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Access and use

Archive and repository administrators must ensure that designated users can easily
access digital objects on a day-to-day basis.
Copyright and access
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
DRM refers to those technologies which have been specifically developed for
managing digital rights.
Set of technologies that enable content owners to specify and control: the access
they want to give consumers and the conditions under which it is given.
DRM GOALS
1. DRM should provide protection of digital content. This type of protection is
typically provided by the encrypting technique, which enables authors and
publishers to send digital content across an unsecured network, such as the
Internet; this way the content can only be read by the intended recipients.
2. DRM should enable secure distribution. Once the content is protected via
DRM encryption, the proper key is needed to decrypt the content and make it
readable. Without this key, the file is useless. Anyone can have access to the
encrypted content, but it will be of no use without the decryption key. Today,
128- 256 bit keys are in common use and they are resistant to attack.
3. DRM should ensure content authenticity. Nowadays a one-way hash function
is most widely used in order to provide this functionality.
4. DRM should provide for transaction non-repudiation. Both in the physical and
electronic world, it is important for participants to be able to prove that any
given transaction actually took place. In the physical market, the customers
would receive a receipt which will be sufficient as a proof of payment. The
analogy to the above in the digital world is the digital signature. Two keys are used:
a) A private key, which is owned by a transaction participant and kept secret. A
participant signs the transaction when he encrypts a part of it with his private key.
b) If someone would like to verify the authenticity of the transaction, he can obtain the
participants public key and attempt to decrypt the signature. If the decryption
operation is successful, market participants trust that the private key holder
participated in the original transaction.
5. DRM should support participant identification. In order to identify a participant, digital
certificates are necessary. They prove the connection between the person in the physical
world and other personal information provided by this person (for example on the
Internet).

DRM Techniques
DRM systems typically include the following techniques:
Encryption

DRM uses a cryptographic algorithm to encrypt content that needs a secret key a particular
phrase or string of numbers. Only the holder(s) of this key can later unlock the content and read
it. The algorithm scrambles data hence making it unreadable to everyone except the recipient
(for ex. secure sites use encryption). Decryption is the process of decoding data that has been
encrypted into a secret format and it requires a secret key or password. However, encrypting the
content is merely one of the important aspects of securing the data. Another very important
aspect is managing the decryption key. The creation of the key, its transferring to the customers,
ways of enforcing time limitations (for ex. making the software license valid only for 3 months)
and preventing theft or transfer of a key are the properties of the encryption that have to be
considered at all times.
In summary, encryption is the technology that supports electronic document management and
control. It must be noted that great care need to be undertaken in its implementation in order to
comply with the security standards foreseen to be met.
Public / private keys
They belong to a family of cryptographic techniques that make use of the one-way nature of
certain mathematical functions, resulting in a system where two separate keys are used. They
are usually called "public" and "private" keys and each key can be used to encrypt or decrypt
data. If one of the keys is used to encrypt content then the other one must be used to decrypt it,
and knowing one key does help in discovering the other.
That key can enable reading messages sent by the sender, or encrypt messages that only the
sender can read; only the sender can create messages using private key.
Asymmetric cryptography is extremely powerful; it can provide functions in addition to
confidentiality (such as digital signatures), and is highly appreciated in large user communities.
However it is also extremely compute-intensive. This is why in practical systems such as SSL
and most DRM systems it is usually used in combination with symmetric cryptography, also
known as "secret key" cryptography. It belongs to a family of cryptographic techniques where
the same key is used to both encrypt and decrypt messages. The main weakness of this type of
cryptography is in key management
Digital certificates
Similar to the physical reality where a person has to identify himself upon payment, a
Person has to prove his virtual identity in the e-market with the help of a digital certificate. A
digital certificate is actually the link between the person and his virtual identity. It is created
using a cryptographic technique that connects a persons identity with his/her public
cryptographic key. The digital signatures are issued by certificate authorities that offer
guarantees that the public key belongs to the person whose name is in the certificate.
Watermarking
Watermarking is the process of secretly embedding information into a data source in such a way
its very existence is hidden. In digital sense, it represents a method of embedding a copyright
stamp into an image, sound or a video. The watermark is embedded in a way that the quality of
the host media is practically maintained and it cannot be captured by a human eye (for images)
or ear (for audio content). Only the knowledge of a secret key allows extracting the watermark
from the original image.

Access control
Copy protection attempts to find ways for limiting the access to copyrighted material and/or
inhibiting the copy process itself. Examples of copy protection include encrypted digital TV
broadcast, access controls to copyrighted software through the use of license servers and
technical copy protection mechanisms on the media. DRM systems not only have to provide
prevention from copying, but also access control. This way intellectual property will be protected
by, for example, encrypting the data so that they can only be accessed by authorized users.
Secure communications protocols
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) are cryptographic protocols
that provide secure communications on the Internet. The protocols allow client/server
applications to communicate in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping (intercepting of
conversations by unintended recipients), tampering and message forgery.
IPsec (short for IP security) is a standard for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by
encrypting and/or authenticating all IP packets. IPsec provides security at the network layer.
Fingerprinting
Another method to protect digital media is to fingerprint each copy with the purchaser's
information. If the purchaser makes illegitimate copies, they will contain his name. Fingerprints
present an extension to watermarking and can be both visible and invisible.
Rights specification language
Rights Specification Language presents the mechanism for describing the author or publisher
rights. This data dictionary of rights terms gives a standard vocabulary to describe the DRM and
other relevant issues.
Trust infrastructure
To support the market, DRM has to do more than simply provide a secure package containing
content and accompanying metadata. DRM must also support transport of this package from
the author and through the market all the way to the consumer. The term "trust infrastructure"
refers to the technologies that support transport, opening, displaying and disposing the
package.
Hashing
DRM can protect the digital content from being manipulated by using a so called one-way hash
function. A one-way hash function takes digital content of any length as input and produces an
output message called a message digest. Any change to the content will produce a completely
different message digest. Upon purchasing a digital content on the WEB, in presence of a doubt
a customer should be able to check if the content is authentic by performing the one-way hash
function and comparing his result with the message digest provided to him from the content
provider. If both outputs are the same, the customer can be sure that the obtained content has
not been tampered and is authentic.