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# BAB III.

PERHITUNGAN ABUTMENT :
1. Input
Dimension

B2

B1
Rb1

+ 80.30
H1
+ 79.00

Rh1

H5

H10

B3

Slope 1:n

H6
+ 75.00

HT
H2

ho
+ 74.00
Hw2
Hw1

+ 69.00
H3
H4
+

68.10

BT
B5

B4
Unit Weight
Soil
Soil (saturated)
Concrete

B6

T
=
a
=
Thickness of pavement =

1.30 t/m3
1.60 t/m3
2.40 t/m3

Reaction of superstructure
Normal
Vn=Rd+Rl
137.96 ton
Seismic
Ve=Rd
71.27 ton
He=
12.83 ton
Type of bearing
Movable

HT
=
12.20 m
B1
=
0.70 m
B2
=
0.35 m
B3
=
0.40 m
B4
=
1.20 m
B5
=
1.00 m
B6
=
2.80 m
BT
=
5.00 m
H1
=
1.30 m
H1 max
=
1.30 m
H2
=
10.00 m
H3
=
0.40 m
H4
=
0.50 m
H5
=
0.40 m
H6
=
0.30 m
H10
=
11.30 m
ho
=
9.30 m
Abutment width BL =
5.00 m
Support from Parapet =
0.35 m
Rh1
=
0.50 m
Rb1
=
0.35 m
Hw1
=
2.00 m
Hw2
=
4.00 m
Slope
=
0.0 slope 1:n
(in case no soil on toe side, input "0")

## (He=2 kh Rd, for fixed bearing)

(He=kh Rd, for movable bearing)

7.0 ton
0.30 m
3.00 m
0.05 m

## With Impact Plate?

Yes
(Input Yes or No)
Width of Corbel Lp=
0.30 m

## Thickness of Impact Plate =

Length of Impact plate
Soil depth above plate

## (Input Fixed or Movable)

0.70
t/m2

0.30 m
3.00 m
0.40 m

Parameters
q:
q' :
:
:
:
1:
2:
E1:
E2:
:
c:
kh :
Uc:
f:
N-SPT :
Qa :
Qae:

unit weight of earth (t/m3)
ground surface angle (degree)
internal friction angle (degree)
friction angle between earth and wall (degree) normal
friction angle between earth and earth (degree) normal
friction angle between earth and wall (degree) seismic
friction angle between earth and earth (degree) seismic
wall angle (degree)
cohesion of soil (t/m2)
(do not consider)
Uplift coefficient
Friction Coefficient =Tan b =
Allowable bearing capacity
Allowable bearing capacity

## Concrete Design Strength

Creep strain coefficient (concrete)
Reinforcement concrete
Allowable stress
ca
Concrete
sa
Re-Bar
a
Shearing
ma
Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar
sy
kgf/cm2
Young's modulus (reinforcement bar)
Young's Modulus Ratio
n

normal t/m2
seismic t/m2

kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2

(concrete)
(stirrup)

kgf/m2

0.70
0.00
1.30
0.00
40.00
26.70 (=2/3)
0.00
20.00 (=1/2)
33.80
0.00
0.00
0.18
1.00
0.60
60.00
25.00
( max.
37.50
( max.

25.00
37.50

Normal condition
200
0.0035

Seismic condition
200
0.0035

70
2500
7
14

105
3750
10.5
21

3000
2100000
24

3000
2100000
16

## t/m2 for soil foundation)

t/m2 for soil foundation)

2. Check
2.1 Stability Analysis

Overturning

Sliding
Settlement
(bearing capacity)

Normal condition
e=
0.30
BT / 6 =
0.83
(e < BT/6)
OK
Fs =Hu / H=
2.62
2.00
OK
Fs >
Qmax = 25.38
Qmax < Qa Check
Qa = 25.0

Seismic condition
e=
0.84
BT / 3 =
1.67
(e < BT/3)
OK
Fs =Hu / H=
1.39
1.25
OK
Fs >
Qmax =
38.34
Check
Qmax < Qa
Qae=
37.5

m
m

t/m2
t/m2

m
m

t/m2
t/m2

## 2.2 Structural Analysis

(1) Body

Section A-A
Normal

Bar arrangement
Back face
(tensile bar)
(vertical)

(mm)
spacing (mm)
As (cm2)
(mm)
Front face
(compressive bar)
(vertical)
spacing (mm)
( As' > 0.5 As, cm2 )
(mm)
Hoop bar
(horizontal)
interval (mm)
Max interval (mm)
Design dimensions
Effective width (whole width) (cm)
Concrete cover :
d1(cm)
d2(cm)
Effective height (cm) : d-d1(cm)
Mf (t m)
Nd (t)
S (t)
Checking of minimum reinforcement bar
Required bar (cm2)
Checking of allowable stress
Compressive stress c
kgf/cm2
Bending stress s
kgf/cm2
s'
kgf/cm2
Mean shearing stress m
kgf/cm2

25
90
273
25
180
ok
136 >=136.4

500
7.5
7.5
92.5
351.37
254.41
79.42
175
as rectangular beam
47 ok
1613 ok
1.99 ok

Section B-B
Seismic

Normal

25
90
273
25
180
ok
136 >=136.4
16
200
300
500
7.5
7.5
92.5
739.57
187.72
158.95
82
as column
101
1331
1381
3.83

25
180
136
25
180
ok
136 >=68.2

500
7.5
7.5
81.7
148.35
225.62
44.14

ok
ok
ok
ok

74
as rectangular beam
32 ok
1485 ok
3.84 ok

Seismic
25
180
136
25
180
ok
136 >=68.2
16
200
300
500
7.5
7.5
81.7
352.57
158.93
94.96
9
as column
77
1829
947
2.59

ok
ok
ok
ok

(2) Footing

Toe side
(Normal / Seismic)

Bar arrangement
Upper
(tensile bar)
(bridge axis)

(mm)
spacing (mm)
As1 (cm2)
(mm)
(compressive bar)
(bridge axis)
spacing (mm)
As2' (cm2, >0.5 As2)
(mm)
(distribution bar)
spacing (mm)
Aso (cm2, >As /3)
(mm)
Lower
(tensile bar)
(bridge axis)
spacing (mm)
As2 (cm2)
(mm)
(compressive bar)
(bridge axis)
spacing (mm)
As1' (cm2, >0.5 As1)
(mm)
(distribution bar)
spacing (mm)
Aso (cm2, >As /3)
Design dimensions
Effective width (unit width) (cm)
Concrete cover :
d1(cm)
d2(cm)
Effective height (cm) : d-d1(cm)
Mf
Nd
S
Checking of minimum reinforcement bar
Required bar (cm2)
Checking of allowable stress
Compressive stress
Bending stress
Mean shearing stress

Heel side
Normal
25
150

25
300
ok
16.36 >=8.18
19
300
ok
9.45 >=5.45
25
300
16.36

Seismic
25
150
32.72

19
100
ok
28.35 >=4.50

19
100
ok
28.35 >=10.91

19
150
ok
18.90 >=5.45

25
300
ok
16.36 >=4.50
19
200
ok
14.18 >=5.45

25
300
ok
16.36 >=16.36
19
200
ok
14.18 >=5.45

100
7.5
7.5
42.5
16.41
0.00
26.51

100
7.5
7.5
42.5
30.10
0.00
16.86

100
7.5
7.5
42.5
84.98
0.00
59.40

9.19

16.85

30.63

19.98 ok
1,332.96 ok
3.52 ok

28.51 ok
1,262.70 ok
2.31 ok

92.92 ok
3,495.12 ok
8.00 ok

(3) Parapet

## With Impact Plate

Bar arrangement
Back face
(tensile bar)
(vertical)

(mm)
spacing (mm)
As1 (cm2)
(mm)
(compressive bar)
(vertical)
spacing (mm)
As1 (cm2, >As3/2)
(mm)
(distribution bar)
(horizontal)
spacing (mm)
As2 (cm2, >As1/3)
(mm)
Front face
(tensile bar)
(vertical)
spacing (mm)
As3 (cm2, >As1/2)
(mm)
(compressive bar)
(vertical)
spacing (mm)
As3 (cm2, >As1/2)
(mm)
(distribution bar)
(horizontal)
spacing (mm)
As6 (cm2, >As3/3)
Design dimensions
Effective width (unit width) (cm)
Concrete cover of fronf face (cm)
Concrete cover of back face (cm)
Effective height (cm)
Mf (t m)
Nd (t)
S (t)
Checking of minimum reinforcement bar
Required bar (cm2)
Checking of allowable stress
Compressive stress
Bending stress
Mean shearing stress

Normal

Normal
Seismic

12
250

12
250

16
250
8.04
16
250
ok
8.04 >=8.04
12
250
ok
4.52 >=4.50
16
125
16.08

12

12

16
250
ok
8.04 >=5.36
100
7

10

12
250
ok
4.52 >=4.50

16
125
ok
16.08 >=4.50
16
250
ok
8.04 >=5.36
100

28
3.348
0.000
0.000

10
25
0.920
0.000
1.073

6.07

1.65

17.07 ok
942.86 ok
0 ok

10.21 ok
513.06 ok
0.48 ok

## (4) Impact Plate and Corbel

Impact Plate
Upper
Bar arrangement
(main bar)

(mm)
spacing (mm)
As1 (cm2)
(mm)
(distribution bar)
spacing (mm)
As2 (cm2, >As1/6)
Design dimensions
Effective width (unit width) (cm)
Concrete cover (cm)
Effective height (cm)
Mf (t m)
Nd (t)
S (t)
Checking of minimum reinforcement bar
Required bar (cm2)
Checking of allowable stress
Compressive stress
Bending stress
Mean shearing stress

Corbel
Lower

Upper

16
300
ok
6.70 >=4.50
16
300
ok
6.70 >=4.50

19
150
18.90
12
250
ok
4.52 >=4.50

19
300
9.45
12
250
ok
4.52 >=4.50

100
5
25

100
5
25
4.097
-

100
7
23
2.147
-

7.57

4.31

34.42 ok
1018.96 ok
-

25.85 ok
1120.83 ok
-

Lower
16
300
ok
6.70 >=4.50
12
250
ok
4.52 >=4.50
100
7
23

DIMENSIONS OF ABUTMENT
Abutment Type
Super Structure Type

B2

B1

BM-100
T-Beam

Rb1
H1
Rh1
H5

H6

B3

H10
HT

H2

ho

H3
H4
B4

## Super structure Type

B5
BT

T-Beam

Dimensions
BT
H1

HT

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

12.20

0.70

0.35

0.35

1.20

1.00

2.80

Hw1
2.00

Hw2

Rh1

4.00

5.00
H1 max

Rb1

0.50

B6

H2

H3

H4

1.30
10.00
0.40
0.50
1.30
Width of impact plate (Corbel), Lp=

H5

H6

H10

ho

Abutment
Width BL

1.00

0.35

11.30

8.65

5.00

0.30

## Thickness of impact plate Ft=

Area

B2
No.

m2
Bimp

Body

15

1.30

10

16

11

17

18

H5

3
2

10.00

12

1: 0
H10
11.30

H6
B3

0.00

19
20

21
22'

H2
10.00

22

5.55

0.00

ho

13

3.10

8.65

2.00

0.40

1.092
3.240
0.840
0.147
14.532
3.114
0.576
0.960
1.344
6.000
0.216
0.108
32.169
160.845

2.075
1.550
2.075
2.017
1.550
2.000
0.800
1.700
3.133
2.500
2.400
2.350

11.550
10.225
10.400
9.450
5.225
3.783
0.633
0.700
0.633
0.250
11.750
11.500

2.266
5.022
1.743
0.296
22.525
6.228
0.461
1.632
4.211
15.000
0.518
0.254
60.156
300.78

12.613
33.129
8.736
1.389
75.930
11.781
0.365
0.672
0.851
1.500
2.538
1.242
150.746
753.73

12
13
14

1.30
1.30
1.30

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.384
0.384
1.920

0.800
0.600
0.400
0.600
0.400

0.000
0.900
0.767
0.900

0.767

Sub-total
Total

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.240
0.240
1.200

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.154
0.154
0.768

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.294
0.294
1.472

10
11

0.090
0.045

0.00
0.00

0.000
0.000

2.400
2.350

11.500
11.500

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
22'
23
23'
Sub-total
Total

1.925
0.630
0.630
0.045
2.750
0.963
0.061
15.540
1.514
8.680
0.560
33.43
167.16

1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.60
1.60

2.503
0.819
0.819
0.059
3.575
1.251
0.080
20.202
1.968
13.888
0.896
46.06
230.29

3.625
3.775
3.775
2.450
3.625
3.625
2.133
3.600
2.433
3.600
4.067

12.050
11.750
11.450
11.400
10.425
9.725
9.667
6.775
6.667
2.450
0.633

9.072
3.092
3.092
0.143
12.959
4.536
0.170
72.727
72.727
49.997
3.644
232.16
1160.79

30.155
9.623
9.378
0.667
37.269
12.168
0.770
136.869
136.869
34.026
0.567
408.36
2041.80

13'
14'
Hw2
4.00
Heel

5.00
B4

B5

1.20

1.00

Unit Weight
Soil
Soil (saturated)
Concrete

Canal Slope
Reaction
Normal
Vn= Rd+Rl=
Seismic
Ve= =Rd=
He=

BT

B6
2.80

1300 kg/m3
1600 kg/m3
2400 kg/m3

Acting Point (m)

10.85
3.775

0 Slope 1:n
137.96
71.27
12.83
0.70

ton
ton
ton
t/m2

Moment
X
Y
t.m/m
t.m/m

Soil

0.50

Distance
X
Y
m
m

2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40

23

5'
7

Vertical
t/m

0.455
1.350
0.350
0.061
6.055
1.298
0.240
0.400
0.560
2.500
0.090
0.045
13.404
67.02

Toe

14

unit
weight
t/m3

1
2
3
4
5
5'
6
7
8
9
10
11
Sub-total
Total

0.00
Hw1

B1

HT
12.20

0.35
0.30

0.35

WEIGHT OF ABUTMENT

H1

Unit :m
Support
from Parapet

Body
Soil

Hn=0

7/32

Toe
Heel

Xo=Mx/V
1.87 m
0.4 m
5.04 m

1.60
1.60

Yo=My/V
4.686 m
0.767 m
8.866 m

263881217.xls,Stability

EARTH PRESSURE
q

1.30

H10
11.30

HT
12.20

qs

Parameters

qa1

H1

H2
10.00

2.00
0.40
0.50
qw2

4.00

H3
H4
qa2

qu1

qa3

qu2
5.00

qs :
q' :
:
sat:
:
:
1:
2:
E1:
E2:
:
c:
kh :

unit weight of earth (t/m3)
unit weight of earth (t/m3)
ground surface angle (degree)
internal friction angle (degree)
friction angle between earth and wall (degree) normal
friction angle between earth and earth (degree) normal
friction angle between earth and wall (degree) seismic
friction angle between earth and earth (degree) seismic
wall angle (degree)
cohesion of soil (t/m2)
(do not consider)

0.000

:
1:

friction angle between earth and wall (radian) normal

0.698
0.466

2:

0.000

E1:
E2:
:
:
E:

## friction angle between earth and wall (radian) seismic

friction angle between earth and earth (radian) seismic
internal friction angle seismic condition /2(radian)
uplift coefficient

0.349
0.590
0.000
0.178
0.349
1.0

Uc:

BT

0.7
0.0
1.3
1.6
0.0
40.0
26.7 (=2/3)
0
20 (=1/2)
33.8
0.0
0.0
0.18

Earth Pressure
Normal Condition

Pa :
Ka 1:
Ka 2:
y:
X:
PV :
PH :

Seismic Condition

Description
active earth pressure (t/m2/m)
coefficient of active earth pressure, earth and earth
coefficient of active earth pressure, wall and earth
Vertical acting point
Horizontal acting point = BT
Vertical Pressure = Pa sin
Horizontal Pressure = Pa cos

qa1 =
qa2 =
qa3 =
qw2 =
qu1 =
qu2 =

0.217
0.217
0.217
-2.000
-2.00
-4.00

x
x
x
x
x
x

0.70
8.20
4.00
1.00
1.0
1.0

x
x

1.30
1.60

23.416
0.217
0.200
4.167
5.0
0
23.416

=
=
=
=
=
=

0.152
2.318
1.392
-2.000
-2.00
-4.00

No.
Pu1 =
Pu2 =
Total

Description
active earth pressure (t/m2/m)
coefficient of active earth pressure

y:
X:
PV :
PH :

## Vertical acting point

Horizontal acting point = BT
Vertical Pressure = Pea sin E
Horizontal Pressure = Pea cos E

qa1 =
qa2 =
qa3 =
qw2 =
qu1 =
qu2 =

Normal condition
No.
Pa1 =
Pa2 =
Pa2' =
Pa3 =
Total (Pa)
Pw2 =
Total

Pea :
Kea1 :

0.323
0.323
0.323
-2.000
-2.00
-4.00

x
x
x
x
x
x

0.00
8.20
4.00
1.00
1.0
1.0

x
x

32.035
0.323
0.304
4.001
5.0
17.821
26.62

1.30
1.60

=
=
=
=

0.000
3.444
2.068
-2.000
-2.00
-4.00

Seismic condition
Description
12.200
8.200
x
4.000
4.000
x

0.152
2.318
2.318
1.392

x
x
x
x

0.500

=
=
=
=

-2.000

2.000

0.500

-2.000
-4.000

x
x

Description
5.000
x
5.000
x

0.500
0.500

=
=

0.500

H
1.857
9.504
9.272
2.783
23.416
-2.000
-2.000

Y
6.100
6.733
2.000
1.333
4.167
0.667
0.667

HY
11.327
63.991
18.544
3.711
97.573
-1.333
-1.333

No.
Pa1=
Pa2 =
Pa2' =
Pa3 =
Total
Pw2 =
Total

V
-5.000
-10.000
-15.000

X
1.667
3.333
2.778

VX
-8.333
-33.333
-41.667

No.
Pu1 =
Pu2 =
Total

8/32

Description
12.200
8.200
x
4.000
4.000
x

0.000
3.444
3.444
2.068

x
x
x
x

-2.000

2.000

-2.00
-4.00

x
x

Description
5.000
x
5.000
x

0.500

=
=
=
=

0.500

0.500
0.500

=
=

0.500

H
0.000
14.122
13.777
4.136
32.035
-2.000
-2.000

Y
6.100
6.733
2.000
1.333
4.001
0.667
0.667

HY
0.000
95.086
27.554
5.514
128.155
-1.333
-1.333

V
-5.000
-10.000
-15.000

X
1.667
3.333
2.778

VX
-8.333
-33.333
-41.667

263881217.xls,Stability

STABILITY ANALYSIS
Case 1

Normal Condition
1 Moment and Acting Point
Description

V (t)
H (t)

Body
Soil

Toe
Heel
Reaction (bridge)
Earth Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure
Uplift pressure

Distance (m)
X
Y

Moment (t.m)
Mx
My

160.85

1.87

4.69

300.78

0.00

1.92

0.40

0.77

0.77

0.00

230.29

5.04

8.87

1160.68

0.00

137.96

0.00

1.55

10.90

213.84

0.00

0.00

117.08

5.00

4.17

0.00

487.87

0.00

(10.00)

(75.00)

0.67
2.78

10.85

0.00

466.87

107.08

0.00

2.201 m

Eccentric Distance
e=(BT/2-Xo)

0.299 m

(6.67)

Bending Moment M =V x e

(208.33)

3.78

## Combined Acting Point

Xo=(Mx-My)/V

40.96

0.00

1508.70

481.21

139.69 t.m

2 Stability Analysis
2.1 Over Turnng
e<=(BT/6)

e=
BT/6=

0.299 m
0.833 m

OK

## Fs is larger than 2.0 ?

OK

2.2 Sliding
Friction Coefficient =Tan b =
Shearing registance force at base
Hu=V . Tan b
Safety Rate against sliding
Fs=Hu/H

0.60
280.12 tf
2.616

2.3 Settlement

## Allowale bearing capacity Qa

Reaction from the Foundation

25.00 tf/m2

V
6M
Q max( min)=

BLBT BLBT 2

H
Q min

Q max

Q max =
25.380 tf/m2

## Minimum Fondation Reaction Q max

Q min =
11.970 tf/m2

Case 2

BT

Seismic Condition
1 Moment and Acting Point
Description

V (t)
H (t)

Body
Soil

160.85

Toe
Heel
Reaction (bridge)
Earth Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure
Uplift pressue

28.95

Distance (m)
X
Y

Moment (t.m)
Mx
My

1.87

4.69

300.8

135.67

0.40

0.77

0.77

0.00

41.45

5.04

8.87

1160.7

367.5

71.27

12.83

1.55

11.40

110.47

146.25

89.11

133.10

5.00

4.00

445.5

532.5

1.92
230.3

(10.00)
(75.00)

0.67
2.78

0.00

0.00

478.4

206.33

1.664 m

Eccentric Distance
e=(BT/2-Xo)

0.836 m

(1.33)

Bending Moment M =V x e

(41.67)

5.00

## Combined Acting Point

Xo=(Mx-My)/V

4.17

0.00

0.00

1977

1180.6

400.11 t.m

2 Stability Analysis
2.1 Over Turnng
e<=(BT/3)

e=
BT/3=

0.836 m
1.667 m

OK

## Fs is larger than 1.25 ?

OK

2.2 Sliding
Friction Coefficient =Tan b =
Shearing registance force at base
Hu=V . Tan b
Safety Rate anaginst sliding
Fs=Hu/H

0.6
287.06 tf
1.391

2.3 Settlement
Allowale bearing capacity Qa
Reaction from the Foundation

37.50 tf/m2
e > BT/6 ?

e
V

in case e<BT/6

in case e>BT/6

V
6M
Q max( min)=

BLBT BLBT 2

X=3(BT/2-e) =

## Maximiun Fondation Reaction Q max

Q max =
38.342 tf/m2

Foundation Reaction Qe
Q=2V/(BL.X)=
38.343 tf/m2

4.991 m

## Minimum Fondation Reaction Q max

Q min =
-0.068 tf/m2
Qmax is smaller than Qa? Check
Qmax =
Qmin =
X=

X
Qe is smaller than Qa? Check

BT

38.34 tf/m2
0.00 tf/m2
4.99 m

9/32

263881217.xls,Stability

(1) Design Data
B
B

=
=

cB

40.00 o
5.00 m

=
=

s'

0.00 t/m2
0.90 m

=
=

0.60 t/m3
5.00 m

(=satw)

## (2) Ultimate Bearing Capacity of soil, (qu)

Calculation of ultimate bearing capacity will be obtained by appliying the following
Terzaghi's formula :
qu

c Nc + s' z Nq + s' B N
Shape factor (Table 2.5 of KP-06)

1.30

Shape of footing

0.40

rectangular, B x L

1.00
1.30
1.30
(= 1.09 + 0.21 B/L)
(= 1.09 + 0.21 L/B)
1.30

Shape of footing
1 strip
2 square
3 rectangular, B x L
(B < L)
(B > L)
4 circular, diameter = B

0.50
0.40
0.40

0.30

Nc

82.0

Nq

Nc
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37
39 >

c Nc
s' z Nq
s' B N
qu

5.7
7.0
9.0
12.0
17.0
24.0
36.0
57.0
70.0
82.0
=
=
=

50.0

Nq
0.0
1.4
2.7
4.5
7.5
13.0
23.0
44.0
50.0
50.0

N
0.0
0.0
0.2
2.3
4.7
9.5
20.0
41.0
55.0
73.0

73.0

0.000
27.000
87.600

114.60 t/m2

## (3) Allowable Bearing Capacity of soil, (qa)

qa

qu / 3

38.20 t/m2

(safety factor =

, normal condition)

qae

qu / 2

57.30 t/m2

(safety factor =

, seismic condition)

10/32

263881217.xls,Stability

STRUCTURAL CALCULATION
A

ABUTMENT BODY

## Load and Bending Moment of Abutment Body

Klik untuk menghitung
B1

Dimensions
B1
B2
B3
0.70
0.40
0.35
Hw1
Hw2
5.00
6.00
Abutment Width
Bw=
5.00
m
Seismic Coefficient
Support from Parapet

B2

Lp
H1
1.30

0.60

1
10
3

11

H5

## Plat Form of Impact Plate (Lp) =

kh=
0.18
hs=
0.35
m

H5
1.00

H6
0.35

0.30

Mi=
Mx+My
tf.m/m
2.530
5.924
1.751
0.282
13.493
0.682
0.248
0.125
25.035
125.176

Section B-B
Where Hw1' is considered, this section is same as groundwater level.
Wehre Hw1' is not considered, this section is just half of (H1 + H2).
Distance AB:
3.10
m
B-B section
Normal
Vertical Distance
No.
X
t/m
m
1
1.092
-0.454
2
3.240
0.096
3
0.840
-0.429
4
0.147
-0.370
5
9.324
0.096
5'
2.564
-0.318
10
0.216
-0.804
11
0.108
-0.754

17.531
Total
87.655

Seismic
Moment Horizontal Distance
Mx
Y
tf.m/m
t/m
m
-0.496
0.197
7.550
0.312
0.583
6.225
-0.360
0.151
6.400
-0.054
0.026
5.783
0.897
1.678
2.775
-0.815
0.462
1.850
-0.174
0.039
7.450
-0.081
0.019
7.200
-0.771
3.156
-3.855
15.778

Moment
My
tf.m/m
1.484
3.630
0.968
0.153
4.657
0.854
0.290
0.140
12.176
60.879

Mi=
Mx+My
tf.m/m
0.989
3.942
0.608
0.099
5.555
0.039
0.116
0.059
11.405
57.024

B5

(H1+H2)/2

ho
8.65

5.65

or

1.10
5'

Hw1'

3.10
A

(0,0)

unit:m
ho
8.65

Moment
My
tf.m/m
2.093
5.438
1.436
0.235
11.313
1.616
0.410
0.200
22.743
113.715

B3

H2
10.00

## Load and Bending Moment due to Super Structure

Normal
Vertical Distance
X
t/m
m

No.
Section A-A
Normal
Rd + Rl
Seismic
Rd
Section B-B
Normal
Rd + Rl
Seismic
Rd

H2
10.00

Seismic
Moment Horizontal Distance
Mx
Y
tf.m/m
t/m
m
0.437
0.197
10.650
0.486
0.583
9.325
0.315
0.151
9.500
0.047
0.026
8.883
2.180
2.616
4.325
-0.934
0.561
2.883
-0.162
0.039
10.550
-0.076
0.019
10.300
2.292
4.192
11.462
20.960

H6

H1
1.30

A-A section
Normal
Vertical Distance
No.
X
t/m
m
1
1.092
0.400
2
3.240
0.150
3
0.840
0.375
4
0.147
0.317
5
14.532
0.150
5'
3.114
-0.300
10
0.216
-0.750
11
0.108
-0.700

23.289
Total
116.445

B5
1.00

Moment
Mx
tf.m/m

Seismic
Horizontal Distance
Y
t/m
m

Moment
My
tf.m/m

Mi=
Mx+My
tf.m/m

137.962
71.272

0.15
0.15

20.694
10.691

0.00
12.83

0.00
10.87

0.00
139.41

20.694
150.099

137.962
71.272

0.15
0.15

20.694
10.691

0.00
12.83

0.00
7.77

0.00
99.64

20.694
110.329

## Load and Bending Moment due to Earth and Water Pressure

1) Section B-B
a) Normal Condition
q1=
qs*Ka
(qs+*H)*Ka
q2=
(q1+q2)*(1/2)*H*cos
EaH=
y=
[H*(2q1+q2)]/[3*(q1+q2)]
S=
EaH*Bw
My=
EaH*Bw*y
where,

qs
Ka2

y
S
Bw

coefficient of active earth pressure
Unit weight of soil
Unit weight of saturated soil
friction angle between earth and wall
depth11
Acting Point (m)
Shearing Force(tf)
Abutment Width

q1=
q2=
Eah=
y=
S=
My=

0.140
2.270
8.828
2.892
44.142
127.659
0.70
0.200
1.3
1.6
0.4660
8.20

tf/m
tf/m
tf/m
m
tf
tf.m

qa1

H= 8.20
qa2

tf/m2

H1+H2
11.30

3.10
1.10

tf/m3
tf/m3
m

qw2

qa3

5.00 m

11/32

263881217.xls, Body

b) Seismic Condition
qe1=
q'*Kea
(q'+*H)*Kea
qe2=
(qe1+qe2)*(1/2)*H*cos
EeH=
y=
[H*(2qe1+qe2)]/[3*(qe1+qe2)]
S=
EeH*Bw
My=
EeH*Bw*y
where,

q'
Kea

y
S
Bw

qe1=
qe2=
EaH=
y=
S=
My=

coefficient of active earth pressure
Unit weight of soil
friction angle between earth and wall

0.000
3.444
13.270
2.733
66.350
181.357
0
0.323
1.3
0.3491
8.20

## Acting Point (m)

Shearing Force(tf)
Abutment Width

tf/m
tf/m
tf/m
m
tf
tf.m/m
tf/m2
tf/m3
m

5.00 m

2) Section A-A
a) Normal Condition
Description
= Pa . cos
EaH :
active earth pressure (t/m2/m)
Ka2 :
coefficient of active earth pressure
y:
Vertical acting point
S=EaH*Bw
My=S*y
qa1 =
qa2 =
qa3 =
qw2 =

0.200
0.200
0.200
-1.100

No.
Pa1 =
0.140
Pa2 =
2.130
Pa2' =
2.130
Pa3 =
0.991
Total (Pa),per m
Pw2 =
-1.100
Total, per m
Total (per width)

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

0.70
8.20
3.10
1.00

y=
S=
My=

x
x

1.30
1.60

Description
11.300
8.200
x
3.100
3.100
x
1.100
width =

5.00

0.500

=
=
=
=

0.500

0.500

=
=
=
=

b) Seismic Condition
Description
= Pa . cos
Pea :
active earth pressure (t/m2/m)
Kea :
coefficient of active earth pressure
y:
Vertical acting point
S=EaH*Bw
My=S*y
qa1 =
qa2 =
qa3 =
qw2 =

0.323
0.323
0.323
-1.100

No.
Pa1=
0.000
Pa2 =
3.444
Pa2' =
3.444
Pa3 =
1.603
Total
(per m)
Pw2 =
-1.100
Total
(per m)
Total
(per width)

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

0.00
8.20
3.10
1.00

1.30
1.60

Description
11.300
8.200
x
3.100
3.100
x
1.100

width=

5.00

0.140
2.130
0.991
-1.100
H
1.581
8.735
6.605
1.537
18.457
-0.605
-0.605
-3.025

y=
S=
My=

x
x

=
=
=
=

0.500

=
=
=
=

0.500

0.500

16.489
0.200
3.885
82.444
320.322

Y
5.650
5.833
1.550
1.033
3.885
0.367
0.367

HY
8.932
50.954
10.237
1.588
71.711
-0.222
-0.222
-1.109

25.638
0.323
3.720
128.189
476.862

0.000
3.444
1.603
-1.100
H
0.000
14.122
10.677
2.484
27.283
-0.605
-0.605
-3.025

Y
5.650
5.833
1.550
1.033
3.720
0.367
0.367

HY
0.000
82.376
16.550
2.567
101.493
-0.222
-0.222
-1.109

## Summary of Intersectional Force

Description
Section A-A
Abutment Body
Reaction at Abutment
Hydrostatic pressure
Earth Pressure
Total
Section B-B
Abutment Body
Reaction at Abutment
Hydrostatic pressure
Earth Pressure
Total

Normal Condition
Moment
Shearing
M (tfm)
N (tf)
S (tf)

Seismic Condition
Moment
Shearing
M (tfm)
N (tf)
S (tf)

11.46
20.69
-1.11
320.32
351.37

116.45
137.96
0.00
0.00
254.41

0.00
0.00
-3.03
82.44
79.42

113.71
150.10
-1.11
476.86
740

116.45
71.27
0.00
0.00
187.72

20.96
12.83
-3.03
128.19
158.95

0.00
20.69
0.00
127.66
148

87.65
137.96
0.00
0.00
225.62

0.00
0.00
0.00
44.14
44.14

60.88
110.33
0.00
181.36
353

87.65
71.27
0.00
0.00
158.93

15.78
12.83
0.00
66.35
94.96

12/32

1.4886957

1.42064

263881217.xls, Body

## Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar as Rectangular Beam,

1) Cracking Moment

Normal Condition

Section A-A

## Mc= Zc*('ck + N/Ac)

=
where, Mc
Zc

Cracking Moment
Section Modulus
b=100 cm
Zc=1/6*b*h12
Tensile strength of Concrete (bending)

'ck

25311625 kgf.cm/m

355 tf.m/m
kgf.cm

253 tf.m/m
kgf.cm

833,333 cm3

'ck = 0.5*ck2/3
ck=
200
kgf/cm2
Axial force
Area of Concrete = b*h1
thickness of section, B5

N
Ac
h1
b

Section B-B

## Mc= 35450383 kgf.cm/m

663,775 cm3

17.1 kgf/cm2
254,407
10000
100
500

17.1 kgf/cm2

kg
cm2
cm
cm

187,717
8925
89
500

Section A-A
1) Design Bending Moment

Mf=

sa=
j=
k=
n=
ca=
d=
d1=
h1=

## Allowable Stress R-bar

1 - k/3
n / (n + sa / ca)
Young's modulus ratio
Allowable Stress Concrete
Effective height
= h1-d1
7.5
cm
100
cm

351 tf.m/m

148 tf.m/m

74 cm2

2500 kgf/cm2
0.866
0.402
24
70 kgf/cm2
93 cm

2500 kgf/cm2
0.866
0.402
24
70 kgf/cm2
93 cm

Mu=
471 tf.m

## 3) Ultimate Bending Moment

Mu=
As=
sy=
'ck=
b=

Section B-B

As_req= Mf / ( sa*j*d)
As_req=
175 cm2

## Ultimate Bending Moment

Area of Tensile Bar
Yielding point of Tensile Bar
(Spec >295 N/mm2)
Design Compressive Strength of Concrete
Effective Width

3000 kgf/cm2
200 kgf/cm2
500 cm
M1=
M1=

(d/Cs)2*sa*b
521 tf.m

sa=
ca=

14.325
0.866
0.402
36
2500 kgf/cm2
70 kgf/cm2

kg
cm2
cm
cm

203 tf.m

3000 kgf/cm2
200 kgf/cm2
500 cm

521 tf.m

## M1= Resistance moment

Cs=
j=
k=
n=

{ 2n / ( k*j ) }1/2
1 - k/3
n / (n + ssa / sca)
sa/ca

Check : M1 > Mf ?

M1=
Mf=

521 tf.m
351 tf.m

## Mf < Ml : Tensile Bar Only

14.325
0.866
0.402
36
2500 kgf/cm2
70 kgf/cm2
521 tf.m
148 tf.m
Mf < Ml : Tensile Bar Only

## (a) Tensile Bar

Max Bar Area :
2%*b*d
Min Bar Area :
4.5%*b
Estimation of Required Bar Area :

As max =
As min =
As_req=
Apply
b/pitch=
As=

## Required Bar Nos :

Bar Area :

925 cm2
23 cm2
175 cm2
25 @ 90
56 nos
273 cm2
ok

sa=
d=
d2=
h

ok

As1= Mf / {sa*j*d}
As1=
175 cm2
As2=
97 cm2

## Resistance Moment by Tensile bar As2

2500 kgf/cm2
92.5 cm
7.5 cm

Mrs= sa*As2*(d-d2)
Mrs=
207 tf.m

d1

925 cm2
23 cm2
74 cm2
25 @ 180
28 nos
136 cm2

84 cm2
53 cm2
2500 kgf/cm2
81.748555 cm
7.5 cm
98 tf.m

As=As1+As2
(b) Compressive Bar ( in case Mf > Ml )

M' =
M'=

d2

d1
As
Required Bar Area :

0 tf.m

## As'_req= M' / [sa*(d - d2)]

As'_req=
0 cm2
M1=
521 tf.m
Mf=
351 tf.m

As'
h

Mf - M1

d=
d2=
sa=
As'_req=
Apply =

92.5
0
2500
0

13/32

cm
cm
kgf/cm2
cm2

0 tf.m
0 cm2
521 tf.m
148 tf.m
92.5
0
2500
0

cm
cm
kgf/cm2
cm2

263881217.xls, Body

Bar Area :

As' =

0 cm2

14/32

ok

0 cm2

ok

263881217.xls, Body

## 5) Checking of Allowable Stress

(a) Tensile Bar Only

s =

Mf=
S=
Mf/(As*j*d)=

351 tf.m
79 tf
1,613 kgf/cm2

c =
m =
p=

2*Mf/(k*j*b*d2)=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=

47 kgf/cm2
2 kgf/cm2
0.006

k=
j=

{(n*p)2+2*n*p}1/2 - n*p=
1-k/3=
b=
d=
n=

ok
ok
ok

0.409
0.864
500 cm
92.5 cm
24

148 tf.m
159 tf
1,485 kgf/cm2
32 kgf/cm2
4 kgf/cm2
0.003

ok
ok
ok

0.312
0.896
500 cm
92.5 cm
24

x=kd
h

d
As
d1

## (b) Tensile Bar & Compressive Bar

Mf=
S=

0 tf.m
0 tf

0 tf.m
0 tf

c =
s =
s' =
m =
p=
p'=

Mf/(b*d2*Lc)=
n*c*(1-k)/k=
n*c*(k-d2/d)/k=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=
p'=As'/(b*d)=

0
0
0
0
0.006
0.000

k=
Lc=

{n2(p+p')2+2n(p+p'*d2/d)}1/2-n(p+p')=
0.5 k (1-k/3)+(np'/k) (k-d2/d)(1-d2/d)=

0.409
0.177

0.312
0.140

j=

(1-d2/d)+k2/{2*n*p*(1-k)}*(d2/d-k/3)=
b=
b
d2=
d2
d=
n=
x=kd
As'

0.864
500 cm
0 cm
92.5 cm
24

0.896
500 cm
0 cm
92.5 cm
24

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
ok
ok
ok

0
0
0
0
0.003
0.000

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
ok
ok
ok

As
d1

15/32

263881217.xls, Body

## Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar as Column,

1) Minimum Area as Column
Acmin =
sa=
ca=
N=
Acdes=

Seismic Condition
Section A-A

N / (0.008*sa+ca)
Allowable stress of Reinforcement bar
Allowable stress of Concrete
Axial force
b*h

(a) As a beam
(b) As a column

4.5% * b
0.8% * Acmin

(a) As a beam
(b) As a column

2%*b*d
6% * Ac

1,390
3750
105
188
50,000

cm2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
tf
>

Section B-B

Acmin

ok

1,177
3750
105
159
44,624

cm2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
tf
>

As min=
As min=

23 cm2
11 cm2

23 cm2
9 cm2

As max =
As max =

925 cm2
3,000 cm2

817 cm2
2,677 cm2

Acmin

ok

## 2) Required Reinforcement Bar

Design Bending Moment

Mf=
740 tf.m
As_req= {[c*(s/2)-N/(b*d)]/sa}*b*d
As_req=
55 cm2

c= Stress of concrete

c=

353 tf.m
6 cm2

72.09 kg.cm2

50.15 kg.cm2

sa=
Ms=
e=
M=
N=
n=
c=
h=
b=
d1=
d=
s=

## Allowable stress of Reinforcement Bar

Eccentric Moment, Ms=N(e+c)
Essentric Distance e=M/N
Design Bending Moment
Axial Force
Young's Modulus Ratio
c=h/2 - d1
Height of Section
Width of section
Concrete Cover
Effective Width of section d=h-d1
n*c/(n*c+sa)

3750
81934590
393.98
740
188
16
42.5
100
500
8
93
0.235

kg.cm2
kgf.cm
cm
tf.m
tf

3750
41156602
221.84
353
159
16
37.124277
89
500
8
82
0.176

cm
cm
cm
cm
cm

[3*sa/(2*n)-3*Ms/(b*d2)]=

294

315

6*Ms/(n*b*d2)*sa=

26,932

17,321

3*Ms/(n2*b*d^2)*sa2= 3,156,150
c (trial)=
72
Eq1 (trial)= -3194502 re-check
cross check -3194502 ok

kg.cm2
kgf.cm
cm
tf.m
tf
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm

2,029,800
c (trial)=
50
Eq1 (trial)= -1981096 re-check
cross check -1981096 ok

## 3) Ultimate Bending Moment

Mu= c*(h/2-0.4X)+Ts'(h/2-d2)+Ts(h/2-d1)
Mu= Ultimate Bending Moment (tf.m)

Mu=

## Mu= Min (Mu1,Mu2)

c=
ck=
b=
X=
Ts'=
As'=
As=
Es=
cu=
h=
d1=
d2=

255 tf.m

in case X>0
Mu1= 25511888

0.68*ck*b*X
design strength of Concrete
Width of section
solve the equation Eq2 below
As'*Es*cu*(X-d2)/X
Compressive Bar, As'=0.5 As
Required Reinforcement Bar (Tensile)
Young's modulus (reinforcement bar)
Creep strain coefficient (concrete)
Height of Section
Concrete Cover (tensile side)
Concrete Cover (compressive side)

403914
200
500
5.940
-52627
27
55
2,100,000
0
100
7.5
7.5

88 tf.m
in case X<0
32609824

in case X>0
8808908

-506.00

207358.08
200
500
3.049
-31060
3
6
2,100,000
0
89
7.5
7.5

kg/cm2
cm
-3.721
604287

cm
cm
cm

in case X<0
9128431
-104.68
kg/cm2
cm
-0.770
228639

cm
cm
cm

## Eq2 = *X2 + (-Ts-N)*X-*d2 = 0

Ts=
sy=
N=

0.68*ck*b

68000
As'*Es*cu
200373
As*sy
163570
Yielding point of Tensile Bar
(Spec >295 N/mm2)
3000 kgf/cm2
Axial Force
187717 kgf

## put a,b,c as follows :

a=
68000
b= -Ts-N = -150914
c= - *d2 = -1502799
then,

68000
21281
17372
3000 kgf/cm2
158927 kgf
68000
-155018
-159605

X=

5.940

3.049

X=

## (-b - (b2-4ac)0.2 ) / (2*a)=

-3.721

-0.770

16/32

263881217.xls, Body

4) Bar Arrangement
d

d2

d1
Max Bar Area :
Min Bar Area :
(a) Tensile Bar
Required Bar Area
Apply =
Column width
Bar Area

As max =
As min =

925 cm2
23 cm2

817 cm2
23 cm2

As req=

55 cm2
25 @ 90
500 cm2
273 cm2

ok

6 cm2
25 @ 180
500 cm2
136 cm2

ok

ok

3 cm2
25 @ 180
500 cm2
136 cm2

ok

b=
As =

## (b) Compressive Bar

Required Bar Area
Apply =
Column width
Bar Area

As' req=
b=
As' =

(c ) Hoop Bar
' min =
Minimum Diameter
' =
Apply
Bar Interval shall satisfy the following conditions:
d =
t < 12* =
t < 48* '=
then
t=

27 cm2
25 @ 180
500 cm2
136 cm2
12 mm
16 mm
925
300
768
200

mm
mm
mm
mm

12 mm
16 mm

ok

817.48555
300
768
200

mm
mm
mm
mm

ok

## 5) Checking of Allowable Stress, Seismic Condition

(a) Tensile Bar Only

s =
c =
m =
p=
k=
j=
b

Mf=
S=
Mf/(As*j*d)=
2*Mf/(k*j*b*d2)=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=
{(n*p)^2+2*n*p}^0.5 - n*p=
1-k/3=
b=
d=
n=
x=kd

740 tf.m
159 tf
3,319 kgf/cm2
112
4
0.00590
0.35016
0.88328
500
92.5
16

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
check
ok

cm
cm

353 tf.m
95 tf
3,486 kgf/cm2
84
3
0.00334
0.27768
0.90744
500
81.748555
16

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
ok
ok

cm
cm

d
As
d1

## (b) Tensile Bar & Compressive Bar

Mf=
S=

740 tf.m
159 tf

c =
s =
s' =
m =
p=
p'=

Mf/(b*d2*Lc)=
n*c*(1-k)/k=
n*c*(k-d2/d)/k=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=
p'=As'/(b*d)=

98
3,269
1,172
4
0.006
0.003

k=
Lc=

{n2(p+p')2+2n(p+p'*d2/d)}1/2-n(p+p')=
0.5 k (1-k/3)+(np'/k) (k-d2/d)(1-d2/d)=

0.324
0.177

j=

(1-d2/d)+k2/{2*n*p*(1-k)}*(d2/d-k/3)=
b=
b
d2=
d2
d=
n=
x=kd
As'

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

0.897
500 cm
7.5 cm
92.5 cm
16

353 tf.m
95 tf
ok
ok
ok
ok

72
3,458
735
3
0.003
0.003

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
ok
ok
ok

0.251
0.146
0.915
500 cm
7.5 cm
81.748555 cm
16

As
d1

17/32

263881217.xls, Body

## Check for Stress of Concrete and Reinforcement bar as Column

Section A-A
Height of section
Effective width
Concrete cover

h
b
d1
d2
As
As'
Mf
N
S
n
c
e
a1
b1
c1
x

Reinforcement bar
Morment
Axcis force
Shearing force
Young's modulus ratio

Neutral line

cm
cm
cm
cm
cm2
cm2
kgf/cm
kgf
kgf

a2
b2
b3
b4
b5
b6
c
s
s'
c

Stressing

Normal
100
500
7.5
7.5
273
0
3.51.E+07
254,407
79,419
24
43
138
264
14185
-1312152
72
1454126
Check
18005
26
3862
65
3862
20
44.12
301.14
948.71
1.91

Section B-B
Seismic
100
500
7.5
7.5
273
136
7.40.E+07
187,717
158,953
16
43
394
1032
32056
-2183026
51
2237649
Check
12697
33
3651
43
3651
42
101.27
1330.89
1381.09
3.83

ok
ok
ok
ok

ok
ok
ok
ok

Normal
89
500
7.5
7.5
136
0
1.48.E+07
225,617
44,142
24
37
66
63
4040
-330258
56
273329
Check
14036
26
2164
49
2164
26
28.29
309.70
588.34
1.20

Seismic
89
500
7.5
7.5
136
136
3.53.E+07
158,927
94,957
16
37
222
532
11615
-590486
33
399385
Check
8208
34
2467
25
2467
49
76.71
1828.60
947.00
2.59

ok
ok
ok
ok

ok
ok
ok
ok

## SUMMARY OF DESIGN CALCULATION

Section A-A
Description

Abbr.

unit

Calculation Condition
Principle Dimensions
Concrete Design Strength
Effective width of section
Height of Section
Concrete Cover (tensile)
Concrete Cover (compressive)
Effective height of Section
Allowable Stress

Concrete
Re-Bar
Shearing
Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar

Reinforcement Bar
Tensile Bar

c
b
h
d1
d2
d
ca
sa
a
sy

200
500
100
7.5
7.5
92.5
70
2500
7
3000

200
500
100
7.5
7.5
92.5
105
3750
10.5
3000

175
273
D25@90
0
0

55
273
D25@90
27
136
D25@180

As_req.
As

cm2
cm2

Compressive Bar

Required
Designed

As'_req.
As'

cm2
cm2

Hoop Bar

Designed

Aso
Mf
Nd
S

Section B-B
Seismic Condition
Column

kgf/m2
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/cm2

Required
Designed

Design Bending Moment
Design Axis Force
Shearing Force

Normal Condition
Rectangular Beam

Normal Condition
Rectangular Beam

200
500
89
7.5
7.5
81.748555
70
2500
7
3000

Seismic Condition
Column

200
500
89
7.5
7.5
81.748555
105
3750
10.5
3000

74
136
D25@180
0
0

D16@200

6
136
D25@180
3
136
D25@180
D16@200

tf.m
tf
tf

351
254
79

740
188
159

148
226
44

353
159
95

tf.m
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm2

471
925
23
175
273

255
925
23
82
409

203
925
23
74
136

88
817
23
9
273

## Checking of Minimum Re-Bar

Ultimate Bending Moment
Max Re-bar
Min Re-bar
Required Bar
Area of Re-bar for Design

Mu
As max
As min
As req.
As_tot=As+As'

## Checking of Allowable Stress

Rectangular Beam
Young's Modulus Ratio
Effective height
Compressive Stress
Bending Tensile Stress
Mean Shearing Stress
Column
Compressive Stress
Bending Stress
Shearing Stress

n
d
c
s
s'
m

cm
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

c
s
s'
m

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

24
92.5
47 ok
1,613 ok
2 ok
44
301
949
2

18/32

ok
ok
ok
ok

16
92.5

101
1,331
1,381
4

24
81.748555
32 ok
1,485 ok
4 ok
ok
ok
ok
ok

28
310
588
1

ok
ok
ok
ok

16
81.748555

77
1,829
947
3

ok
ok
ok
ok

263881217.xls, Body

FOOTING

## Load and Bending Moment of Footing

1) Computation Conditions
Normal Condition

l1

Toe Side

M
(0,0)
Ra'

Ra=Qmax

Q min

Q max

B4
BT
Heel Side
l2
M

Seismic Condition
(0,0)

Ra=Qmin

Ra'

X
B6

BT

2) Footing
B5

B4

H3

F1

H4

B6

F2

6
F1
sub-total
Distance l1
Heel Side

8
F3
sub-total
Distance l2

1300
2400
700
0

normal condition
unit
Vertical Distance
Moment
weight
X
Mx
m2
tf/m3
tf/m
m
tf.m/m
0.240
2.4
0.576
0.400
0.230
0.600
2.4
1.440
0.600
0.864
2.016
1.094
0.543 m
l1 (X)

seismic condition
Horizontal Distance Moment
Y
My
tf/m
m
tf.m/m
0.104
0.633
0.066
0.259
0.250
0.065
0.363
0.130
0.360 m
l1 (Y)

normal condition
unit
Vertical Distance
Moment
weight
X
Mx
m2
tf/m3
tf/m
m
tf.m/m
0.560
2.400
1.344
0.933
1.254
1.400
2.400
3.360
1.400
4.704
4.704
5.958
l2 (X)
1.267 m

seismic condition
Horizontal Distance Moment
Y
My
tf/m
m
tf.m/m
0.242
0.700
0.169
0.605
0.250
0.151
0.847
0.321
l2 (Y)
0.379 m

Area
No.

BT
5.00

H3
0.40

unit:m
HT
12.20
HT-H3-H4
11.30

H4
0.50

## Unit Weight of Material

Soil
Concrete
q'= q seismic

F3

Area
No.

B6
2.80

BT
Toe Side

Dimensions
B4
B5
1.20
1.00
Abutment Width
Bw=
5.00

kgf/m3
kgf/m3
kgf/m3
kgf/m3

1.30
2.40
0.70
0

tf/m3
tf/m3
tf/m3
tf/m3

Seismic Coefficient
Kh=
0.18

## 3) Earth Pressure, Heel Side Only

Distance l3=Xo-(B4+B5)
Bending Moment Md

Normal Condition
W1=
46.059 tf/m
l3=
1.365 m
Md=
62.890 tf.m/m

Seismic Condition
We1=
46.059 tf/m
l3=
1.365 m
Mde=
62.890 tf.m/m

Distance l4=B6/2
Bending Moment Ms

W2=
l4=
Ms=

1.960 tf/m
1.400 m
2.744 tf.m/m

We2=
l4=
Mse=

0.000 tf/m
1.400 m
0.000 tf.m/m

## Vertical Earth Pressure Pv=

Pv=sin *{ (1/2)*Ka**HT^2 + q*Ka*HT}
Coefficient of active earth pressure
Angle between earth and wall
Distance l5 =B6*(2/3)
Bending Moment Me

Pv=

8.164 tf/m

Pve=

8.639 tf/m

Ka=
=
l5 =
Me=

0.200
1.867
15.239 tf.m/m

Kea=
e=
l5 =
Mee=

0.304
1.867 m
16.126 tf.m/m

19/32

263881217.xls, Footing

## 4) Reaction from Foundation

Reaction from the Foundation
Normal Q max
25.380
Qmin
11.970
Seismic Qmax
0.000
Qmin
0.000
X
4.991

tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2
m

## Reaction from Foundation, Toe Side

Normal Condition
Rat=
Q max
Ra't=
Q max-(B4/BT)*(Q max - Qmin)
Seismic Condition
Reat=
Q
Rea't=
Q*(X-B4)/X
Reaction from Foundation, Heel Side
Normal Condition
Rah=
Q min
Ra'h=
Q max-[(B4+B5)/BT]*(Q max - Qmin)
Seismic Condition
Reah'=
Q*(X-B4-B5)/X
Reah=
Qmin
Reah'=
Q*(X-B4-B5)/X
Reah=
0
Reah'=
Q*(X-B4-B5)/X
Reah=
Qmin

Rat=
Ra't=

25.380 tf/m2
22.161 tf/m2

1.200 m

Reat=
Reat'=

0.000 tf/m2
0.000 tf/m2

1.200 m

Rah=
Ra'h=

11.970 tf/m2
19.479 tf/m2

2.800 m

2.800 m

2.791 m

2.791 m

Rea'h=
Reah=
Rea'h=
Reah=
Rea'h=
Reah=

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2

## 5) Intersectional Force due Reaction

Axial Force = 0 tf/m

Description

Footing
Earth Pressure
Reaction form Foundation
Total - per m
Total -5 m

Toe Section
Normal Condition
Moment Shearing
M
S
(tf.m/m)
(tf/m)
-1.094
-2.016

17.501
16.407
82.033

28.525
26.509
132.544

## Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar :

Heel Section
Normal Condition
Moment Shearing
M
S
(tf.m/m)
(tf/m)
5.958
4.704
62.890
46.059
2.744
1.960
15.239
8.164
-56.734
-44.029
30.097
16.857
150.486
84.287

Seismic Condition
Moment
Shearing
Me
Se
(tf.m/m)
(tf/m)
-1.094
-2.016

0.000
-1.094
-5.472

0.000
-2.016
-10.080

per m
Seismic Condition
Moment Shearing
Me
Se
(tf.m/m)
(tf/m)
5.958
4.704
62.890
46.059
0.000
0.000
16.126
8.639
0.000
0.000
84.975
59.402
424.876 297.010

Toe Section

## 1) Design Bending Moment ( Mf )

Normal Condition
Seismic Condition

M=
Me=

16.407 tf.m/m
-1.094 tf.m/m

Mf=

16.41 tf.m/m

## 2) Required Bar Area

As=
sa=
j=
k=
n=
ca=

Mf / ( sa*j*d)
Allowable Stress R-bar
1 - k/3
n / (n + sa / ca)
Young's modulus ratio
Allowable Stress Concrete

9.19 cm2
2500 kgf/cm2
0.866
0.402
24
70 kgf/cm2

## 3) Ultimate Bending Moment

Mu=As* sy{d-(1/2)*[As* sy]/[0.85* ck*b]}
where, Mu
As
sy
d

'ck
b

Mu=

## Ultimate Bending Moment

Area of Tensile Bar
Yielding point of Tensile Bar
Effective height = h1-cover
cover d1=
7.5
cm
h1=
90
cm
Design Compressive Strength of Concrete
Effective Width

2.25E+06 kgf.cm
22.51
tf.m

3000 kgf/cm2
82.5 cm

200 kgf/cm2
100 cm

## 4) Checking of Single or Double bar arrangement

(d/Cs)2*sa*b
M1=
M1= 8.29E+06 kgf.cm/m
= 82.92
tf.m/m
M1= Resistance moment
Cs= { 2n / ( k*j ) }1/2
k= n / (n + sa / ca)
n= Young's modulus ratio
sa=
ca=
n=
Check M1 > Mf?
M1=
82.917 tf.m
Mf=
16.407 tf.m

14.325
0.402
35.714
2500 kgf/cm2
70 kgf/cm2
24

Compressive
Tensile

## (a) Tensile Bar

20/32

263881217.xls, Footing

## Max Bar Area :

Min Bar Area :
Required Bar Area
Apply =
Required Bar Nos
Bar Area

2%*b*d =
165.00
4.5%*b =
4.50
As req=
9.19
25 @ 300
Nos=b/pitch = 3.3333333
As =
16.36

cm2
cm2
cm2

d1
nos
cm2

ok

## (b) Compressive Bar, in case M1<Mf

M' =
Mf - M1
M'=
0.00 tf.m
As' = M' / [sa*(d - d2)]
As'=
0.00 cm2
d=
82.5 cm
d2=
0.00 cm
sa=
2500 kgf/cm2

Apply =
Bar Area

As' =

d
d1

0.00 cm2

d2

ok

## 5) Checking of Allowable Stress

(a) Tensile Bar Only

s =

Mf=
S=
Mf/(As*j*d)=

16.41 tf.m/m
26.51 tf/m
1,332.96 kgf/cm2

c =
m =
p=

2*Mf/(k*j*b*d2)=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=

19.98 kgf/cm2
3.52 kgf/cm2
0.00

k=
j=

{(n*p)2+2*n*p}1/2 - n*p=
1-k/3=

b
ok
x=kd

ok
ok

0.26
0.91

b=

100

cm

d=
n=

82.5
24

cm

d
As
d1

## (b) Tensile Bar & Compressive Bar

Mf=
S=

16.41 tf.m
26.51 tf

c =
s =
s' =
m =
p=
p'=

Mf/(b*d2*Lc)=
n*c*(1-k)/k=
n*c*(k-d2/d)/k=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=
p'=As'/(b*d)=

19.98
1,332.96
479.59
3.52
0.00
0.00

b=

100

cm

k=
Lc=

{n2(p+p')2+2n(p+p'*d2/d)}1/2-n(p+p')=
0.5 k (1-k/3)+(np'/k) (k-d2/d)(1-d2/d)=

0.26
0.12

d=
d2=

82.5
0.00

cm
cm

j=

(1-d2/d)+k2/{2*n*p*(1-k)}*(d2/d-k/3)=

0.91

n=

24

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
ok
ok
ok

d2

Heel Section

## 1) Design Bending Moment

Normal Condition
Seismic Condition

30.097 tf.m/m
84.975 tf.m/m
30.10 tf.m/m

x=kd

As
d1

( Normal Condition )
Me>0

M=
Me=
Mf=

As'

Me<0

Tensile

Compressive

Compressivee

Tensile

## 2) Required Bar Area

As=
sa=
j=
k=
n=
ca=

Mf / ( sa*j*d)
Allowable Stress R-bar
1 - k/3
n / (n + sa / ca)
Young's modulus ratio
Allowable Stress Concrete

16.85 cm2
2500 kgf/cm2
0.866
0.402
24
70 kgf/cm2

## 3) Ultimate Bending Moment

Mu=As* sy{d-(1/2)*[As* sy]/[0.85* ck*b]}
where, Mu
As
sy
d

'ck
b

Mu=
=

## Ultimate Bending Moment

Area of Tensile Bar
Yielding point of Tensile Bar
Effective height = h1-cover
cover d1=
7.5
cm
h1=
90
cm
Design Compressive Strength of Concrete
Effective Width

4095213 kgf.cm
40.95 tf.m

3000 kgf/cm2
82.5 cm

200 kgf/cm2
100 cm

M1=

(d/Cs)2*sa*b

## M1= 12338772.5 kgf.cm/m

=
123.39 tf.m/m
Mf=
30.097 tf.m
M1>Mf : Design Tensile Bar Only

## M1= Resistance moment

Cs= { 2n / ( k*j ) }1/2
k= n / (n + sa / ca)
n= Young's modulus ratio

11.74
0.402
24

## (a) Tensile Bar

Max Bar Area :

2%*b*d =

180.00 cm2
d
21/32

263881217.xls, Footing

## Min Bar Area :

Required Bar Area
Apply =
Required Bar Nos
Bar Area

4.5%*b =
4.50 cm2
16.85 cm2
25 @ 150
Nos=b/pitch = 6.6666667 nos
As =
32.72 cm2
ok

As req=

d1
Pitch shall be same as that of toe

## (b) Compressive Bar, in case M1<Mf

M' = Mf - M1
As' = M'/[sa*(d - d2)]

M'=
As'=
d=
d2=
As' req=

Apply =
Bar Area

0.00
0.00
82.5
0.00
0.00

As' =

tf.m
cm2
cm
cm
cm2

d2

d1

0.00 cm2

ok

## 5) Checking of Allowable Stress

(a) Tensile Bar Only

s =

Mf=
S=
Mf/(As*j*d)=

30.10 tf.m/m
16.86 tf/m
1,262.70 kgf/cm2

c =
m =
p=

2*Mf/(k*j*b*d2)=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=

28.51 kgf/cm2
2.31 kgf/cm2
0.00

k=
j=

{(n*p)2+2*n*p}1/2 - n*p=
1-k/3=

b
ok

ok

ok
ok

ok
ok
cm

0.35
0.88

b=

100

d=
n=

82.5
24

x=kd
h

d
As

cm

d1

## (b) Tensile Bar & Compressive Bar

Mf=
S=
c =
s =
s' =
m =

30.10 tf.m
16.86 tf

p=
p'=

Mf/(b*d2*Lc)=
n*c*(1-k)/k=
n*c*(k-d2/d)/k=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=
p'=As'/(b*d)=

28.51
1,262.70
684.15
2.31
0.00
0.00

k=
Lc=

{n2(p+p')2+2n(p+p'*d2/d)}1/2-n(p+p')=
0.5 k (1-k/3)+(np'/k) (k-d2/d)(1-d2/d)=

0.35
0.16

b=
d=

100
82.5

cm
cm

j=

(1-d2/d)+k2/{2*n*p*(1-k)}*(d2/d-k/3)=

0.88

d2=
n=

0.00
24

cm

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
ok
ok
ok

b
d2

Heel Section

## 1) Design Bending Moment

Normal Condition
Seismic Condition

30.097 tf.m/m
84.975 tf.m/m
84.98 tf.m/m

x=kd

As
d1

( Seismic Condition )
Me>0

M=
Me=
Mf=

As'

Tensile

Me<0

Compressive

Compressivee

Tensile

## 2) Required Bar Area

As=
sa=
j=
k=
n=
ca=

Mf / ( sa*j*d)
Allowable Stress R-bar
1 - k/3
n / (n + sa / ca)
Young's modulus ratio
Allowable Stress Concrete

where, Mu
As
sy
d

'ck
b

30.63 cm2
3750 kgf/cm2
0.897
0.402
16
105 kgf/cm2
Mu=
=

## Ultimate Bending Moment

Area of Tensile Bar
Yielding point of Tensile Bar
Effective height = h1-cover
cover d1=
7.5
cm
h1=
90
cm
Design Compressive Strength of Concrete
Effective Width

7.33E+06 kgf.cm
73.31 tf.m

3000 kgf/cm2
82.5 cm

200 kgf/cm2
100 cm

## 4) Checking of Single or Double bar arrangement

M1=

(d/Cs)2*sa*b
M1= Resistance moment
Cs= { 2n / ( k*j ) }1/2
k= n / (n + sa / ca)
n= Young's modulus ratio

M1=
=
Mf=

2.21E+07 kgf.cm/m
221.32 tf.m/m
84.975 tf.m

## M1>Mf : Design Tensile Bar Only

10.739
0.309
16

22/32

263881217.xls, Footing

## (a) Tensile Bar

Max Bar Area :
Min Bar Area :
Required Bar Area
Apply =
Required Bar Nos
Bar Area

2%*b*d =
0.00
4.5%*b =
3.30
As req=
30.63 cm2
25 @ 150
Nos=b/pitch = 6.6666667
As =
32.72 cm2

## (b) Compressive Bar, in case M1<Mf

M' = Mf - M1
As' = M'/[sa*(d - d2)]

## Required Bar Area

Apply =
Bar Area

M'=
As'=
d=
d2=
As' req=

0.00
0.00
82.5
0.00
0.00

As' =

cm2
cm2

d1
nos
check or arrange compressive bar

tf.m
cm2
cm
cm
cm2

d2

d1

0.00 cm2

ok

## 5) Checking of Allowable Stress

(a) Tensile Bar Only

s =

Mf=
S=
Mf/(As*j*d)=

84.98 tf.m/m
59.40 tf/m
3,495.12 kgf/cm2

c =
m =
p=

2*Mf/(k*j*b*d2)=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=

92.92 kgf/cm2
8.00 kgf/cm2
0.00

k=
j=

{(n*p)2+2*n*p}1/2 - n*p=
1-k/3=

b
ok
x=kd

check
ok

0.30
0.90

h
b=

100

cm

d=
n=

82.5
16

cm

d
As
d1

## (b) Tensile Bar & Compressive Bar

Mf=
S=

84.98 tf.m
59.40 tf

c =
s =
s' =
m =
p=
p'=

Mf/(b*d2*Lc)=
n*c*(1-k)/k=
n*c*(k-d2/d)/k=
S/(b*j*d)=
As/(b*d)=
p'=As'/(b*d)=

92.92
3,495.12
1,486.66
8.00
0.00
0.00

k=
Lc=

{n2(p+p')2+2n(p+p'*d2/d)}1/2-n(p+p')=
0.5 k (1-k/3)+(np'/k) (k-d2/d)(1-d2/d)=

0.30
0.13

b=
d=

100
82.5

cm
cm

j=

(1-d2/d)+k /{2*n*p*(1-k)}*(d2/d-k/3)=

0.90

d2=
n=

0.00
16

cm

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

check
ok
ok
ok

b
d2

As'

x=kd

As
d1

## SUMMARY OF DESIGN CALCULATION, FOOTING

Description

Abbr.

unit

Calculation Condition
Principle Dimensions
Concrete Design Strength
Effective width of section
Height of Section, H4
Concrete Cover (tensile)
Concrete Cover (compressive)
Effective height of Section
Allowable Stress

c
b
h
d1
d2
d
Concrete ca
sa
Re-Bar
Shearing a
ma
sy
Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar

Reinforcement Bar
Tensile Bar

Compressive Bar

Required
Designed

As req.
As

cm2
cm2

Required
Designed

As' req.
As'

cm2
cm2

Mf
Nd
S
Mu
Ml
As max
As min
As req.
As

tf.m/m
tf/m
tf/m
tf.m
tf.m
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm2

n
d-d1
c
s
s'
m

cm
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

Design Bending Moment
Design Axis Force
Shearing Force
Ultimate Bending Moment
Resistance moment (single bar)
Max Re-bar
Min Re-bar
Required Bar
Area of Re-bar for Design
Checking of Allowable Stress
Young's Modulus Ratio
Effective height
Compressive Stress
Bending Tensile Stress
Mean Shearing Stress

kgf/m2
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/cm2

Toe Side

Heel Side

Normal

Normal

Seismic

200
100
50
7.5
0
42.5
70
2500
7
14
3000

200
100
50
7.5
0
42.5
70
2500
7
14
3000

200
100
50
7.5
0
42.5
105
3750
10.5
21
3000

9.19
16.36
D25@300
0.00
0.00
16.41
0.00
26.51
22.51
82.92
165.00
4.50
9.19
16.36

16.85
32.72
D25@150
0.00
0.00
30.10
0.00
16.86
40.95
123.39
180.00
4.50
16.85
32.72

30.63
32.72
25 @ 150
0.00
0.00
73.31
0.00
59.40
73.31
221.32
8.00
4.50
30.63
32.72

24
42.5
19.98 ok
1,332.96 ok

24
42.5
28.51 ok
1,262.70 ok

16
42.5
92.92 ok
3,495.12 ok

3.52 ok

2.31 ok

8.00 ok

23/32

263881217.xls, Footing

PARAPET WALL

## Sectional Force without Impact Plate

(1) Rear Face Reinforcement Bar

Mo=
So=

Mp + Me
Sp + Ph

where,
Mo
So
Mp
Me
Sp
Ph

## Bending Moment at Parapet (tfm/m)

Shearing Force at Platform (tf/m)
Bending Moment due Earth Pressure (tfm/m)
Earth Pressure (tf/m)

Earth Pressure

H1

KaH1

## 1) Sectional Force due to T-Load

Mp=
Ka T/1.375*{-H1+(H1+a)*ln[(a+H1)/a]
Sp=
Ka T/1.375*ln[(a+H1)/a]
where, Ka
T
a
H1

## Coefficient of active earth pressure

Height of Parapet

## 2) Sectional Force due to Earth Pressure

0.5 *Kah*H1^2
Ph=
Me=
(1/3)*Ph*H1
where, Kah

H1

1.402 tfm
1.703 tf
0.200
7.000 tf
0.300 m
1.300 m

Ph=
Me=

0.214 tf
0.093 tfm

Ka*cos
friction angle between the parapet wall and soil = (1/3)
Unit Weight of Soil
Height of Parapet

Mo=
Mp + Me
So=
Sp + Ph

0.194
1.300 tf/m3
1.300 m

1.495 tfm
1.917 tf

## 2. Sectional Force with Impact Plate

(1) Front Face Reinforcement Bar (compute under normal condition)
Lo
R

LoBu

Lx

w1
Ds

w2

Ft

B1
Rf=
Rp=
R=
Lx=
Mf=

B2

(1/2)*Wd*Lo
T/1.375
Rf + Rp
(1/2)*B2+Bu
R*Lx

where, Rf
Wd
w1
w2
Lo
Rp
R
Lx
Bu
Mf

Bu

L=0.7 Lo
Rf=
Rp=
R=
Lx=
Mf=

## Reaction due self weight Wd

w1 + w2
weight of soil on impact plate
self-weight of impact plate
Length of Impact Plate
Total Reaction
Distance from center of parapet to reaction point
width of corbel
Bending Moment at Parapet

1.958
5.091
7.048
0.475
3.348

tf/m
tf/m
tf/m
m
tfm/m

tf
tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2
m
tf
tf
m
0.30 m
tfm/m
1.31
0.59
0.72
3.00

24/32

B2=
Bu=

## Thickness of impact plate

Soil depth above plate
Thickness of pavement

0.35
0.30

m
m

(=Lp)

Ft=
Ds=
Dp=
B=

0.30
0.40
0.05
3.00

m
m
m
m

263881217.xls, Parapet

Lo

Ds
H1

Ft

RH
Yr

H1

he

B1

Bu

B2

Kah he

## 1) Sectional Force due to Impact Plate

Rh=
Mr =

2*Rf*Kh
Rh*Yr

where, Kh
Yr

0.705 tf/m
0.705 tfm/m
seismic coefficient
= H1-Lp =

Lp=

0.300 m

(= Bu)

0.18
1.000 m

## 2) Sectional Force due to Earth Pressure

H1 > Ds ?

H1=
H1Ds=

1.300 m
0.900 m

Peh 1=
Me 1=
Peh 2=
Me 2=

(1/2)**Kah*Lp^2
Peh*[(Lp)*(1/3)+(H1-Lp)]
(1/2)**Kah*he^2
(1/3)*Peh*he

0.011
0.013
0.102
0.031

then

Peh
Me

0.114 tf/m
0.043 tfm/m

=Peh 1+ Peh2
=Me 1+Me2

tf/m
tfm/m
tf/m
tfm/m

B1

B2
Section

Lp
H1

Lp

10
11

Area
(m2)

## Seismic Distance Moment

Weight
Gh (tf)
y(m)
Mg (tfm)
0.455
2.4
1.092
0.18
0.197
0.650
0.128
0.090
2.4
0.216
0.18
0.039
0.750
0.029
0.045
2.4
0.108
0.18
0.019
0.800
0.016
0.255
0.172
Note:
if H1 < Dc, areas 10 & 11 would be counted as "0"

1
10
11

Lp

B5

Unit
Weight

Weight
(tf)

Kh

Mo=
So=

Mr+Me+Mg
Rh+Reh+Gh

0.920 tfm/m
1.073 tf/m

## 3. Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar

1) Cracking Moment
Mc=

Zc*('ck + N/Ac)

where, Mc
Zc
'ck

N
Ac
b
B2

## Mc= 349120.1 kgf.cm

Cracking Moment
Sectional Coefficient
Zc=b*B2^2/6
b=100 cm
Tensile strength of Concrete (bending)
'ck = 0.5*ck^(2/3)
ck=
200 kgf/cm2
Axis force (=0)
Area of Concrete = b*B2
Effective Width
Thickness of parapet

3.491 tf.m

kgf.cm
20417 cm3
17.10 kgf/cm2
0
3500 cm2
100 cm
35 cm

## 2) Checking of Cracking Moment and Design Bending Moment

Design Bending Moment Mf
Check Mf & Mc

3.348 tf.m
1.7*Mf>Mc?, if yes check ultimate bending moment
1.7*Mf =
5.692 tf.m
Mc=
3.491 tf.m
1.7*Mf>Mc?

25/32

## Yes, check ultimate bending moment

263881217.xls, Parapet

## 3) Ultimate Bending Moment

Mu=As* sy{d-(1/2)*[As* sy]/[0.85* ck*b]}
where, Mu
As
sy
d

'ck
b

Check Mu & Mc

Mu=

## Ultimate Bending Moment

Area of Tensile Bar
Yielding point of Tensile Bar
Effective height = B2-cover
cover d1=
7 cm
B2 =
35 cm
Design Compressive Strength of Concrete
Effective Width
As=Mf/( sa*j*d)
sa=
Allowable Stress Rbar
j= 1 -k/3 (=8/9 )
or k = n/{n+ sa/ ca)
n= Young's modulus ratio
ca
Allowable Stress Concrete
Mu =
Mc =

4.558 tf.m
3.491 tf.m

455836 kgf.cm
tf.m
cm2
3000 kgf/cm2
28 cm

200
100
5.523
2500
0.866

4.558 tf.m

## (Spec >295 N/mm2)

kgf/cm2
cm
cm2
kgf/cm2

24
70 kgf/cm2

Mu>Mc?

ok

4) Bar Arrangement
(a) Front Face, with Impact Plate
Max Bar Area As max =
0.02*b*d =
56.0 cm2
Min Bar Area As min =
b*4.5%=
4.5 cm2
Required Bar Area
As req=
6.066 cm2
Apply =
16
@
125 mm
Bar Area
As =
16.085 cm2
ok

Then d=

7 cm
28 cm

Then d=

10 cm
25 cm

## (b) Rear Face, without Impact Plate

Max Bar Area As max =
0.02*b*d =
50.0 cm2
Min Bar Area As min =
b*4.5%=
4.5 cm2
Required Bar Area
As req=
cm2
Apply =
12
@
250 mm
Bar Area
As =
cm2

25

180

180

## (c) Rear Face, with Impact Plate

Max Bar Area As max =
0.02*b*d =
50.0 cm2
Min Bar Area As min =
b*4.5%=
4.5 cm2
Required Bar Area
As req=
1.650 cm2
Apply =
16
@
250 mm
Bar Area
As =
8.042 cm2
ok

Then d=

10 cm
25 cm

25

## 5) Checking of Allowable Stress

(a) Front Face, with Impact Plate
Mf (front)
S
s =
Mf/(As*j*d)
c =
2*Mf/(k*j*b*d^2)
p=As/(b*d)
k={(n*p)^2+2*n*p}^0.5 - n*p
j= 1-k/3

3.348
0.000
942.86
17.07

tf.m
tf
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

Then d=
check s < sa ?
check c < ca ?

7 cm
28 cm

1.495 tf.m
1.917 tf
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

Then d=
check s < sa ?
check c < ca ?
check m < a ?

10 cm
25 cm

Then d=
check s < sa ?
check c < ca ?
check m < a ?

10 cm
25 cm

ok
ok

0.0230
0.6347
0.7884

## (b) Rear Face, without Impact Plate

Mf (rear)
So
s =
Mf/(As*j*d)
c =
2*Mf/(k*j*b*d^2)
m =
S/(b*j*d)
p=As/(b*d)
k={(n*p)^2+2*n*p}^0.5 - n*p
j= 1-k/3
(c) Rear Face, with Impact Plate
Mf (rear)
So
s =
Mf/(As*j*d)
c =
2*Mf/(k*j*b*d^2)
m =
S/(b*j*d)
p=As/(b*d)
k={(n*p)^2+2*n*p}^0.5 - n*p
j= 1-k/3

0.920
1.073
513.06
10.21
0.48

tf.m
tf
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

ok
ok
ok

0.0032
0.3233
0.8922

26/32

263881217.xls, Parapet

## 4. Summary of Design Calculation

Description
Provision on Impact Plate
Calculation Condition

Abbr.

Principle Dimensions
Concrete Design Strength
Effective width of section
Height of Parapet
concrete cover (tensile)
concrete cover (compressive)
Effective width of Parapet
Allowable Stress

c
b
B2
d1
d2
d
Concrete ca
sa
Re-Bar
Shearing a
sy
Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar

Reinforcement Bar
Tensile Bar
Tensile Bar

Required
Designed

Design Bending Moment
Design Axis Force
Shearing Force
Checking of Minimum Re-Bar
Cracking Moment
1.7*Mf
1.7*Mf < Mc ? If no, check Mu
Ultimate Bending Moment
Mu > Mc ?
Max Re-bar
Min Re-bar
Required Bar
Area of Re-bar for Design
Checking of Allowable Stress
Young's Modulus Ratio
Effective height
Compressive Stress
Bending Tensile Stress
Mean Shearing Stress

unit

kgf/m2
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/cm2

Front Face
Yes
Normal

200
100
35
7
0
28
70
2500
7
3000

Back Face
No
Normal

200
100
35
10
0
25
70
2500
7
3000

Yes
Seismic

200
100
35
10
0
25
105
3750
10.5
3000

As req.
As

cm2
cm2

6.07
16.08
D16@125

Mf
Nd
S

tf.m
tf
tf

3.348
0.000
0.000

1.495
0.000
1.917

0.920
0.000
1.073

Mc

tf.m

3.491
2.541

3.491
1.565
ok

Mu

tf.m

As max
As min
As req.
As

cm2
cm2
cm2
cm2

3.491
5.692
check Mu
4.558
ok
56.0
4.5
6.066
16.085

50.0
4.5

50.0
4.5
1.650
8.042

n
d
c
s
m

cm
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

24
28
17.07
942.86
0

24
25

16
25
10.21
513.06
0.48

27/32

Remarks

(K200)

## (Spec >295 N/mm2)

1.65
8.04
D16@250

263881217.xls, Parapet

0
0.70

0.35

D16@200

D25@180
+

80.30

79.00

D16@200
D16@200
1.30
0.40

D16@200

0.30
D16@200

0.40
D16@200

10.00

D25@180

11.30

D25@180

12.20

D16@200

D16@200
9.30
5.00

D25@180
D25@90

D25@150
D19@100

D19@100

D25@150
+

69.00

68.10

0.40
1.80
0.50

D25@300

D19@150

5.00
1.20

1.00

2.80

D25@300

## IMPACT PLATE AND CORBEL

Design Parameters
Impact plate
Unit weight of plate
Unit weight of soil
Soil depth above plate
Thickness of pavement

3.00
0.30
3.00
2.40
1.30
0.05
0.05

Length L=
Thickness h1=
B=
c =
s =
Ds=
Dp=

m
m
m
tf/m3
tf/m3
m
m

Span length
Width of corbel
Height of corbel

Ls = 0.7*L=
Lp=
h2=

Cover of R-bar
Impact plate
Corbel

d1=
d3=

2.10 m
0.30 m
0.30 m

5 cm
7 cm

## Computation of Intersectional Force, Corbel

Impact plate
Soil above plate

0.72 tf/m2
0.07 tf/m2
0.79 tf/m2

Md= (1/8)*Wd*Ls^2

0.432731 tf.m

## 3) Intersectional Force due Live Load

L=2*T*(1+ i)/{2.75*(a+2*d)}
ML={(1/4)*L*Ls*(a+2*d)-(1/8)*L*(a+2*d)^2}*
where,

ML
T:
a
i:
Dp:
:

## bending moment due live load

impact coefficient
i=20/(50+L)=
0.377
thickness of pavement
coefficient

L =
ML=

17.53002 tf/m2
3.663774 tf.m

7.00 tf
0.30 m

0.05 m
1.10

## 4) Total Intersectional Force

M=Md+ML

4.096505 tf.m

3 Corbel
1) Intersectional Force due Impact Plate
M1=R*bu
where,

M1=
R
bu

## total reaction form corbel

width of corbel =Lp

## 2) Intersectional Force due Corbel

M2=(1/6)*(21+2)*c*bu^2
where,

2.115 tf.m

1
2
c =
bu

0.15
0.60
2.40
0.30

M=M1+M2

7.048 tf.m/m
0.300 m

M2=

0.032 tf.m

m
m
tf/m3
m

2.147 tf.m

## 3 Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar for Impact Plate

1) Cracking Moment
Mc=

Zc*('ck + N/Ac)

where, Mc
Zc

'ck

N
Ac
h1

cracking moment
section modulus
Zc=b*h1^2/6
b=
100 cm
tensile strength of concrete (bending)
'ck = 0.5*ck^(2/3)
ck=
200 kgf/cm2
axial force
area of concrete = b*h1
thickness of section, impact plate

Mc=

256496 kgf.cm

2.565 tf.m

kgf.cm
15000 cm3

17.100 kgf/cm2
0.000 tf
3000 cm2
30 cm

29/32

263881217.xls, Imp-Plate

## 2) Checking of Cracking Moment and Design Bending Moment

Design bending moment Mf

4.097 tf.m

Check Mf & Mc

1.7*Mf =
6.964 tf.m
Mc=
2.565 tf.m
1.7*Mf>Mc?

## 3) Ultimate Bending Moment

Mu=As* sy{d-(1/2)*[As* sy]/[0.85* ck*b]}
where, Mu
As
sy
d

'ck
b

Check Mu & Mc

Mu=

552464 kgf.cm

## ultimate bending moment

area of tensile bar
yielding point of tensile bar
effective height = h1-cover
cover d1=
5 cm
h1=
30 cm
design compressive strength of concrete
effective width

tf.m
cm2
3000 kgf/cm2
25 cm

As=Mf/( sa*j*d)
sa=
allowable stress of reinforcement bar
j= 1 -k/3 (=8/9 )
or k = n/{n+ sa/ ca)
n= Young's modulus ratio
ca
allowable stress of concrete

7.568 cm2
2500 kgf/cm2
0.866

Mu =
Mc =

5.525 tf.m
2.565 tf.m

5.525 tf.m

## (Spec >295 N/mm2)

200 kgf/cm2
100 cm

24
70 kgf/cm2

Mu>Mc?

ok

4) Bar Arrangement
Checking of single or double bar arrangement
M1= (d/Cs)^2*sa*b >Mf?
where, M1
Cs
s
m
sa
ca
n

M1=

resistance moment
={2m/[s*(1-s/3)]}^(1/2)
(n*ca)/(n*ca+sa)
sa/ca

M1=
Mf=

761401 kgf.cm

7.614 tf.m

14.325
0.402
35.714
2500 kgf/cm2
70 kgf/cm2
24

7.614 tf.m
4.097 tf.m

## (a) Tensile Bar

Max bar area As max =
0.02*b*d =
50.0 cm2
Min bar area As min =
b*4.5%=
4.5 cm2
Required bar area
As req=
7.568 cm2
Apply =
19
@
150 mm
Bar area
As =
18.902 cm2
ok

d
d1

## (b) Compressive Bar, in case M1<Mf

M' = Mf - M1=sa*As'*(d - d2)
As' = M'/[sa*(d - d2)]
d=
d2=
sa=

25 cm
0 cm
2500 kgf/cm2

## Required bar area

Apply =
16
Bar area

As' req=
@
As' =

As'=

0.000 cm2

h
d

M1=
7.614 tf.m
Mf= 4.096505 tf.m

0.000 cm2
300 mm
6.702 cm2

d2

d1

ok

30/32

263881217.xls, Imp-Plate

## 5) Checking of Allowable Stress

(a) Tensile Bar Only
Mf
S
s =
c =

4.096505
0
1018.96
34.42

Mf/(As*j*d)
2*Mf/(k*j*b*d^2)
p=As/(b*d)
k={(n*p)^2+2*n*p}^0.5 - n*p
j= 1-k/3

tf.m
tf
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

check s < sa ?
check c < ca ?

0.0076
0.4477
0.8508

b=
d=
n=

100 cm
25 cm
24

ok
ok

x=kd
h

## (b) Tensile Bar & Compressive Bar

Mf
S
c =
s =
s' =

Mf/(b*d^2*Lc)
n*c*(1-k)/k
n*c*(k-d2/d)/k

As
4.096505
0.000
27.37
965.79
656.96

d1

tf.m
tf
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

check c < ca ?
check s < sa ?
check s' < sa ?

p=As/(bd)
p'=As'/(bd)
k={n^2(p+p')^2+2n(p+p'*d2/d)}^05-n(p+p')
Lc=(1/2)k(1-k/3)+(np'/k)(k-d2/d)(1-d2/d)
b=
100 cm
d=
25 cm
d2=
0 cm
n=
24

ok
ok
ok
b

0.0076
0.0027
0.4048
0.2394

d2

As'

x=kd

As
d1

## 4 Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar for Corbel

1) Cracking Moment
Mc=

Zc*('ck + N/Ac)

where, Mc
Zc

'ck

N
Ac
h2

Mc=

cracking moment
section modulus
Zc=b*h2^2/6
b=
100 cm
tensile strength of concrete (bending)
'ck = 0.5*ck^(2/3)
ck=
200 kgf/cm2
axial force
area of concrete = b*h1
thickness of section, impact plate

256496 kgf.cm

2.565 tf.m

kgf.cm
15000 cm3

17.100 kgf/cm2
0 tf
3000 cm2
30 cm

## 2) Checking of Cracking Moment and Design Bending Moment

Design bending moment Mf
Check Mf & Mc

2.147 tf.m
1.7*Mf>Mc?, if yes check ultimate bending moment
1.7*Mf =
3.650 tf.m
Mc=
2.565 tf.m
1.7*Mf>Mc?

## 3) Ultimate Bending Moment

Mu=As* sy{d-(1/2)*[As* sy]/[0.85* ck*b]}
where, Mu
As
sy
d

'ck
b

Check Mu & Mc

Mu=

292575 kgf.cm

## ultimate bending moment

area of tensile bar
yielding point of tensile bar
effective height = h1-cover
cover d1=
7 cm
h2=
30 cm
design compressive strength of concrete
effective width

tf.m
cm2
3000 kgf/cm2
23 cm

As=Mf/( sa*j*d)
sa=
allowable stress of reinforcement bar
j= 1 -k/3 (=8/9 )
or k = n/{n+ sa/ ca)
n= Young's modulus ratio = 12
ca
allowable stress of concrete

4.312 cm2
2500 kgf/cm2
0.866

Mu =
Mc =

2.926 tf.m
2.565 tf.m

2.926 tf.m

## (Spec >295 N/mm2)

200 kgf/cm2
100 cm

Mu>Mc?

31/32

24
70 kgf/cm2

ok

263881217.xls, Imp-Plate

4) Bar Arrangement
Checking of single or double bar arrangement
M1= (d/Cs)^2*sa*b >Mf?
where, M1
Cs
s
m
sa
ca
n

M1=

resistance moment
={2m/[s*(1-s/3)]}^(1/2)
(n*ca)/(n*ca+sa)
sa/ca

M1=
Mf=

644450 kgf.cm

6.444 tf.m

14.325
0.402
35.714
2500 kgf/cm2
70 kgf/cm2
24

6.444 tf.m
2.147 tf.m

## (a) Tensile Bar

Max bar area As max =
0.02*b*d =
46.0 cm2
Min bar area As min =
b*4.5%=
4.5 cm2
Required bar area
As req=
4.312 cm2
Apply =
19
@
300 mm
Bar area
As =
9.451 cm2
ok
5) Checking of Allowable Stress
Mf
So
s =
Mf/(As*j*d)
c =
2*Mf/(k*j*b*d^2)

2.147
0.000
1120.83
25.85

p=As/(b*d)
k={(n*p)^2+2*n*p}^0.5 - n*p
j= 1-k/3

d1

tf.m
tf
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

check s < sa ?
check c < ca ?

ok
ok

0.0041
0.3563
0.8812

## SUMMARY OF DESIGN CALCULATION

Description

Abbr.

Principle Dimensions
Concrete Design Strength
Effective width of section
Height of Section
concrete cover (tensile)
concrete cover (compressive)
Effective height of Section
Allowable Stress

c
b
h
d1
d2
d
Concrete ca
sa
Re-Bar
Shearing a
sy
Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar

Reinforcement Bar
Tensile Bar
Compressive Bar

kgf/m2
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/cm2

Impact Plate
200
100
30
5
25
70
2500
7
3000

Corbel
200
100
30
7
23
70
2500
7
3000

Required
Designed

As req.
As

cm2
cm2

7.57
18.90 D19@150

Required
Designed

As' req.
As'

cm2
cm2

0.00
6.70 D16@300

Mf
Nd
S

tf.m
tf
tf

4.097
-

2.147
-

Mc

tf.m

Mu

tf.m

As max
As min
As req.
As

cm2
cm2
cm2
cm2

2.565
6.964
check Mu
5.525
ok
50.00
4.50
7.57
18.90

2.926
3.650
check Mu
2.926
ok
46.00
4.50
4.31
9.45

n
d
c
s
s'
m

cm
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

24
25
34.42 ok
1,018.96 ok
-

24
23
25.85 ok
1,120.83 ok
-

Design Bending Moment
Design Axis Force
Shearing Force
Checking of Minimum Re-Bar
Cracking Moment
1.7*Mf
1.7*Mf<Mc? If "no" check Mu
Ultimate Bending Moment
Mu>1.7*Mf?
Max Re-bar
Min Re-bar
Required Bar
Area of Re-bar for Design
Checking of Allowable Stress
Young's Modulus Ratio
Effective height
Compressive Stress
Bending Tensile Stress
Mean Shearing Stress

unit

32/32

Remarks

(K200)

## (Spec >295 N/mm2)

4.31
9.45 D19@300

263881217.xls, Imp-Plate