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# This Experiment Marcet Boiler Engineering Essay

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In This experiment Marcet boiler was used to conduct the relationship between a saturated pressure
and temperature of water in the range of 0-14 bar indicating in the gauge and also to determine the
temperature of a body when being heated or cooled. When the temperature increases pressure also
increases in this case the relationship between pressure and temperature is directly proportional.
Assumption was made that the temperature is uniform throughout the boiler and the outside surface
temperature of the boiler is the same as the steam temperature. Theoretically, the values from the
steam table should almost be the same with the recorded values. In this case, if the values are not the
same then this is due to error that was made in the experiment.
The experiment was performed carefully and all procedure was followed to get accurate result. First of
all the startup procedure is to fill water in Marcet boiler and the water level is half of the boilers height.
Then the supply switch was turned on. It is important to remove the air in the boiler in this case the
valve would be open from the start up of the experiment When the temperature increases to 100C, the
steam is allowed to come out from the valve for few seconds and close the valve. Record the steam
temperature and pressure reaches 14 bars.
Introduction
Thermodynamics is the study of heat and in relation in other form of work and energy between a
system and its surrounding; in this case the property in the system will change.
Generally ideal gas obeys the equation of state which is showed below.
PV=
When energy is increased in the water .the molecules in the water that is increasing will enable the
molecules to escape from the surface until it is in equilibrium (boiling point). The state of equilibrium
depends on the pressure in the surface of the water. When the pressure is low it is easier for the
molecules to leave the water with less energy.
The Marcet boiler is used to investigate the relationship pressure and temperature in saturated steam
for comparison with the steam table .the experiment slope (dT/dp) is obtained water at saturated
temperature
Theory
The Marcet boiler is used to investigate the between pressure and temperature of saturated steam, in
equilibrium with water, at all pressures between atmospheric and a 14bar An ideal gas can be
characterized by three state variables: absolute pressure (P), volume (V), and absolute temperature
(T). The relationship between them may be deduced from kinetic theory and is called the Ideal Gas law.
The ideal gas law was originally determined empirically and is simply.

and hf + hfg = hg hf
as vg >> vf
In which, vf = specific volume of saturated liquid
vg = specific volume of saturated vapor
hf = enthalpy of saturated liquid

## hg = enthalpy of saturated vapor

hfg = latent heat of vaporization
Equipment
Procedure
Fill up water half the height of the boiler
Ensure the valve is opened
Connect the boiler to the electrical switch
The boiler is heated up to 100c and the steam will come out of the open valve
Close the valve after 1 minutes to ensure that the air in the boiler is out and continues heating
When the pressure start rising , start the stop watch
Record all the temperature readings at different pressure with time
Pressure must not exceed 14 bar

Result
Original table from the lab
20121108_130229.jpg
Temperature
Pressure
TIME
Average
TEMPRETURE
MEASURED SLOPE
CALCULATED SLOPE
ERROR
PERCENTAGE
T (c) increase
P(bar) gauge
P(bar)
absolute
vg
dp

dT
dt/dp
Tvg
hfg

%
107.2
1.3
2.3
0.777188
98.06
0
83.31
2238
0.0372
0
120.3
2.0
3
0.605864
98.06
0
72.88
2202
0.0331
0
138.8
2.5
3.5
0.524266
98.06
0

2164
0
133.6
3.0
4.0
0.462456
98.06
0
61.78
2164
0.0286
00
151.9
5.0
6.0
0.315626
98.06
0
47.94
2108
0.0227
0
155.5
5.5
6.5
0.292629
98.06
0
45.50
2097
0.0216

0
158.9
6.0
7.0
0.272810
98.06
0
43.35
2086
0.0207
0
162.0
6.5
7.5
0.255547
98.06
0
41.39
2076
0.0199
0
165.0
7.0
8.0
0.240370
98.06
0
39.66
2066
0.0192
0

167.8
7.5
8.5
0.226918
98.06
0
38.07
2057
0.0185
0
170.5
8.0
9.0
0.214912
98.06
0
36.64
2048
0.0179
0
173.0
8.5
9.5
0.204126
98.06
0
35.31
2039
0.0173
0
175.4

9.0
10.0
0.194383
98.06
0
34.09
2031
0.0168
0
177.7
9.5
10.5
0.185536
98.06
0
32.97
2023
0.0162
0
179.9
10.0
11.0
0.177466
98.06
0
31.93
2015
0.0158
0
182.1
10.5

11.5
0.170074
98.06
0
30.97
2008
0.0154
0
184.1
11.0
12.0
0.163277
98.06
0
30.05
2000
0.0150
0
186.1
11.5
12.5
0.157005
98.06
0
29.22
1993
0.0147
0
188.0
12.0
13.0

0.151199
98.06
0
28.425
1986
0.0143
0
189.9
12.5
13.5
0.145808
98.06
0
27.688
1979
0.0130
0
191.7
13.0
14.0
0.140789
98.06
0
26.989
1973
0.0137
0
196.7
13.5
14.5
0.136104

98.06
0
26.772
1953
0.0137
0
195.1
14.0
15.0
0.131721
98.06
0
25.69
1960
0.0131
0
Calculation
Formula used
Pv=
m = mass
M = molecular weight
P = pressure
V = volume
R = molecular gas constant
T = temperature
Plot the graph for T and P
Discussion
The theory can be compared with the experiment where pressure and temperature are directly
proportional to each other
When a water is heated in a container to a boiling point the tempreture increases and presussre also
increase in the case where the steam is closed in a cylinder, Their will be internal pressure in the
container and also internal forces. it is shown in the graph that tempreture is relatively proportional to
pressure

In the table error was zero because the decreasing tempreture of the boiler was not noted down
therefore erro is unknown . assuming the decreasing tempreture is considered the the error percentage
would now exceed 10% because the experiment was done in a closed system so no amount of volume
will escape
It was important to remove the air from the boiler to avoid flaws of readings .
Marcet boiler is used in plant steam industries, power plant, cooking utensil and so on
Conclusion
in the experiment, it shows from the table and theory that temperature and pressure is relatively
proportional in balance with water
Disgracing some negligible faults, this experiment can be consider successful, to improve the result of
the experiment, it should be carried out at room temperature switching off all the air-conditions, and
also by repeating the experiment and taking the average value. If some insulation were kept on
theMarcet boiler to reduce heat loss, the experiment could be more accurate