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APSDS 5.

0 User Manual
Revision: 5.0.055

Printed on 9 November, 2010

Contents
Summary

APSDS End User Licence Agreement

Introduction

Background ....................................................................................................................................9
Realistic Modelling with APSDS...................................................................................................11
Material Modelling..............................................................................................................12
Modelling of Multiple Wheels and Axle Groups .................................................................14
Nature of Damage Pulses..................................................................................................15

Overview

17

How APSDS handles Traffic Distributions ...................................................................................18


Full Spectral Analysis..................................................................................................................19
Lateral Aircraft Wander ................................................................................................................20
Elastic Properties .........................................................................................................................21
Cumulative Damage Concept ......................................................................................................21
Material Performance ...................................................................................................................22
Traffic and Loading.......................................................................................................................23
How aircraft characteristics are defined .......................................................................................23
Wheel Loadings .................................................................................................................23
Standard Aircraft Library ....................................................................................................24
Defining the gear load characteristics................................................................................24
Coordinate System ............................................................................................................26
Methods for handling Damage Pulses .........................................................................................28
Aircraft Weight Distributions.........................................................................................................30
Automatic Thickness Design........................................................................................................31
Cost Calculation ...........................................................................................................................31
Automatic Parametric Analysis ....................................................................................................32

Overview of User Interface

33

Introduction...................................................................................................................................33
Creating, Opening and Saving Files ............................................................................................34
Creating and Editing Input Data ...................................................................................................34
Database Approach ...........................................................................................................35
Running the Analysis and Plotting Results ..................................................................................35
Run Analysis ......................................................................................................................35
Damage Calculation Details...............................................................................................36
Plot Results ........................................................................................................................37
Options .........................................................................................................................................37

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Contents

How to Start Using APSDS

39

Opening and Running an Existing Job.........................................................................................40


Global Coordinate System ...........................................................................................................45

How to Modify the Databases

49

Introduction...................................................................................................................................49
Units ...................................................................................................................................49
Sign Convention.................................................................................................................50
Overview of Database Approach .......................................................................................52
The "Layered System" and "Materials" Databases ......................................................................54
Overview of Layered System and Material Properties ......................................................54
Creating a new Layered System........................................................................................56
Defining the Layer properties.............................................................................................57
Duplicating a Layered System ...........................................................................................58
Adding a new Performance Criterion.................................................................................59
Example: Asphalt tensile strain relationship ........................................................... 59
Example: Log-linear performance relationship ....................................................... 61
Adding a new Elastic Material............................................................................................63
Adding a new Material Type ..............................................................................................65
The "Loads" and "Traffic Spectrum" Databases ..........................................................................66
Introduction ........................................................................................................................66
Aircraft Specifications ........................................................................................................67
Automatic Updates for the Standard Aircraft Library.............................................. 67
Adding Aircraft Specifications................................................................................. 68
Defining Load Locations (i.e. Wheel positions) ...................................................... 71
Traffic Spectrums...............................................................................................................72
Creating a new Traffic Spectrum ............................................................................ 72
Defining Gross Weight Distributions....................................................................... 74
Duplicating a Traffic Spectrum ............................................................................... 75
Wander Options .................................................................................................................76
Coordinates for Results................................................................................................................79

How to Use Advanced Features

81

Thickness Design Capability ........................................................................................................81


Cost Calculation ...........................................................................................................................82
Calculation of Total Cost....................................................................................................82
Material Costs ....................................................................................................................83
Automatic Parametric Analysis ....................................................................................................84
ExampleCost Optimization .......................................................................................................86

Appendices

93

What's New in Version 5.0 ...........................................................................................................95


Overview ............................................................................................................................97
More convenient definition of Aircraft Loads......................................................................97
Enhanced Spectral Analysis ..............................................................................................98
Standard Aircraft Library ....................................................................................................98
Wander can vary with Aircraft Model .................................................................................99
Reservoir Method...............................................................................................................99
Material Performance depends on Gear Configuration .....................................................99
Reusable Aircraft Gross Weight Distributions....................................................................99

Contents

iii

Cost Optimization............................................................................................................ 100


New "built-in" Graphics Engine ....................................................................................... 102
Duplicating Layered Systems and Traffic Spectrums ..................................................... 102
Coordinate System for Loads.................................................................................................... 103
Wander Statistics ...................................................................................................................... 104
Cross-anisotropy and isotropy in pavement materials .............................................................. 106
Calculating Selected Results at User-defined Z-values (depths) ............................................. 108
References ................................................................................................................................ 111

Summary
APSDS (Airport Pavement Structural Design System) is for the mechanistic analysis and
design of flexible pavements subjected to the extremely heavy wheel loads associated with
large aircraft. It is designed to conveniently model each combination of aircraft model and
takeoff weight and to combine the damage using the Cumulative Damage Factor concept.
APSDS 5.0 is based on CIRCLY 5.0 and HIPAVE 5.0. CIRCLY was first released in 1977.
APSDS 3.0 was first released in 1995 and APSDS 4.0 in 2000.
APSDS has unique features to expedite pavement design projects

a standard aircraft model library - that can be automatically updated from our webserver;

ability to define and store takeoff weight distributions

APSDS takes account of lateral aircraft wander at a more fundamental level than earlier
methods. Lateral aircraft wander is the statistical variation of the paths taken by successive
aircraft movements relative to lane centrelines. Increased wander reduces pavement
damage by different amounts that depend upon the pavement thickness.
A Parametric Analysis feature can loop through a range of thicknesses for one or two layers,
while simultaneously designing the thickness of another layer. This feature will optimise up to
three layers. Combining this with a Cost Analysis feature, allows for fine-tuning of layer
thicknesses to minimize construction and maintenance costs.
APSDS has many other powerful features, including selection of

cross-anisotropic and isotropic material properties;

fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth) layer interfaces;

a comprehensive range of load types, including vertical, horizontal, torsional, etc.;

non-uniform surface contact stress distributions; and

automatic sub-layering of unbound granular materials.

APSDS End User Licence Agreement


APSDS Mincad Systems Pty Ltd ABN 27 006 782 832. All rights Reserved
Copyright This manual is copyright and may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced,
translated or reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form, in whole or part,
without the prior written consent of Mincad.
This documentation is licensed and sold pursuant to the terms and conditions of the APSDS
End User Licence Agreement, which appears under the APSDS "About" dialogue box which
provides (in part).
20.Exclusions and Limitation of Liability
20.1 To the maximum extent permitted by law all warranties whether express, implied,
statutory or otherwise, relating in any way to the subject matter of this Agreement or to this
Agreement generally, are excluded. Where legislation implies in this Agreement any
condition or warranty and that legislation avoids or prohibits provisions in a contract
excluding or modifying the application of or the exercise of or liability under such term, such
term shall be deemed to be included in this Agreement. However, the liability of Mincad for
any breach of such term shall be limited, at the option of Mincad, to any one or more of the
following: if the breach related to goods: the replacement of the goods or the supply of
equivalent goods; the repair of such goods; the payment of the cost of replacing the goods or
of acquiring equivalent goods; or the payment of the cost of having the goods repaired; and if
the breach relates to services the supplying of the services again; or the payment of the cost
of having the services supplied again.
20.2 To the maximum extent permitted by law and subject only subject only to the warranties
and remedies set out in Clause 12 and Sub-clause 21.1, Mincad shall not be under any
liability (contractual, tortious or otherwise) to Customer in respect of any loss or damage
(including, without limitation, consequential loss or damage) howsoever caused, which may
be suffered or incurred or which may arise directly or indirectly in respect to the supply of
goods or services pursuant to this Agreement or the act, failure or omission of Mincad.
Customer warrants that it has not relied on any representation made by Mincad or upon any
descriptions or illustrations or specifications contained in any document including any
catalogues or publicity material produced by Mincad.
21. Acknowledgement
21.1Customer acknowledges and agrees that:
(a) pavement design and engineering is a complex area and the APSDS is not designed as a
substitute in any way for professional advice;
(b) APSDS is supplied with certain operating instructions and a failure to follow these
instructions carefully could result in erroneous data being produced by APSDS;

APSDS 5.0 User Manual

(c) Whilst APSDS may be used by persons without a detailed knowledge of computers,
APSDS is designed to be used by persons who have a detailed knowledge of, without
limitation:
(i) the applicable Pavement engineering standards; and
(ii) All appropriate legislation and other relevant instruments, including, without limitation the
relevant industry recognised engineering design guides;
(d) They shall manually check all results provided by APSDS for any anomalies; and
(e) They shall obtain professional advice in relation to all results provided by APSDS.
21.2 APSDS is licensed on the basis set out in this Agreement on the understanding that to
the extent permitted by law Mincad is not responsible for the results of any actions taken,
either by Customer or a third party relying on figures supplied or not supplied by APSDS.
22. Indemnity
Customer warrants that any materials supplied to Mincad by Customer do not infringe
Intellectual Property Right of any person.
To the extent permitted by law, Customer shall fully indemnify and keep indemnified Mincad,
its officers, employees and agents, against any loss, costs, expenses, demands, taxes or
liability whether direct or indirect arising out of:
(a) use of APSDS;
(b) a breach of this agreement by Customer; or
(c) any wilful, unlawful or negligent act or omission of Customer.

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
Background
APSDS (Airport Pavement Structural Design System) is for the mechanistic analysis and
design of flexible pavements subjected to the extremely heavy wheel loads associated with
large aircraft. It is designed to conveniently model each combination of aircraft model and
takeoff weight and to combine the damage using the Cumulative Damage Factor concept.
APSDS has unique features to expedite pavement design projects

a standard aircraft model library - that can be automatically updated from our webserver;

ability to define and store takeoff weight distributions

APSDS takes account of lateral aircraft wander at a more fundamental level than earlier
methods. Lateral aircraft wander is the statistical variation of the paths taken by successive
aircraft movements relative to lane centrelines. Increased wander reduces pavement
damage by different amounts that depend upon the pavement thickness. The important
unique feature in APSDS is that the total damage at any point includes contributions from all
the wheels in all their wandering positions. This contrasts with previous methods which
computed single maximum values of the damage indicators. It is this feature that eliminates
the need for the pass-to-coverage concept and allows the designer to specify any degree of
wander. Successive aircraft movements have been observed to be normally distributed
about the pavement centreline. The standard deviation (SD) for a taxiway is typically taken
as 773 mm and for a runway as 1546 mm (Ho Sang, 1975). These correspond to wander
widths of 1778 mm (70 inches) and 3556 mm (140 inches) where wander width is defined as
the zone containing 75% of the aircraft centrelines. For a docking bay, a SD of the order of
200 mm may be appropriate.
APSDS has a user-friendly menu-driven interface that runs under Microsoft Windows.
Databases are used for material properties and loadings, thus eliminating the need to
constantly re-key information. Results can be obtained in tabular form or as report-quality
plots on any printer or plotter supported by Microsoft Windows. Results can be easily
exported to other application packages such as spreadsheets for further processing.
As well as the usual isotropic properties, cross-anisotropic material properties can also be
considered. A cross-anisotropic material is assumed to have a vertical axis of symmetry.
Anisotropies of this type have been observed in soil and rock deposits due to processes
involved in their formation. The interfaces between the layers can be either fully continuous
(rough) or fully frictionless (smooth), or a combination of both types.

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

In practice, loads may be applied to soil or rock pavement layers in the form of vertical wheel
loads, horizontal wheel loads due to traction and braking, torsional wheel loads due to
cornering, and the "gripping" load developed by pneumatic tyres on pavements. The
program allows all of these load types to be simulated for a circular loaded shape. APSDS
can also model non-uniform contact stress distributions.
APSDS is based on integral transform techniques and offers significant advantages over
other linear elastic analysis techniques, such as the finite element method. Input data for the
program is much simpler than that required for most finite element programs. For most
problems the program uses less computer time than a finite element program.
A Parametric Analysis feature can loop through a range of thicknesses for one or two layers,
while simultaneously designing the thickness of another layer. This feature will optimise up to
three layers. Combining this with a Cost Analysis feature, allows for fine-tuning of layer
thicknesses to minimize construction and maintenance costs.
This Australian designed system has been developed by the Melbourne company, MINCAD
Systems. APSDS 5.0 is based on APSDS 4.0, CIRCLY 5.0 and HIPAVE 5.0. CIRCLY has
been in regular use in Australia and worldwide for more than two decades, proving its worth
in thousands of design applications. CIRCLY was first released in 1977 and handled
polynomial type radial variations in contact stress and multiple loads which provide a much
closer representation of the actual loading conditions (Wardle 1977). APSDS 3.0 was first
released in 1995 and APSDS 4.0 in 2000.
In 2007 Mincad Systems and Pioneer Road Services released the Heavy Duty Industrial
Pavement Design Guide (Mincad Systems and Pioneer Road Services, 2007).
The Guide has been developed to assist users of the APSDS and HIPAVE software.
Although the main emphasis of the Guide is on container terminal pavements, all of the
concepts are directly applicable to the airport pavement design. The Guide is a collaborative
effort currently involving Dr. Leigh Wardle of Mincad Systems, Ian Rickards (Pioneer Road
Services Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia), John Lancaster (VicRoads, Australia) and Dr. Susan
Tighe (Dept. Civil Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada).
The Guide presents the authors attempts to reflect best practice in the design of new
construction and rehabilitation of industrial pavements. The Guide steers the designer
through all necessary design considerations and suggests external sources for research
updates.
The Guide is a living document that will be regularly updated to reflect advances in
pavement technology and made freely available via the Internet at no charge.
For further details see http://www.mincad.com.au/hdipdg/.

Chapter 1 Introduction

11

Realistic Modelling with APSDS


You should be aware of a number of factors, including the accuracy of input material
properties and the constraints of the layered elastic model, that will influence the reliability of
design predictions made using APSDS, or for that matter, any alternative design software.
The design values chosen for material properties are likely to be gross simplifications of the
complex and variable properties of the pavement and subgrade materials.
Although APSDS can produce what appear to be very accurate solutions to problems, the
predictions cannot be any more reliable than indicated by the degree of scatter given by the
back-analysis of the full-scale field tests against which APSDS has been 'calibrated'.
Care must be taken to ensure that the sophistication of the analysis method is consistent
with the quality of the input data. Otherwise so many assumptions must be made about the
uncertain parameters that the model predictions will be meaningless.
The following Sections summarize the "state of the art" with respect to modelling of heavy
aircraft loads and the behaviour of pavement materials. Much of this knowledge has been
derived from airport pavement research.
More detailed advice is given in the Heavy Duty Industrial Pavement Design Guide (Mincad
Systems and Pioneer Road Services, 2007). For further details see
http://www.mincad.com.au/hdipdg/.

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Material Modelling
APSDS is an open system that will accommodate material properties and transfer functions
for any pavement design methodology. But research has shown that highway pavement
design methods such as Austroads (2008) are not applicable to the higher loadings typically
applied to heavy duty pavements used at airports (Wardle et al., 2003).
The process of establishing a performance relationship entails assigning moduli values to
unbound basecourse and sub-base materials in accordance with a particular system of sublayering. Care should be taken to ensure that the sub-layering system used to establish the
performance relationship is also used when analysing or designing pavement structures.
Unless this is done, the empirical connection between the test data and the new design is
broken. For example, using the Austroads design method for container handling equipment
where the loads can be 20 tonnes per wheel has been shown to lead to grossly underdesigned pavements (Rodway and Wardle, 1998).
Because each failure criterion is derived in the context of its own detailed design procedure,
it will only produce sensible pavement designs when used as part of that same procedure. If
a failure criterion is used in conjunction with a different design procedure, the vital empirical
link between the design and the original performance data used to calibrate the criterion is
broken. This issue is discussed in more detail by Wardle et al. (2003).
The material performance characteristics recommended for use in APSDS are based on
calibrations developed from airport pavement research.
The subgrade strains are converted to damage using a performance relationship of the form:

Chapter 1 Introduction

where

is the predicted life (repetitions of )

is a material constant

is the damage exponent of the material

is the load-induced strain (unitless strain)

13

The preferred subgrade performance relationship for heavy duty airport pavements was
developed by Wardle and Rodway (2010). This performance relationship was established by
calibrating pavement designs using APSDS against designs based on the US Army Corps of
Engineers CBR method (Method S77-1, Pereira 1977). The methodology also incorporates
recent ICAO recommendations that impact designs for new generation large aircraft
including the Boeing 777 and Airbus A380-800.
The relationship was developed using a range of different aircraft with masses varying from
74 tonnes to 560 tonnes (i.e. Airbus A380-800) and subgrade strengths varying from CBR =
3% to CBR = 15%.
The resulting performance parameters k and b depend on the subgrade modulus (E) and on
the number of wheels on each gear.
This calibration gives more reliable predictions for designs involving new generation large
aircraft including the Boeing 777 and Airbus A380-800.
For full details see Wardle and Rodway (2010).
More complex performance relationships can be accommodated by the program if required,
for example the log-linear relationship shown below is used by European designers for
cement-treated materials:

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Modelling of Multiple Wheels and Axle Groups


APSDS lets you use the actual wheel layouts of the aircraft that operate on the pavement.
Care needs to be taken to select which wheels to include in the model. Extensive research
gives us guidance on choosing the "right" combination of wheels to include in the model.
Using more wheels can lead to inaccurate model predictions.
The recommended model for base/sub-base materials and subgrade performance
relationship recommended for heavy duty loads was described above. This methodology
was derived from full-scale aircraft pavement tests conducted by the US Army Corps of
Engineers at their Waterways Experiment Station (WES). These 'WES' tests were
essentially conducted using single gear assemblies. No tests were carried out to investigate
the increased damage that might result due to interaction effects of adjacent gear
assemblies. Considerable uncertainty exists with respect to prediction of damage for aircraft
that have main gears in close proximity.
APSDS has been used to study multiple gear interaction effects for a Boeing 747 and 777
aircraft using a range of alternative damage models (Rodway 1995a, Wardle and Rodway
1998, Rodway, Wardle and Wickham 1999). Results from these studies show that the
successful calibration of simplified design models against the full-scale test data does not
create a capability to confidently extrapolate beyond the limits of the test data. The studies
showed that simple damage models give unrealistic predictions for the damage caused by all
sixteen main wheels of the aircraft when compared to that computed for a single isolated 4wheel gear. Three different performance models, each of which gave a similar 'goodness of
fit' to the full-scale test data, gave greatly different predictions of the damage caused by the
interactions of the sixteen main wheels. The differences between the alternative predictions
increased with increasing depth to subgrade.
Given the above comments, as a general rule only groups of wheels that are within 2 metres
of each other should be modelled as a single load case. The example shown below is for a
Boeing 747 showing the four main gears. In APSDS 5.0 only the gears on the right side of
the diagram are modelled. The aircraft is modelled as a single entity with the two gears are
modelled as separate components.

Chapter 1 Introduction

15

Nature of Damage Pulses


The WES tests were performed on relatively thin pavements. In most of the test sections the
elastic models predict a distinct strain pulse at subgrade level for each axle of a two-axled
gear. For deep pavements (say 1.5 m or more) the models predict a single combined pulse
resulting from the entire gear. In other words, a two-axled gear produces two strain pulses
per pass for shallow subgrades and one strain pulse, of significantly different shape, for deep
subgrades. APSDS uses strain repetitions as the basis for damage predictions, not passes
or coverages. Pulse counts and pulse shapes both change with pavement thickness. There
is significant uncertainty in the design of thick pavements because data must be extrapolated
from thinner test pavements which have narrower pulses than those expected for the deeper
subgrades. There is still no experimental data to show to what extent pavement damage
depends on the transverse and longitudinal widths of the load pulse.
The pattern of strains at subgrade level experienced during the passage of a multiple axle
gear primarily depends on the pavement depth. The two extremes are:

multiple distinct short pulses resulting from each axle, for shallow depths

a single longer pulse that reflects the overall loading on the gear, for large depths

The reservoir method, as used in bridge design to handle complex loadings, is used by
APSDS 5.0 to ensure a smooth transition between the two extremes.

17

CHAPTER 2

Overview
APSDS has many features to facilitate pavement analysis and design.

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

How APSDS handles Traffic


Distributions
APSDS lets you define your aircraft loadings and traffic in detail. You define the anticipated
repetitions over the design period for each aircraft model. You also define a gross weight
distribution for each aircraft model.
The following example illustrates the concepts. Here there are two aircraft models, A and B.
Each aircraft model is assigned a gross weight distribution.
Aircraft Model A

Aircraft Model A - Gross Weight Distribution

Aircraft Model B

Aircraft Model B - Gross Weight Distribution

Chapter 2 Overview

19

Full Spectral Analysis


APSDS does a full spectral analysis of pavement damage by using the cumulative damage
concept to sum the damage from multiple aircraft models and gross weight cases for one set
of layered system material properties. The figure below is a sample plot showing the
variation of the damage factor across the pavement:

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

APSDS can also generate graphs that show the variation of the damage factor with each
aircraft model / gross weight combination, as shown below:

Note that there is a data point for each combination of aircraft model and gross weight.

Lateral Aircraft Wander


The analysis optionally includes the effect of the lateral distribution of successive aircraft
passes along the pavement. You nominate a standard deviation of aircraft wander about the
centreline that is appropriate to the particular aircraft model and pavement. The
sophisticated method of handling wander, bypasses the simplified concepts of coverage
and pass-to-coverage ratio (PCR) that have been traditionally used for aircraft pavement
design.
Some background material to assist with the selection of the standard deviation of wander is
given in Wander Statistics (on page 104).

Chapter 2 Overview

21

Elastic Properties
The elastic material in each layer of the pavement structure is assumed to be homogeneous
and of cross-anisotropic or isotropic symmetry.
A cross-anisotropic material has an axis of symmetry of rotation, which is assumed to be
vertical, i.e., the elastic properties are equivalent in all directions perpendicular to the axis of
symmetry (in horizontal, radial directions). In general, these properties are different from
those in the direction parallel to the axis, whereas isotropic materials have the same elastic
properties in both the vertical and horizontal directions.
For further background on the elastic properties see Cross-anisotropy and isotropy in
pavement materials (on page 106).

Cumulative Damage Concept


The system accumulates the contribution from each loading in the traffic spectrum at each
analysis point by using Miner's hypothesis.
The damage factor for any given loading is defined as the number of repetitions (n) of a
given response parameter divided by the allowable repetitions (N) of the response
parameter that would cause failure:

The Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF) for the parameter is given by summing the damage
factors over all the loadings in the traffic spectrum:

where:

k is summed over M aircraft models

Nk is the number of different gross weight for aircraft model no. k

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

The system is presumed to have reached its design life when the cumulative damage
reaches 1.0. If the cumulative damage is less than 1.0 the system has excess capacity and
the cumulative damage represents the proportion of life consumed. If the cumulative
damage is greater than 1.0 the system is predicted to fail before all of the design traffic has
been applied.
The procedure takes account of

the design repetitions of each aircraft model/takeoff weight combination; and

the material performance properties used in the design model.

This approach allows analyses to be conducted by directly using a mix of aircraft models. It
is not necessary to approximate passes of different aircraft or axles to passes of an
equivalent standard load or "design aircraft".

Material Performance
Generally most performance models may be represented graphically by a plot of tolerable
strain versus load repetitions (generally by a straight line of 'best fit' on a log-log plot).
Usually the models are represented in the form:

where N

is the predicted life (repetitions)

is a material constant

is the damage exponent of the material

is the induced strain (dimensionless strain)

Log-log relationships can be readily converted to the above form.


APSDS 5.0 can use performance parameters that depend on the number of wheels on each
gear.
This approach gives more reliable predictions for designs involving new generation large
aircraft including the Boeing 777 and Airbus A380-800.
For full details see Wardle and Rodway (2010).
APSDS can also handle models of the form:

Chapter 2 Overview

23

This log-linear relationship is used by European designers for cement-treated materials.


APSDS is supplied with a comprehensive range of published performance models. You can
use your own performance equations by specifying values for k and b and the particular
component to be used, for example vertical strain, vertical deflection, maximum tensile strain,
etc.

Traffic and Loading


You define the anticipated repetitions over the design period for each aircraft model and the
aircraft weight mix that is the repetitions for each aircraft weight that is modelled.

How aircraft characteristics are


defined
Wheel Loadings
Normally a given aircraft type is represented by the main gear as the damage due to the
smaller loadings on the nose gear can be ignored. (Nose gears typically take 5% of the
aircraft weight).
The aircraft loading is defined in terms of the Aircraft Gross Weight, the proportion of Gross
Weight on a single gear, the number of wheels on a main gear and the tyre contact pressure
(generally assumed to be the tyre inflation pressure). The detailed contact radius for the
wheels is calculated from the other parameters.

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Standard Aircraft Library


In designing APSDS we have introduced the concept of a Standard Aircraft Library. The
master version is maintained on our webserver. You can obtain updates (new Aircraft)
automatically by clicking the "Import" icon on the toolbar.
In designing APSDS account has been taken of a number of important issues relating to the
definition of Aircraft loading characteristics. Most importantly, a critical issue is choosing the
optimum number of wheels to use in the model - a benefit of of the Standard Aircraft Library
is that it takes the worry out of selecting which wheels to model. You will also save time by
not having to seek aircraft specifications from manufacturers or airport operators. Of course,
you can define your own aircraft models directly in APSDS.
APSDS uses the following aircraft data

wheel locations and numbers; and

axle mass characteristics.

Defining the gear load characteristics


The aircraft are assumed to have equal loads on each axle of the main gear. In this case the
aircraft loading characteristics are specified in terms of the gross weight of the aircraft, the
number of axles, the total number of wheels on the aircraft and the tyre pressure.
The screendump below shows some sample data:

Chapter 2 Overview

25

If you now click on the Load Components and Locations tab, you will see more details for the
currently selected Airdraft Model:

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Coordinate System
The Figure below shows the coordinate system that is used.
This global coordinate system is used to define load locations, the layered system geometry
and the points at which results are required. The global coordinate system is also used to
describe the resultant displacements and stress and strain tensors.
The X axis is taken as the direction transverse to the runway or taxiway axis. To ensure
consistency between results for different aircraft types it is recommended that X=0
corresponds to the runway or taxiway centreline. The Y axis is parallel to the centreline (and
the direction of travel of the aircraft!).
The Z axis is vertically downwards with Z=0 on the pavement surface.

Chapter 2 Overview

Centreline of Aircraft
Direction of Travel

O
X

27

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Methods for handling Damage


Pulses
The problems associated with damage pulses were introduced in the Introduction under
Nature of damage pulses.
The damage that a given point in the pavement will experience during the passage of a
multiple axle primarily depends on the depth below surface. The two extremes of behaviour
are

multiple distinct pulses resulting from each axle, for shallow depths; and

a single pulse that reflects the overall loading on the axle group, for large depths.

For shallow pavement depths compared to axle spacing one pulse per axle is selected.
APSDS then computes the damage beneath that axle due to the strain contributions for all
wheels of the aircraft, then multiplies the computed damage by the number of axle rows (i.e.
the number of axles seen from one side of the aircraft).
APSDS relies on you specifying one set of axles at Y=0 [see Defining Load Locations (i.e.
Wheel positions) (on page 71)].
However, for large depths relative to the axle spacing the maximum strain will generally
occur under the centroid of the gear. In this case you specify 'combined pulse for gear' and
APSDS will automatically shift the load coordinates so that the origin is at the centroid of the
gear as shown on Automatic shift of Y-coordinates for 'combined pulse for gear' case
(on page Error! Bookmark not defined.). APSDS then computes the damage pulse
beneath the centroid of the gear due to the strain contributions for all wheels of the aircraft,
and ignores the number of axles in the group.

Chapter 2 Overview

29

The reservoir method, as used in bridge design to handle complex loadings, is used by
APSDS 5.0 to ensure a smooth transition between the two extremes.

APSDS automatically shifts the position of the load coordinates if you specify 'combined
pulse for gear'.
For compatibility with legacy projects, you can still choose the method to be used to calculate
the damage - either multiple distinct pulses for each axle, for shallow depths; or a single
combined pulse for large depths.

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Aircraft Weight Distributions


APSDS lets you specify detailed aircraft gross weight distributions. For example, the Figure
below shows two Gross Weight conditions for a single aircraft model.

Chapter 2 Overview

31

There are a different number of movements for each gross weight.


Commonly only two or three masses are modelled, generally expressed as "% of aircraft
operating at a % of MTOW (Maximum Take-Off Weight)". For example, 20% of aircraft
operate at 70% of MTOW. In practice, estimates of this nature are provided by airports.
Although airlines are often required to record this data, it is rare for this information to be
provided.
APSDS lets you use a single % Gross Weight "mix" for all aircraft models, or if more detailed
information is available, the mix can be different for each aircraft model.

Automatic Thickness Design


You can automatically determine the optimum thickness of a given layer. For further details
see Thickness Design Capability (on page 81).

Cost Calculation
The unit costs for the materials laid and constructed in the layers can be specified using a
combination of both a volumetric (or weight) component and an areal component. The areal
component lets you take account of costs that are primarily a function of area, such as
surface treatments, subgrade stabilization and the like. The areal component can also be
used in circumstances where the relationship between total layer cost and thickness has a
non-zero component for zero thickness.

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Automatic Parametric Analysis


Automatic Parametric Analysis lets you automatically loop through a range of thicknesses for
one or two nominated layers. For example, you can have Layer 3 vary from 800 mm to
1000 mm in steps of 10 mm. Additionally, for each combination of those layer thicknesses,
you can automatically design the thickness of another layer.
By combining Automatic Parametric Analysis with the Cost Analysis feature you can finetune layer thicknesses to optimise construction cost. For further details see Automatic
Parametric Analysis.

Automatically generated plot: Total Cost vs. Layer 3 Thickness

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CHAPTER 3

Overview of User Interface


Introduction
APSDS has a standard format Microsoft Windows menu, but most commands can be
accessed directly from the toolbar as shown below:

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Creating, Opening and Saving Files


You supply a 'Jobname' to use as the basis for naming all of the files associated with a 'job'
or analysis. If the job name is Jobname the following files are used
APSDS data file this is used to save the details of your job.

Jobname.sds

All the other files are generated automatically by the system:


Jobname.cli

APSDS32 input data file

Jobname.clo

APSDS32 'printable' results file

Jobname.prn

APSDS32 raw results file


(i.e., strains, etc.)

Jobname.dam

APSDS32 cumulative damage results file (for plotting)

Jobname.dmx

APSDS32 results summary file


(damage factors and critical strains)

All of these files are text files that can be opened by standard text editors.
Three icons on the toolbar allow you to create, open and save job files.
Icon

Description
Closes the current job, prompting you to save any changes; then creates
a new job.
Closes the current job, prompting you to save any changes; then opens
an existing job.
Updates the current job file.

You can also save your job under a different name by clicking on the File Menu, then clicking
Save As.

Creating and Editing Input Data


The following seven icons allow you to create and modify your input data. Each icon
corresponds to one of the main groups of data necessary to fully define a Job.

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35

Database Approach
Some of the input data items are entered using very simple input forms. Most of the input
data is handled using a relational database approach. This is designed to eliminate re-entry
of data for design loads and material properties. You can tailor each of the databases to
contain specific sets of regularly used data.
The relational database approach gives maximum flexibility in data preparation. For
example, the data for a commonly used material need only be entered into the system once.
If this data is subsequently modified, all Layered systems that use that material and
subsequently all Jobs that use those layered systems will automatically access the modified
material properties.

Running the Analysis and Plotting


Results
Run Analysis
The
button invokes the analysis. This invokes the analysis. During a long analysis you
can switch to another application (APSDS will continue to run at a lower priority using
Microsoft Windows multi-tasking).
When the analysis is complete you will see a screen with the damage calculation details.
APSDS offers a number of calculation options. Normally, you will calculate the damage
factors (CDF) for your pavement. Alternatively, you can calculate results for any given
displacement, stress or strain component at selected Z-values (depths below the pavement
surface) (see Calculate Selected Results at User-defined Z-Values (see "Calculating
Selected Results at User-defined Z-values (depths)" on page 108)).

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Damage Calculation Details


This screen will be displayed when the Analysis is complete. You can navigate to this screen
without running an analysis by clicking on the

button.

Two alternative calculation options are available:

Calculate damage factors (CDF); or

Calculate selected results at user-defined Z-values (see Calculate Selected Results at


User-defined Z-Values (see "Calculating Selected Results at User-defined Z-values
(depths)" on page 108)).

When operating in 'calculate damage factors' mode, the key features on the screen (the
numbers refer to the screenshot above) are:

This table is a summary of the layered system including material titles and current
thicknesses. Also the current Cumulative Damage Factors (CDFs) will be shown if the
problem has been run previously. The current thickness of any layer can be changed from
this screen.

This table is a summary of the properties for those layers that have a performance
criterion. Typically, between one layer (the subgrade) and three layers (asphalt surfacing,
cement-stabilised layer and subgrade) will have performance criteria associated with them.

Chapter 3 Overview of User Interface

37

Plot Results
The
icon will generate a graph of the results. Usually, this command will produce a
graph of the damage contribution from each aircraft type and the overall total (damage
contribution from all the traffic). This graph option shows the variation of the CDF as a
function of X, the distance from the centreline of the pavement (i.e. X=0 corresponds the
centrelines of the aircraft). Optionally you can graph the maximum CDF as a function of
Aircraft Gross Weight.
Alternatively, as an option you can produce a graph of a selected displacement, stress or
strain component at your chosen Z-values (i.e., vertical distances/depths below the surface
of the pavement) and results can be plotted for a selected displacement, stress or strain
component (see Calculate Selected Results at User-defined Z-Values (see "Calculating
Selected Results at User-defined Z-values (depths)" on page 108)).

Options
The Options screen allows specification of the following folder:

location for all data files


(Defaults to the sub-folder, "data", in the folder in which APSDS has been installed.)

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CHAPTER 4

How to Start Using APSDS


The easiest way of trying APSDS out is to open one of the sample jobs, run the analysis and
then graph the results.

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Opening and Running an Existing


Job
In the interests of providing instant hands-on experience, for this example you simply open
an existing job, run the analsis and inspect the results.
1

Open the Job

Click on the

button.

Select the job "Example - Large Indian Airport".


2

Run the Analysis

Click on the

button. This invokes the analysis.

When the analysis starts you will see a blue "progress bar" at the bottom left corner of the
screen.
When the analysis is complete the results for the damage factor (CDF) will be transferred to
the top table on the screen, as shown below.

Chapter 4 How to Start Using APSDS

3.

41

Plot the Results

Click on the

button. This will generate a graph of the results:

This graph option shows the variation of the CDF for the subgrade as a function of X, the
distance from the centreline of the pavement (i.e. X=0 corresponds the centrelines of the
aircraft). Note that the results for the different aircraft Gross Weights have been aggregated.
Optionally you can graph the maximum CDF as a function of Gross Weight. Click on the Plot
Type combo box then click on CDF vs. Gross Weight.

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This graph option shows the maximum CDF for each Aircraft Model and Gross Weight:

Chapter 4 How to Start Using APSDS

43

As can be seen from the graph there is one result point for each combination of Aircraft
Model and Gross Weight.
The two graphs give results for the subgrade layer. If your layered system has other layers
that have a performance relationship you can switch to the CDF for the other layers by
clicking on the combo box in the top left-hand corner.
You can print a copy of the chart by clicking on the Print icon

on the toolbar.

You can also copy the graph to the clipboard and then paste into another application such as
Microsoft Word or Powerpoint. You do this via the context-sensitive graph menu that drops
down when you right click with the mouse pointer anywhere on the graph as shown below:

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Then click on 'Export Dialog'. The 'Export Dialog' lets you export to a variety of formats, but
for most purposes select 'Metafile' to ensure that the graphics are scalable.

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45

Global Coordinate System


A global coordinate system is used to define load locations, the layered system geometry
and the points below the pavement surface at which results are required. The global
coordinate system is also used to describe the resultant displacements and stress and strain
tensors.
The X-axis is usually taken as the direction transverse to the direction of vehicle travel. The
Y-axis is then parallel to the direction of vehicle travel.

Figure 1: Global Coordinate System


The Z-axis is vertically downwards with Z = 0 on the pavement surface.
Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for results
calculation:

An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the X-axis;

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A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the X-direction and the Y-direction.

Direction of Travel

Xmin

Xdel

Xmax
Results points

Figure 2: Coordinates for results defined by a line of equally spaced points

Chapter 4 How to Start Using APSDS

47

Ymax

Ydel

Ymin
X

Xmin

Direction of Travel

Xdel

Xmax
Results points

Figure 3: Coordinates for results defined by a uniform grid of points

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CHAPTER 5

How to Modify the Databases


Introduction
Units
In order for APSDS to deliver coherent results, all data must use this system of units:
Quantity

Units

Length,
Displacement

mm

Elastic modulus,
Pressure

MPa

Weight

tonne

Force

Moment

N.mm

Strain

mm/mm

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Sign Convention
Compressive direct stresses and strains are considered to be positive. Positive shear
stresses are defined on the basis that both the stress and strain tensors obey the right hand
rule. Displacements in negative coordinate directions are considered to be positive. Hence
a load causing a positive stress acts in the positive coordinate direction. The sign
conventions used in the rectangular coordinate system and cylindrical local coordinate
system are illustrated below.

Figure 4: Sign Convention

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Overview of Database Approach


The relational database approach is designed to eliminate re-entry of data for design loads
and material properties. For example, the data for a commonly used material need only be
entered into the system once. If this data is subsequently modified, all Layered Systems that
use that material and subsequently all Jobs that use those Layered Systems will
automatically access the modified material properties.
The Figure below illustrates the relational database concept for the elastic material
properties. Here, each of the components that make up a Layered System is linked to
entries in the Elastic Material Properties database via an ID (index) field of up to 20
characters.

Figure 5: Relationships between elements in Layered System databases


A similar hierarchy applies for the Traffic database. Each load group referenced by the
Traffic Spectrum is linked to a record in the Load Group data.
A consequence of the relational database approach is that data should generally be
prepared from the 'bottom up'. This means that:

Elastic Materials Properties data must be entered before the Layered System
Components data;

Load Group data must be entered before the Traffic Spectrum Components data.

To create a new layered system, these steps must be followed:


1 Create any materials that are not already in the Elastic Materials database;
2 Create a new entry in the Layered Systems database;

Chapter 5 How to Modify the Databases

3 Define each of the Materials and thicknesses for each of the Layers using the Layered
System Components database.
Worked examples in the following sections show how you can create new data.

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The "Layered System" and


"Materials" Databases
Overview of Layered System and Material Properties
APSDS models pavements as a system of layers, each with differing elastic properties. The
layered system consists of one or more layers. The layer interface planes are horizontal and
each layer is assumed to be of infinite extent in all horizontal directions. The bottom layer
may extend to a finite depth or to a semi-infinite depth (see the figure below). If the bottom
layer is of finite depth, it is assumed to rest on a rigid base, and the contact can be either
fully continuous (i.e., rough) or fully frictionless (i.e., smooth). Interfaces between the layers
can be either fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth), or a combination of both
types. From a practical standpoint the response of the actual pavement interfaces will be
somewhere between these theoretical limits. For design of new pavements the interfaces
would be assumed to be fully continuous (rough).

Chapter 5 How to Modify the Databases

Layer No. 1
Layer No. 2

Layer No. NL

Rough rigid
base

Smooth rigid
base

Semi-infinite
base

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Creating a new Layered System


Click on the

button.

Click on the Layered System tab.


Click on the New button. A dialog box will appear as shown below. You should now type in
your ID (index) field of up to 20 characters and a descriptive title (up to 72 characters). For
this example you can type in 'MyLayers' as the ID and 'Example of creating a new Layered
System' as the Title. Click the OK button.

Now you can define the details of the layers in your layered system.

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57

Defining the Layer properties


You add the layers working from the top of your pavement system, i.e., starting with typically
asphalt or cemented material, and working downwards through the pavement.
Click on the New button. A pop-up list will appear, as shown below.
You will now choose the Material Type. To select the Material Type, click on the appropriate
line then click the OK button.

A list of available materials will now appear. Select the required material by clicking on the
appropriate line, then click on the OK button.
A new record will be added at the bottom of the table and the cursor will be positioned in the
Thickness column. Enter the layer thickness. You repeat this process to add as many layers
as you require. The subgrade will extend to an infinite depth if you enter the thickness
as 0.0.
As explained in Overview of Layered System and Material Properties, interfaces between the
layers can be either fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth), or a combination of
both types. You can specify any interfaces as fully frictionless. The fully continuous case is
always assumed for pavement design.

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By default, all interfaces are assumed to be rough. You can change the condition for
the interface at the bottom of a given layer by clicking in the 'Interface Type' cell. You can
then click on the down arrow at the right of the cell to select a 'Smooth' interface. Note that
for a semi-infinite subgrade both 'Rough' and 'Smooth' are equivalent.

Duplicating a Layered System


Sometimes you may want to create a Layered System that is similar to an existing one. The
Duplicate function lets you duplicate an existing Layered System. Then you can change the
settings that need to be different.
Move the blue highlight to the Layered System that you want to duplicate:

Then click the Duplicate button. You will then see a form that will let you define the ID and
Title of the newly duplicated Layered System:

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59

The ID and Title that are provided are based on the original Layered System - make sure that
you modify the Title.
After you click the OK button you will be taken to the Layered System Components table so
that you can make your changes.

Adding a new Performance Criterion


APSDS usually represents performance relationships in the form:

(1)
where N

is the predicted life (repetitions)

is a material constant

is the damage exponent of the material

is the induced strain (dimensionless strain)

APSDS can also handle log-linear models of the form:


(2)
Equation (1) is called a Standard Damage Relationship Type and Equation (2) is called a
Log-Linear Damage Relationship Type.
Before you add a new Performance Criterion you need to choose the appropriate Material
Type. For each Material Type, all Performance Criteria use the same Damage Relationship
Type.

Example: Asphalt tensile strain relationship


For this example we consider the Shell asphalt fatigue criterion:

where = maximum tensile strain (in units of microstrain),


VB = percentage by volume of bitumen in the asphalt,
and

Smix= mix stiffness (Elastic modulus) in MPa.

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For this example, assume VB = 12.9 and Smix = 1600 MPa, so that the above equation
simplifies to:
N = [ 5889 / ]5
To enter this data click on the

button.

Click on the Performance tab.


You now choose the material type to be used. Click on the material type combo box (as
shown on the first screenshot in Adding a new Elastic Material) to select from the available
material types. For this example click on 'Asphalt'.
Click on the New button. Now type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and the
Title (up to 72 characters). For this example type in 'Asph1600' for the ID. Type in 'Asphalt1600 MPa, Vb=12.9%' for the Title. Click the OK button.

A record will be added to the table and you can type in the relevant data as follows:
The cursor will now be in the component field.
Here you specify the particular displacement, stress or strain component to be used. You
can select the component from a dropdown list by clicking on the
button. If there are
more entries than will fit in the listbox, there will be a slider bar on the right hand side. You
can move down the list by clicking on the down arrow or by dragging the slider down. For
this example select the Max. Horizontal Tensile Strain (maximum horizontal tensile strain).
The Location field defines the location (relative to a layer of this material) at which the
criterion is to be applied. Click on the
button to choose between Top and Bottom. For
this example Location should be 'Bottom'.
The entries for the remaining two parameters define the fatigue relationship N = [5889 / ]5.

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61

Note carefully that strains in APSDS must be specified in dimensionless units (i.e.,
length/length, mm/mm). As APSDS assumes that the fatigue relationship is of the form N =
[k / ]b , the parameter (micro) must be replaced by 10-6 giving:
N = [k / ]b
So Constant (k) will be 0.005889 and Exponent (b) will be 5.0.
The new record should be identical to the bottom row in the figure below:

Example: Log-linear performance relationship


Click on the

button.

Click on the Performance tab.


You now choose the material type to be used. Click on the material type combo box (as
shown below) to select Cemented (Log-Linear) from the available material types.

Click on the New button. Now type in your ID (index) field of up to 20 characters and the Title
(up to 72 characters). For this example type in 'CTB15000' for the ID. Type in 'CTB,
E=15000MPa' for the Title. Click the OK button.
A record will be added to the table and you can type in the relevant data as follows:

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For this example assume that equation (2) is used with:


k = 10
b = 80000
The relevant strain component that is to be used is the maximum horizontal tensile strain at the
base (bottom) of the layer.
Note: Equation (2) expresses the strain component as a unitless (i.e. length/length, mm/mm)
quantity. If you are converting from an expression that uses microstrain, b must be adjusted
appropriately.
Move to the Component field by clicking on it or using the tab key. The screen should now
look like this (the black highlight is on the new entry):

Here you specify the particular strain or stress component to be used (in this example it will
be the maximum horizontal tensile strain. You select the component from the drop-down list by
clicking on the
button. If there are more entries than will fit in the list box there will be a
slider bar on the right hand side. You can move down the list by clicking on the down arrow
or by dragging the slider down.
Select the entry Max. Horizontal Tensile Strain.
The location field defines the location (relative to a layer of this material) at which the
relationship is to be applied.
Click on the

button to choose Bottom.

Now enter the values for k (= 10) and b (= 80000).


The screen below shows the completed entries:

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63

Adding a new Elastic Material


Click on the

button.

Click on the Elastic Materials tab.


You now choose the material type to be used. Click on the material type combo box as
shown below to select from the available material types. Click on 'Asphalt' for the Material
Type.

Click on the New button. A dialog box will appear, as shown below. You should now type in
your ID (index) field of up to 20 characters. As you can see from the example below, the ID
is used to sort the data. For this example, you can type in 'Asph1600'. Type in 'Asphalt- 1600
MPa, Vb=12.9%' for the Title. Click the OK button.

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You will now be given an opportunity to select a Performance Criterion. To select a


Performance Criterion make sure the checkbox next to Use performance criterion is
checked, then click on the appropriate performance criterion. Click on the OK button.

A new record will be added to the table. Type in the modulus and Poisson's ratio as follows:
E = 1600
= 0.4
The new record should be as shown below:

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65

Adding a new Material Type


You can add new material types. To add a new material type, Click on the

button.

Click on the Material Types tab.


Click New to create a new entry. A dialog box will now appear and you can enter the ID
(index) field of up to 20 characters and Title field (up to 72 characters). Click the OK button.
You will now choose the Generic Material Type for your new Material Type:

You will now be given an opportunity to select a Sub-Layering scheme. To select a SubLayering scheme, click the checkbox next to use sub-layering, then click on the appropriate
sub-layering scheme. Click on the OK button.

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A new record will be added to the table.


The other parameters that can be defined are:
Damage Relationship Type: this can be set to "Standard" or "Log-Linear", as defined in Adding
a new Performance Criterion (on page 59).
Depends on Number of Wheels on Gear: if this is set to "Yes", it is assumed that the Performance
Relationships for this material type will depend on the number of wheels on each landing
gear.
The new record will look something like the last record shown below:

The "Loads" and "Traffic Spectrum"


Databases
Introduction
Seven inter-related databases are used for the Traffic data. The databases form a hierarchy:

Traffic Spectrum;

Traffic Spectrum Components;

Load Groups;

Load Group Components;

Load Locations;

Gross Weight Distributions;

Gross Weight Distribution Components.

Depending on whether or not the components you need already exist, the steps required are
described in the following sub-sections.

Chapter 5 How to Modify the Databases

Aircraft Specifications
The APSDS aircraft library consists of so-called "Standard" aircraft specifications that are
provided by Mincad Systems and "Custom" aircraft that you can define.
You can browse the aircraft specifications as follows.
Click on the

button.

Click on the Aircraft Models tab.


You can browse by clicking on the Type and Manufacturer combo boxes.
To see the specifications for any listed aircraft click on that row, then click on the Load
Components and Locations tab.

Automatic Updates for the Standard Aircraft Library


Updates for the Standard Aircraft Library can be automatically imported from the Mincad
Systems webserver.
To do this, click on the

icon. You will then see a status screen like the one below.

The status screen shows the number of Aircraft records that have been imported/updated.

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Adding Aircraft Specifications


Here are details on how you define your own aircraft models directly:
Click on the

button.

Make sure you make the correct choices for the Type and Manufacturer combo boxes, as
shown below:

Contact Mincad Systems for a Library Update if the combination of Type and Manufacturer that
you want to use is not available.
Click on the New button. A dialog box will appear as shown below. You should now type in
your ID (index) field of up to 20 characters and a descriptive title (up to 72 characters).

Chapter 5 How to Modify the Databases

For this example you can type in 'B787-8 example' as the ID and 'B787-8 example' as the
Title. Click the OK button.
Now type 'B787-8 example' as the Plot Label and 228.40 as the Gross Weight:

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Now click on the Load Components and Locations tab. This will bring up a form that lets you
specify the axle load characteristics and wheel positions.
Aircraft are assumed to have equal loads on each axle on the main gears. In this case the
loading characteristics are specified in terms of the proportion of gross weight on a single
gear, the number of axle rows (i.e. the number of axles seen from one side of the aircraft),
the total number of wheels on the gear and the tyre pressure.
For this example, assume the following values:
Number of Axle Rows

Total Number of Wheels on Gear

Tyre Pressure

1.52 MPa

Proportion of Gross Weight on a Single Gear

0.475

After you enter these axle load characteristics the screen will look like this:

You can now add the Wheel Locations.

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71

Defining Load Locations (i.e. Wheel positions)


Example wheel layout
(Boeing 787-8)

If the Loads screen is not already active, click on the

button.

Click on the Load Components and Locations tab. Check the descriptive title above the table to
make sure that you are referring to the correct aircraft model. If it is not the one you have
just defined, click on the Load Groups tab, click on the appropriate record within the Aircraft
Models table and click on Load Components and Locations tab again.
Only one main gear (Gear 1) is included in the model, as discussed in Interaction effects of
multiple gears.
Click New for each wheel and enter the gear number (1), and the X and Y coordinates of
each wheel. See the note Important Note about Axle Locations below for special information
about defining axle locations.
The scaling factor is normally 1.0- other values allow for a variation in contact pressure from
wheel to wheel.

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Theta is only used to define the force or moment direction for non-standard loads such as
braking loads. Theta corresponds to LOAD see Coordinate System for Loads.

Traffic Spectrums
APSDS is designed to let you conveniently specify a Traffic Spectrum in terms of a mix of
different aircraft models. For each aircraft in the spectrum you specify the number of
movements and the gross weight distribution. For each load case the wheel loads are
automatically calculated from the aircraft characteristics and the gross weight.
For an overview of the concepts see How APSDS handles Traffic Distributions (on page
18).

Creating a new Traffic Spectrum


If the Traffic Spectrum screen is not already active, click on the

button.

Click on the Spectrum tab.


Click on the New button. A dialog box will appear as shown below. You should now type in
your ID (index) field of up to 20 characters and a descriptive title (up to 72 characters). For
this example you can type in 'TrafficTry' as the ID and 'Example of creating a new Traffic
Spectrum' as the Title. Click the OK button.

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73

The Spectrum Components form will now appear.


Now define your Spectrum Components:
Click New for each aircraft model you wish to include. This will activate a pop-up list of
possible choices:

You can browse by clicking on the Type and Manufacturer combo boxes.
You can move the highlight to the aircraft model that you wish to use by positioning the
mouse pointer on it and clicking once. If there are more entries than will fit in the listbox there
will be a slider bar on the right. You can move down the list by clicking on the down arrow or
by dragging the slider down. You finally select the aircraft model by double clicking on it.
For this example, choose the Boeing 737-600 Max 63t. A new record will be added at the
bottom of the table and the cursor will be positioned in the Movements column.

Enter the number of movements (or passages) over the desired design life. For this
example, enter 100,000 movements.
The Graph Label is an optional string of up to 20 characters that is appended to the Aircraft
Model Plot Label used for the Legend when plotting the results. This is useful when you
need to have more than one Spectrum Component that uses the same Aircraft Model, for
example your spectrum may include the same model twice, each with a different Gross
Weight.

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If the Traffic Spectrum screen is not already active, click on the

button.

Click on the Spectrum tab and choose the Traffic Spectrum.


Now click the Spectrum Components tab.
As mentioned earlier, APSDS lets you use a single Gross Weight "mix" for all aircraft models,
or if more detailed information is available, the mix can be different for each aircraft model.
If you click the Distribution Type combo you will see two options:

% Max. Gross Weight - same for all Spectrum Components

% Max. Gross Weight - different for each Spectrum Component

Defining Gross Weight Distributions


For this example, use the following Gross Weight distribution:
% Maximum
Gross Weight
80
100

Count
50
50

For each row in the table, click the New button and enter the % Maximum Gross Weight and
Count. Enter the % Maximum Gross Weight in the form of a number less than 1, i.e. 50% is
entered as 0.5.
After you enter the last row of data, the screen should look like this:

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75

As shown above, values in some of the columns are grey - these values are calculated from
other values. The values in the Gross Weight column are calculated from the Maximum
Gross Weight cell for the currently selected Aircraft Model given in the Spectrum Component
table above. Values in the columns that are labelled Normalized Movements and Actual
Movements are calculated from the values in the Count column. The Normalized
Movements are given by normalizing the values of Count - so that the sum of the Normalized
Movements values is 1.0. The Actual Movements values are scaled so that the total
matches the total number of movements (1.25E+06 in this example) defined for the current
Spectrum Component.
The absolute magnitude of the Count values is not important, as they are normalized (i.e.
scaled so that they add up to 1.0) when you run a APSDS analysis. This gives you a lot of
flexibility in how you define your Count values - for example they could be based on historical
data or could be simply actual movements.
The calculated columns are not updated while you type the data on a particular row - but are
updated when you press the Enter key when in the Count cell.

Duplicating a Traffic Spectrum


Sometimes you may want to create a Traffic Spectrum that is similar to an existing one. The
Duplicate function lets you duplicate an existing Traffic Spectrum. Then you can change the
settings that need to be different.
Move the blue highlight to the Traffic Spectrum that you want to duplicate:

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Then click the Duplicate button. You will then see a form that will let you define the ID and
Title of the newly duplicated Traffic Spectrum:

The ID and Title that are provided are based on the original Traffic Spectrum - make sure
that you modify the Title.
After you click the OK button you will be taken to the Traffic Spectrum Components table so
that you can make your changes.

Wander Options
If the Traffic Spectrum screen is not already active, click on the
Click on the Wander tab.
You should now see the alternative Wander options:

button.

Chapter 5 How to Modify the Databases

77

Three alternative Wander options are available:

No Wander for any Aircraft Model in the Traffic Spectrum;

Same Wander for All Aircraft Models in the Traffic Spectrum;

Wander varies with Aircraft Model.

If the Wander varies with the Aircraft Model, you specify the Wander in the Spectrum
Components table (accessed by clicking on the Spectrum Components tab):

The wander is assumed to follow the bell-shaped frequency distribution given by the Normal
(or Gaussian) distribution. The degree of wander is given by the Standard Deviation. Some
additional parameters define the numerical approximation used to model the effects of
Wander. Normally the default values of these can be used.

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The parameter XWDEL is used to subdivide the wander distribution. For acceptable accuracy
XWDEL must be no greater than 100 mm. The parameter XWMAX sets the limiting value used to
approximate the Normal distribution. For acceptable numerical accuracy XWMAX needs to be
2.7 times the maximum Standard Deviation of wander, or greater.
4500

XWDEL (=100 mm)

4000

Total Movements = 100,000


3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
20
0
40
0
60
0
80
0
10
00
12
00
14
00
16
00
18
00
20
00
22
00
24
00
26
00
28
00
30
00

0
-8
00
-6
00
-4
00
-2
00

0
-1

00

0
-1

20

0
-1

40

60

80

-1

-1

0
00

20

-2

-2

0
40

-2

-2

60

0
80

-2

00

0
-3

Movements in Slot

Standard Deviation = 1000 mm

Lateral Position (mm)

XWMAX
(=3000 mm)

Chapter 5 How to Modify the Databases

79

Coordinates for Results


Click on the

button.

This screen has fields for specifying the locations for which results are to be computed and
the method for treating damage pulses.
Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for results
calculation:

An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the x-axis; or

A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the x-direction and the y-direction.

The section labelled Assumed number of damage pulses per movement lets you define how
APSDS will calculate the damage from gears with multiple axles (see Methods for handling
Damage Pulses (on page 28)). The recommended choice is to use the Reservoir Method.
The other two options are provided for compatibility with legacy projects: either multiple
distinct pulses for each axle, for shallow depths; or a single combined pulse for large depths.

81

CHAPTER 6

How to Use Advanced Features


Thickness Design Capability
You can automatically determine the optimum thickness of a given layer. This procedure is
very fast, typically taking 4-5 times the usual analysis time.

The thickness design capability is invoked by clicking on the checkbox that is labelled
'Design thickness of layer highlighted below'.

You select the layer you wish to design by moving the mouse pointer to the
appropriate layer and clicking the mouse button once. The layer selected will be highlighted
in blue.

By default, the design will use the maximum damage factor (CDFmax) from all the
layers that have a performance criterion. The design involves bringing the maximum
damage factor to 1.0 by varying the thickness of the highlighted layer.
In some circumstances, it may be necessary to ignore one or more layers when
calculating the maximum damage factor.

Here a tick (
) denotes that the layer will be included in the
maximum damage factor calculation.
The tick-box can be toggled on and off by clicking on it.

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Minimum and maximum thicknesses can be specified for each layer, or these fields can be
left blank, so that no constraints are applied. If a specified maximum or minimum thickness
limit prevents attainment of a CDF of 1.0, the CDF for the thickness limit will be computed.

Cost Calculation
Calculation of Total Cost
APSDS can automatically calculate Total Cost for a pavement from the unit costs of
materials in each layer.
Click on the

button. This will bring up the following screen:

Click on the Calculate Cost checkbox

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features

83

Material Costs
The unit costs for the layers can be specified using a combination of both a volumetric (or
weight) component and an areal component. The areal component lets you take account of
costs that are primarily a function of area such as surface treatments, subgrade stabilization,
etc. The areal component can also be used in circumstances where the relationship
between total layer cost and thickness has a non-zero component for zero thickness.

The Total Cost for a given layer is calculated as follows:


Total Cost (layer no. i) ($/m2) = Unit Volumetric Cost (layer no. i) ($/m3) x Thickness (layer no. i) (mm) +
Unit Areal Cost (layer no. i) ($/m2)
The Unit Volumetric Cost can be defined in terms of:
1

Cost/Volume, or

2 Cost/Weight and the density of the material (Weight/Volume).

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Automatic Parametric Analysis


Automatic Parametric Analysis lets you automatically loop through a range of thicknesses for
one or two nominated layers. For example, you can have Layer 2 vary from 100 mm to
200 mm in steps of 10 mm. Additionally, for each combination of those layer thicknesses,
you can automatically design the thickness of another layer. Combining this with the Cost
Analysis feature lets you fine-tune layer thicknesses to optimize construction cost.
Click on the

button. This will bring up the following screen:

Click to switch on Parametric Analysis. This will bring up the following form:

1
2
3
4

This combo box lets you specify the number of Independent Variables (i.e. the number
of Layers for which you are varying the thickness):
1. One Independent Variable, or
2. Two Independent Variables.

This section gives the details of the first Independent Variable.

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features

This lets you choose which layer (thickness) is to be used as the first Independent
Variable.

Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for that layer:

The thickness will range from T1minimum to T1maximum in steps of T1step.


To use two Independent Variables, click the combo box (

on the screenshot below).

2
3
4

This section gives the additional details for the second Independent Variable

Here you specify which layer (thickness) is to be used as the second Independent
Variable

Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for that layer:

The thickness will range from T2minimum to T2maximum in steps of T2step.

85

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ExampleCost Optimization
In this example you will use the Automatic Parametric Analysis feature to automatically loop
through a range of thicknesses for one layer (Layer 3) and to determine which thickness has
the minimum Total Cost. For each Layer 3 thickness, you will get APSDS to automatically
design the thickness of Layer 2.

Step 1.
Open the sample file "Example for Cost Optimization".

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features

Step 2.

Make sure the Calculate Cost check-box is ticked.

Click the Parametric Analysis check-box. This will bring up the following form:

This combo box lets you specify the number of Independent Variables (i.e. the
number of Layers for which you are varying the thickness).
For this example you will use the default, One Independent Variable.

This section gives the details of the Independent Variable, the thickness of Layer 3.

87

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This lets you choose which layer (thickness) is to be used as the first Independent
Variable.
For this example change this to "3". (as you are varying the thickness of Layer 3).

Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for Layer 3:

For this example, you will let Layer 3 vary in thickness from 400 mm to 1000 mm in steps
of 20 mm.
Enter the following values:
Minimum: 400, Maximum: 1000, Step: 20.

Step 3.
Now set the automatic thickness design feature to Layer 2.
Click on the "Summary" tab (left of the "Variables" tab).

Click the check-box labelled 'Design thickness of layer highlighted below'.

Click anywhere on the Layer 2 row.

Click in the "Minimum Thickness" cell on this row and enter 100 (mm).
Now click on

to run the analysis.

Step 4- Plot the Total Cost vs Layer 3 thickness.


When the analysis is finished, click on

to plot the results.

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features

This plot shows the Minimum Total Cost condition for Layer 3 thickness is 660 mm (to a
resolution of 20 mm).

Step 5- Plot the CDF (for Layer 4, Subgrade) vs. Layer 3 thickness.
Click on the Parameter combo box.

Select CDF (Select Layer =>).


Click on the Layer combo box.

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Select Subgrade - CBR=6 (This is Layer No. 4).

Note that as the thickness of layer no. 3 becomes greater than 660 mm, the CDF becomes
less than 1.0 as we have constrained the minimum thickness of layer no. 2 to 100 mm.

Step 6- Plot the Layer 2 thickness (Design Layer) vs. Layer 3 thickness.
Click on the Parameter combo box.
Select Thickness (Layer used for Thickness Design).

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features

Note that the thickness of layer no. 2 asymptotes to 100 mm as the thickness of layer no. 3
exceeds 660 mm as we have constrained the minimum thickness of layer no. 2 to 100 mm.

91

93

CHAPTER 7

Appendices

95

CHAPTER 8

What's New in Version 5.0

97

Overview
If you have used APSDS 4.0, you will find many improvements in APSDS 5.0. These
improvements include new features to make designing pavements easier and more efficient.
This section gives a quick overview of the new and improved features in APSDS 5.0. Crossreferences to the rest of the manual show you where to look for information about most
topics.
APSDS 5.0 draws on the features that are in HIPAVE 5.0 and CIRCLY 5.0.

More convenient definition of Aircraft Loads


Earlier versions of APSDS modelled aircraft with more than one main gear on each side of
the aircraft (such as the Boeing 747) as two separate load cases. APSDS 5.0 models these
aircraft as a single entity, making it easier to define traffic spectrums that include such
aircraft.

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

Enhanced Spectral Analysis


Like APSDS 4.0, APSDS 5.0 accumulates the contribution from each loading in the traffic
spectrum at each analysis point by using Miner's hypothesis.
The procedure takes account of

the design repetitions of each aircraft model/gross weight combination; and

the material performance properties used in the design model.

New to APSDS 5.0 is the way you can define a gross weight distribution for each aircraft
model in your traffic spectrum, as shown below:
In addition to the usual graphs of damage versus distance, APSDS 5.0 generates spectral
damage graphs like this:

Here there is a data point for each combination of aircraft model and gross weight.
These graphs let you check the sensitivity of designs to assumptions made about the gross
weight distributions.

Standard Aircraft Library


APSDS 5.0 comes with a standard aircraft library - that can be automatically updated from
our webserver.

Appendices

99

Wander can vary with Aircraft Model


APSDS 5.0 extends the lateral aircraft wander concept used in earlier versions of APSDS to
include the capability of letting the degree of wander vary with each aircraft model in the
traffic mix.

Reservoir Method
The pattern of strains at subgrade level experienced during the passage of a multiple axle
gear primarily depends on the pavement depth. The two extremes are:

multiple distinct short pulses resulting from each axle, for shallow depths

a single longer pulse that reflects the overall loading on the gear, for large depths

The reservoir method, as used in bridge design to handle complex loadings, is used by
APSDS 5.0 to ensure a smooth transition between the two extremes.

Material Performance depends on Gear Configuration


APSDS 5.0 can use performance parameters that depend on the number of wheels on each
gear.
This approach gives more reliable predictions for designs involving new generation large
aircraft including the Boeing 777 and Airbus A380-800.
For full details see Wardle and Rodway (2010).

Reusable Aircraft Gross Weight Distributions


APSDS 5.0 lets you specify 'standard' aircraft gross weight distributions that you can
conveniently re-use in your traffic spectrums. You can use a single Gross Weight "mix" for all
aircraft models, or if more detailed information is available, the mix can be different for each
aircraft model.

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Cost Optimization
A Parametric Analysis feature can loop through a range of thicknesses for one or two layers,
while simultaneously designing the thickness of another layer. This feature will optimise up to
three layers. Combining this with a Cost Analysis feature, allows for fine-tuning of layer
thicknesses to minimize construction and maintenance costs.
For example, for the pavement structure shown below, you can automatically determine the
thicknesses of the Base and Subbase that will minimize the total cost.

Appendices

101

This automatically generated graph shows you the pavement configuration that corresponds
to minimum total cost:

Automatically generated plot: Total Cost vs. Layer 3 Thickness

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APSDS 5.0 User Manual

New "built-in" Graphics Engine


APSDS 5.0 uses its own "built-in" Graphics Engine to create on-screen graphics almost
instantaneously. The graphics can be customized, exported and printed. In most cases,
results for different layers or Z-depths in a layered system can be created without reanalysing the system.
Here is a sample "Three-dimensional" graph of vertical displacement:

You can also copy the graph to the clipboard and then paste it into another application such
as Microsoft Word or Powerpoint. Numerical values can also be exported via the clipboard.

Duplicating Layered Systems and Traffic Spectrums


APSDS 5.0 lets you duplicate a Layered System or Traffic Spectrum. For example,
sometimes you may want to create a Layered System that is similar to an existing one. The
Duplicate function lets you duplicate an existing Layered System. Then you can change the
settings that need to be different.

Appendices

103

Coordinate System for Loads


The most common type of load modelled in APSDS is a circular area over which a uniform
vertical pressure is applied. This load typically represents the contact of a tyre on the
surface of the pavement. However, it is possible to model more complex loads induced by
breaking and turning movements of aircraft, which is dealt with in Wardle (2004).
The location of the circular load is described by a global coordinate system, while 'local'
coordinate systems are used to describe each of the loads. The 'global' system is
cartesian, with axes X, Y, Z. Note the use of uppercase X, Y, Z for Global coordinates and
lowercase x, y, z for Local coordinates. You can choose the origin of the 'global' coordinate
system to be any point on the upper surface of the layered system and the X and Y axes as
any two mutually perpendicular axes that lie in this horizontal plane. The Z-axis in the
positive direction is taken as vertically downwards.
Each 'local' coordinate system may be cartesian (x, y, z) or cylindrical (r, , z) and has its
origin at the centre of the load it describes. In terms of the 'global' coordinate system the
origin of each 'local' coordinate system is specified by Xload, Yload. For loads that are
symmetrical about a horizontal axis this axis is taken as the x-axis. The orientation of the
load is defined by the angle (load) between the directions of the X-axis and the x-axis. For
loads that are symmetrical about their centre point the x-axis may have any orientation,
though, for convenience, it may be taken as parallel to the X-axis so that load is then zero.
The location and orientation of a load are therefore specified by Xload, Yload and load.

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Figure 6: Global and Local Coordinate Systems

Wander Statistics
Field observations (HoSang, 1975) show that the lateral distribution of aircraft wheel paths
can be represented by a theoretical normal (bell-shaped) distribution.
HoSang's results can be summarised as follows:
Standard Deviation

Appendices

Pavement Type

Minimum
mm (ft)

Maximum
mm (ft)

Runways

1800
(6.0)

3400
(11.2)

Taxiways

800
(2.5)

1800
(6.0)

Runway Exits

2400
(8.0)

3200
(10.5)

105

In much of the design literature the term wander width is used. This is defined as the width
of the zone over which the centreline of aircraft traffic is distributed 75% of the time. If the
normal distribution is used it can be shown that (Pereira, 1977):
Wander width = 2.30 x Standard deviation of wander
The U.S. Army/Air Force Design Manual Flexible Pavement Design for Airfields (Elastic
Layered Method) (Army TM 5-825-2-1, Air Force AFM 88-6, Chap. 2, Section A) uses the
following wander statistics:
Pavement Type

Wander Width
mm (in.)

Standard Deviation
mm (in.)

Taxiways
First 300 m (1000 feet) of
runway ends

1800
(70)

770
(30)

Runways

3600
(140)

1550
(60)

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Cross-anisotropy and isotropy in


pavement materials
The elastic material in each layer of the pavement structure is assumed to be homogeneous
and of cross-anisotropic or isotropic symmetry.
A cross-anisotropic material has an axis of symmetry of rotation, which is assumed to be
vertical, i.e., the elastic properties are equivalent in all directions perpendicular to the axis of
symmetry (in horizontal, radial directions). In general, these properties are different from
those in the direction parallel to the axis, whereas isotropic materials have the same elastic
properties in both the vertical and horizontal directions.
In the Austroads pavement design method (2004) cross-anisotropic properties are used for
subgrade materials and unbound granular aggregates and isotropic properties are used for
bound materials such as asphalt and cemented materials.
The stress-strain relations for a cross-anisotropic material in a particular layer are:
xx =

(1/Eh) (xx

yy =

(1/Eh) (- h xx + yy - hv zz)

zz =

(1/Ev) (- vh xx - vh yy + zz)

xy =

((1+h)/Eh) xy

xz =

(1/f) xz

yz =

(1/f) yz

- h yy - hv zz)

The moduli and Poisson's ratios are related by the following equation:
vh/Ev = hv/Eh
The condition that the strain energy must be positive imposes restrictions on the values of
the elastic constants:
Eh > 0

Ef > 0
v

>
0
1 > h > -1

1-h-2hvnvh > 0

Appendices

107

For isotropic materials the restrictions become:


E>0

0.5 > > -1.0

To be able to model a cross-anisotropic material you need to specify five constants: the
vertical Elastic modulus (Ev), the horizontal Elastic modulus (Eh), the Poissons ratio (vh), the
Poissons ratio (h) and the Shear modulus (f).
Data values for all five constants are rarely available.
The Austroads Pavement Design Guide uses the following simplifications to model subgrade
and unbound granular materials:
Eh = 0.5 Ev
vh = h =
f = Ev/(1+)
In this case, the material is defined simply by the vertical Elastic modulus, Ev, and a single
Poisson's ratio, .
For isotropic materials, only the Elastic modulus and Poissons ratio need to be entered, as
they are assumed to be the same in all directions.

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Calculating Selected Results at


User-defined Z-values (depths)
In some circumstances, you may need to calculate selected results (displacements, stresses
and strains) at selected Z-values (depths). Specify first convenient Z-values and then plot
results for a selected displacement, stress or strain component. When you use this option,
damage factors are not calculated.
Click on the

2
3
4
5

button. This will bring up the following screen:

Appendices

109

This option is invoked by clicking the button that is labelled 'Calculate selected results
at user-defined Z-values'.

You can choose the component that is to be plotted by first clicking on the
'Component type' tab. You can then define the component type (e.g. displacement, strain
etc.) by clicking on the down arrow on the right hand side of the 'component type' combo
box. This will invoke this drop down list:

Click on the component type that you wish to use.

The actual component (e.g., vertical, etc.) is specified by clicking on the down arrow
on the right hand side of the 'Component' combo box. A drop down list of alternatives will
appear:

Click on the Component that you wish to use.

4
6

Now you can define the Z-values. Each Z-value is added by clicking the New button
.
You can delete any entry by clicking on it and then clicking the Delete button.

When a Z-value coincides with the interface between two layers, you can specify
which side of the interface is to be used (i.e. above the interface, or below the interface).

111

References
Austroads (1992). Pavement Design A Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavements.
Austroads Publication No. AP-17/92.
Austroads (2008). Guide to Pavement Technology - Part 2: Pavement Structural Design.
Austroads Publication No. AGPT02/08.
Barker, W. and Brabston, W. (1975). Development of a structural design procedure for
flexible airport pavements. Report No. S-75-17. US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways
Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss.
British Ports Association/Interpave (1996). The Structural Design of Heavy Duty Pavements
for Ports and other Industries, 3rd ed., Interpave, Leicester.
HoSang, V.A. (1975). Field survey and analysis of aircraft distribution on airport pavements.
Report No. FAA-RD-74-36. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration.
Mincad Systems and Pioneer Road Services (2007). Heavy Duty Industrial Pavement Design
Guide. (Web: http://www.mincad.com.au/hdipdg/).
Pereira, A. T. (1977). Procedures for development of CBR design curves. Instruction Report
S-77-1, US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss.
Rodway, B. (1995a). Design Of Flexible Pavements For Large Multiwheeled Aircraft. Int.
Conf. on Road & Pavement Technology, Singapore, 27-29 September, 1995.
Rodway, B. and Wardle, L.J. (1998). Layered Elastic Design of Heavy Duty and Industrial
Pavements. Proc. AAPA Pavements Industry Conf., Surfers Paradise, Australia.
Rodway, B., Wardle, L.J. and Wickham, G. (1999). Interaction between wheels and wheel
groups of new large aircraft. Airport Technology Transfer Conference, Atlantic City, U.S.A.,
April 1999, Federal Aviation Administration.
Wardle, L.J. (1977). Program CIRCLY Users Manual. CSIRO Australia. Division of Applied
Geomechanics, Geomechanics Computer Program. No. 2.
Wardle, L.J. (2004). Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual. Mincad Systems,
Australia.
Wardle, L.J. and Rodway, B. (1998). Recent Developments in Flexible Aircraft Pavement
Design using the Layered Elastic Method. Third Int. Conf. on Road and Airfield Pavement
Technology, Beijing, April 1998.
Wardle, L.J. and Rodway, B. (2010). Calibration of Advanced Flexible Aircraft Pavement
Design Method. to be published.

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Wardle, L.J., Rodway, B. and Rickards, I. (2001). Calibration of Advanced Flexible Aircraft
Pavement Design Method to S77-1 Method. in Advancing Airfield Pavements, American
Society of Civil Engineers, 2001 Airfield Pavement Specialty Conference, Chicago, Illinois, 58 August 2001 (Buttlar, W.G. and Naughton, J.E, eds.), pp. 192-201.
Wardle, L.J., Youdale, G. and Rodway, B. (2003). Current Issues For Mechanistic Pavement
Design. in 21st ARRB and 11th REAAA Conference, Cairns, Australia, 18 - 23 May, 2003,
Session S32, ARRB Transport Research.