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Fatigue Resistant Sockets

for Dynamic Loads


PFEIFER Cable Structures
Cable structures technology
Info Nr. 3
4-2012

PFEIFER
SEIL- UND HEBETECHNIK
GMBH
DR.-KARL-LENZ-STRASSE 66
D-87700 MEMMINGEN
TELEPHONE +49 (0) 83 31-937-393
TELEFAX
+49 (0) 83 31-937-624
E-MAIL
cablestructures@pfeifer.de
INTERNET www.pfeifer.info

In this information paper PFEIFER presents its two new


open spelter sockets type 700 and type 710
In 1999 PFEIFER Seil- und Hebetechnik GmbH, as the first manufacturer on the market, obtained national technical approvals for its cable
tension members. They were specifically designed for predominantly
static loads. Therefore they are perfectly suitable for pedestrian
bridges, stadium roofs, other wide span structures and zoological
gardens. Recently PFEIFER achieved the European technical approval
for this product line (ETA -11/0160). It is available as a free download
on our web site www.pfeifer.de/en/cable-structures/.
Besides the mentioned applications the cables are also included in
structures, such as road bridges or other structures which are dynamically loaded. Numerous fatigue tests have shown that an open spelter
socket that is economically designed for static loads is only suitable to

Figure 1: Open spelter socket Type 700

Requirement class according to EN 1993-1-11 paragraph 2:


Fatigue load

No significant fatigue load

a limited extent for dynamic loads. However, usage within road bridges Fatigue load mainly caused
and other structures under cyclic loads requires materials with specific by longitudinal forces
characteristics. These characteristics are fulfilled by the cables, but
Fatigue load caused by
not to the full extent with our open spelter sockets type 802.
For this reason PFEIFER designed a new open spelter socket, which
we would like to present to you now:
The new open spelter sockets type 700 and type 710
The new open spelter socket type 700 represents a one-piece socket
with a fixed forked cable connection. The force in the cable is transferred through a movable pin to the steel structure. A bolted lid prevents the pin from falling out. This type is perfectly suitable for applications with periodically occurring loads, which do not require length
adjustment.

Corrosive load, not


exposed to the outside
environment

Corrosive load, exposed


to the outside environment

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4
Class 5

longitudinal forces and


bending (wind and rain)

Open spelter sockets type 802 fulfil the requirements of the classes 1
and 2. Open spelter sockets type 700 now fulfil all requirement classes
1 to 5. Thus, the fatigue loads are also covered.

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PFEIFER

Fatigue Resistant Sockets for Dynamic Loads 6/2012

Open spelter sockets type 710 consist of a conical socket with internal
thread type 800, a threaded rod with right-hand and left-hand thread
and a forked connector with internal thread. This type is used where
length adjustment of the cable tension member is necessary.

When dimensioning the connection in the steel structure it has to be


considered that the dimensions of the plate thickness must be in
accordance with the PFEIFER specifications. If there are no exact values given the notch class classification from table 8.1 (13) DIN EN
1993-1-9 can be used for the calculation.
Apart from the end fittings type 700 and type 710 there are several
other sockets from the range of PFEIFER products, which are suitable
for dynamic loads. For an anchorage of cable tension members with
adjustable length we provide the proven and tested cylindrical socket
type 810 with spherical nut and spherical disc type 813 / 814.
This combination fulfils all demands on cable tension members when
they are exposed to dynamic loads.

Figure 2: Adjustable open spelter socket type 710

Requirement classes according to EN 1993-1-11 paragraph 2:


Corrosive load, not
exposed to the outside
environment

Corrosive load,
exposed to the outside
environment

No significant fatigue load

Class 1

Class 2

Fatigue load mainly caused


by longitudinal forces

Class 3

Class 4

Fatigue load

Figure 3: Cylindrical socket type 810 with spherical nut and disc type 813 / 814

Fatigue load caused by


longitudinal forces and
bending (wind and rain)

Class 5

Open spelter sockets type 710 fulfil the requirements of the classes 1
to 4.

Design and calculation criteria:


Structural analysis:
The structural analysis and verification of the open spelter sockets is,
as far as possible, performed according to DIN 18800 / DIN EN 1993.
In accordance with this standard the socket, the connection sheet, the
fork and the pin are verified.
Fatigue analysis:

The calculation of the dynamically stressed cable tension members is


The fork connector of the type 710 corresponds to the geometry of the
based on the standard
socket type 700. The two types 700 and 710 thus fit together well.
DIN EN 1993-1, part 9 and part 11.
The sophisticated shape of these connections follows our corporate
design of the product families PG and PE used for PFEIFER Cable
In accordance with this standard, full locked cables and spiral strands
tension members.
with poured anchorings with metal and resin fillings are allocated to a
Thus, the cable types PV (PV = PFEIFER fully locked cable) and other notch class category with the reference value of
Pfeifer cable types can be arranged side by side in a building following
c=150 N/mm
one lead design intent.
(DIN EN 1993-1-11 table 9.1).
This reference value specifies the fatigue strength for 2 million load
cycles and a maximum force of 0.45 x ZBk (ZBk = characteristic
breaking force of the cable).

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PFEIFER

Fatigue Resistant Sockets for Dynamic Loads 6/2012

=1.25 x c
The standard DIN EN 1993-1-9 table 3.1 recommends safety factors
for the fatigue strength (Mf).
If, for instance, the design concept safety against fatigue failure
without notice is chosen for the cable tension member and the
resulting damage is chosen as high, then the resulting Mf -factor
is 1.35.
Therefore the limiting value of the stress range for the cable tension
member is

In the example illustrated the curve for a cable tension member with
the notch class classification of c= 150 N/mm is shown.
As explained above, this reference value is valid for 2 million stress
cycles with a maximum force of 0.45 x ZBk.
In accordance with EN 1993-1-11 paragraph 9.2, for the inclination of
the fatigue strength curve the value of m=4 can be assumed for
N 2 x 106 and the value of m = 6 for N > 2 x 106.
It is therefore possible to read the anticipated fatigue life as a function
of the longitudinal stress range from the diagram.
Equation for the determination of the bearable stress range z:

c / Mf = 150 N/mm / 1.35 = 111 N/mm


The engineer has to calculate the damage equivalent constant stress
range for the respective cable tension member. The reference value is
2 million load cycles (E,2)

C m

Z : =m

NC
NZ

With Nc = 2 x 106
c = 150 N/mm

This value has to be determined according to DIN EN 1993-1-9


paragraph 6.

Nz = number of load cycles

The design value results from the multiplication of E,2 with the safety
factor Ff for the damage equivalent stress range.

m = 4 up to 2 x 106 load cycles and


m = 6 above 2 x 106 load cycles

Fatigue verification according to DIN EN 1993-1-9 paragraph 8:

Equation for the determination of the number of bearable load cycles Nz:

Ff * E,2 c / Mf
Illustration of the dependence of the stress cycles N from the
longitudinal stress range
(Whler curve from EN 1993-1-11 (9.2)):

N Z : = NC

C
Z

The fatigue verification is fulfilled if the design value is smaller than or


equal to the limiting value.

Fatigue tests are performed according to EN 1993-1-11 paragraph


A.4.1 with a stress cycle of

With Nc = 2 x 106
c = 150 N/mm
z = stress range
6

m = 4 up to 2 x 10 load cycles and


6
m = 6 above 2 x 10 load cycles

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PFEIFER

Fatigue Resistant Sockets for Dynamic Loads 6/2012

FEM calculation:

Symbols used (in accordance with EN 1993-1-9)

The sockets type 700 and 710 were constructed in CAD programmes
in 3D. These drafts served as a basis for the subsequent FEM
calculations. Several optimising steps lead to the present design.

= stress range (longitudinal stresses)


C= reference value for fatigue strength with Nc = 2 x 106 Load cycle
E= damage equivalent constant stress range related to nmax
Mf = factor for the fatigue strength c
Ff = factor for the damage equivalent stress range E

Figure 4: FEM calculation of open spelter socket

The aim of the analysis was to develop cable tension members which
are suitable for dynamic stress (for example road bridges)
have an aesthetically pleasing shape
can be produced efficiently.
These demands are entirely fulfilled with the new types 700 and 710.

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Fatigue Resistant Sockets for Dynamic Loads 6/2012

08.12.pdf WA