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MODERN PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERS PHY355

INDEX
3D infinite potential box .13 splitting .......... 16, 17, 18 momentum operator ........11 simple harmonic motion ..12
allowed transitions states ..........................19 momentum-energy relation 5 spacelike.......................... 4
1-electron atoms..........16 total ............................. 5 momentum-temperature spacetime diagram ........... 4
many-electron atoms ...17 zero-point ...................12 relation ........................ 9 spacetime distance ........... 3
Angstrom ........................21 energy distribution ..........18 Moseley's equation ........... 9 spacetime interval ............ 4
angular frequency............10 expectation value ............11 most probable speed........18 spectral lines.................... 9
appendix .........................21 radial ..........................15 Newton’s laws ................. 2 spectroscopic symbols .....16
atomic mass ..................... 2 Fermi energy...................19 normalization ..................11 speed of light ................... 3
average momentum .........11 Fermi speed ....................19 normalization constant ....14 spherical coordinates.......22
Avogadro's number....18, 21 Fermi temperature...........19 normalizing functions......14 spin angular momentum ..16
binding energy ................. 5 Fermi-Dirac distribution..19 orbital angular momentum15 spin-orbit splitting...........17
binomial expansion .........21 fermion ...........................19 order of electron filling....16 splitting due to spin.........17
blackbody......................... 6 frequency particle in a box ........12, 13 spring harmonics .............12
Bohr magneton................21 angular .......................10 phase constant.................10 statistical physics ............18
Bohr model ...................... 8 fundamental forces ........... 2 phase space .................2, 19 Stefan-Boltzman law ........ 6
Bohr radius ...................... 7 geometry.........................22 phase velocity .................10 temperature
Boltzmann constant .........21 Greek alphabet................21 photoelectric effect........... 6 Fermi..........................19
Bose-Einstein distribution19 group velocity .................10 photon.............................. 6 temperature and momentum9
boson ..............................19 harmonic motion .............12 momentum................... 4 thermodynamics ............... 2
Bragg's law ...................... 9 Heisenberg limit .............12 Planck's constant .............21 time dilation..................... 3
bremsstrahlung................. 6 Heisenberg uncertainty Planck's radiation law....... 6 timelike ........................... 4
classical physics ............... 1 principle .....................12 positron............................ 6 total angular momentum..16
classical wave equation ...10 Hermite functions............12 potential barrier ..............13 total energy ...................... 5
Compton effect................. 7 impact parameter ............. 7 probability ......................11 trig identities...................22
conservation laws ............. 1 infinite square well .........12 radial ..........................15 tunneling.........................13
constants .........................21 intensity of light ............... 6 probability density uncertainty of waves........10
coordinate systems ..........22 inverse photoelectric effect6 radial ..........................15 uncertainty principle .......12
coordinate transformations22 kinetic energy 2, 5, 9, 12, 13 probability of location .....11 units................................21
de Broglie wavelength.....10 Landé factor ....................17 proper length.................... 3 velocity addition............... 3
degenerate energy levels..13 lattice planes.................... 9 proper time ...................... 3 wave functions ................10
density of energy states ...19 laws of thermodynamics ... 2 quantum numbers............15 wave number.............10, 11
density of occupied states 20 length contraction............. 3 radial acceleration ............ 8 wave uncertainties...........10
doppler effect ................... 5 light wavefront................. 3 radial probability.............15 wavelength..................3, 10
Duane-Hunt rule .............. 6 lightlike ........................... 4 radial probability density.15 spectrum.....................21
electron line spectra ...................... 5 radial wave functions ......14 waves
acceleration.................. 8 Lorentz force law ............. 2 radiation power ................ 6 envelope .....................10
angular momentum ...... 7 Lorentz transformation ..... 3 relativity .......................... 3 sum.............................10
filling..........................16 magnetic moment............16 rest energy ....................... 5 Wien's constant ................ 6
orbit radius .................. 8 Maxwell speed distribution root mean square speed ...18 work function................... 6
scattering ..................... 9 ...................................18 Rutherform scattering....... 8 x-ray
velocity........................ 8 Maxwell’s equations ........ 2 Rydberg constant.........9, 21 L-alpha waves.............. 9
energy Maxwell-Boltzmann factor18 scattering ......................7, 8 scattering ..................... 9
binding ........................ 5 mean speed .....................18 electron........................ 9 Young's double slit
density of states ..........19 Michelson-Morley head-on........................ 7 experiment................... 5
Fermi..........................19 experiment................... 3 x-ray............................ 9 Zeeman splitting .......16, 18
kinetic ......................... 5 minimum angle ...............17 Schrödinger wave equation zero-point energy.............12
relation to momentum .. 5 molecular speeds.............18 .............................11, 12
relativistic kinetic ........ 5 momentum....................... 4 3D rectangular coord...13
rest .............................. 5 relativistic.................... 4 3D spherical coord. .....14

CLASSICAL PHYSICS

CLASSICAL CONSERVATION LAWS Conservation of Angular Momentum: In the absence


Conservation of Energy: The total sum of energy (in of external torque, angular momentum is conserved
in all interactions (vector relation).
all its forms) is conserved in all interactions.
Conservation of Charge: Electric charge is conserved
Conservation of Linear Momentum: In the absence
in all interactions.
of external force, linear momentum is conserved in
all interactions (vector relation). naustalgic Conservation of Mass: (not valid)

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 1 of 22


FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS RELATIVE
FORCE RANGE
STRENGTH

Ñ∫ EgdA = ε0
q
Gauss’s law for electricity Strong 1 Short, ~10-15m
Electroweak

Ñ∫ BgdA = 0
Gauss’s law for Electromagnetic 10-2 Long, 1/r2
magnetism
Weak 10-9 Short, ~10-15m
dΦB
Faraday’s law Ñ∫ Egds = − dt
Gravitational 10-39 Long, 1/r2


Ñ∫ Bgds = µ0ε0 dt E + µ0 I
Generalized Ampere’s law ATOMIC MASS
The mass of an atom is it's
atomic number divided by the atomic number
LORENTZ FORCE LAW
product of 1000 times 1000 × N a
Avogadro's number.
Lorentz force law: F = qE + qv × B
KINETIC ENERGY
NEWTON’S LAWS The kinetic energy of a particle (ideal 3kT
Newton’s first law: Law of Inertia An object in motion gas) in equilibrium with its K=
surroundings is: 2
with a constant velocity will continue in motion unless
acted upon by some net external force.
Newton’s second law: The acceleration a of a body is PHASE SPACE
proportional to the net external force F and inversely A six-dimensional pseudospace populated by
proportional to the mass m of the body. F = ma particles described by six position and velocity
Newton’s third law: law of action and reaction The parameters:
force exerted by body 1 on body 2 is equal and position: (x, y, z) velocity: (vx, vy, vz)
opposite to the force that body 2 exerts on body 1.

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
First law of thermodynamics: The change in the
internal energy ∆U of a system is equal to the heat Q
added to the system minus the work W done by the
system.
Second law of thermodynamics: It is not possible to
convert heat completely into work without some other
change taking place.
Third law of thermodynamics: It is not possible to
achieve an absolute zero temperature.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two thermal
systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with a
third system, they are in equilibrium with each other.

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 2 of 22


RELATIVITY

WAVELENGTH λ TIME DILATION


c = speed of light 2.998 × 10 m/s 8 Given two systems moving at great speed relative to
each other; the time interval between two events
1 λ = wavelength [m]
c= = λν occurring at the same location as measured within the
µ 0ε 0 ν = (nu) radiation frequency [Hz] same system is the proper time and is shorter than
Å = (angstrom) unit of wavelength the time interval as measured outside the system.
1Å = 10-10m equal to 10-10 m
T0′ T0
m = (meters) T= or T ′ = where:
1− v / c
2 2
1 − v2 / c2
Michelson-Morley Experiment indicated that light was T’0, T0 = the proper time (shorter). [s]
not influenced by the “flow of ether”. T, T’ = time measured in the other system [m]
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [m/s]
LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s
Compares position and time in two coordinate
systems moving with respect to each other along axis
x. LENGTH CONTRACTION
x − vt t − vx / c 2 Given an object moving with great speed, the
x′ = t′ = distance traveled as seen by a stationary observer is
1− v / c
2 2
1 − v2 / c2 L0 and the distance seen by the object is L', which is
contracted.
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [m/s]
L′
t = time [s] L0 = where:
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s 1 − v2 / c2
v 1 L0 = the proper length (longer). [m]
or with β = and γ =
L' = contracted length [m]
c 1 − v2 / c2
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [m/s]
so that x′ = γ ( x − vt ) and t ′ = γ ( t − βx / c ) c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s

LIGHT WAVEFRONT RELATIVISTIC VELOCITY ADDITION


Position of the wavefront of a light source located at Where frame K' moves along the x-axis of K with
the origin, also called the spacetime distance. velocity v, and an object moves along the x-axis with
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = c 2t 2 velocity ux' with respect of K', the velocity of the
object with respect to K is ux.
K'
Proper time T0 The elapsed time between two events K u' u ′x + v
occurring at the same position in a system as ux =
recorded by a stationary clock in the system (shorter v 1 + ( v / c 2 ) u x′
duration than other times). Objects moving at high
speed age less.
Proper length L0 a length that is not moving with If there is uy' or uz' within the K' frame then
respect to the observer. The proper length is longer u′y u ′z
than the length as observed outside the system. uy = and u z =
Objects moving at high speed become longer in the γ 1 − ( v / c 2 ) u′x  γ 1 − ( v / c 2 ) u′x 
direction of motion.
ux = velocity of an object in the x direction [m/s]
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [m/s]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s
γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 / c 2
For the situation where the velocity u with respect to the K
frame is known, the relation may be rewritten exchanging
the primes and changing the sign of v.

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 3 of 22


SPACETIME DIAGRAM SPACETIME INTERVAL ∆ s
The diagram is a means of representing events in two
The quantity ∆s2 is invariant between two frames of
systems. The horizontal x axis represents distance in the K
reference with relative movement along the x-axis.
system and the vertical ct axis represents time multiplied by
s 2 = x 2 − ( ct ) = x′2 − ( ct ′ )
the speed of light so that it is in units of distance as well. A 2 2
point on the diagram represents an event in terms of its
location in the x direction and the time it takes place. So Two events occurring at different times and locations
points that are equidistant from the x axis represent in the K-frame may be characterized by their ∆s2
simultaneous events.
quantity.
ct ct'
∆s 2 = ∆x 2 − ( c∆t )
v =c 2

Worldline
lightlike - ∆ s2 = 0: In this case, ∆x2 = c2∆t2, and the two
v = 0.25c events can only be connected by a light signal.
c 1
slope = v =
β
=4 spacelike - ∆ s2 > 0: In this case, ∆x2 > c2∆t2, and there
exists a K'-frame in which the two events occur
simultaneously but at different locations.
timelike - ∆ s2 < 0: In this case, ∆x2 < c2∆t2, and there
exists a K'-frame in which the two events occur at the
same position but at different times. Events can be
causally connected.
x'
v
slope = c = β = 0.25 MOMENTUM p

x p = mv for a photon: p =
A system K’ traveling in the x direction at ¼the speed of
c
light is represented by the line ct’ in this example, and is p = momentum [kg-m/s], convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying
called a worldline. The line represents travel from one by c/q.
location to another over a period of time. The slope of the m = mass of the object in motion [kg]
line is proportional to the velocity. A line with a slope of 1 v = velocity of object [m/s]
(dashed line in illustration) indicates travel at the speed of
light, so no worldline can have a slope less than 1. A ν = (nu) the frequency of photon light [Hz]
straight line indicates zero acceleration. Simultaneous c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s
events occurring at t = t’ = 0 in the K’ system may be
represented by points along the x’ axis. Other
simultaneous events in the K’ system will be found on lines RELATIVISTIC MOMENTUM p
parallel to the x’ axis. p = γmu where:
p = relativistic momentum [kg-m/s], convertible to [eV/c] by
multiplying by c/q.
γ = 1/ 1 − u 2 / c2
m = mass [kg]
u = velocity of object [m/s]

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 4 of 22


DOPPLER EFFECT MOMENTUM-ENERGY RELATION
Given two systems approaching each other at velocity (energy) 2 = (kinetic energy) 2 + (rest energy) 2
v, light emitted by one system at frequency ν0 (nu,
proper) will be perceived at the higher frequency of ν E 2 = p 2c 2 + m 2c 4 where:
(nu) in the other system.
E = total energy (Kinetic + Rest energies) [J]
1+ β p = momentum [kg-m/s]
ν= ν0 For two systems receeding from
1− β each other, reverse the signs. m = mass [kg]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s
ν = (nu) the frequency of emitted light as perceived in the
other system [Hz]
ν0 = (nu) the proper frequency of the emitted light (lower BINDING ENERGY
for approaching systems) [Hz]. Frequency is related • the potential energy associated with holding a system
to wavelength by c = λν. together, such as the coulomb force between a hydrogen
β = v/c where v is the closing velocity of the systems (Use a proton and its electron
negative number for diverging systems.) and c is the • the difference between the rest energies of the individual
8
speed of light 2.998 × 10 m/s particles of a system and the rest energy of a the bound
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [m/s] system
• the work required to pull particles out of a bound system
into free particles at rest.
RELATIVISTIC KINETIC ENERGY K EB = ∑ mi c 2 − M bound system c 2
Relativistic kinetic energy is the total energy minus i
the rest energy. When the textbook speaks of a 50
Mev particle, it is talking about the particle's kinetic for hydrogen and single-electron ions, the binding
energy. energy of the electron in the ground state is

K = γmc 2 − mc 2 mZ 2e 4
where: EB =
2h 2 ( 4 πε0 )
2
K = relativistic kinetic energy [J], convertible to [eV] by
dividing by q.
EB = binding energy (can be negative or positive) [J]
γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 / c 2 m = mass [kg]
m = mass [kg] Z = atomic number of the element
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s e = q = electron charge [c]
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s]
ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10-12 F/m
REST ENERGY E0
Rest energy is the energy an object has due to its
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s
mass.
E0 = mc 2 LINE SPECTRA
Light passing through a diffraction grating with
thousands of ruling lines per centimeter is diffracted
TOTAL ENERGY E by an angle θ.
Total energy is the kinetic energy plus the rest d sin θ = nλ
energy. When the textbook speaks of a 50 Mev
particle, it is talking about the particle's kinetic The equation also applies to Young's double slit
energy. experiment, where for every integer n, there is a
lighting maxima. The off-center distance of the
E = K + E0 or E = γmc 2 where: maxima is y = l tan θ
E = total energy [J], convertible to [eV] by dividing by q. d = distance between rulings [m]
K = kinetic energy [J], convertible to [eV] by dividing by q. θ = angle of diffraction [degrees]
E0 = rest energy [J], convertible to [eV] by dividing by q. n = the order number (integer)
γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 / c 2 λ = wavelength [m]
m = mass [kg] l = distance from slits to screen [m]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 5 of 22


WIEN'S CONSTANT PHOTON
The product of the wavelength of peak intensity λ [m] A photon is a massless particle that travels at the
and the temperature T [K] of a blackbody. A speed of light. A photon is generated when an
blackbody is an ideal device that absorbs all electron moves to a lower energy state (orbit).
radiation falling on it. Photon energy: E = hν = pc [Joules]
−3
λ maxT = 2.898 ×10 m⋅K hν
Momentum: p = [kg-m/s], convertible to [eV/c] by
c
multiplying by c/q.
STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW
c
May be applied to a blackbody or any material for Wavelength: λ= [meters]
which the emissivity is known. ν
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10-34 J-s
R(T ) = εσT 4 where:
ν = (nu) frequency of the electromagnetic wave associated
R(T) = power per unit area radiated at temperature T with the light given off by the photon [Hz]
8
[W/m2] c = speed of light 2.998 × 10 m/s
ε = emissivity (ε = 1 for ideal blackbody)
σ = constant 5.6705 × 10-8 W/(m2· K4)
T = temperature (K) PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
This is the way the book shows the formula, but it is a
units nightmare.
PLANCK'S RADIATION LAW 1 2
mvmax = eV0 = hυ − φ where:
2πc h
2
1 2
I (λ , T ) = hc / λkT
where:
λ e
5
−1 1 2 = energy in Joules, but convert to eV for the
mvmax
I(λ, T) = light intensity [W/(m2· λ)] 2
formula by dividing by q.
λ = wavelength [m]
eV0 = potential required to stop electrons from leaving the
T = temperature [K] metal [V]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s hν = Planck's constant [6.6260755×10-34 J-s] multiplied by
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10-34 J-s the frequency of light [Hz]. This term will need to be
k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10-23 J/K divided by q to obtain eV.
φ = work function, minimum energy required to get an
positron – A particle having the same mass as an electron to leave the metal [eV]
electron but with a positive charge
bremsstrahlung – from the German word for braking
radiation, the process of an electron slowing down INVERSE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
and giving up energy in photons as it passes through hc
matter. eV0 = hυmax = where:
λ min
eV0 = the kinetic energy of an electron accelerated through
a voltage V0 [eV]
hν = Planck's constant [6.6260755×10-34 J-s] multiplied by
the frequency of light [Hz]. This term will need to be
divided by q to obtain eV.
λmin = the minimum wavelength of light created when an
electron gives up one photon of light energy [m]
DUANE-HUNT RULE
1.2398 × 10−6
λ min =
V0

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 6 of 22


ELECTRON ANGULAR MOMENTUM HEAD-ON SCATTERING
from the Bohr model: When a particle of kinetic energy K and atomic
L = mvr = nh where:
number Z1 is fired directly at the nucleus, it
approaches to rmin before reversing direction. The
2
L = angular momentum [kg-m /s?] entire kinetic energy is converted to Coulomb
m = mass [kg] potential energy. Since rmin is measured to the center
v = velocity [m/s] of the particles, they will just touch when rmin is the
r = radius [m] sum of their radii.
n = principle quantum number Z1 Z2 e2
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s] rmin =
4πε0 K
rmin = particle separation (measured center to center) at the
a0 BOHR RADIUS [m] time that the bombarding particle reverses direction
[m]
The Bohr radius is the radius of the orbit of the
other variables are previously defined
hydrogen electron in the ground state (n=1):
4πε0h 2
a0 = and for higher
states (n>1):
rn = a0 n 2 COMPTON EFFECT
mee 2
The scattering of a photon due to collision with a
a0, rn = Bohr radius 5.29177×10-11 m, quantized radius [m] single electron results in a new wavelength λ' and a
ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10-12 F/m directional change of ∠θ and is described by the
me = electron mass 9.1093897×10-31 [kg] following relation:
e = q = electron charge [c] h
n = principle quantum number ∆λ = λ′ − λ = (1 − cos θ)
mc
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s]
scattered photon
E = hn'
IMPACT PARAMETER b p= h
θ l'
The impact parameter b is the distance that a
bombarding particle deviates from the direct-hit photon φ
approach path, and is related to the angle θ at which it E = hn
will be deflected by the target particle.
p= h
recoil electron
Z1 Z2 e 2
θ l electron at rest Ef = Ee
b= cot Ei = mc 2
8πε 0 K 2
The φ relations come from the conservation of
b = direct path deviation [m] momentum:
Z1 = atomic number of the incident particle
h h
Z2 = atomic number of the target particle px : = cos θ + pe cos φ
e = q = electron charge [c] λ λ′
ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10-12 F/m h
py : sin θ = pe sin φ
K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1 λ′
θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 7 of 22


RUTHERFORD SCATTERING ELECTRON VELOCITY
A particle of kinetic energy K and atomic number Z1 This comes from the Bohr model and only applies to
when fired at a target film of thickness t and atomic atoms and ions having a single electron.
number Z2, will be deflected by an angle θ.
1 Ze 2 e Z
2 vn = =
N i nt  e 2  n 4πε0 h 2 πε0 me r
2 2
Z1 Z 2
N ( θ) =   1424 3 14243
16  4πε0  r 2 K 2 sin 4 ( θ / 2 ) n -dependent r -dependent

N(θ) = number of particles scattered per unit area [m-2] v = electron velocity [m/s]
θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus
Ni = total number of incident particles [kg] e = q = electron charge [c]
n = the electron orbit or shell
n = number of atoms per unit volume [m-3] n = ρN A N M
Mg ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10-12 F/m
where ρ is density [g/m3], NA is Avogadro's number, NM is the me = mass of an electron 9.1093897×10-31 kg
number of atoms per molecule, and MG is the gram-molecular h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s]
weight [g/mole].
r = the radius of the electron's orbit [m]
t = thickness of the target material [m]
e = q = electron charge [c]
ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10-12 F/m ELECTRON ORBIT RADIUS
Z1 = atomic number of the incident particle This comes from the Bohr model and only applies to
Z2 = atomic number of the target particle atoms and ions having a single electron.
r = the radius at which the angle θ is measured [m]
4πε0 n 2 h 2
K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1 rn =
me Ze 2
rn = electron orbit radius in the n shell [m]
PROBABILITY OF A PARTICLE other variables are previously defined
SCATTERING BY AN ANGLE GREATER
THAN θ ar RADIAL ACCELERATION
2
Z Z e  θ 2
ar = the radial acceleration of an orbiting
f = πnt  1 2  cot 2
 8πε0 K  2 electron [m/s2]
ar =
v2
v = tangential velocity of the electron [m/s]
f = the probability (a value between 0 and 1) r
r = electron orbit radius [m]
n = number of atoms per unit volume [m-3] n = ρN A N M
Mg
where ρ is density [g/m3], NA is Avogadro's number, NM is the
number of atoms per molecule, and MG is the gram-molecular
weight [g/mole].
t = thickness of the target material [m]
Z1 = atomic number of the incident particle
Z2 = atomic number of the target particle
e = q = electron charge [c]
ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10-12 F/m
K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1
θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering
Alpha particle: Z=2
Proton: Z=1

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 8 of 22


R∞ RYDBERG CONSTANT BRAGG'S LAW
R∞ is used in the Bohr model and is a close X-ray Scattering - X-rays reflected from a crystal
approximation assuming an infinite nuclear mass. R experience interference effects since rays reflecting
is the adjusted value. These values are appropriate from the interior of the material take a longer path
for hydrogen and single-electron ions. than those reflecting from the surface. Compare to
ELECTRON SCATTERING below.
µe Z 2e 4 me M
R= where µe = θ
4πch3 ( 4πε 0 ) me + M
2

nλ = 2d sin θ d
R∞ = Rydberg constant 1.09678×107 m-1 (1.096776×107 m-1 2 d sin θ
for hydrogen)
d sin θ
µe = adjusted electron mass n = order of reflection (number of lattice planes in depth)
Z = atomic number, or number of protons in the nucleus λ = wavelength of the incident wave [m]
ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10-12 F/m d = distance between lattice planes (interatomic spacing
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s in this case) [m]
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s] θ = angle of incidence; the angle between the incident
me = mass of an electron 9.1093897×10-31 kg wave and the surface of the material
M = mass of the nucleus (essentially the same as the
mass of the atom ⇒ atomic number × 1.6605×10-27) [kg]
ELECTRON SCATTERING
Electrons directed into a crystalline material are
Lα MOSELEY'S EQUATION scattered (reflected) at various angles depending on
British physicist, Henry Moseley determined this the arrangement of lattice planes. There is more
than one set of lattice planes in a crystal. The
equation experimentally for the frequency of Lα x-
technique can be used to explore the characteristics
rays. Lα waves are produced by an electron decaying of a material. Compare to BRAGG'S LAW above.
from the n=3 orbit to the n=2 or L orbit.
5 φ
ν Lα = cR ( Z − 7.4)
2
α α
36 θ
ν = (nu) frequency [Hz] nλ = D sin φ
c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s D
R = Adjusted Rydberg constant (see above) [m-1] d
Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus
n = order of reflection (number of lattice planes in depth)
λ = wavelength of the incident wave [m]
SPECTRAL LINES D = interatomic spacing [m]
This formula gives the wavelength of light emitted d = distance between lattice planes [m]
when an electron in a single-electron atom or ion φ = angle between the incident and reflected waves
decays from orbit nu to nl.

1  1 1  K CLASSICAL KINETIC ENERGY


= Z 2R  2 − 2 
λ  nl nu  Two expressions for kinetic energy:

λ = wavelength [m] p2 3
= K = kT
Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus 2m 2
R = Rydberg constant (1.096776×107 m-1 for hydrogen) lead to a momentum-temperature relation for
nl = the lower electron orbit number particles:
nu = the upper electron orbit number p 2 = 3mkT
p = momentum [kg-m/s]
m = particle mass [kg]
K = kinetic energy [J]
k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10-23 J/K
T = temperature in Kelvin (273.15K = 0°C, ∆K = ∆C)
(see page 5 for RELATIVISTIC KINETIC ENERGY)

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 9 of 22


WAVES Ψ SUM OF TWO WAVES
(see also WaveSummingExample.pdf)
Ψ WAVE FUNCTIONS  ∆k ∆ω 
Ψ1 + Ψ 2 = 2 A cos  x− t  cos ( k av x − ωavt )
∂ Ψ 1 ∂ Ψ
2 2
 1442443
3
2 2
Classical Wave Equation
= 144 42444 internal wave
We did not use this equation: ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 envelope

This wave function fits the classical form, but is not A = harmonic amplitude [various units?]
a solution to the Schröedinger equation: ∆k = difference in wave numbers k1 - k2 [rad/m]
wave angular phase kav = average wave number (k1 + k2)/2 [rad/m]
wave time number frequency constant ∆ω = difference in angular
frequencies ω1 - ω2
Ψ (x,t) =A sin( kx - ωt + φ) [rad/s]
ωav = average angular
distance amplitude distance time frequency (ω1 + ω2)/2
The negative sign denotes wave
[rad/s]
motion in the positive x direction, x = distance [m]
assuming omega is positive.
t = time [s]
More general wave functions which are solutions to Phase Velocity:
the Schröedinger equation are: [m/s] velocity of a point on a wave
wave angular
vph = ωav / kav
wave time number frequency
Group Velocity:
Ψ (x,t) = Ae i(kx- ω t) = A[cos(kx - ωt) + i sin(kx - ωt)] [m/s] speed of the envelope
ugr = ∆ω / ∆k
distance distance time
amplitude The negative sign denotes wave
motion in the positive x direction,
assuming omega is positive. λ de BROGLIE WAVELENGTH
De Broglie extended the concept of h
waves to all matter. λ=
k WAVE NUMBER p
A component of a wave function 2π λ = wavelength [m]
representing the wave density relative to k=
distance, in units of radians per unit λ h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10-34 J-s
distance [rad/m].
p = momentum [kg-m/s], convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying
by c/q.

ω ANGULAR FREQUENCY WAVE UNCERTAINTIES


A component of a wave function This has to do with the effects of combining different
representing the wave density relative to 2π
time (better known as frequency), in units ω= waves. In order to know precisely the position of the
T wave packet envelope (∆x small), we must have a
of radians per second [rad/s].
large range of wave numbers (∆k large). In order to
know precisely when the wave is at a given point (∆t
small), we must have a large range of frequencies
vph PHASE VELOCITY
(∆ω large). Another result of this relationship, is that
The velocity of a point on a wave, λ ω
e.g. the velocity of a wave peak vph = = an electronic component must have a large bandwidth
T k ∆ω in order for its signal to respond in a short time ∆t.
[m/s].
∆k ∆x = 2π ∆ω∆t = 2π
∆k = the range of wave numbers, see WAVE NUMBER
φ PHASE CONSTANT ∆x = the width of the wave envelope
The angle by which the wave is offset from zero, i.e. ∆ω = the range of wave frequencies
the angle by which the wave's zero amplitude point is ∆t = a time interval
offset from t=0. [radians or degrees].

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 10 of 22


SCHRÖDINGER'S WAVE EQUATION PROBABILITY OF LOCATION
time-dependent form: Given the wave function: ψ ( x, t )
K + U = E
find the probability that a particle is located between
h ∂ Ψ ( x, t ) ∂Ψ ( x, t )
22
x1 and x2.
− + V Ψ ( x, t ) = i h ∞
2m ∂x ∂t ∫ A2 ψ 2 dx = 1
2
Normalize the wave function: 2
0
time-independent form: x2

h d ψ ( x)
2 2
with A known, find the probability: P = ∫x1
A2 ψ 2 dx
− + V ( x ) ψ ( x ) = Eψ ( x )
2m dx 2
〈 x〉,
〉, 〈x
〈 2〉 EXPECTATION VALUES
h 2
d ψ ( x)
2
or − = E −V ( x) average value:
2mψ ( x ) dx 2 ∞

h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s]


x = ∫ ψ * ( x ) x ψ ( x ) dx
−∞
Ψ(x,t) = wave function average x2 value:
V = voltage; can be a function of space and time (x,t) ∞
m = mass [kg] x 2 = ∫ ψ * ( x ) x 2 ψ ( x ) dx
−∞
Two separate solutions to the time-independent
equation have the form:
p̂ MOMENTUM OPERATOR
Aeikx + Be −ikx where k = 2m ( E − V ) / h
An operator transforms one function into another
or A sin ( kx ) + B cos ( kx ) function. The momentum operator is:
d
Note that the wave number k is consistent in both
pˆ = −ih
solutions, but that the constants A and B are not dx
consistent from one solution to the other. The values
For example, to find the average momentum of a
of constants A and B will be determined from
boundary conditions and will also depend on which particle described by wave function ψ:
∞ ∞  d 
solution is chosen.
p = ∫ ψ * pˆ ψ dx = ∫ ψ *  −ih ψ  dx
−∞ −∞
 dx 
PROBABILITY
A probability is a value from zero to one. The
probability may be found by the following steps:
Multiply the function by its complex conjugate and
take the integral from negative infinity to positive
infinity with respect to the variable in question,
multiply all this by the square of a constant c and set
equal to one.

c 2 ∫ F * F dx = 1
−∞
Solve for the probability constant c.
x2
The probability from x1 to x1 is: P = c ∫
2
F * F dx
x1

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 11 of 22


SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION INFINITE SQUARE-WELL POTENTIAL
or "Particle in a Box"
Examples of simple harmonic motion include a mass
on a spring and a pendulum. The average potential This is a concept that applies to V ( x)
energy equals the average kinetic energy equals half many physical situations.
Consider a two-dimensional box
of the total energy. In simple harmonic motion, k is in which a particle may be
the spring constant, not the wave number. trapped by an infinite voltage
k potential on either side. The x
spring constant k: ω= force: F = kx problem is an application of the 0 L
m Schrödinger Wave Equation.
1 2 The particle may have various energies represented by
potential energy V: V= kx waves that must have an amplitude of zero at each
2 boundary 0 and L. Thus, the energies are quantized. The
d 2ψ
= ( α2 x2 − β) ψ
Schrödinger Wave Equation probability of the particle's location is also expressed by a
wave function with zero values at the boundaries.
for simple harmonic motion: dx 2
 nπx 
where α 2 =
mk
and β =
2mE Wave function: ψ n ( x ) = A sin  
h2 h2  L 
The wave equation solutions
ψ n = H n ( x ) e −αx
2 π2 h 2
En = n
/2 2
are: Energy levels:
2mL2
where Hn(x) are polynomials of order n, where Probability of a particle being x2
n = 0,1,2,· · · and x is the variable taken to the power of n. found between x1 and x2: P=∫ Ψ *Ψ dx
x = x1
The functions Hn(x) are related by a constant to the Hermite
2
polynomial functions. A= normalization constant
L
α α
1/4 1/4
1
ψ0 =   e −αx ψ1 =   2α xe −αx (1 − cos 2θ )
2 2
/2 /2
a useful identity: sin θ =
2

π π 2
α
1/4

ψ2 =  
1
( 2αx 2 − 1) e −αx / 2
2

π 2
α
1/4

ψ3 =  
π
1
3
( )
x α ( 2αx 2 − 3) e−αx / 2
2

…and they call this simple!

 1
quantized energy levels: En =  n +  hω
 2
The zero-point energy, or Heisenberg
1
limit is the minimum energy allowed by
E0 = hω
the uncertainty principle; the energy at 2
n=0:

HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE


These relations apply to Gaussian wave packets.
They describe the limits in determining the factors
below.
∆px ∆x ≥ h / 2 ∆E ∆t ≥ h / 2
∆px = the uncertainty in the momentum along the x-axis
∆x = the uncertainty of location along the x-axis
∆E = the uncertainty of the energy
∆t = the uncertainty of time. This also happens to be the
particle lifetime. Particles you can measure the mass
of (E=mc2) have a long lifetime.

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 12 of 22


POTENTIAL BARRIER 3D INFINITE POTENTIAL BOX
When a particle of energy E V (x ) Consider a three-dimensional box z y
encounters a barrier of particle
with zero voltage potential inside
potential V0, there is a V0 the box and infinite voltage outside.
L3
A particle trapped in the box is
possibility of either a L2
described by a wave function and
reflected wave or a x has quantized energy levels. x
transmitted wave. 0 L 0 L1
Region I Region II Region III
Time-independent Schrödinger Wave Equation in three
for E > V0: dimensions:
kinetic energy: K = E − V0 h 2  ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2 ψ 
−  + +  + V ψ = Eψ
wave number: k I = k III = 2mE / h 2m  ∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂z 2 
k II = 2m ( E − V0 ) / h Wave equation for the 3D infinite potential box:

incident wave: ϕI = Ae
ik I x n πx n πy  n πz 
ψ n1 n2 n3 = A sin  1  sin  2  sin  3 
reflected wave: ϕI = Be
− ik I x
 L1   L2   L3 
transmitted wave: ϕIII = Fe
kI x

π 2h 2  n12 n22 n32 


 V sin ( k II L ) 
2 2
−1 Energy levels: En1 n2 n3 =  + + 
T = 1 + 0 2m  L12 L22 L32 
trans. probability: 

 4 E ( E − V0 )  Degenerate energy levels may exist—that is, different
reflection probability: R = 1 − T
combinations of n-values may produce equal energy
values.
for E < V0: Classically, it is not possible for a particle
of energy E to cross a greater potential V0, but
there is a quantum mechanical possibility for this
to happen called tunneling.
kinetic energy: K = V0 − E

wave #, region II: κ = 2m (V0 − E ) / h


−1
 V0 2 sinh 2 ( κL ) 
trans. probability: T =  1 + 

 4 E (V0 − E ) 
E E  −2 κL
when κL ? 1 : T = 16 1 −  e
V0  V0 

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 13 of 22


SCHRÖDINGER'S EQUATION – 3D NORMALIZING WAVE FUNCTIONS
SPHERICAL To normalize a function, multiply the function by its
spherical coordinate form: complex conjugate and by the square of the
normalization constant A. Integrate the result from
1 ∂  2 ∂ψ  1 ∂ ∂ψ  1 ∂2ψ 2m
 r  + sin θ  + + ( E −V) ψ= 0 -∞ to ∞ and set equal to 1 to find the value of A. The
r2 ∂r  ∂r  r2 sin θ∂θ ∂θ  r2 sin2 θ ∂θ2 h2 normalized function is the original function multiplied
separation of variables using: Ψ ( r, θ, φ) = R ( r ) f ( θ) g ( φ) by A.
To normalize the wave function Ψ(x):
We can obtain a form with terms of g on one side and 2
∞ ∞
terms of R and f on the other. These are set equal to
the constant ml2. ml turns out to be an integer. ∫ −∞
AΨ dx → A2 ∫ Ψ 2 dx
−∞
Another seperation is performed for R and f and the Where Ψ is an even function, we can simplify to:
∞ ∞
constant is l(l+1), where l is an integer. The three 2A2 ∫ Ψ 2dx and find A: 2 A2 ∫ Ψ 2 dx = 1
equations are: 0 0
Some relations for definite integrals will be useful in solving
Azimuthal equation: this equation; see CalculusSummary.pdf page 3.
1 d2g
+ ml = 0 ⇒ g = Aeiml φ To normalize the wave function Ψ(r), where r is the radius
2

g dφ 2
in spherical coordinates:
∞ 2 ∞
Radial equation: ∫ r 2 AΨ dr → A2 ∫ r 2 Ψ 2 dr = 1
l ( l + 1)
0 0
1 d  2 dR  2m
 r  + ( E − V ) R − R=0 Note that we integrate from 0 to ∞ since r has no negative
r 2 dr  dr  h2 r2 values.
To normalize the wave function Ψ(r,θ
θ ,φ
φ):
Angular Equation: ∞ π 2π
A2 ∫ dr r 2 AΨ ∫ d θ sin θ ∫ d φ = 1
2
1 d  df   ml 
2

θ   (
+ + ) − f =0
0 0 0
 sin l l 1
sin θ d θ  dθ   sin 2 θ  Note that dr, dθ, and dφ are moved to the front of their
respective integrals for clarity.
ml = magnetic quantum number; integers ranging from –l
to +l
l = orbital angular momentum quantum number Rnl(r) RADIAL WAVE FUNCTIONS
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s] for the hydrogen atom
E = energy n l Rnl(r)
V = voltage; can be a function of space and time (x,t)
2
m = mass [kg] 1 0 3/2
e − r / a0
a0
 r  e − r / 2 a0
2 0 w− 
 a0  ( 2a0 )3 / 2
r e − r / 2 a0
2 1
3 ( 2a0 )
3/2
a0

1 2  r r 2  − r /3 a0
3 0  27 − 18 + 2 2  e
( a0 )3 / 2 81 3  a0 a0 
1 4  r  r − r /3 a0
3 1 6 −  e
( a0 ) 3/2
81 6  a0  a0
1 4 r 2 − r /3 a0
3 2 e
( a0 )
3/2 2
81 30 a0
a0 = Bohr radius 5.29177×10-11 m

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 14 of 22


P(r)dr RADIAL PROBABILITY ATOMS
The radial probability is a value from 0 to 1 indicating
the probability of a particle occupying a certain area QUANTUM NUMBERS
radially distant from the center of orbit. The value is
n = principal quantum number, shell number, may have
found by integrating the right-hand side of the
values of 1, 2, 3, …
expression over the interval in question:
l = orbital angular momentum quantum number,
P(r ) dr = r 2 R ( r ) dr
2
subshell number, may have values of 0 to n-1. These
values are sometimes expressed as letters: s=0, p=1,
r = orbit radius d=2, f=3, g=4, h=5, …
R(r) = radial wave function, normalized to unity ml = magnetic quantum number, may have integer values
from -l to +l for each l. (p251)
ms = magnetic spin quantum number, may have values
P(r) RADIAL PROBABILITY DENSITY of +½ or -½
The radial probability density depends only on n and l. Then we introduce these new ones:
s = intrinsic quantum number, s =1/2 (p238)
P(r ) = r 2 R ( r )
2
j = total angular momentum quantum number, j = l ± s,
r = orbit radius but j is not less than 0. (p257)
R(r) = radial wave function, normalized to unity mj = magnetic angular momentum quantum number,
may have values from -j to +j (p257)
Example, for n = 3:
〈 r〉〉 RADIAL EXPECTATION VALUE 0 1 2
l=
average radius (radial wave function):
j= 1/2 1/2 3/2 3/2 5/2
∞ ∞
r =∫ r P ( r ) dr = ∫ r R ( r ) dr
3
mj = -1/2 +1/2 -1/2 +1/2 -3/2 -1/2 -3/2 -1/2 +1/2 +3/2 -5/2 -3/2 -1/2
r =0 r =0 +1/2 +3/2 +1/2 +3/2 +5/2
P ( r ) = r 2 R ( r ) dr
2
P(r) = probability distribution function ml = 0 -1 0 +1 -2 -1 0 +1 +2
R(r) = radial wave function, normalized to unity ms = -1/2 -1/2 -1/2 -1/2 -1/2 -1/2 -1/2 -1/2 -1/2
+1/2 +1/2 +1/2 +1/2 +1/2 +1/2 +1/2 +1/2 +1/2

L ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM


Classically, orbital angular momentum is ρr or mvr.
The orbital angular momentum L is a vector quantity.
It components are as follows:

Magnitude: L = h l ( l + 1)
Z-axis value: Lz = ml h
The values of Lx and Ly cannot be determined exactly but
obey the following relation:

L2 = L2x + L2y + L2z


h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s]
l = orbital angular momentum quantum number
ml = magnetic quantum number; integers ranging from –l
to +l
The orbital angular momentum quantum
l =0 1 2 3 4 5
number was originally given letter values
resulting from early visual observations: s p df gh
sharp, principal, diffuse, fundamental

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 15 of 22


S SPIN ANGULAR MOMENTUM MANY-ELECTRON ATOMS
The spin angular momentum is (insert some
illuminating explanation here). SPECTROSCOPIC SYMBOLS
Magnitude: z The energy state of an atom having 1 or 2 electrons
+2h
S = h s ( s + 1) = h 3 / 4
1 in its outer shell can be represented in the form
S=h 3/4 n 2S +1 L j
z component:
n = shell number
S z = ms h = ± h / 2 S = intrinsic spin angular momentum quantum number; ½
- 1h
2 for a single-electron shell, 0 or 1 (S1 + S2) for the 2-
electron shell
L = angular momentum quantum number; l for single-
J TOTAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM electron shell, L1 + L2 for a 2-electron shell, expressed
as a capital letter: S=0, P=1, D=2, F=3, G=4, H=5, I=6.
The vector sum of the orbital angular momentum and
the spin angular momentum. This applies to 1- j = total angular momentum quantum number j = l ± s. I'm
not sure how to tell whether it's plus or minus, but I
electron and many-electron atoms.
think it has to be the lower value of j to be in the
J = L+S ground state. j is positive only.
J (the magnitude?) is an integer value from |L-S| to L+S.

ORDER OF ELECTRON FILLING


ALLOWED TRANSITIONS Here's a way to remember the order in which the
The allowed energy level transitions for 1-electron outer shells of atoms are filled by electrons:
atoms are s
Form groups of l-numbers like this. The first
ps
∆n: any ∆l: ±1 ∆mj: 0, ±1 ∆j: 0, ±1 group is just the lowest value for l: s. The next
value of l is p; form a new group of p with s. dps
The third value of l is d; form the third group fdps
ZEEMAN SPLITTING ("ZAY· mahn")
with d, p, and s. You get a list of groups like gfdps
this: hgfdps
When a single-electron atom is under the influence of
Now, in a column, write each group twice 1s
an external magnetic field (taken to be in the z-axis
beginning with the single s that is the first 2s
direction), each energy level (n=1,2,3,…) is split into group.
multiple levels, one for each quantum number ml. p
The difference in energy is: Next number each s beginning with 1, placing 3s
the number in front of the s. This is as far as p
∆E = µ B Bml I have gone with the list at right. 4s
∆E = difference in energy between two energy levels [J] The next step is to number each p beginning d
p
µB = Bohr magneton 9.274078×10-24 J/T with the number 2.
5s
B = magnetic field [T] Then number each d beginning with the
f
ml = magnetic quantum number; integers ranging from –l number 3.
d
to +l Number each f beginning with 4, and so on. p
The result will be the order of filling (there are 6s
a few exceptions) and will look like this: f
µ MAGNETIC MOMENT d
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d
Both the magnetic moment µ and the orbital angular and so on. p
momentum L are vectors: 7s
and so on.
e
ì =− L
2m
m = mass of the orbiting particle [kg]

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 16 of 22


g LANDÉ g FACTOR SPLITTING DUE TO SPIN
A dimensionless number that helps make physics For each state described by z
+2h
complicated. Used in ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN quantum numbers n, l, ml, there 1
SPLITTING are two states defined by the
J ( J + 1) + S ( S + 1) − L ( L + 1) magnetic spin numbers S=h 3/4
g = 1+ ms = ±1/2. These two levels
2 J ( J + 1) have the same energy except
when the atom is influenced by - 1h
2
an external magnetic field.
ALLOWED PHOTON TRANSITIONS The lower of the two energy levels is aligned with
The allowed photon energy level transitions for many- the magnetic field.
electron atoms are
hc
∆L: ±1 ∆J: 0, ±1, but J can't transition from 0 to 0. ∆E = ∆λ
λ2
∆S: 0 ∆mj: 0, ±1, but can't transition from 0 to 0
∆E = difference in energy between two (split) energy levels
when ∆J=0.
ms = ±1/2 [J]
Other transitions are possible—just not likely. ∆λ = difference in wavelengths for the transitions to the
ground state for each energy level [m]
θ MINIMUM ANGLE BETWEEN J AND λ = wavelength for the transitions to the ground state for
the lower of the two energy levels (the greater of the
THE Z-AXIS two wavelengths) [m]
There were exercises where we had to calculate this. h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10-34 J-s
I don't know what the significance is. This is done c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s
similarly for L and S as well.
5
Example: j= z
SPIN-ORBIT ENERGY SPLITTING
2 5
h
j×h
+ 2
θ J = h j(j+1) Spin-orbit energy splitting is the splitting of energy
cos θ = →
+ 32 h
h j ( j + 1) levels caused by an internal magnetic field due to
+ 1
h spin. This produces a greater ∆E than the spin
j2 → 2
j splitting described above. p265
cos 2 θ = cos 2 θ =
j ( j + 1) ( j + 1) - 1
h
V = −ì s ·B
2
P.E. due to spin
- 3
h
j 2
cos θ = 5
h z-component µ = − g  eh  J z
s 
-
j +1 2 z
 2me  h
eh
energy level difference ∆E = g s B
me
e = q = electron charge 1.6022×10-19 C
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [J-s]
jz = z-component of the total angular momentum
∆E = difference in energy between two (split) energy levels
ms = ±1/2 [J]
gs = 2, the gyromagnetic ratio
me = mass of an electron 9.1093897×10-31 kg
B = internal magnetic field [T]

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 17 of 22


ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN SPLITTING STATISTICAL PHYSICS
("ZAY· mahn")
In addition to the Zeeman splitting of the ml energy v*, v , vrms MOLECULAR SPEEDS [m/s]
levels described previously, and the spin-orbit energy 1
Maxwell speed − β mv2
F ( v ) dv = 4πCe
splitting described above, there is a splitting of the mj
levels when an external magnetic field is present. distribution:
2
v 2 dv
The difference in energy between levels is:
v* most probable 2 2kT
V = µ B Bext gm j v* = =
speed: βm m
V = difference in energy between two energy levels [J]
µB = Bohr magneton 9.274078×10-24 J/T 4 kT
v mean speed: v=
Bext = external magnetic field [T] 2π m
g = Landé factor [no units]
mj = magnetic angular momentum quantum number; half- 1/2 3kT
vrms =  v 2 
vrms root mean
=
integers ranging from –j to +j square speed:   m
v = velocity [m/s]
C = normalization constant
k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10-23 J/K
T = temperature [K]
m = mass of the molecule [kg]
β = the parameter 1/kT [J-1]

ENERGY DISTRIBUTION
Derived from Maxwell's speed distribution:

8πC −βE 1 / 2
F (E) = e E
2m3 / 2

FMB MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN FACTOR


The Maxwell-Boltzmann factor is a value between 0
and 1 representing the probability that an energy level
E is occupied by an electron (at temperature T). This
is for classical systems, such as ideal gases. One
way to determine if Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are
valid is to compare the de Broglie wavelength λ = h/p
of a typical particle with the average interparticle
spacing d. If λ<<d then Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics
are generally acceptable.
1/3
V 
FMB = Ae −βE d = 
N

A = normalization constant
β = the parameter 1/kT [J-1]
d = space between atoms [m]
N = number of particles in volume V. Note that
Avogadro's number, 6.022×1023, is the number of
gas molecules in 22.4 liters, or 22.4×10-3 m3, at 0°C
and 1 atmosphere. Also, gas volume is proportional
to temperature: V1/T1=V2/T2.

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 18 of 22


FFD FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION TF FERMI TEMPERATURE
A value between 0 and 1 indicating the probability The Fermi temperature may be quite high, 80,000 K
than an energy state is occupied by an electron. The for copper.
Fermi-Dirac distribution is valid for fermions, EF
particles with half-integer spins that obey the Pauli TF =
principle. Atoms and molecules consisting of an even k
number of fermions must be considered bosons when EF = Fermi Energy [eV]
taken as a whole because their total spin will be zero k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10-23 J/K
or an integer.
1
FFD = βE uF FERMI SPEED
B1e + 1
2 EF
B1 = normalization constant The Fermi speed, uF =
β = the parameter 1/kT [J-1] m
1
comes from the definition: EF =
2
muF
2
FBE BOSE-EINSTEIN DISTRIBUTION
EF = Fermi Energy [eV]
The Bose-Einstein distribution is valid for bosons, m = mass (probably of the electron) [kg]
particles with zero or integer spins that do no obey
the Pauli principle. Photons, pions, and liquid 4He are
bosons. ENERGY STATES IN "PHASE SPACE"
1 The points in the 1/8 sphere represent the energy
FBE = βE states of a particle in a cube, see 3D INFINITE
B2 e − 1 POTENTIAL BOX p13.
B2 = normalization constant Energy level at radius r integer
n3 spacing
β = the parameter 1/kT [J-1] E = r 2 E1
energy
states
energy
where E1 = h 2 / 8mL2 3 levels
EF FERMI ENERGY [eV] (a constant equal to 1/3 of 2
The Fermi energy depends on the density of electrons the ground state energy) 1
in the material. The Fermi-Dirac distribution is 1 2 3
n2
and r = n12 + n22 + n32 1
modified to include the Fermi energy: 2 r ∆r
and E is whatever energy 3
1
FFD = β( E − EF )
the problem is concerned
n1
e +1 with.
Nr Number of energy states in a sphere of radius r,
The relationship between the Fermi energy and the i.e. the number of energy states there are with energy
number density of particles is: less than E:
2/3
h2  3N   1  4  π E 
3/2
EF =   N r = 2   πr 3  or N r =  
8m  πL3   8  3  3  E1 
FFD = Fermi-Dirac distribution, a value from 0 to 1 where the factor of 2 is due to spin degeneracy, and the
indicating the probability that an energy state is factor of 1/8 is because the energy states only occupy 1/8
occupied of the sphere where n1, n2, n3 are all positive.
β = the parameter 1/kT [J-1]
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10-34 J-s
m = mass of the particle [kg] g(E) DENSITY OF ENERGY STATES
N/L3 = number density of the particles [m-3] Number of states per unit energy
π −3 / 2 1/ 2 ∆N r dN r
g (E) = E1 E g (E) = =
2 ∆E dE
Nr = number of energy states in a sphere of radius r
E1 = a constant equal to 1/3 of the ground state energy

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 19 of 22


n(E) DENSITY OF OCCUPIED STATES
Number of occupied states per unit energy
n ( E ) = FFD ⋅ g ( E )
 g ( E ) , for E < EF
at T=0, n ( E ) = 
0, for E > EF
FFD = Fermi-Dirac distribution, a value from 0 to 1
indicating the probability that an energy state is
occupied

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 20 of 22


APPENDIX

CONSTANTS BINOMIAL EXPANSION


Avogadro’s number For x < 1 :
[molecules/mole] N A = 6.0221367 ×1023 n( n − 1) 2 n(n − 1)(n − 2) 3
(1 ± x ) = 1 ± nx + x ± x +L
n

qh 2! 3!
Bohr magneton µB = = 9.27407836 × 10−24 J/T
2me
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.380658 ×10−23 J/K When x is much less than 1: (1 ± x )n = 1 ± nx
or K = 8.62 × 10 −5 eV/K
Earth to Moon distance ≈ 384 ×106 m
WAVELENGTH SPECTRUM
Elementary charge q = 1.60 × 10 −19 C BAND METERS ANGSTROMS
−31
Electron mass me = 9.1093897 × 10 kg Longwave radio 1 - 100 km 1013 - 1015
me = 0.51100 MeV/c
2
Standard Broadcast 100 - 1000 m 1012 - 1013
−27
Neutron mass mneutron = 1.6749 ×10 kg Shortwave radio 10 - 100 m 1011 - 1012
mneutron = 939.57 MeV/c
2
TV, FM 0.1 - 10 m 109 - 1011
−27
Proton mass m p = 1.6726231×10 kg Microwave 1 - 100 mm 107 - 109
m p = 938.27 MeV/c 0.8 - 1000 µm 8000 - 107
2 Infrared light

Permittivity of free space ε0 = 8.8541878 ×10 − 12


F/m Visible light 360 - 690 nm 3600 - 6900
violet 360 nm 3600
Planck’s constant h = 6.6260755 ×10−34 J-s
= 4.14 × 10 −15 eV-s blue 430 nm 4300
Rydberg constant R = 1.097373 × 10 m 7 -1 green 490 nm 4900
kT @ room temperature kT = 0.0259 eV yellow 560 nm 5600
Speed of light c = 2.998 × 108 m/s orange 600 nm 6000
Speed of sound (air 0°C) vs = 331.29 m/s Red 690 nm 6900
1 Å (angstrom) 10-8 cm = 10-10 M Ultraviolet light 10 - 390 nm 100 - 3900
1 µm (micron) 10-4 cm
X-rays 5 - 10,000 pm 0.05 - 100
1 nm = 10Å = 10-7 cm 273.15K = 0°C
1 eV = 1.6 × 10-19 J 1 W = 1 J/S = 1 VA Gamma rays 100 - 5000 fm 0.001 - 0.05
1 V = 1 J/C 1 N/C = 1 V/m 1 J = 1 N· m = 1 C· V Cosmic rays < 100 fm < 0.001

UNITS GREEK ALPHABET


Energy: Joules ×
1
= eV Α α alpha Ι ι iota Ρ ρ rho
q Β β beta Κ κ kappa Σ σ sigma
Χ χ Λ λ Τ τ
2
c chi lambda tau
Mass: Kg × = eV/c2
q ∆ δ delta Μ µ mu Υ υ upsilon
Momentum: kg ⋅ m ×
c eV
= Ε ε epsilon Ν ν nu Ω ω omega
s q c Φ φ phi Ο ο omicron Ξ ξ xi
Γ γ gamma Π π pi Ψ ψ psi
Η η eta Θ θ theta Ζ ζ zeta

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 21 of 22


TRIG IDENTITIES COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS
− ix −x
i 2sin x = e − e
ix
2 sinh x = e − e
x
Rectangular to Cylindrical:
2 cos x = eix + e− ix 2 cosh x = e x + e − x To obtain: A ( r , φ , z ) = rˆ A r + φˆ A φ + zˆ A z
eix = cos x + i sin x
Ar = x 2 + y 2 rˆ = xˆ cos φ + yˆ sin φ
sin ( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B
y
cos ( A ± B ) = cos A cos B m sin A sin B φ = tan −1 φˆ = − xˆ sin φ + yˆ cos φ
x
 A+ B  A−B  z=z zˆ = zˆ
sin A + sin B = 2 sin   cos  
 2   2  Cylindrical to Rectangular:

 A+ B  A−B  To obtain: r ( x, y, z ) = xx
ˆ + yyˆ + zzˆ
cos A + cos B = 2 cos   cos  
 2   2  x = r cos φ xˆ = rˆ cos φ − φˆ cos φ
y = r sin φ φˆ = rˆ sin φ + yˆ cos φ
GEOMETRY z=z zˆ = zˆ
SPHERE ELLIPSE Rectangular to Spherical:
Area A = 4πr 2 Area A = πAB
To obtain: A ( r , θ, φ) = rˆ Ar + èˆ Aθ + φ̂
φAφ
4 Circumference
Volume V = πr 3
3 a2 + b2 Ar = x 2 + y 2 + z 2
L ≈ 2π
2 rˆ = xˆ sin θ cos φ + yˆ sin θ sin φ + zˆ cos θ
z cos −1
θ=
COORDINATE SYSTEMS x2 + y2 + z2
Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinates:
èˆ = xˆ cos θ cos φ + yˆ cos θ sin φ − zˆ sin θ
r ( x, y, z ) = xxˆ + yyˆ + zzˆ x̂ is a unit vector
y
φ = tan −1 φˆ = − xˆ sin φ + yˆ cos φ
r = x2 + y2 + z 2 x
Spherical to Rectangular:
Spherical Coordinates:
To obtain: r ( x, y, z ) = xxˆ + yyˆ + zzˆ
P(r , θ, φ) r is distance from center
θ is angle from vertical x = r sin θ cos φ
φ is the CCW angle from the x-axis xˆ = rˆ sin θ cos φ − èˆ cos θ cos φ − φˆ sin φ
r̂ , è̂ , and φ̂
φ are functions of position—their y = r sin θ sin φ
orientation depends on where they are located.
yˆ = rˆ sin θ sin φ + èˆ cos θ sin φ + φˆ cos φ
Cylindrical Coordinates:
z = r cos θ zˆ = rˆ cos θ − èˆ sin θ
C(r , φ, z ) r is distance from the vertical (z) axis
φ is the CCW angle from the x-axis
z is the vertical distance from origin

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 22 of 22