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1.

The general integral that gives the beam solid angle is equation (2-142)

F ( , )

! A =

d =

F ( , )

sin d d

!
!

sphere

0 0

There is no dependence to the given antenna pattern, so the integral can be done immediately, giving
a factor of 2. The integral is then split up, separating out the three non-zero regions.

/6

! A = 2

sin d +

2
2

1
1
sin

+
sin d
/3 3

2
5 /6

2 /3

!
!

Do the integration. The integral of sine is minus cosine. We can absorb the sign by swapping the limits.

! A = 2 cos 0 cos +

2 1
5

cos
cos cos + cos

9
3
3
4
6

!
!

Evaluating the cosine function.

! A = 2 1

5
3 1 1 1 1
3
3 1
+
+
+

+
1
=
2

1
+

2 9 2 2 4 2
2 9
4

Plugging in the numbers, we have


! A
The directivity is then
!D=

!
!
! 1.750
!

4
! 7.179
A

2. We can start from the expressions in the solution of 6.3-8. For the parasitic element to function as the
best possible director, we need to maximize the array factor magnitude in the forward direction

!
! maximize AF ( 0 ) = maximize I + I e
!
To reach this maximum, the two terms must have the same phase, modulo 2
!
j d

! arg I1e j d = arg ( I 0 ) + 2 n

Evaluating the argument function

arg ( I1 ) + arg ( e

) = arg ( I ) + 2 n
j
! arg + arg ( e ) = arg (1) + 2 n
2
j d

j d

+ d = 2 n
2
Solve for d and substitute the expression for

!
!

!d = n
The shortest (positive) distance is
!d =

but integral additions of also work. Similarly, for the parasitic element to function as the best possible
reflector, we need to maximize the array factor magnitude in the backward direction

! maximize AF ( ) = maximize I 0 + I1e j d

Following from above, we find


!

d = 2 n
2

Solving for d

n
4

!d =
and the shortest distance is

!d =

3. The source points we want lie on a circle of radius a in the x-y plane, spaced apart by an angle of /3.
Noting that the first point has an angle of /6, we subtract 1/2 from the index variable.

1
1

x + sin n y

2 3
2 3

! ! rn = a cos n

If this is not obvious, consider Eulers formula

! e j = cos + j sin

!
!
! r = sin cos x + sin sin y + cos z
!
We just need the dot product to compute the far-field approximate distances
!
The radial unit vector has the usual expansion in cartesian coordinates

1
1

cos

+
sin
n

sin

2 3
2 3

! Rn = r rn r = r asin cos n

!
!

The expression for the individual distances is also acceptable. Evaluating the trigonometric functions we
have

1
R1 = r asin
cos + sin
2
2

R2 = r asin {sin }
3

1
R3 = r asin
cos + sin
2
2

!
3

1
R4 = r asin
cos sin
2
2

R5 = r asin { sin }
3

1
R6 = r asin
cos sin
2
2