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Tema 20.

- El hroe como espejo de las experiencias de hombres y


mujeres en el Hiplito de Eurpides.
Texto A
HIPLITO. A ti, oh diosa, te traigo,
despus de haberla adornado, esta corona
trenzada con flores de una pradera intacta,
en la cual ni el pastor tiene por digno
apacentar sus rebaos, ni nunca penetr el
hierro; slo la abeja primaveral recorre este
prado virgen. La diosa del Pudor lo cultiva
con roco de los ros. Cuantos nada han
adquirido por aprendizaje, sino que con el
nacimiento les toc en suerte el don de ser
sensatos en todo, pueden recoger sus frutos; a
los malvados no les est permitido. Vamos,
querida soberana, acepta esta diadema para tu
ureo cabello ofrecida por mi mano piadosa.
Yo soy el nico de los mortales que poseo
el privilegio de reunirme contigo e
intercambiar palabras, oyendo tu voz, aunque
no veo tu rostro Ojal pueda doblar el lmite
de mi vida como la he comenzado!1

75

80

85

Eurpides. Hiplito 73-872


Traduccin alternativa en Ingls: |73 For you this plaited garland [stephanos] culled from an unspoiled |74 meadow
[leimn], O my lady [= Artemis], do I [= Hippolytus] bring, arranging [kosmen] it properly. |75 It is from a place where it is not
fit for the shepherd to pasture his flocks, |76 nor has iron yet come there, but it is unspoiled, |77 this meadow [leimn], and
the bee in springtime goes through and through. |78 The goddess named Modesty [Aids] tends this place with pure river
water, |79 and those who do not have to be taught but by their own nature [phusis] |80 are endowed with moderation
[sphrosun] always in all things, |81 they are allowed by divine sanction to pick flowers there, but it is not sanctioned by
divine law [themis] for those who are bad. So, my lady near and dear [phil], for your golden locks of hair |83 accept this
headband from my properly worshipful hand. |84 For I alone among mortals have this privilege [geras]: |85 I keep company
with you and I exchange words with you, |86 hearing your voice though not looking you in the eye. |87 That is the same way I
should go round the turning post, heading toward the end [telos] of life just as I began it.Euripides Hippolytus 73-87
1

Texto Original:|73 |74 , , , |75


|76 , |77
, |78 , |79 |80
, |81 , . |82 , ,
|83 . |84 |85
2

Texto B
En una ocasin en que iba desde la venerable
mansin de Piteo a la tierra de Pandin a
participar en la iniciacin de los misterios, al
verle la noble esposa de su padre, Fedra,
sinti su corazn arrebatado por un amor
terrible, de acuerdo con mis planes.3

25

28

Eurpides. Hiplito 24-294


Texto C
Y antes de que ella regresara a esta tierra de Trozn,
junto a la roca misma de Palas, visible
desde esta tierra, fund un templo de Cipris,
encendida de amor por el extranjero. Y, al
erigirlo, le pona el nombre de la diosa en
recuerdo de Hiplito.5

30

33

Eurpides Hiplito 29-336


, |86 , . |87
.
Traduccin alternativa en Ingls: |24 When he [= Hippolytus] went, once upon a time, from the palace of Pittheus [in
Trozen] |25 [to the territory of Athens] for the vision and rituals [telos plural] of the revered Mysteries [mustrion plural], |26
to the land of Pandion [= to the territory of Athens], then it was that the noble wife of the father [of Hippolytus] |27 saw him,
yes, Phaedra saw him, and she was possessed in her heart |28 by a passionate love [ers] that was terrifying - all because of
the plans I planned. Euripides Hippolytus 24-28
3

Texto Original:|24 |25

|26 |27 |28



Traduccin alternativa en Ingls: |29 And before she [= Phaedra] came to this land of Trozen, |30 she established - on a
side of the Rock of Pallas [= Athena], from where one could see a view |31 of this land [of Trozen] here - [she established] a
shrine [nos] of Kypris [= Aphrodite], |32 since she loved [ern] a love [ers], a passionate love, a love alien to the population
[ek-dmos]. In compensation for [epi] Hippolytus |33 - she gave that name, which will last for all time to come - that is why,
she said, the goddess has been installed there. Euripides Hippolytus 29-33
5

Texto Original: |29 , |30 , |31


, , |32 , |33
. At line 33, I retain the reading as transmitted by the medieval manuscripts. So, I do not follow the
emendation , which is accepted by most editors, including Barrett 1964:161-162. While I disagree with Barrett
about the emendation, I agree with him about his interpretation of onomazein in the sense of give X the name Y, saying that
6

Texto D
En la otra parte del recinto hay un estadio llamado de
Hiplito, y ms arriba de l un templo de Afrodita Catascopia;
pues dicen que desde all, cuando Hiplito haca sus
ejercicios, lo miraba Fedra enamorada. All todava crece el
mirto, que, como antes he dicho, tiene las hojas agujereadas.
Cuando Fedra estaba desesperada y no encontraba ningn consuelo
para su amor, se dedicaba a estropear las hojas de este
mirto.
Estaba tambin la tumba de Fedra, que no dista mucho del
sepulcro de Hiplito. Es un tmulo no lejos del mirto.7

Pausanias. Descripcin de Grecia. Libro II. 32. 3-48


Texto E
A Hiplito, hijo de Teseo, est dedicado un recinto sagrado
muy famoso, y en l hay un templo y una imagen antigua.
Dicen que esto lo hizo Diomedes y que, adems, l fue el
primero que hizo sacrificios a Hiplito. Los de Trecn tienen
un sacerdote de Hiplito que ejerce su funcin durante
toda su vida, y han sido instituidos sacrificios anuales,
y tambin, hacen lo siguiente: cada muchacha corta un mechn
antes de la boda, y una vez cortado lo lleva al templo y

Traduccin alternativa ingls: |2.32.3 Along the other part of the enclosure [peribolos] is a racecourse [stadion] that is
named after Hippolytus. And there is also a shrine [nos] situated on a slope overlooking it [= the racecourse], and this shrine
is sacred to Aphrodite kataskopi, the one who is looking down from on high. She is called that because it was from this
place, when Hippolytus was once upon a time exercising naked, that Phaedra took just one look at him, looking down from
where she was, and right away she became afflicted with passionate love [ern]. It was also at this same place where the
myrtle tree was, I mean, the one I wrote about earlier [= 1.22.2] - the one with leaves that had holes pricked into them. It
happened when Phaedra, at a total loss about what to do, and not finding any remedy that could alleviate her passionate love
[ers], mutilated the leaves of the myrtle bush. |2.32.4 And there is also a tomb [taphos] of Phaedra there, and it is not far
away from the memorial marker [mnma] of Hippolytus. That marker in turn has been built not far away from the myrtle
bush. Pausanias 2.32.3-4
7

Texto original: |2.32.3


, ,
. ,
,
. |2.32.4 ,
.
8

al mar lo ofrenda en l. No quieren admitir


que muri arrastrado por los caballos ni muestran, aunque la
conocen, su tumba. Consideran que la constelacin celeste
Auriga es aquel Hiplito que ha recibido de los dioses este
honor.
Dentro de este recinto sagrado hay un templo de Apolo
Epibaterio, ofrenda de Diomedes por haber escapado de la
tempestad que sobrevino a los griegos a su regreso de Ilin; y
dicen que Diomedes fue el que fund los Juegos Pticos en
honor de Apolo.9

Pausanias. Descripcin de Grecia. Libro II. 32.. 1-210


Texto F
Cerca del teatro hay un templo de rtemis Licea hecho por
Hiplito. Respecto al sobrenombre no pude averiguar nada
de los guas, pero o bien me pareci que Hiplito haba expulsado
a unos lobos que causaban dao en la regin de Trecn, o
bien ste es el sobrenombre de rtemis entre las Amazonas, de
las que l descenda por parte de madre. Pero podra haber

Traduccin alternativa del ingls: |2.32.1 Hippolytus son of Theseus has a most prominent sacred space [temenos] set
aside for him [in Trozen]. And there is a shrine [nos] inside this space, with an archaic statue [inside it]. They say that
Diomedes made these things and, on top of that, that he was the first person to make sacrifice [thuein] to Hippolytus. The
people of Trozen have a priest of Hippolytus, and this priest is consecrated [hierosthai] as a priest for the entire duration of
his life. There are sacrifices [thusiai] that take place at a yearly festival, and among the ritual actions that the people do [drn],
I describe this event that takes place [at the festival]: each and every virgin girl [parthenos] in the community cuts off a lock of
her hair [plokamos] for him [= Hippolytus] before she gets married, and, having cut it off, each girl ceremonially carries the
lock to the shrine [nos] and deposits it there as a dedicatory offering. The people [of Trozen] wish that he [= Hippolytus] had
not died when he was dragged by the horses drawing his chariot, and they do not show his tomb [taphos], even though they
know where it is. As for the constellation in the heavens that is called the Charioteer [hniokhos], they [= the people of
Trozen] have a customary way of thinking [nomizein] that this one [houtos = the Charioteer] is that one [ekeinos], Hippolytus,
who has this [haut] honor [tm] from the gods. |2.32.2 Inside this [houtos] enclosure [peribolos] is also the shrine [nos] of
Apollo the Epibatrios [the one who steps on - either on the platform of a chariot or on board a ship], established by
Diomedes as a votive offering because he had escaped the seastorm inflicted on the Hellenes while they were trying to get
back home safely after Ilion [= Troy]. Pausanias 2.32.1-2
9

Texto original:8. |2.32.1


.

, ,
.
,
. |2.32.2 ,
.
10

tambin alguna otra razn no conocida por m.11

Pausanias. Descripcin de Grecia. Libro II. 31. 412


Texto G
Cerca ha sido construido un edificio de mrmol blanco llamado
Tolo, digno de ver. En l est una pintura de Pausias
que representa a Eros que ha dejado el arco y las flechas, y
lleva en lugar de ellos una lira que ha cogido. Est pintada
all tambin Mete, bebiendo de una copa de cristal, tambin
esto obra de Pausias. Se puede ver tambin en la pintura
una copa de cristal y a travs de ella un rostro de mujer. Dentro
del recinto se alzan estelas; antiguamente haba ms, pero en
mi tiempo quedan seis. Sobre stas estn grabados nombres
de hombres y mujeres curados por Asclepio, y adems tambin
la enfermedad que cada uno padeci y cmo se cur.
Estn escritos en lengua doria.
Separada de las otras hay una estela antigua, que dice que
Hiplito ofrend veinte caballos al dios. De acuerdo con la
inscripcin de esta estela, dicen los de Aricia que Asclepio
resucit a Hiplito que haba muerto como consecuencia de
las maldiciones de Teseo; y cuando vivi de nuevo no quiso
perdonar a su padre y, despreciando sus splicas, se march a
Italia junto a los de Aricia, fue rey all, y ofrend un recinto sagrado
a rtemis donde hasta mi poca el premio para el
vencedor en combate singular era tambin el sacerdocio
de la diosa.

Pausanias. Descripcin de Grecia. Libro II. 27. 3-4


11

Traduccin alternativa ingls: Near the theater is a shrine [nos] of Artemis of the Wolves [Lukeia], which

was made for her by Hippolytus. With regard to the epithet of the Wolves, I received no information from
the local guides [ex-hgtai]. It seemed to me at the time that it might have to do with wolves that had been
devastating the territory of the Trozenians and that had been killed by Hippolytus. Or the epithet of the
Wolves might have applied to Artemis among the Amazons, since Hippolytus was related to them on his
mothers side. Or again there might be some other explanation that I do not know. Pausanias 2.31.4
12

Textooriginal:
,
, ,
.

Texto H (parte texto E)


y han sido instituidos sacrificios anuales,
y tambin, hacen lo siguiente: cada muchacha corta un mechn
antes de la boda, y una vez cortado lo lleva al templo y
al mar lo ofrenda en l

Pausanias. Descripcin de Grecia. Libro II. 32. 1


Texto I
Y a ti, desdichado, en compensacin de tus
males, te conceder los mejores honores en la
ciudad de Trozn. Las muchachas, antes
de uncirse al yugo del matrimonio, cortarn
sus cabellos en tu honor y durante mucho
tiempo recibirs el fruto del dolor de sus
lgrimas. Inspirndose en ti las vrgenes
compondrn siempre sus cantos, y el amor
que Fedra sinti por ti no caer en el
silencio del olvido.13

1425

1430

Eurpides Hiplito 1423-143014


Texto J
Coro.
Hay una roca que hace fluir, as se dice, el
agua del Ocano, que hace brotar de sus
paredes fuente viva que recogen nuestros
vasos. All una amiga ma lavaba los

121

125

Traduccin alternativa ingls: |1423 To you, poor sufferer, in compensation for these bad things that have happened to
you here, |1424 the greatest honors [tmai] in the city [polis] of Trozen |1425 I will give to you: unwed girls before they get
married |1426 will cut off their hair for you, and throughout the length of time [ain] |1427 you will harvest the very great
sorrows [penthos plural] of their tears. |1428 And for all time there will be a thought that comes along with the songmaking
directed at you by virgin girls, |1429 and it will be a troubled thought. The story and the names will not fall aside
unremembered |1430 - the story of the passionate love [ers] of Phaedra for you. No, it will never be passed over in silence.
Euripides Hippolytus 1423-1430.
13

Texto original: |1423 , , |1424


|1425 |1426 , |1427
|1428 |1429 ,
|1430 .
14

vestidos purpreos con roco del ro y en la


espalda de una roca caliente y soleada los
tenda. All por primera vez tuve noticia
de mi seora.

130

Antstrofa 1..
De que, agobiada por la enfermedad, tiene su
cuerpo en el lecho, dentro de la casa, y velos
ligeros que dan sombra a su rubio cabello.(...)
Epodo.
La dura y desafortunada impotencia ante los
dolores del parto y el delirio suele armonizar
con la difcil condicin de las mujeres. A
travs de mi vientre se desencaden un da
esta tormenta, pero invoqu a la celestial
Artemis, protectora de los partos y que se
cuida del arco, y favorable acude siempre a
mis splicas. (Fedra aparece en escena.)
Corifeo.
Pero he aqu a la anciana
nodriza delante de la puerta, que acompaa a
Fedra fuera de palacio. Mi alma desea saber
qu sucede, qu ha afeado el cuerpo de
mi seora y ha cambiado su color.15

165

170

175

Eurpides Hiplito 121- 134, 161-17516


Texto alternativo ingls:|121-124 There is a rock that is said to drip fresh water from the stream of Okeanos, sending
forth from the crags above a steady flow for us to scoop up in our jars. |125 It was there that my friend [phil] was washing
|126 purple robes |127 in the flowing stream, |128 washing them, and then, on the face of a rock warmed |129 by the kindly
sunlight did she throw them. From there |130 the rumor first came to me about the lady of the house, |131-134 how she is
wasting away on her sickbed, keeping herself indoors, and a thin veil shadows her blond head. |161 Often, in womens badly
modulated [dus-tropos] |162 tuning [harmoni], a bad and |163 wretched sort of helplessness [amkhani] dwells, |164
arising both from the pains of labor and from lack of sensibility [aphrosun]. |165 Right through my womb I once felt a rush of
this |166 burst of wind [aur] here, and, calling upon the one who helps in the labor of childbirth, the one who is the
sky-dweller, |167 the one who has power over the arrows, I shouted out her name, |168 Artemis, and she, very much sought
after, always |169 comes to me, if the gods are willing. |170 But look, the aged Nurse before the palace doors |171 is bringing this
one [Phaedra] from the palace, |172 and on her [= Phaedras] brow a gloomy cloud gathers. |173 To know what on earth is
happening - my soul [pskh] passionately desires [ersthai] to know this. |174 Why has she become completely undone?
|175 Why has the complexion of the queen turned so strangely pale? Euripides Hippolytus 121-134, 161-175
15

Texto original: 37. |121-124 ,


. |125 |126 |127 |128 ,
|129 |130 , |131-134
16

Texto K
FEDRA. (A las sirvientes.) Levantad mi
cuerpo, enderezad mi cabeza. Se ha soltado la
ligadura de mis queridos miembros.
Tomad mis hermosas manos, criadas. Pesado
me resulta el velo sobre la cabeza, quitdmelo!,
que mis trenzas vuelen sobre mi
espalda! (...)
FEDRA. Ay, ay! Cmo podra conseguir
la bebida de aguas puras de una fuente de
roco y descansar bajo los lamos
recostada en un prado frondoso? (..)
FEDRA. (Levantndose del lecho.)
Llevadme al monte! Ir hacia el bosque y
caminar entre los pinos, donde corren los
perros matadores de animales, persiguiendo a
los ciervos moteados. Por los dioses, deseo
azuzar a los perros con mis gritos y lanzar,
situndola junto a mi rubia cabellera, la
jabalina tesalia, sosteniendo en mi mano el
puntiagudo dardo.
NODRIZA. Por qu, hija, agitas tu mente
con estos pensamientos? A qu ese inters
tuyo por la caza? Por qu ese deseo del
agua de las fuentes? Cerca de la muralla hay
una ladera inclinada y rica en agua, en donde
t podrs beber.
FEDRA. rtemis soberana del salado
Mar y de los estadios que resuenan bajo los
cascos de los caballos! Ojal me
encontrase en tu suelo, domando potros

200

210

215

220

225

230

, |161 |162
|163 |164 . |165
|166 |167 |168, |169
. |170 |171 . |172
|173 , |174 |175
.

vnetos!.
NODRIZA. A qu viene de nuevo lanzar
estas palabras, presa del delirio? Hace un
momento sentas el deseo de subir al monte a
cazar y ahora, sobre las arenas, al abrigo
de las olas, te sientes atrada por los potros.
Gran ciencia adivinatoria se necesita para
saber qu dios te agita la brida y te extrava
la mente, nia.17

235

238

Eurpides Hiplito 198-202, 208-211, 215-23818

Traduccin alternativa ingls: |198 {Phaedra:} Lift my body, keep my head up. |199 The fastenings [sun-desma] of my
dear [phila] limbs [melea] have come apart [le-l-tai]. |200 Hold on to my shapely arms, attendants. |201 My hair all done up
on top of my head is a heavy load to bear. |202 Take out my hair pinnings, let the curls of my hair cascade over my shoulders.
... |208 I only wish I could, from a dewy spring, |209 scoop up a drink of pure water, |210 and, lying down beneath the poplars in
a grassy |211 meadow [leimn], I could find relief. ... |215 Take me to the mountains - I will go to the woods, |216 to the pine
trees, where the beast-killing |217 hounds track their prey, |218 getting closer and closer to the dappled deer. |219 I swear by
the gods, I have a passionate desire [ersthai] to give a hunters shout to the hounds, |220 and, with my blond hair and all, to
throw |221 a Thessalian javelin, holding the barbed |222 dart in my hand.
|223 {Nurse:} Why on earth, my child, are you sick at heart about these things? |224 Why is the hunt your concern [melet]?
|225 And why do you feel a passionate desire [ersthai] for streams flowing from craggy heights |226 when nearby, next to
these towers, there is a moist |227 hillside with a fountain? You could get your drink from here.
|228 {Phaedra:} My lady Artemis! You who preside over the lagoon by the sea! |229 You are where the place is for exercising,
and it thunders with horses hooves! |230 Oh, if only I could be there, on your grounds, |231 masterfully driving Venetian
horses!
|232 {Nurse:} Why in your madness have you hurled out of your mouth this wording here? |233 One moment you were going
up the mountain to hunt |234 - you were getting all set, in your longing [pothos], to do that, and then, the next moment, you
were heading for the beach |235 sheltered from the splashing waves, in your passionate desire [ersthai] for the horses. |236
These things are worth a lot of consultation with seers: |237 which one of the gods is steering you off-course |238 and
deflects your thinking [phrenes], child? Euripides Hippolytus 198-202, 208-211, 215-238.
18
Texto original: 41. |198 {.} , |199 . |200
, . |201 |202 ,
. |208 |209 , |210
|211 ; |215 |216 ,
|217 |218 . |219
|220 |221 , |222 . |223 {.}
, , ; |224 ; |225 ; |226
|227 , . |228 {.}
|229 , |230 |231 .
|232 {.} ; |233 |234 ,
|235 . |236 , |237
|238 , .
17

Texto L
CORO
Estrofa 1..
Deseara estar en las hendiduras de un alto
acantilado, para que, pjaro alado, una
divinidad me situase entre las bandadas que
revolotean y pudiera elevarme sobre la
ola marina de la costa del Adritico y las
aguas del Erdano, donde sobre el mar
purpreo las desgraciadas vrgenes destilan,
en sus lamentos por su padre Faetonte,
los resplandores de mbar de sus lgrimas!
Antstrofa 1..
Me gustara alcanzar en mi camino la costa
que da entre sus frutos las manzanas de las
Hesprides cantoras,donde el soberano
del purpreo mar ya no concede ruta a los
marineros y fija el venerable lmite del cielo
que Atlas sostiene! Las fuentes destilan ambrosa
en la alcoba nupcial del palacio de
Zeus, all donde una tierra maravillosa,
dispensadora de vida, alimenta la
felicidad de los dioses.19

735

740

745

750

Traduccin alternativa en ingls: |732 Oh if only I could be down under the steep heights in deep cavernous spaces, |733
where I could become a winged bird |734 - a god would make me into that, and I would become one of a whole flock of birds
in flight, yes, a god would make me that. |735 And if only I could then lift off in flight and fly away, soaring over the waves of
the sea [pontos] |736 marked by the Adriatic |737 headland, and then over the waters of the river Eridanos |738 where into
the purple swirl comes |739 a cascade from unhappy |740 girls in their grief for Phaethon - a cascade of tears that pour down
|741 their amber radiance. |742 Then to the apple-bearing headland of the Hesperides |743 would I finally arrive, to the land of
those singers of songs |744 where the ruler of the sea [pontos], with its seething purple stretches of water, |745 no longer
gives a path for sailors to proceed any further, |746 and there I would find the revered limit |747 of the sky, which Atlas holds,
|748 and there the immortalizing [ambrosiai] spring waters flow |749 right next to the place where Zeus goes to lie down, |750
and where she who gives blessedness [olbos] makes things grow. She is the most fertile one. |751 She is the Earth, the one
who makes the good blessing of superhuman powers [eudaimoni] keep growing for the gods. Euripides Hippolytus 732-751
19

10

Eurpides Hiplito 732-751

20

Texto Original: 43. |732 , |733 |734


|735 |736 |737 , |738
|739 |740 |741
|742 |743 , |744
|745 , |746 |747 , , |748
|749 , |750 |751 .
20

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