Está en la página 1de 20

STM103

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

Structureofclass
Whatarethemajoralternativeconceptsof
democraticgovernance.
Electoraldemocracy:

1.

JosephSchumpeter
Liberaldemocracy:

2.

RobertDahl
Goodgovernance:

3.

9/16/2010

WorldBank Institute(Kaufmann/Kraay)
www.pippanorris.com

Keyquestions

Howwouldyouassessthestrengthsandweaknessesof
alternativeconceptsofdemocracyandgovernance?

Whichoftheseconceptswouldyouusetoassessthe
qualityofdemocraticgovernanceinyourhomeregion,
forexample,workinginaUNagency,anationalNGO,as
ajournalist,asanofficialforabilateraldonor,orasan
academicanalyst?

Howwouldyoujustifyyourchoiceofconceptsand
measurestoadiplomaticofficialfrom,say,ASEAN,the
AfricanUnion,ortheUN?

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

Takeafewminutes

Jotdownafewsentencesgivingyourworking
definitionofthefollowingconcepts.

Democracyis
Goodgovernanceis

Howwouldyoumeasureeachoftheseconcepts?

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

Alternativeconceptsof
democraticgovernance

Electoraldemocracy

Przeworski/Cheibub

Liberaldemocracy

Goodgovernance

PolityIV/

IbrahimIndex/

FreedomHouse

WorldBank

MinimalistMaximalist
9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

1.Electoraldemocracy

JosephSchumpeter,Capitalism,socialismand
democracy(1943)
Proceduralorminimalistdefinition
"Thedemocraticmethodisthatinstitutional
arrangementforarrivingatpoliticaldecisionsinwhich
individualsacquirethepowertodecidebymeansofa
competitivestruggleforthepeople'svote
Multipartyelectionsatregularintervalsforheadof
governmentandlegislativebodies
Willdiscussmeasuresinclass8
Whataretheprosandconsofthisnotion?

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

Minimalistexclusions

Nosocialoreconomicaspectsareincluded

Nomeasureofaccountability,responsibility,
responsivenessorrepresentation

Nomeasureoffreedom,libertiesorhumanrights

Nomeasureofparticipationeg universalfranchise

Noreferencetocivilmilitaryrelations

Whatarecompetitive elections?
Advantagesanddisadvantagesofthisapproach?

Democraticgovernance

Electoraldemocracy

Przeworski/Cheibub

Liberaldemocracy

Goodgovernance

PolityIV/

IbrahimIndex/

FreedomHouse

WorldBank

MinimalistMaximalist
9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

2.LiberalDemocracy

Longtraditionofliberaldemocratictheory:Locke,
Madison,Bentham,JamesMill,JSMill

ModernversionsdrawuponRobertDahl1956.A
PrefacetoDemocraticTheory

Twoconceptsareimportant:
Contestation competitionandpluralism
Massparticipation

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

10

Dahl'sConceptualLogic
Liberal
Democracy
Contestation
Righttoform
parties
Associational
autonomy
9/16/2010

Participation

Freedomof
thepress

Righttovote

Fairnessof
election

Extentof
suffrage
www.pippanorris.com

11

Polyarchies
ForDahl,moderndemocraticstatescanbeunderstood
inpracticeaspolyarchies
Thesecanbeidentifiedbythepresenceofcertainkey
politicalinstitutions:

1)electedofficials;
2)freeandfairelections;
3)inclusivesuffrage;
4)therighttorunforoffice;
5)freedomofexpression;
6)alternativeinformation;and
7)associationalautonomy

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

12

ProsandCons?

Broaderconceptthansimplyelections

Expandsrangeofcivillibertiesandpoliticalrights

Commonbasisforstandardempiricalmeasures
(FreedomHouseandPolityIV)

Yetfocusesonlyonnegativefreedoms seeksto
protectcitizensfromthepowerofthestate

Whatofpositivefreedomsandsocialequality,
culturalandeconomicrights?

Willdiscussmeasuresinclass8(FH/PolityIV)

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

13

Democraticgovernance

Electoraldemocracy

Przeworski/Cheibub

Liberaldemocracy

Goodgovernance

PolityIV/

IbrahimIndex/

FreedomHouse

WorldBank

MinimalistMaximalist
9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

14

ConceptofGovernance
MaxWeber:governancebythestatereflectsthe
capacityofregimeauthoritiestoperformfunctions
essentialforcollectivewellbeing
1.

Tomaintainstatesovereignty(throughmonopoly
controlovertheuseofmilitaryforceandlaws
withinterritorialboundaries).

2.

Toimplementpublicpolicies

Weberian bureaucraticvaluesofefficiency,
effectiveness,impartiality,andaccountability
9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

15

Weberian rationalbureaucracy

Meritocratic processesofrecruitment,training,andcareer
promotion;
Hierarchicalandcentralizeddecisionmakingauthority
withinlargescaleorganizationalstructures;
Functionalspecialization:officialshaveclearlyspecified
ranks,duties,obligations,rolesandsupervisors;
Standardizedprocedures:actionsareguidedbytransparent
formalandimpersonalrules,writtenproceduresandlegal
codes,designedtoprovideconsistent,equalandimpartial
treatmentofallcitizensandemployees;
Firewallbetweenprivateandpublicinterests: publicofficials
arefulltimesalariedcareerprofessionalswithjobsecurity.

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

16

'Good'governanceindices

Increasinglycommonlyusedinthelastdecade

WorldBankInstitute:KaufmannKraay
1.

Ruleoflaw

2.

Governmenteffectiveness

3.

Transparencyandcontrolofcorruption

4.

Voiceandaccountability

5.

Regulatoryquality

6.

Politicalstabilityandabsenceofviolence

WilldiscussmeasuresinClass9
9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

17

GOVERNANCE

DEMOCRACY

9/16/2010

EXPANDED
GOVERNANCE
CAPACITY

LIMITED
GOVERNANCE
CAPACITY

RESTRICTEDVOICEAND
ACCOUNTABILITY

INCLUSIVEVOICEAND
ACCOUNTABILITY

Bureaucraticautocracies

Bureaucraticdemocracies

E.g.China

E.g.Canada

Patrimonialautocracies

Patrimonialdemocracies

E.g.Zimbabwe

E.g.Mali

www.pippanorris.com

18

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

19

Nextclass

Note:NoclassMonday(LaborDay)

MeetnextonWednesday8th September

Analyticalframeworkexplainingprocessesof
democratization seereadings

9/16/2010

www.pippanorris.com

20