i t u t i o n : The group plans to set up an import
business.
/Jip/ noun [C]
a v e r y l a r g e boat t h a t is used for c a r r y i n g
people or goods l o n g distances: His ship sailed from Pearl
Harbor
on Monday.
/Jbk/ noun [singular/u]
the f e e l i n g of b e i n g v e r y s u r p r i s e d
by s o m e t h i n g bad t h a t happens unexpectedly: Jessica's
face
was blank with shock, noun [C]
s o m e t h i n g t h a t happens
u n e x p e c t e d l y a n d makes y o u feel v e r y s u r p r i s e d a n d upset: The
price of housing was quite a shock for us.
/Jbkt/
t h a t happens
sudden death.
you consider
the film.

adj 1 v e r y s u r p r i s e d a n d upset by s o m e t h i n g bad


unexpectedly: We were deeply shocked to hear of his
2 v e r y offended or e m b a r r a s s e d by s o m e t h i n g t h a t
i m m o r a l : People were shocked by the sex scenes in

/Ju:t/ verb [l/T]


1 to f i r e a g u n : We were ordered not to shoot
until he gave the signal. 2 i n sport, to t h r o w or k i c k a b a l l i n an
a t t e m p t to score p o i n t s : He shot the ball straight at the goalkeeper.
verb * * * t o h i t someone o r s o m e t h i n g w i t h a b u l l e t f r o m a g u n :
The man was shot in the head as he left the bar.
s h o p a s s i s t a n t /Jbp a.sistant/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to serve
people i n a shop
s h o p l i f t i n g /jbpjiftir)/ noun [U] the c r i m e of s t e a l i n g t h i n g s f r o m a
shop
s h o r t s t o r y Ijxt 'std:ri/ noun [C] a s h o r t piece of w r i t i n g about an
imaginary situation
/Jaut/ verb [l/T]
1 to say s o m e t h i n g i n a loud voice: He was
one of those speakers who shout into the microphone. 2 to make a
sudden loud noise because y o u are a f r a i d or y o u feel p a i n : A man
in the next bed was shouting wildly in pain.
/fan/ noun [C]
1 a p e r f o r m a n c e i n a theatre: the new show
at the Aldwych Theatre 2 a t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o p r o g r a m m e : It's
the funniest comedy show on television. 3 a n e x h i b i t i o n : a fashion/
flower show
/ / / noun [C] 1 a piece of e q u i p m e n t t h a t forces s m a l l
drops of w a t e r i n t o the a i r and is used for w a s h i n g y o u r body, or
a s m a l l area w i t h a shower i n i t : The shower isn't working. 2 the
a c t i v i t y of w a s h i n g y o u r s e l f by s t a n d i n g u n d e r a shower: I'm
going to have a shower.
/fai/ adj n e r v o u s and e m b a r r a s s e d i n the c o m p a n y of other
people, especially people w h o y o u do not k n o w : I'd love to meet
her but I'm too shy to introduce myself.
s i b l i n g /'siblm/ noun [C] y o u r s i b l i n g s are y o u r b r o t h e r s and sisters
/sik/ adj
i f y o u are sick, food t h a t y o u have eaten suddenly
comes out of y o u r stomach t h r o u g h y o u r m o u t h : I'm going to be
sick!
s i d e r o a d /'said ,reud/ noun [C] a s m a l l r o a d t h a t is connected to a
major r o a d
/sain/ noun [C]
a flat object w i t h w o r d s o r p i c t u r e s o n i t , put
i n a p u b l i c place i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n or to advertise
s o m e t h i n g : a flashing neon sign
/'sadant/ adj
1 not t a l k i n g o r m a k i n g any noise: a crowd of
silent onlookers 2 not p r o n o u n c e d : The 'b' in 'thumb' is silent.
/'sili/ adj 1 not i n t e l l i g e n t o r sensible: a silly mistake 2 not
i m p o r t a n t : Don't get upset over silly things that people say.
/'simp(3)l/ adj
1 easy to u n d e r s t a n d or do: Students
were given a simple skills test. 2 p l a i n , w i t h o u t any c o m p l i c a t e d
features o r d e c o r a t i o n : a simple meal
s i m p l i f y /'simphfai/ verb [T] t o m a k e s o m e t h i n g less c o m p l i c a t e d or
difficult

121

singer

stepfather

s i n g e r /'sma/ noun someone who sings, especially someone w h o


sings w e l l or as t h e i r j o b
/'siijg(a)l/ adj
1 o n l y one: a single sheet of paper 2 not
m a r r i e d , or not i n a r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p : Please state whether
you are single, married or divorced.
s i n i s t e r /'sinista/ adj t h r e a t e n i n g to do s o m e t h i n g h a r m f u l or e v i l : a
sinister
remark
/'sista/ noun [C]
a g i r l or w o m a n who has the same parents
as y o u : He has two brothers and two sisters.
s i s t e r - i n - l a w /'sista(r)in,b:/ noun [C] 1 the sister of y o u r h u s b a n d or
wife 2 the wife of y o u r b r o t h e r
s i t c o m /'sit.kom/ noun [C] a h u m o r o u s t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o series
about a group of characters
/,sitju'eif(a)n/ noun [C]
the set o f c o n d i t i o n s t h a t exist
at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e i n a p a r t i c u l a r place: The country is facing a
very difficult economic
situation.
/saiz/ noun [C/u]
a measurement of h o w large or s m a l l
s o m e t h i n g is: balloons of all shapes and sizes
s k a t e /skeit/ noun [C] 1 a t y p e of shoe w i t h a t h i n m e t a l blade on the
b o t t o m , used for m o v i n g q u i c k l y on ice 2 a t y p e of shoe w i t h f o u r
t h i c k wheels on the b o t t o m , used for m o v i n g q u i c k l y on a smooth
surface verb [i] to move over a surface u s i n g skates
s k i /ski:/ verb [I] to slide over snow on s k i s
/skil/ noun [C/u]
the a b i l i t y to do s o m e t h i n g w e l l , u s u a l l y
as a r e s u l t of experience a n d t r a i n i n g : I admired the skill and
dedication of the nursing staff.
s k i l l e d /skild/ adj s k i l f u l : a skilled

craftsman

s k i n n y /'skini/ adj v e r y t h i n
/'slaitli/ adv

a l i t t l e : /feel slightly better

today.

/slip/ verb [l]


1 i f you slip, y o u r feet slide a c c i d e n t a l l y a n d y o u
f a l l or lose y o u r balance: Margaret slipped and broke her arm.
2 i f s o m e t h i n g slips, it slides out o f the p o s i t i o n i t s h o u l d be i n :
The knife slipped and cut my finger.
s l o w d o w n /slao daun/ phr vb to move at a slower speed, or to make
someone or s o m e t h i n g move at a slower speed: Slow down.' You're
driving too fast.
/smo:t/ adj 1 i n t e l l i g e n t : Sophie is a smart
hard-working
student. 2 clean and t i d y i n appearance and dressed i n nice
clothes: smart new clothes
/smauk/ verb [l/T]
to suck smoke f r o m a cigarette, pipe
etc i n t o y o u r m o u t h and lungs: Phil was reading the paper and
smoking a cigarette.
S M S /,es em 'es/ noun [U] short message service: a m e t h o d of sending
a w r i t t e n message u s i n g a m o b i l e phone
/snau/ noun [U]
s m a l l soft w h i t e pieces of ice t h a t f a l l f r o m
the sky and cover the g r o u n d : The path was hidden under a
blanket of snow.
/saop/ noun [C/U]
a substance t h a t y o u use w i t h w a t e r i n
order to wash y o u r body or a n object: a bar of soap noun []
a
soap opera
s o c i a b l e /'saufob(a)l/ adj a sociable person is f r i e n d l y and enjoys
being w i t h other people
/'saujiajl/ adj
1 r e l a t i n g to society and to people's lives
i n general: a period of enormous political and social change
2 r e l a t i n g to a c t i v i t i e s t h a t involve b e i n g w i t h other people,
especially a c t i v i t i e s that y o u do for pleasure: a social
activity/
engagement
/'snf(t),wea/ noun [U]
the p r o g r a m s used by computers
for d o i n g p a r t i c u l a r jobs: word-processing
software
/ noun [C]

someone who is a member of an a r m y

/'solid/ adj
a solid substance is firm a n d h a r d and is not a
l i q u i d or a gas: The lake was frozen
solid.
/sa'lu:J"(a)n/ noun [C]
1 a way to solve a p r o b l e m or
deal w i t h a bad s i t u a t i o n : Putting children in prison is not the
solution. 2 the answer to a question i n a game or a p r o b l e m i n
mathematics
/ S D I V / verb [T]
1 to find a s o l u t i o n to s o m e t h i n g t h a t is
causing d i f f i c u l t i e s : solve a crisis/dispute/conflict
2 to find the

22

reason or e x p l a n a t i o n for s o m e t h i n g : solve a


riddle
/ noun [C]

mystery/puzzle/

y o u r male c h i l d : My younger son is a doctor.

/su:n/ adv
w i t h i n a short t i m e : If we don't leave soon,
we're going to miss our bus. 2 q u i c k l y : How soon can this package
be delivered to Brussels?
s o r e IsxJ adj p a i n f u l and uncomfortable, u s u a l l y as a result of an
i n j u r y , i n f e c t i o n or too m u c h exercise: I always feel stiff and sore
after
gardening.
/saund/ noun [C]
s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u can hear: Laura
didn't make a sound as she left the room, noun [u]
the loudness
of a r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n etc: Turn the sound up a bit -1 can't hear.
s o u n d t r a c k /'saun(d),traek/ noun [C] the music that is played d u r i n g a
f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m m e , or a CD of t h i s music
/speis/ noun [C/u]
a n e m p t y or available area: We replaced
the bath with a shower to create more space, noun [U]
1 the
whole of the u n i v e r s e outside the Earth's atmosphere: a space
mission 2 the area i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g exists: different points in
space and time
/spea/ adj 1 kept i n a d d i t i o n to other s i m i l a r t h i n g s , so that
you can use i t i f y o u need i t : a spare key/battery 2 available: Have
you got any spare room in your car?
/'spi:ka/ noun [C]
1 someone who t a l k s about a subject to
a g r o u p : She's a very interesting speaker. 2 someone who is able
to speak a p a r t i c u l a r language: an English speaker 3 a piece of
e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t t h a t sends out sound
/'spejalist/ noun [C] someone whose t r a i n i n g , education,
or experience makes t h e m a n expert i n a p a r t i c u l a r subject: a
web design
specialist
/'spi:fi:z/ noun [C]
a plant or a n i m a l group whose
members a l l have s i m i l a r general features and are able to
produce y o u n g plants or a n i m a l s together: the human species
s p e c t a c u l a r /spek'taekjub/ adj e x t r e m e l y impressive
/spi:d/ noun [c/u]
the rate at w h i c h s o m e t h i n g or someone
moves or w o r k s : They were working with incredible speed.
/spend/ verb [l/T]
to use money to pay for t h i n g s : How
much money did you spend? verb [T]
to stay somewhere, or to
do s o m e t h i n g , for a p e r i o d of t i m e : We spent the day at the beach.
s p i l l /spil/ noun [c/U] an a m o u n t of l i q u i d that has accidentally
flowed out of its container: an oil spill
s p l i t u p /split '/ phr vb to end a sexual or r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p
/spred/ verb [i/T]
1 to g r a d u a l l y affect a l a r g e r area or a
large n u m b e r of people or t h i n g s , or to make something do t h i s :
Rain will spread from the west this evening. 2 to put t h i n g s i n
m a n y p a r t s of a n area, or to be present i n m a n y parts of a large
area: There are 54 community colleges spread across
California.
3 i f i n f o r m a t i o n spreads, or i f y o u spread i t , it becomes k n o w n
by m o r e people t h a n before: Someone has been spreading nasty
rumours about Stella's private life.
s p y /spai/ verb [l] to w o r k as a spy
/steid3/ noun [C]
1 a particular point i n time d u r i n g a
process or series of events: We were now on the last stage of our
journey. 2 the p a r t o f a theatre where the actors or musicians
p e r f o r m : They had now been on stage for over four hours.
/stea/ verb [i]
to look at someone or s o m e t h i n g v e r y d i r e c t l y
for a l o n g t i m e : It's rude to stare.
s t a t e s c h o o l /'steit ,sku:l/ noun [C] i n the U K , a school that is paid for
by the g o v e r n m e n t and that provides free education
/'steif(a)n/ noun [C]
1 a b u i l d i n g or place where t r a i n s or
buses stop so t h a t passengers can get on or off: It was dark when
we arrived at the station. 2 a company t h a t broadcasts television
or r a d i o p r o g r a m m e s : Listen to your local radio station for travel
information.
s t a y i n /stei i n / phr vb to r e m a i n i n y o u r home and not go out: /
think I'd rather stay in tonight.
/stid/ verb [l/T]
to take s o m e t h i n g that belongs to someone
else w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n : She was caught stealing food from the
supermarket.
s t e p f a t h e r /'step,fa:6a/ noun [C] the m a n who is m a r r i e d to y o u r
mother, b u t w h o is not y o u r father

stepmother

survive

s t e p m o t h e r ./ noun [Ci t h e w o m a n w h o i s m a r r i e d to y o u r
father, but w h o i s not y o u r m o t h e r
/std/ adv
u s e d for s a y i n g t h a t a s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e s to e x i s t
u p to a n d i n c l u d i n g a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e : Her hair was still damp
from her walk in the rain.
:/ verb [l/T] to m o v e food o r a l i q u i d a r o u n d u s i n g a s p o o n o r
o t h e r object: Stir the sauce gently over a low heat.
/ ' / noun []
1 t h e soft p a r t at t h e f r o n t o f y o u r
b o d y t h a t i s b e t w e e n y o u r c h e s t a n d y o u r legs: A horse had kicked
her in the stomach. 2 t h e o r g a n i n s i d e y o u r b o d y w h e r e food g o e s
w h e n y o u h a v e e a t e n it: She'll feel better when she has some food
in her
stomach.
s t o m a c h a c h e noun [c/u] p a i n i n y o u r s t o m a c h
/staun/ noun [u]
the h a r d substance that r o c k s a r e made
of: a cottage built of stone noun [C]
1 a s m a l l piece of rock:
Children threw stones at him. 2 a l a r g e h a r d s e e d t h a t i s i n s i d e a
p i e c e of f r u i t : a peach stone
/staim/ noun [C]
a n o c c a s i o n w h e n a lot o f r a i n o r s n o w
f a l l s v e r y q u i c k l y , often w i t h v e r y s t r o n g w i n d s o r t h u n d e r a n d
l i g h t n i n g : A fierce storm hit the west coast of Florida
early this
morning.
/stremd3/ adj
1 u n u s u a l or unexpected i n a w a y that
s u r p r i s e s , w o r r i e s o r f r i g h t e n s y o u : Ian is a very strange
person.
2 not f a m i l i a r o r k n o w n to y o u : When you arrive in a new
country,
everything seems
strange.
/stress/ noun [C/u] 1 a w o r r i e d o r n e r v o u s f e e l i n g t h a t m a k e s
y o u u n a b l e to r e l a x , o r a s i t u a t i o n t h a t m a k e s y o u f e e l l i k e t h i s :
the stresses and strains of everyday living 2 t h e e m p h a s i s t h a t
y o u p u t o n a p a r t i c u l a r w o r d o r p a r t o f a w o r d b y s a y i n g it m o r e
loudly
/stnkt/ adj 1 s o m e o n e w h o i s s t r i c t e x p e c t s p e o p l e to o b e y
r u l e s c o m p l e t e l y , o r o b e y s r u l e s c o m p l e t e l y t h e m s e l v e s : The
coach is very strict about our diet. 2 s t r i c t r u l e s o r c o n d i t i o n s
m u s t be o b e y e d c o m p l e t e l y : They operate within strict time limits.
/strorj/ adj
1 p h y s i c a l l y p o w e r f u l a n d h e a l t h y : Are you
strong enough to carry that? 2 n o t e a s i l y b r o k e n , d a m a g e d o r
d e s t r o y e d : a strong fabric/glue/rope
3 someone who is strong h a s
c o n f i d e n c e , d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d e m o t i o n a l s t r e n g t h : You've got to
be strong and not let their jokes bother you. 4 v e r y n o t i c e a b l e : a
strong
light/colour
s t u b b o r n / adj 1 n o t w i l l i n g to c h a n g e y o u r i d e a s o r
d e c i s i o n s : Stop being so stubborn! 2 v e r y d i f f i c u l t to c h a n g e ,
defeat o r r e m o v e : stubborn
opposition
s t u c k / s u k / adj c a u g h t o r h e l d i n a p o s i t i o n s o t h a t y o u c a n n o t
m o v e : Carl's car got stuck in the mud.
/'stju:d(a)nt/ noun [C]
s o m e o n e w h o g o e s to a u n i v e r s i t y ,
c o l l e g e o r s c h o o l : Jennifer is one of my best
students.
/'stAdi/ verb [l/T]
to l e a r n a b o u t a s u b j e c t b y g o i n g to
s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y e t c : She's studying history at university, verb [l]
to do w o r k s u c h a s r e a d i n g a n d h o m e w o r k : You need to study
hard if you want to pass.
/stAf/ noun [U]
1 o b j e c t s o r t h i n g s : What's all this stuff on
my desk? 2 a m a t e r i a l , o r a s u b s t a n c e : The costumes were made of
thin, gauzy stuff. 3 g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n : I already know all that
stuff.
s t y l i s h /'stailif/ adj a t t r a c t i v e a n d f a s h i o n a b l e : stylish

clothes

s u b t i t l e /'sAb,tait(a)l/ noun [plural] s u b t i t l e s : a t r a n s l a t i o n o f w h a t


people a r e s a y i n g i n a foreign l a n g u a g e f i l m o r t e l e v i s i o n
p r o g r a m m e w h i c h a p p e a r s at t h e b o t t o m o f t h e s c r e e n noun [C]
a n a d d i t i o n a l title that a p p e a r s after t h e m a i n title of a piece of
writing
/sak'shd/ verb [I]
to a c h i e v e s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u p l a n n e d
to do o r a t t e m p t e d to do: Everyone wants the peace process to
succeed.
/sak'sesf(a)l/ adj * * 1 a c h i e v i n g t h e r e s u l t t h a t y o u
w a n t : The team has had a highly successful season. 2 a s u c c e s s f u l
p e r s o n d o e s w e l l i n t h e i r c a r e e r : a successful businesswoman
3a
s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s m a k e s a lot o f m o n e y : It was another
very
successful year for the bank.
/'sAd(a)nli/ adv
strange feeling suddenly

quickly a n d without any w a r n i n g : A


came over him.

/'sAfa/ verb [l/T]

to e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g v e r y u n p l e a s a n t

o r p a i n f u l : In wars, it's usually


/s3'fif(s)nt/ adj
not sufficient

innocent

civilians

that

suffer.

a s m u c h a s i s n e e d e d : The wages

were

for people to live on.

/ s a f e s t / verb [T]
1 to offer a n i d e a o r a p l a n for s o m e o n e
to c o n s i d e r : He suggested that we have dinner first, and then watch
the film. 2 to m a k e p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t s o m e t h i n g e x i s t s o r i s t r u e :
Evidence suggests a link between asthma and
pollution.
/sad3estf(a)n/ noun [C]
a n i d e a o r p l a n t h a t y o u offer
for s o m e o n e to c o n s i d e r : Could I make a suggestion? noun [U]
t h e a c t of s u g g e s t i n g s o m e t h i n g : It was at Larry's
suggestion that I
attended the meeting.
/suit/ noun [C]
1 a set of clothes m a d e f r o m the s a m e cloth,
u s u a l l y a j a c k e t w i t h t r o u s e r s o r a s k i r t : He was wearing a dark
suit and a tie. 2 a t y p e o f c l o t h i n g t h a t y o u w e a r for a p a r t i c u l a r
a c t i v i t y : a diving/jogging
suit
s u m u p / s A m / phr vb to g i v e a s u m m a r y of s o m e t h i n g
/'sAmari/ noun [C]
a short a c c o u n t of s o m e t h i n g that
g i v e s o n l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n : The text provides
summaries
of the plots of Shakespeare's
plays.
/ noun [C/U] * * * t h e s e a s o n b e t w e e n s p r i n g a n d
a u t u m n , w h e n t h e w e a t h e r i s h o t t e s t : the summer of 1973
s u n g l a s s e s /'sAn,gla:siz/ noun [plural] d a r k g l a s s e s t h a t y o u w e a r to
protect y o u r eyes w h e n the s u n is bright
/sa'pa:t/ noun [U]
1 h e l p a n d a p p r o v a l t h a t y o u g i v e to a
p a r t i c u l a r i d e a , p o l i t i c i a n , o r g a n i s a t i o n e t c : / urge my colleagues
to join me in support of this plan. 2 h e l p a n d k i n d n e s s t h a t y o u
g i v e to s o m e o n e w h o i s h a v i n g a d i f f i c u l t t i m e : / am grateful to
my family for their love and support, noun [C/U]
something that
h o l d s t h e w e i g h t o f a n o b j e c t , b u i l d i n g o r s t r u c t u r e so t h a t it d o e s
n o t m o v e o r f a l l verb [T]
1 to h e l p s o m e o n e a n d be k i n d to t h e m
w h e n t h e y a r e i n a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n : My friends have
supported
me through the entire trial. 2 to h o l d t h e w e i g h t of s o m e o n e o r
s o m e t h i n g so t h a t t h e y do n o t m o v e o r f a l l : The plants were
supported with wire. 3 to l i k e a p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s t e a m a n d a l w a y s
w a n t t h e m to w i n : I support West Ham - who do you support?
/sa'pauz/ verb [T]
to t h i n k t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s p r o b a b l y
t r u e , r i g h t o r p o s s i b l e : I suppose she must be delighted
about
getting the job.
/fx, Jba/ adj
1 c e r t a i n that something is real, true or
c o r r e c t : / think she's called Monica, but I'm not sure. 2 c e r t a i n
to h a p p e n o r s u c c e e d : Everyone thought that the deal was a sure
thing.
s u r f /s3:f/ verb [i] to r i d e o n w a v e s i n t h e s e a o n a s u r f b o a r d verb [i/T]
to l o o k at v a r i o u s p l a c e s o n e a f t e r a n o t h e r o n t h e I n t e r n e t o r o n
t e l e v i s i o n : She spends hours every day just surfing the Net.
s u r f i n g /'sxfm/
noun [U] 1 a s p o r t i n w h i c h p e o p l e r i d e o n w a v e s
u s i n g s u r f b o a r d s 2 t h e a c t i v i t y of l o o k i n g at d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s
o n t h e I n t e r n e t o r o n t e l e v i s i o n i n o r d e r to f i n d s o m e t h i n g
interesting
s u r g e o n ()/ noun [C] a d o c t o r w h o d o e s o p e r a t i o n s
/'S3:d3ari/ noun [U] m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t i n w h i c h a d o c t o r
c u t s o p e n s o m e o n e ' s b o d y noun [C] a p l a c e w h e r e p e o p l e c a n v i s i t
a doctor or a dentist
/sa'praiz/ noun [C]
a n u n u s u a l event, o r a n unexpected
p i e c e o f n e w s : The news came as a big surprise to everyone, noun
[U]
the feeling that y o u h a v e w h e n s o m e t h i n g u n u s u a l or
u n e x p e c t e d h a p p e n s : Many students expressed surprise at the
news.
/sa'praizd/ adj

feeling s u r p r i s e because

u n e x p e c t e d h a s h a p p e n e d : We were surprised
the

something

by Ben's reaction

to

news.

surprising

/sa'praiziq/ adj
u n u s u a l o r u n e x p e c t e d : It's not at all
that she's angry, considering
what you said.

s u r r o u n d i n g s /sa'raundinz/ noun [plural] a p l a c e a n d a l l t h e t h i n g s i n


it: She soon became accustomed to her new
surroundings.
/sa'vaiv/ verb [i/T]

1 to c o n t i n u e to e x i s t o r l i v e i n a

d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n : Only one of the museum's paintings


fire.
think

survived

2 to s t a y a l i v e a f t e r a n i n j u r y , i l l n e s s o r a t t a c k : Doctors
the victims

will

the
don't

survive.

survivor

toothbrush

s u r v i v o r /sa'vaiva/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o i s s t i l l a l i v e a f t e r a n


accident, illness or attack

t e r r i f y i n g / adj e x t r e m e l y f r i g h t e n i n g : a
experience

s u s p e c t /'sAspekt/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o m i g h t h a v e c o m m i t t e d a


c r i m e : a murder
suspect

t e x t b o o k /'teks(t),buk/ noun [C] a b o o k t h a t c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n


about a p a r t i c u l a r subject

/sa'spekt/ verb [T]


t o believe t h a t s o m e t h i n g is t r u e :
Police suspected that she had some connection with the robbery.
s u s p i c i o u s /sa'spijas/ adj 1 i f y o u a r e s u s p i c i o u s , y o u d o n o t
trust someone or y o u t h i n k that something bad m i g h t have
h a p p e n e d : Colleagues became suspicious
when he started
acting
strangely. 2 i f s o m e t h i n g i s s u s p i c i o u s , y o u t h i n k t h a t i t m i g h t
b e b a d o r d a n g e r o u s : Customers noticed a suspicious package
by
the door.
/ s w i : t / adj
1 foods a n d d r i n k s t h a t a r e sweet taste l i k e
s u g a r : I'd like something sweet, like a piece of cake. 2 s o m e t h i n g
t h a t i s s w e e t h a s a n i c e s m e l l , s o u n d o r a p p e a r a n c e : The room is
filled with the sweet fragrance
offlowers.
3 k i n d a n d g e n t l e : He's
such a sweet man.
s w i t c h o f f /switf "of/ phr vb 1 t o s t o p l i s t e n i n g t o s o m e o n e , o r t o s t o p
t h i n k i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g : He just switches off and ignores me.
2 i f y o u s w i t c h o f f s o m e t h i n g s u c h as a l i g h t o r a m a c h i n e , o r i f i t
s w i t c h e s o f f , i t s t o p s w o r k i n g : The heating has switched
off.
s w i t c h o n /switf ton/ phr vb i f y o u s w i t c h o n s o m e t h i n g s u c h a s a
l i g h t o r a m a c h i n e , o r i f i t s w i t c h e s o n , i t s t a r t s w o r k i n g : Don't
switch on the light.

terrifying

t h e f t / 9 e f t / noun [c/u] t h e c r i m e o f s t e a l i n g s o m e t h i n g
t h e m e p a r k / ' 6 i : m ,pa:k/ noun [C] a l a r g e p a r k w h e r e p e o p l e p a y t o
play games a n d have f u n a n d where a l l the entertainment is
designed according to one theme
/ 9 i k / adj
1 a t h i c k object o r m a t e r i a l has a long distance
b e t w e e n t w o o p p o s i t e s i d e s , e d g e s o r s u r f a c e s : a thick woollen
sweater 2 u s e d f o r s t a t i n g t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e o p p o s i t e
s u r f a c e s o r e d g e s o f a s o l i d o b j e c t : The walls are only a few inches
thick. 3 a t h i c k l i q u i d i s m o r e s t i f f o r s o l i d t h a n n o r m a l a n d d o e s
n o t flow e a s i l y : a thick cream sauce 4 s t u p i d
t h i e f /Girt/ noun [C] s o m e o n e w h o s t e a l s s o m e t h i n g
/ 9 / adj
1 a t h i n object or m a t e r i a l has only a short
d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t w o o p p o s i t e s i d e s , e d g e s o r s u r f a c e s : a thin
layer of dust 2 s o m e o n e w h o i s t h i n h a s v e r y l i t t l e f a t o n t h e i r
b o d y : Charles was thin and very tall. 3 a t h i n l i q u i d c o n t a i n s
m o s t l y w a t e r , s o t h a t i t f l o w s e a s i l y : a plate of meat covered with
thin gravy
/"G3:sti/ adj f e e l i n g t h a t y o u w a n t o r n e e d t o d r i n k
s o m e t h i n g : I'm really thirsty - could I have a glass of water?
/ / adv, conj
1 b u t : / really enjoyed your lecture, though
there were some parts I didn t quite understand.
2 used w h e n
a d d i n g a statement o r question that seems s u r p r i s i n g after the
p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n t : 'The Savoy's a very nice hotel.'Tsn't
it rather
expensive,
though?'
t h r i l l e r /'GrikV noun [C] a b o o k , p l a y o r f i l m t h a t t e l l s a n e x c i t i n g
story

t a b l o i d / ' t a e b b i d / noun [C] a n e w s p a p e r t h a t h a s s m a l l p a g e s a n d n o t


m u c h serious news
t a k e o v e r / t e i k 'auva/ phr vb 1 t o b e g i n t o d o s o m e t h i n g t h a t
s o m e o n e e l s e w a s d o i n g : Jane took over as director after
Richard
retired. 2 t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f s o m e t h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y a n o t h e r
company
t a l k a t i v e / ' t a i k a t i v / adj s o m e o n e w h o i s t a l k a t i v e t a l k s a l o t
/ t e i s t / verb [linking verb]
to have a p a r t i c u l a r
flavour:
Although the meal was cold, it tasted delicious, verb [T]
t o eat o r
d r i n k s o m e t h i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e i t s flavour: The dinner was one
of the best meals I have ever tasted, noun [c/U]
1 t h e flavour t h a t
s o m e t h i n g c r e a t e s i n y o u r m o u t h w h e n y o u e a t o r d r i n k i t : / love
the taste of chocolate. 2 t h e t y p e s o f t h i n g t h a t y o u l i k e : The meals
are designed to suit all tastes.
/ ' t k t f e / noun [C]
French/maths/piano

someone whose j o b is to teach: a


teacher

/ t i : m / noun [C]
1 a g r o u p o f people w h o play a sport o r
g a m e a g a i n s t a n o t h e r g r o u p : a football/basketball
team 2 a g r o u p
o f p e o p l e w h o w o r k t o g e t h e r : a negotiating
team
t e c h n i c i a n / t e k ' m f ( a ) n / noun [C] s o m e o n e w d t h t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g
whose job involves w o r k i n g w i t h a n d t a k i n g care o f special
equipment
/tek'nDtad3i/ noun [C/U]
advanced scientific
knowledge that is used for p r a c t i c a l purposes, especially i n
i n d u s t r y : computer/military
technology
/'ti:n,eid3a/ noun [C]

a y o u n g p e r s o n b e t w e e n t h e ages o f

13 a n d 19
/ ' t e m p r i , t j a / noun [C/U]
a measurement ofhow hot
o r c o l d a p l a c e o r o b j e c t i s : The plants need a temperature
of at
least 15C to grow well.
/ ' t e m p ( a ) r a r i / adj
1 existing, done or used for only
a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o f t i m e : These measures are only
temporary.
2 t e m p o r a r y w o r k e r s do a j o b for a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o f t i m e : a
temporary
lecturer
/:/ noun [C]
1 a w o r d o r phrase that is used for
r e f e r r i n g t o o r d e s c r i b i n g s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g : a technical/
medical term 2 o n e o f t h e p e r i o d s o f t i m e t h a t t h e y e a r i s d i v i d e d
i n t o f o r s t u d e n t s : What classes are you taking this term?
t e r r i f i e d / ' t e r a f a i d / adj e x t r e m e l y f r i g h t e n e d

124

/Graut/ noun [C]


1 t h e a r e a at t h e back o f y o u r m o u t h a n d
i n s i d e y o u r n e c k : She's in bed with a throat infection. 2 t h e f r o n t
p a r t o f y o u r n e c k : The bigger man grabbed him by the throat.
t h u n d e r /'GAnda/ noun [u] t h e l o u d n o i s e t h a t y o u s o m e t i m e s h e a r i n
the sky d u r i n g a storm
o n t i m e / n n ' t a i m / phrase a r r i v i n g a t t h e c o r r e c t t i m e a n d n o t l a t e :
The train was on time.
/ ' t a i n i / adj
female motoring

e x t r e m e l y s m a l l : She is one of a tiny minority


journalists.

of

/ t i p / noun [] 1 a n a r r o w o r p o i n t e d e n d , e s p e c i a l l y o f
s o m e t h i n g l o n g o r t h i n : the tip of your nose/finger
2 an amount
of money that y o u give to someone i n addition to the price o f a
s e r v i c e : Shall we leave a tip for the waiter?'3 a u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n
o r p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s o m e o n e g i v e s y o u : The booklet gives
some good tips on getting the most out of your
software.
/ ' t a i a d / adj
tired.

n e e d i n g t o r e s t o r s l e e p : Your mother

looked

t i r i n g / ' t a i a r m / adj m a k i n g y o u f e e l t i r e d
/ t a u / noun [C] o n e o f t h e f i v e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s a t t h e e n d o f y o u r
f o o t : Vera slipped off her shoes and wriggled her toes.
' / adv
1 i f you put or join t w oor more things
t o g e t h e r , y o u c o m b i n e o r c o n n e c t t h e m : Mix together the flour,
eggs, and water. 2 w i t h e a c h o t h e r : Kevin, Jack and Dave share a
house
together.
t o l e r a n t / ' t D l a r a n t / adj w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s b e l i e f s , w a y
o f l i f e etc w i t h o u t c r i t i c i s i n g t h e m , even i f y o u d i s a g r e e w i t h
them
t o n n e / noun [C] a u n i t f o r m e a s u r i n g w e i g h t , e q u a l t o 1,000
kilograms
/ t u : l / noun [C]
1 a piece o f e q u i p m e n t that y o u hold to do a
p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f w o r k : kitchen/gardening
tools 2 s o m e t h i n g
t h a t y o u u s e i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m a j o b o r a c h i e v e a n a i m : The
Internet has become an important research tool for
students.
/ t u : 6 / noun [C]
a n y o f t h e h a r d w h i t e objects inside y o u r
m o u t h t h a t y o u u s e f o r b i t i n g : a loose/missing/broken
tooth
t o o t h a c h e / ' t u : 6 e i k / noun [singular/u] a p a i n i n o n e o r m o r e o f y o u r
teeth
t o o t h b r u s h :6,)7 noun [C] a s m a l l b r u s h t h a t y o u u s e f o r
cleaning y o u r teeth

toothpaste

unofficial

t o o t h p a s t e /'tu:9,peist/ noun [C/U] a soft t h i c k substance t h a t y o u put


on a t o o t h b r u s h to clean y o u r teeth
/top/ noun [C]
1 the highest place, p o i n t , p a r t or surface
of something: We could see mountain tops in the distance. 2 a l i d
or cover for a c o n t a i n e r or pen: the top of the shampoo bottle 3 a
piece of c l o t h i n g t h a t covers the upper p a r t of y o u r body: She was
wearing a red skirt and a black top.

t u r n i n t o /t3:n i n t u i / phr vb to change or develop i n t o s o m e t h i n g


different, or to m a k e s o m e t h i n g change or develop i n t o
s o m e t h i n g different: Our holiday turned into a nightmare.
t u r n o n /,t3:n ton/ phr vb to s t a r t u s i n g a piece of equipment or
a supply of gas, e l e c t r i c i t y or water by pressing, t u r n i n g , or
m o v i n g s o m e t h i n g : Is your computer turned on?

/tre'dif(a)n/ noun [c/U]


a v e r y o l d custom, b e l i e f or
story: Native American culture and
traditions

t u r n o f f /: 'nil phr vb 1 to leave the r o a d t h a t y o u are t r a v e l l i n g


a l o n g i n order to go along a n o t h e r one: If you're coming on the M4,
turn off at junction 26. 2 to stop u s i n g a piece of equipment or a
supply of gas, e l e c t r i c i t y or water by pressing, t u r n i n g or m o v i n g
s o m e t h i n g : Will you turn the television off, please?

/tra'dij'(a)nal/ adj
1 r e l a t i n g to v e r y o l d customs,
beliefs or stories: traditional Mediterranean
cooking 2 t y p i c a l
of the t h i n g s people have u s u a l l y done: Our house was built in a
traditional
style.

t u r n o v e r /t3:n 'auva/ phr vb 1 to stop w a t c h i n g one t e l e v i s i o n station


a n d s t a r t w a t c h i n g another: Let's turn over-this
is really boring.
2 to t u r n a page i n a book or a sheet o f paper so t h a t the other
side is t o w a r d s y o u : You may turn over your exam papers now.

/ noun [C]
a b u i l d i n g : a water

a t a l l n a r r o w s t r u c t u r e , b u i l d i n g or p a r t of
tower

t r a f f i c j a m /'traefik / noun [C] a l i n e of vehicles w a i t i n g b e h i n d


s o m e t h i n g that is b l o c k i n g the r o a d
t r a i n e r s /'tremaz/ noun [plural] a t y p e of comfortable shoe t h a t y o u

wear i n i n f o r m a l situations or for d o i n g sport


t r a n s i s t o r /traen'zista/ noun [C] a n object t h a t controls the flow of
e l e c t r i c i t y inside electronic e q u i p m e n t
/traens'leit/ verb [i/T] to change spoken or w r i t t e n w o r d s
i n t o a different language: I don't speak Russian, so someone will
have to translate, verb to cause a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n or r e s u l t :
Will the sales increase translate into more jobs?
/traens'leif(a)n/ noun [C] a piece of w o r k i n w h i c h spoken
or w r i t t e n words have been changed i n t o a different language:
Some people like to make lists of words with translations
in their
own language, noun [U] the a c t i v i t y of c h a n g i n g spoken or
w r i t t e n words i n t o a different language: Most legal translation
is
done by lawyers with foreign language
training.
t r a n s l a t o r /traens'leita/ noun [C] someone whose j o b is to t r a n s l a t e
spoken or w r i t t e n words i n t o a different language
t r a n s m i s s i o n /traenz'mif(a)n/ noun [C/u] the process o f s e n d i n g
electronic signals such as r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n signals, or a s i g n a l
that is sent i n t h i s way: New telephone lines allow faster data
transmission
by fax or modem, noun [U] the process by w h i c h
s o m e t h i n g spreads f r o m one person to another: the
transmission
of disease
t r a n s m i t /traenz'mit/ verb [T] 1 to send a n electronic s i g n a l such
as a radio or television s i g n a l : The Cup Final was
transmitted
via satellite to over 20 countries. 2 to pass i n f o r m a t i o n , beliefs or
attitudes to other people: We transmit our values to our children.
3 to spread a disease f r o m one person to another: HIV can be
transmitted by sexual
contact.
t r i b e /traib/ noun [C] a large group of related f a m i l i e s w h o l i v e i n the
same area and share a c o m m o n language, r e l i g i o n and customs:
Native American
tribes
/trip/ noun [C]
a n occasion w h e n y o u go somewhere and come
back again: a fishing/camping/sightseeing
trip
t r o l l /trol, traul/ noun [C] 1 a n i m a g i n a r y , v e r y ugly, c r e a t u r e i n old
S c a n d i n a v i a n stories t h a t lives i n a cave a n d is e i t h e r v e r y s m a l l
or very t a l l 2 an ugly or unpleasant person
t r o l l e y /'trod/ noun [C] a large c o n t a i n e r w i t h wheels t h a t y o u push
and use for c a r r y i n g t h i n g s i n a s u p e r m a r k e t or at a n a i r p o r t
/trAst/ noun [U]
a feeling that y o u t r u s t someone or
something: The doctor-patient relationship has to be based on
trust, verb [T]
to believe that someone or s o m e t h i n g is good,
honest or reliable: Both communities have to trust each other.
t r u s t w o r t h y /'trAs(t),w3:6i/ adj someone w h o is t r u s t w o r t h y c a n be
trusted
/trai/ verb [i/T]
to attempt to do s o m e t h i n g : Owen tried a
shot at goal, but the ball went wide, verb [T]
to do s o m e t h i n g
i n order to find out w h e t h e r i t is enjoyable, suitable or effective:
Haveyou tried these biscuits? They're great!
/tju:b/ noun [C] 1 a l o n g n a r r o w object s i m i l a r to a pipe t h a t
l i q u i d or gas can move t h r o u g h : Nurses had to feed Dan through a
tube. 2 a long n a r r o w plastic or m e t a l c o n t a i n e r t h a t y o u squeeze
i n order to push out the soft substance inside: a tube of toothpaste
noun [singular]
the tube: the system of u n d e r g r o u n d t r a i n s i n
London: a tube
station/train

t u r n r o u n d /: 'raund/ phr vb to change the p o s i t i o n of y o u r body


or head so t h a t y o u are f a c i n g i n a different d i r e c t i o n : The girls
in front turned round and
grinned.
t u r n u p /t3:n '/ phr vb 1 to a r r i v e somewhere: She failed to turn
up for work on Monday. 2 to increase the a m o u n t of sound, heat
or l i g h t t h a t is p r o d u c e d by a piece of equipment, by pressing a
b u t t o n or by m o v i n g a s w i t c h : Can you turn the volume up a bit?
:e /twais/ adv * + * two times: He's phoned
morning.

twice already

this

/ t w i n / noun [C] one of t w o c h i l d r e n w h o were b o r n at the


same t i m e to the same m o t h e r : my twin
brother/sister
/twist/ verb [i/] to bend or t u r n i n t o a different shape, or to
force s o m e t h i n g out of its o r i g i n a l shape by b e n d i n g i t or t u r n i n g
it: The force of the explosion had twisted the metal, verb [T] 1 to
i n j u r e a p a r t of y o u r body by suddenly b e n d i n g i t too m u c h :
I've twisted my ankle so I won't be able to play. 2 to change the
i n t e n d e d m e a n i n g of s o m e t h i n g s l i g h t l y , so t h a t i t means w h a t
you w a n t i t to mean: You're twisting my words.

Uu
// adj 1 unpleasant to look at 2 a n u g l y s i t u a t i o n involves
v i o l e n t or a n g r y b e h a v i o u r : an ugly
confrontation
u m p i r e / / noun [C] someone whose j o b is to make sure
t h a t players obey the r u l e s i n some sports, for example tennis,
baseball a n d c r i c k e t
/'()1/ noun [C] the b r o t h e r of one of y o u r parents, or the
h u s b a n d of y o u r aunt: The business was owned by my uncle.
u n d e r g r a d u a t e /,Anda'graed3uat/ noun [C] a student w h o is s t u d y i n g
for a first degree at a college or u n i v e r s i t y
unemployed

/ ' ! / adj w i t h o u t a j o b : Haveyou


for a year or more?

been

u n e x p e c t e d l y /Anik'spektidli/ adv s o m e t h i n g t h a t is s u r p r i s i n g
because y o u d i d not expect i t at a l l , or y o u expected i t to happen
i n a different way: His response was unexpectedly
positive.
Mn'haepi/ adj
1 feeling sad or upset: Why are you so
unhappy? 2 not satisfied: People are very unhappy about the high
ticket prices.
u n h e a l t h y /An'heiei/ adj 1 i l l , or not p h y s i c a l l y fit 2 not good for you
/'ju:ni,fa:m/ noun [C]
a set of clothes t h a t y o u w e a r to
show t h a t y o u are p a r t of a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i s a t i o n or school: He
was still wearing his school
uniform.
/An'kaind/ adj

u n f r i e n d l y , i n s u l t i n g or c r u e l : an

unkind

remark
u n l e a d e d An'ledid/ adj unleaded p e t r o l does not c o n t a i n lead
/An'nesas(a)ri/ adj not needed: Remove
unnecessary files from your
computer.

all

u n o f f i c i a l /'/()1/ adj 1 not organised or f o r m a l l y approved by


anyone i n a u t h o r i t y 2 not h a v i n g a n official p o s i t i o n or status

125

untidy

wild

u n t i d y /An'taidi/ adj 1 not a r r a n g e d i n a w a y t h a t is t i d y : an untidy


desk 2 not k e e p i n g t h i n g s t i d y : He's always criticising
me for
being untidy.
/]1/ adj
1 not n o r m a l , c o m m o n or o r d i n a r y :
You're in a very unusual situation. 2 different f r o m other people
or t h i n g s i n a way t h a t is i n t e r e s t i n g , a t t r a c t i v e or i m p r e s s i v e :
The designers have chosen unusual colour
combinations.
/Ap'set/ adj 1 sad, w o r r i e d o r a n g r y about s o m e t h i n g : Why
are you so upset? 2 i f y o u r stomach is upset, y o u have a n i l l n e s s
affecting y o u r stomach, u s u a l l y caused by s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u
have eaten or d r u n k : Phone and tell them you've got an upset
stomach, verb [T] to m a k e someone feel sad, w o r r i e d o r a n g r y :
I'm sorry, I didn't mean to upset you.
/':/ adj r e l a t i n g to t o w n s a n d cities: People moved to the
urban areas for jobs.
/'3:d3(a)nt/ adj u r g e n t t h i n g s are t h i n g s t h a t y o u need to
deal w i t h i m m e d i a t e l y : He had some urgent business to attend to.
U S B p o r t / j u : es 'bi: pa:t/ noun [C] a place o n a c o m p u t e r w h e r e y o u
c a n attach a cable for c o n n e c t i n g a p r i n t e r , k e y b o a r d , m o d e m etc
/'ju:sf(d)l/ adj
h e l p f u l for d o i n g o r a c h i e v i n g s o m e t h i n g :
a useful
tool/technique/gadget

V
v a c a n c y /'veikansi/ noun [C] 1 a j o b t h a t is a v a i l a b l e : We have several
vacancies to fill in the Sales Department. 2 a r o o m i n a h o t e l t h a t
is available: We have no vacancies at all during
July.
/'vadi/ noun [ci a l o w area of l a n d between t w o m o u n t a i n s
or h i l l s , often w i t h a r i v e r f l o w i n g t h r o u g h i t : Their house has
wonderful views across the valley.
v a n d a l /"vaend(ad/ noun [C] someone w h o deliberately damages o r
destroys t h i n g s , especially p u b l i c p r o p e r t y
v a n d a l i s e /'vaenda.laiz/ verb [T] to d e l i b e r a t e l y damage or destroy
t h i n g s , especially p u b l i c p r o p e r t y
/va'raiati/ noun [singular]
a n u m b e r of different people
or t h i n g s : Adults study for a variety of reasons, noun []
a
p a r t i c u l a r t y p e of t h i n g : a new variety of tomato
/'vearias/ adj
several d i f f e r e n t : There are various
of solving the problem.

ways

v e g e t a r i a n /,ved3a'tearian/ adj r e l a t i n g to o r i n t e n d e d for


vegetarians: a vegetarian
diet/cookbook/restaurant
/':/()/ noun [C] a f o r m of s o m e t h i n g t h a t is d i f f e r e n t
f r o m other f o r m s or f r o m the o r i g i n a l : The software comes in
several different
versions.

m\

/weid3/ noun [C]


a r e g u l a r amount of money that you earn
for w o r k i n g : a daily/hourly/weekly
wage
w a i t i n g r o o m /'weitin ,ru:m/ noun [C] a r o o m where you w a i t for
s o m e t h i n g such as a t r a i n , or for someone such as a doctor to be
ready to see y o u
w a l k i n g s t i c k /"wutkirj ,stik/ noun [c] a stick t h a t some people use to
help t h e m to w a l k
/weist/ verb [T]
to use more of s o m e t h i n g t h a n is necessary,
or to use i t i n a way t h a t does not produce the best results: There
were accusations that the government was wasting public money.
w a t e r /'wa:ta/ verb [T] to p o u r water on plants i n order to keep them
h e a l t h y verb 1 i f y o u r eyes water, tears f o r m i n them because
s o m e t h i n g is h u r t i n g t h e m 2 i f y o u r m o u t h waters when you see
or s m e l l nice food, saliva begins to f o r m i n your m o u t h
/weiv/ noun [C]
1 a l i n e of water that rises up on the surface
of a sea, lake or r i v e r : The boat was smashed by a huge wave. 2 a
movement t h a t y o u make w i t h y o u r h a n d or w i t h an object as a
way of saying hello or goodbye to someone or as a s i g n a l to them
verb [l/T]
to move y o u r hand i n order to say hello or goodbye: He
smiled and waved when he saw me. verb Dl
to move something
a r o u n d i n the a i r : People clapped and cheered and children waved
flags.
/wi:k/ adj
1 l a c k i n g physical s t r e n g t h or good health: The
illness had left him too weak to speak. 2 l a c k i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n and
easily persuaded to do s o m e t h i n g that y o u should not do: weak,
indecisive leadership 3 bad i n q u a l i t y or a b i l i t y : Her written work
is good, but her oral skills are rather weak.
/'wkknas/ noun [U] the state or c o n d i t i o n of being
weak: the increasing weakness of the government noun [C] a fault
or p r o b l e m that makes someone or something less effective
or a t t r a c t i v e : They listed the strengths and weaknesses of their
product.
w e a l t h y /'wel9i/ adj r i c h : a wealthy

businessman

w e b c a m /'web.kaem/ noun [C] a camera that is connected to a


computer and produces images on a website
w e b s i t e /'web,sait/ noun [C] a place on the I n t e r n e t where i n f o r m a t i o n
is available about a p a r t i c u l a r subject, company, u n i v e r s i t y etc
w e d d i n g a n n i v e r s a r y /'wedin aeni'v3:sari/ noun [C] a celebration of the
n u m b e r of years t h a t two people have been m a r r i e d
/weit/ noun [U]
a measurement of how heavy a person or
t h i n g is: It was about 12 pounds in weight, noun [C]
a piece of
heavy m e t a l t h a t is designed for l i f t i n g for exercise or as a sport
w e l l - b e h a v e d /,wel bi'heivd/ adj b e h a v i n g i n a way that is polite and
quiet and does not upset people

/ ' v i k t i m / noun [C]


1 someone w h o has been h a r m e d o r
k i l l e d as the r e s u l t of a c r i m e : a murder victim 2 someone w h o
has been affected by s o m e t h i n g such as a n accident or i l l n e s s :
flood/earthquake
victims

w e l l - b u i l t /,wel 'bilt/ adj a w e l l - b u i l t person has an attractive, strong


body

/Vaialans/ noun [U]


1 v i o l e n t b e h a v i o u r : acts of violence
2 a s t r o n g force t h a t s o m e t h i n g has, often one t h a t causes a lot of
damage: the violence of the storm

w e l l - o f f /'welpf/ dj r i c h

/'vaialant/ adj
1 u s i n g p h y s i c a l force to h u r t people
or damage p r o p e r t y : There were several violent incidents on the
streets. 2 a v i o l e n t w i n d , s t o r m or explosion happens w i t h a lot of
force and causes serious damage
/'vairas/ noun [C] 1 a v e r y s m a l l l i v i n g t h i n g t h a t can enter
y o u r body and m a k e y o u i l l , o r a disease o r i l l n e s s caused by
t h i s : Malaria is caused by a virus. 2 a p r o g r a m t h a t enters y o u r
computer and damages o r destroys i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t y o u have
stored: Most viruses are spread over the Internet.
v o c a t i o n a l /vau'keif(a)nal/ adj r e l a t i n g to the s k i l l s t h a t y o u need for
a p a r t i c u l a r job: a vocational
course/qualification
v o l l e y b a l l /'vDli,bad/ noun [u] a s p o r t i n w h i c h t w o teams use t h e i r
hands and a r m s to h i t a b a l l to each other over a h i g h net
v o w e l /'vaual/ noun [C] one of the letters a, e, i , o r u , or the sounds
t h a t they represent

w e l l - k n o w n /'wel.naun/ adj k n o w n by m a n y people, or by the people


involved i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n

w e l l - p a i d /'wel,peid/ adj r e c e i v i n g a satisfactory amount of money


for the w o r k t h a t y o u do
/'wispa/ verb [i/T] to speak v e r y q u i e t l y to someone, so that
other people cannot hear you: Stop whispering, you two!
/haul/ adj
1 a l l of something: My whole family came to
watch me playing in the concert. 2 not d i v i d e d or broken: Add three
whole eggs plus two additional
yolks.
w i c k e d /'wikid/ adj m o r a l l y w r o n g and deliberately i n t e n d i n g to
h u r t people
/wad/ noun [C]
the w o m a n t h a t a m a n is m a r r i e d to: I'd
better phone my wife and tell her I'll be late.
/waild/ adj
1 a w i l d a n i m a l or plant lives or grows on its
own i n n a t u r a l conditions and is not raised by humans: The wild
rose is a familiar sight in woods and hedges. 2 a w i l d area is one
where people do not l i v e or cannot live: wild, mountainous
regions
3 e x c i t i n g and enjoyable: They have some pretty wild parties.

wing

zone

/ w i n / noun [C]
1 one of the p a r t s o n a b i r d or insect t h a t
move up and d o w n and a l l o w i t to fly: a moth's delicate wings 2 one
of the long flat p a r t s on b o t h sides of a plane t h a t a l l o w i t to f l y

w r e c k // noun [C] 1 s o m e t h i n g t h a t has been badly damaged o r


is i n v e r y bad c o n d i t i o n 2 someone w h o looks or feels v e r y i l l or
tired

/'wmtd/ noun [C/U]


the season after a u t u m n and before
spring, w h e n i t is u s u a l l y cold: a cold/severe/hard
winter

w r i n k l e /')()1/ noun [C] a l i n e t h a t appears o n y o u r s k i n w h e n y o u


get older, o r w h e n y o u r s k i n has been damaged by the sun

w i r e l e s s /'waialas/ adj not u s i n g w i r e s : wireless

w r i t e d o w n /rait 'daun/ phr vb to w r i t e s o m e t h i n g on a piece of paper

phones

w i s d o m /'wizdam/ noun [U] the a b i l i t y to m a k e good decisions based


on knowledge and experience: The Egyptian leader was praised
for his courage and wisdom.
/waiz/ adj 1 a wise a c t i o n or decision is sensible and shows
that y o u have good j u d g m e n t : You made a wise decision when
you chose to study Spanish. 2 a wise person is able to make good
choices and decisions because they have a lot of experience
w i t c h /witJ7 noun [C] a w o m a n w i t h magic powers
/wi6'aut/ adv, prep
used for s a y i n g w h a t someone
or s o m e t h i n g does not have: I can't find the answer without a
calculator.

/ W n d a / verb [i/]
to t h i n k about s o m e t h i n g because
you want to k n o w more facts, or because y o u are w o r r i e d : 'How
did they find out?'she wondered, verb [i]
to be v e r y impressed
or s u r p r i s e d by s o m e t h i n g : It's hard not to wonder at the miracle
of a newborn baby.
made of wood: a wooden

someone w h o w r i t e s books, stories or

X
X - r a y '/eks ,rei/ noun [] 1 a t y p e of r a d i a t i o n t h a t is used for l o o k i n g
i n s i d e t h i n g s such as y o u r body 2 a p i c t u r e of the inside of
someone's body t h a t is t a k e n u s i n g X-rays

w o l f /wulf/ noun [C] a w i l d a n i m a l t h a t looks l i k e a large dog

/'wud(a)n/ adj

/'raita/ noun [C]


a r t i c l e s as t h e i r j o b

box

w o r k o u t /w3:k 'aut/ phr vb 1 to do p h y s i c a l exercise as a w a y of


keeping fit 2 to find an answer to s o m e t h i n g by c a l c u l a t i n g i t : Use
the chart to work out how much tax you have to pay.
t h e W o r l d W i d e W e b / ,w3:id waid 'web/ noun [singular] a v e r y large

Y
y e l l /jel/ verb [i/] t o shout l o u d l y
y o g h u r t /'jDqa(r)t/ noun [C/u] a food made f r o m m i l k t h a t has become
t h i c k a n d s l i g h t l y sour

collection of documents, pictures, sounds etc stored on computers


i n m a n y different places and connected t h r o u g h the I n t e r n e t
/'wArid/ adj nervous and upset because y o u are t h i n k i n g
about y o u r problems or about bad t h i n g s t h a t c o u l d happen:
Everyone was very worried when John didn't show up.
w o r r y i n g /'wArim/ adj m a k i n g y o u feel w o r r i e d
/rasp/ verb [T] to cover someone or s o m e t h i n g by p u t t i n g
paper, cloth etc r o u n d t h e m : Keep the cheeses fresh by wrapping
each one individually.

/zaun/ noun [C]


earthquake
zone

a n area w h e r e a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g happens: an

gHM

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