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# EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

## Version Feb. 20, 2008

Introduction
Unipolar PWM inverters (also known as Class D or switching amplifiers) efficiently amplify a
small input signal Vcont . The output voltage to the load is either +Vdc, Vdc, or zero,
depending on whether Vcont and Vcont are greater or smaller than a reference triangle wave
Vtri. The output load voltage contains a replica of Vcont , and also strong harmonics centered
about even multiples of mf, where mf is the ratio of the reference triangle wave frequency with
f
respect to the frequency of Vcont. , i.e, m f = tri .
f cont
The amplifier operates on the principle of comparing Vcont (and Vcont) to a reference triangle
wave Vtri . This principle is illustrated in Figure 1.
Vcont

Vtri

Vcont

## Figure 1. Vcont , Vcont , and Vtri

The illustration given has ma = 0.9, where ma is the ratio of peak control voltage to peak triangle
voltage. The logic used to operate the four switches in the H-Bridge configuration of Figure 2 is
as follows:
Vcont > Vtri , close switch A+, open switch A , so voltage Va = Vdc
Vcont < Vtri , open switch A+, close switch A , so voltage Va = 0
Vcont > Vtri , close switch B+, open switch B , so voltage Vb = Vdc
Vcont < Vtri , open switch B+, close switch B , so voltage Vb = 0

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008
30-40Vdc
A+
+
Va

B+
a

## Freewheeling diodes (optional in this

circuit because the MOSFETS used have
adequate internal reverse diodes)

+
Vb

## High-frequency capacitor to provide

ripple current from DC source
Vload = Va Vb

## Figure 2. Four MOSFET switches configured as an H-Bridge

(note that the MOSFET source nodes are not all at the same potential, thus requiring
isolated firing circuits for A+ and B+)
The resulting load voltage is shown in Figure 3. (Note see the Appendix for a more complete
graphical development of Figure 3). The harmonics in this waveform are high-frequency side
bands 2kftri fcont, 2kftri 3fcont, 2kftri 5fcont, and so forth, for k = 1, 2, 3, ), where ftri is
the frequency of the triangular wave, and fcont is the frequency of Vcont. Waveforms for ma =
0.5 and 1.5 are shown in Figures 4 and 5.
The magnitudes of the load voltage frequency components, taken from , are shown in Table 1.
For small ma, many of these values are large in relation to the fundamental. However, as long as
mf is large, the undesired high frequency components are relatively easy to filter at the load, so
that the output load voltage resembles Vcont reasonably well.

Figure 3. Load voltage (Vload = Va Vb) with ma = 0.9 (i.e., in the linear region)

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5

1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
Figure 4. Load voltage (Vload = Va Vb) with ma = 0.5 (i.e., in the linear region)

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
Figure 5. Load voltage (Vload = Va Vb) with ma = 1.5 (i.e., in the overmodulation region)

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Table 1. RMS magnitudes of load voltage frequency components, with respect to

Vdc
2

## (for ftri >> fcont)

Frequency

fcont
2ftri fcont
2ftri 3fcont
2ftri 5fcont
4ftri fcont
4ftri 3fcont
4ftri 5fcont
4ftri 7fcont

ma = 0.2
0.200

ma = 0.4
0.400

ma = 0.6
0.600

ma = 0.8
0.800

ma = 1.0
1.000

0.190

0.326

0.370

0.314

0.181

0.024

0.071

0.139

0.212

0.013

0.033

0.163

0.157

0.008

0.105

0.068

0.012

0.070

0.132

0.115

0.009

0.034

0.084

0.119

0.017

0.050

2ftri cluster

4ftri cluster

As ma decreases, the on-times pulses in Figure 3 get proportionally smaller, linearly decreasing
the rms value of the fundamental component of the inverter output (see Figure 4). As ma
increases beyond 1.0, then overmodulation occurs, and the on-time pulses near the centers of the
output waveform gradually merge (see Figure 5). As ma becomes very large (i.e., 5 or 10), all of
the on-time pulses merge, and the inverter output becomes a square wave with predominantly
low-frequency harmonics (i.e., 3rd, 5th, 7th, etc.). The variation of the rms value of the no-load
fundamental output with ma is shown in Figure 6 (taken from ).
V1rms
asymptotic to
square wave
value

4 Vdc

2
Vdc
2

ma

1
linear

overmodulation

saturation

## Figure 6. Variation of RMS value of no-load fundamental inverter

output voltage (V1rms ) with ma

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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In our application, Vcont will be a 60Hz signal taken from a 4.5Vrms AC wall wart transformer
plugged into a 120V wall output. The triangle wave will have a frequency of about 20kHz.
The Control Circuit and Firing Logic
The PWM inverter control circuit is shown in Figures 7, 8a, and 8b. The purpose of this control
circuit is to produce firing signals for the four H-Bridge MOSFETs. Firing signal V(A+,A)
controls MOSFETs A+ and A. Firing signal V(B+,B) controls MOSFETs B+ and B. When
V(A+,A) is high, A+ is on and A is off. When V(A+,A) is low, A+ is off and A
is on. The B-side of the H-Bridge works the same way with V(B+,B). Thus,

## node voltages Va and Vb in Figure 2 will be working-voltage replicas of firing signals

V(A+,A) and V(B+,B), respectively, and
Vload = Va Vb will be a working voltage replica of [V(A+,A) V(B+,B)].

## The purposes of the four ICs in this circuit are

2W, DC-DC converter chip to produce isolated 12V from one plug-in 12V regulated wall
wart DC power supply. The wall 0V output of the DC converter chip will not be connected
to the wall wart ground.
Waveform generator generates the triangle wave. Regulated 12Vdc input keeps the
waveform steady and helps to eliminate DC in the output.
Op amp with unity gain, it buffers the DC-filtered output of the waveform generator so that
the triangle wave signal has the low impedance and low noise necessary to properly drive the
comparators. It also inverts the control voltage to produce Vcont.
Comparator performs the PWM comparison logic, and sinks enough current so that the
opto couplers switch on-and-off properly. Because comparisons are made between voltages
that can be positive or negative, the comparator chip must powered by a supply voltage (in
our case 12V), and the comparator chip output is either +12V, or 12V.

## See the Appendix for IC pin configurations.

Opto couplers (not shown in this document) will be driven by V(A+,A) and V(B+,B), relative
to 12V, and will electrically isolate the control electronics from the MOSFET source nodes and
gate drivers. V(A+,A) and V(B+,B) are related to the logic on page 1 and to the circuit in
Figure 7 as follows: for A+ and A, comparator pins are
Pin 7 corresponds to firing signal V(A+,A)
Pin 5 = Vcont
Pin 6 = Vtri
If Pin 5 > Pin 6, then Pin 7 floats, so V(A+,A) = 12V w.r.t ground (and 24V w.r.t. 12V)
If Pin 5 < Pin 6, then Pin 7 = 12V, so V(A+,A) = 12V w.r.t ground (and 0V w.r.t. 12V)

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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## +12Vdc regulated from 2W,

DC converter chip

red

0.01F

High-pass filter to
block DC

V(A+,A) V(B+,B)

## These W resistors can get hot - keep them off

the surface of the protoboard
1.5k, W
red

red

(freq. control)

100k

0.01F

1.5k, W

Filtered and
buffered
triangle wave

blue

270k
Vcont

blue
14

violet

blue

1k
12Vdc
regulated from
2W, DC
converter chip

1k
500 trimmer

Approx
22kHz
triangle
wave

10k

## (For control electronics wiring with solid

#22 wire, use green for ground, red for
+12Vdc, violet for 12Vdc, and blue for
all others)

1k

Comp

9.53k

1k
trimmer

270k

1k

Vcont
green

green

Op Amp

Waveform Gen.
1

blue
blue

Vcont

green
violet

violet

violet

## Protoboard common connected to 0V output pin

2W, DC converter chip
Figure 7. PWM inverter control circuit
(note be sure to use the wiring color code to
make troubleshooting easier)
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green

Vcont

## 60Hz AC signal from AC wall

wart and 500 potentiometer

## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

## You will build this

part the following
week
Jack for DC
wall wart, with
0.1F capacitor

## 500 pot for

Vcont
+12Vdc isolated rail
4

2W, DC-DC
converter
Jack for AC
wall wart, with
0.1F capacitor
12Vdc isolated rail
Protoboard common (i.e., the green wires)
(protoboard common is the 0V output pin on the DC converter chip, and is not
connected to the wall wart ground)
Figure 8a. The 16 long piece of 1 x 10 wood piece with inverter control circuit mounted in the lower 4

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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## Note see schematic

for new connection

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

## Note see schematic

for new connection

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

## For B+ and B, the comparator pins are

Pin 1 corresponds to firing signal V(B+,B)
Pin 3 = Vcont
Pin 2 = Vtri
If Pin 3 > Pin 2, then Pin 1 floats, so V(B+,B) = 12V w.r.t ground (and 24V w.r.t. 12V)
If Pin 3 < Pin 2, then Pin 1 = 12V, so V(B+,B) = 12V w.r.t ground (and 0V w.r.t. 12V)
The Experiment

When checking out your circuit, make sure that each chip is receiving the proper +12V and 12V
supply voltages. Do this using multimeter measurements directly at the appropriate pins on the
chips.
Step 1
The Triangle Waveform Generator

1. The objective of Step 1 is to have the waveform generator portion of the circuit working
properly. Do not plug in either wall wart yet. Build your project on a 16 long piece of 1
x 10 wood, occupying only about the lower 4 inches of the wood. Carefully connect the
DC wall wart jack (with 0.1F ceramic capacitor), the 2W DC converter chip, and the
waveform generator IC plus its supporting components and high-pass filter. Use the sockets
provided. The 2W DC converter chip produces isolated 12V, and its output ground (termed
protoboard common here) is also electrically isolated from the ground terminal of the DC
wall wart. To maintain isolation, the protoboard common must not be connected to the
ground of the wall wart.
2. Perform the power supply wiring continuity check. With the wall wart disconnected, use a
multimeter to

Confirm that the ground terminal of the wall wart is isolated from the 0V output pin
of the DC converter chip.
Confirm that the 12V wall wart output terminal is isolated from the +12V output pin
of the DC converter chip.

3. Perform the following DC converter chip test. Connect the 12V wall wart so that the DC
converter chip is powering your circuit. Then,

Check the +12V and 12V output voltages of the DC converter chip. If either drops
more than 0.5V from nominal, then your circuit is overloading the chip. In that case,
you likely have a wiring short circuit, other wiring problem, or possibly a failed
component. Unplug the wall wart, debug, and fix the problem before proceeding.
Overloading the DC converter chip will cause it to overheat and fail.

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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4. Using an oscilloscope, observe the output of the triangle-wave generator with respect to the
protoboard common. The triangle wave should have a frequency of approximately 22kHz
(15%) and max/min values of approximately 4V. Note any DC offset by observing the
maximum and minimum values (see Figure 9). Adjust the 500 trimmer potentiometer until
the triangle wave has equal rise and fall times (see Figure 10). To help make the
determination, it is helpful to single step through oscilloscope snapshots.

Indicates DC
offset

## Figure 9. Output of triangle-wave generator (with respect to

protoboard common)

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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5. Confirm that the output of the high-pass filter is free from DC offset and is an idealized
triangle wave (see Figure 11). Save a snapshot of your waveform.

DC offset
minimized
Save screen
snapshot #1
Figure 11. Output of high-pass filter

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Step 2
Producing Vcont and Vcont, and Testing the Comparators

6. Disconnect the DC wall wart, and then finish wiring the protoboard circuit. For Vcont, you
will use a 4.5Vrms AC wall wart and 500 potentiometer to adjust Vcont. Use a 0.1F
ceramic capacitor on the AC wall wart jack. It is important that you do not interchange
the AC and DC wall warts! The AC wall warts are marked with yellow paint. But before
connecting the AC wall wart, energize your circuit and confirm with an oscilloscope that
both V(A+,A) and V(B+,B), with respect to protoboard 12V reference, are varying
sharply from +24V to 0V. Both waveforms should have a 50% duty cycle. Save a
simultaneous snapshot of the two waveforms. Expect to see the waveforms shown in
Figure 12. Use your multimeter to confirm that your DC measurements are within a few
tenths of a volt compared to those given alongside Figure 12.
For ma = 0, use a
multimeter to check the
following DC voltages
with respect to 12V ref:
V(A+,A) 11.8Vdc
V(B+,B) 11.8Vdc

Save screen
snapshot #2
Figure 12. Output control voltages V(A+,A) and V(B+,B), with respect to
protoboard 12V reference, with Vcont = 0 (i.e., the ma = 0 case)
7. Connect the AC wall wart, and raise the 500 Vcont potentiometer for maximum Vcont.

Use your oscilloscope to simultaneously view Vcont and Vcont with respect to protoboard
common. They should be 180 out of phase. Adjust the 1k, Vcont trimmer potentiometer
so that Vcont has the same rms magnitude as Vcont. With ma at the maximum, use a
multimeter to check AC voltage [V(A+,A) V(B+,B)]. Expect about 21Vac.

8. Lower the 500 Vcont potentiometer for minimum Vcont. Move the oscilloscope probes
back to observe V(A+,A) and V(B+,B) with respect to protoboard 12V reference.
Then, gradually raise the 500 Vcont potentiometer so that Vcont increases from zero to
about 3Vrms. Note the variations in the two waveforms as Vcont increases. The two
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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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waveforms should be more-or-less centered together (see Figures 13 and 14). When the on
period of one waveform gets wider, the on period of the other waveform gets narrower.
Save one simultaneous snapshot of the two waveforms.

Save screen
snapshot #3
Figure 13. Output control voltage V(A+,A) on top, and V(B+,B) on bottom, with respect
to protoboard 12V reference, with ma > 0 (the situation shown is where Vcont is positive)

Figure 14. Output control voltage V(A+,A) on top, and V(B+,B) on bottom, with respect
to protoboard 12V reference, with ma > 0 (the situation shown is where Vcont is negative)

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Step 3
Testing Idealized Load Voltage Vload = Va Vb

## 9. Now, examine Figure 2. The firing circuit logic works as follows.

If V(A+,A) is high, then
MOSFET A+ is on, MOSFET A is off, and Va = Vdc.
Else
MOSFET A+ is off, MOSFET A is on, and Va = 0.
End If
If V(B+,B) is high, then
MOSFET B+ is on, MOSFET B is off, and Vb = Vdc.
Else
MOSFET B+ is off, MOSFET B is on, and Vb = 0.
End If
To observe the idealized load voltage Vload = Va Vb, do the following:
disconnect the Channel 2 probe from the oscilloscope,
connect the Channel 1 probe to V(A+,A), and the ground clip of the Channel 1
probe to V(B+, B), and
set the horizontal time scale to 5ms/division so you can see the 60Hz waveform.
Expect to see something similar to Figure 15, where ma is slightly greater than 1 so that the
circuit is operating just into the overmodulation region. If necessary, adjust the 500 Vcont
potentiometer until you see a waveform like that shown below. The split portion should be
the same width in both half cycles. If not, adjust the op amp gain for Vcont. until the splits
have equal widths. Save a snapshot of your waveform.
split

split
Save screen
snapshot #4
Figure 15. Idealized Vload, with ma just into the overmodulation region
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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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10. Since the triangle wave frequency is more than 300 times higher than 60Hz, and furthermore
it is asynchronous with the 60Hz, the averaging feature of the oscilloscope can be used to
remove most of the high frequency components and see the 60Hz component of the idealized
Vload. While using the averaging feature, experiment by raising and lowering Vcont to
observe the linear, overmodulation, and near-saturation regions. Expect to see waveforms
similar to those in Figures 16, 17, and 18. Save a snapshot of your waveform with ma 1.

Save screen
snapshot #5
Figure 16. Idealized Vload observed in the scope averaging mode, with ma in the
linear region

Figure 17. Idealized Vload observed in the scope averaging mode, with ma just into
the overmodulation region

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Figure 18. Idealized Vload observed in the scope averaging mode, with ma almost into
the saturation (i.e., square wave) region
11. The FFT capability of the scope is useful in determining the magnitude of the significant
frequencies found in the idealized load voltage waveform. Using the scope screen shown in
Figure 15, adjust Vcont so that (visually) 0.90 < ma < 1 (i.e., just prior to the formation of the
gap in Figure 15). Then, press the math key to use the FFT feature. Adjust the span to
100kHz, adjust the center frequency to 50kHz, and adjust the time axis until the sample rate
is 200kSa/s (kilosamples per second). You should see something similar to Figure 19.
Freeze and capture the oscilloscope trace. The frequencies with the largest components are
easily identified. The frequency span, together with the x-axis grid (or cursors), identify their
frequencies.

## 2ftri cluster (46kHz)

60Hz
component

4ftri cluster
(92kHz)

Figure 19. FFT of idealized Vload in the linear region with ma 1.0, where the
frequency span and center frequency are set to 100kHz and 50kHz, respectively
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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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By pushing More FFT you can observe and adjust the db scale. If the db scale is
10db/division, while the voltage scale is 10V/division, then each scale volt corresponds to
1db.
Use the cursors to measure the magnitude of the 2ftri cluster (i.e., approx. 46kHz) with
respect to the 60Hz component (in scale volts). Save a snapshot of your waveform.
Convert your volts to db. Then compute the ratio from the log10 relationship. For Figure
20, the computation yields

Save screen
snapshot #6
Figure 20. Determining the magnitude of the strongest high-frequency cluster with
respect to the fundamental (the 46kHz cluster is 7.81V (in dB) down from the
fundamental)
V
7.81db = 20 log10 46kHz
V60 Hz

7.81

V
, so 46kHz = 10 20 = 0.31.
V60 Hz

## Compare your calculations to the values in Table 1.

Similarly, for the 4ftri cluster (i.e., approx. 92kHz), the values in Figure 21 yield
V
16.6db = 20 log10 92kHz
V60 Hz

16.6

V
, so 92kHz = 10 20 = 0.148.
V60 Hz

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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## Figure 21. Determining the magnitude of the second-strongest high-frequency cluster

with respect to the fundamental (the 92kHz cluster is 16.6db down from the
fundamental)
12. The lower-frequency harmonics of Vcont become much more significant in the
overmodulation and saturation regions. With 0.90 < ma < 1.0, change the span to 1kHz, and
the center frequency to 500Hz. Adjust the sample rate to 40kSa/s. The FFT results should be
similar to those in Figure 22. Note that the harmonic multiples of 60Hz below 1kHz are at
least 30db down from the fundamental (remember that 20db is a power of 10, 40db is a
power of 100, and so on.

Figure 22. Low-frequency harmonics for 0.9 < ma < 1.0 are at least 30db down
13. Raise ma to its maximum value so that you approach saturation. At this point, the waveform
takes on the characteristics of a square wave, which has odd harmonics of the fundamental,
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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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whose magnitudes decrease in proportion to harmonic order (i.e., the 3rd harmonic magnitude
is 1/3 of the fundamental, and so on). Computations for Figures 23 and 24 show that the 3rd
and 5th harmonic magnitudes are 0.30 and 0.13 of the fundamental, respectively.

Figure 23. Near saturation, the 3rd harmonic magnitude is 0.30 of the fundamental

Figure 24. Near saturation, the 5th harmonic magnitude is 0.13 of the fundamental

Reference
 N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics Converters, Applications,
and Design, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Parts List
Waveform Generator, Intersil ICL8038CCPD or NTE Electronics NTE864 (Mouser #5708038CCPD or #526-NTE864)
Dual Comparator, Fairchild LM393N (Mouser #512-LM393N)
Dual Op Amp, Texas Instruments TLE2072CP (Newark #08F9176, or Mouser #595TLE2072CP)
14-pin DIP socket for the waveform generator
Two 8-pin DIP sockets (for the comparator and op amp)
2W dual output DC-DC converter, SIP package, 12Vdc input, isolated 12Vdc outputs, C&D
Technologies NMH1212SC (Mouser #580- NMH1212SC)
One 8-pin SIP socket for DC-DC converter, Mill-Max 310-93-108-41-001000 (Mouser
#575-193108)
Protoboard (large), Global Specialties EXP-300 (Newark #17C6898 or Mouser #510-1031300)
Two wall wart jacks (identical for both DC and AC)
Three 1 corner brackets (holes enlarged for wall wart jacks and 500 potentiometer)
One 2-terminal 20A terminal block
One 3-terminal 20A terminal block
500 potentiometer, W, linear taper, 24mm, solder lugs, Alpha (Mouser #31VF205-F)
500, W, 3/8 square single-turn cermet trimmer potentiometers, Bourns 3386W-1-501
(Mouser 652-3386W-1-501-LF). These are marked 501 for 50101 ohms.
1k, W, 3/8 square single-turn cermet trimmer potentiometers, Bourns 3386W-1-102
(Mouser 652-3386W-1-102-LF). These are marked 102 for 10102 ohms.
16 long piece of 1 by 10 wood
Two 1.5k, W resistors (in student parts bin)
Two 270k, W resistors (in student parts bin)
Four 1k, W resistors (in student parts bin)
10k, W resistor (in student parts bin)
100k, W resistor (in student parts bin)
9.53k, W resistor (in student parts bin)
Two 0.01F, 100V ceramic disk capacitors (in student parts bin)
Extra parts for the student parts bin and screw cabinet, at least
5 of the dual comparators
5 of the dual op amps
5 of the wall wart jacks
5 of the 500 square trimmer potentiometers
5 of the 1k square trimmer potentiometers
5 of the 8-pin DIP sockets
5 of the 14-pin DIP sockets
5 of the 8-pin SIP sockets

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Extra parts (only for the TA parts bin), double those in the student parts bin, plus at least
10 of the waveform generator chips
10 of the 2W dual output DC-DC converter chips
Plastic bags for parts
4x6, 4mil antistatic for small parts
8x10, 6mil for holding everything
Other supplies in ENS212
4.5Vrms AC wall warts (marked with yellow paint), 2.1mm, Stancor STA-3545B (Newark
#84F2082)

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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H BRIDGE INVERTER
Vdc

A+

Va

B+

Vb
B

Switching rules
Either A+ or A is always closed,
but never at the same time *
Either B+ or B is always closed,
but never at the same time *
*same time closing would cause a
short circuit from Vdc to ground

## Corresponding values of Va and Vb

A+ closed, Va = Vdc
A closed, Va = 0
B+ closed, Vb = Vdc
B closed, Vb = 0

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

H BRIDGE INVERTER
Vdc

A+

Va

B+

## Corresponding values of Vab

A+ closed and B closed, Vab = Vdc
A+ closed and B+ closed, Vab = 0
B+ closed and A closed, Vab = Vdc
B closed and A closed, Vab = 0

Vb
B

## The free wheeling diodes permit current

to flow even if all switches did open
These diodes also permit lagging
currents to flow in inductive loads

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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But is a square wave output good enough? Not for us! Sinusoidal load
voltage is usually the most desirable. But how do we approximate a
sinusoidal output with only three states (+Vdc, Vdc, 0) ?
The answer: Unipolar PWM modulation

Vcont

Vtri

Vcont
Vcont > Vtri , close switch A+, open
switch A , so voltage Va = Vdc
Vcont < Vtri , open switch A+, close
switch A , so voltage Va = 0
Vcont > Vtri , close switch B+, open
switch B , so voltage Vb = Vdc
Vcont < Vtri , open switch B+, close
switch B , so voltage Vb = 0

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Va = Vdc

Va = 0

Vb = Vdc

Vb = 0

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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Vdc

Vdc

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## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

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1.5
1
0.5

ma = 0.50
(linear region)

0
-0.5
-1
-1.5

1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5

Page 29 of 34

## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

2
1.5
1
0.5

ma = 1.5
(overmodulation
region)

0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5

Page 30 of 34

## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008
Vdc

Vdc

Mot

Mot
A

A+

B+

B+

Mot

Mot
A

Vdc

Vdc

A+

B+

A+

B+

A+

Page 31 of 34

## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

The ICs are powered by a 2W dual output DC-DC converter chip, 12Vdc input, isolated 12Vdc
outputs. Details for the dual output converter and its socket are shown below.

Input

Wall wart

Output

Op amps

Notes for the above converter chip keep the input and output sections isolated from each
other.
When energizing your circuit, check the +12V and 12V outputs to make sure they are OK. Low
voltages indicate a short circuit in your wiring, which can burn out the chip in a few minutes.

Page 32 of 34

## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

DC-DC Converter

Dual Op Amp

Dual Comparator

Page 33 of 34

## EE362L, Power Electronics, PWM Inverter Control Circuit

Version Feb. 20, 2008

Page 34 of 34