1 vistas

Cargado por inesimirko

- Checkpoint EASSHOP Katalog 2015
- Electrical engineering
- Hall Effect n - Germanium - Cobra 3
- ax063
- 0702595
- 2016_02_08_18_52_24.pdf
- Hot Holes
- Report Quantised Conduction TN2992
- C-16
- 2012_05_15 Radio Network Quality Improvement 2012 by Local Partner
- Resume
- Lecture of power electronics
- Man VersiDrive i E2 V3.11 GB
- June2015 6ExamTimetable18.03.16
- Power Engineering Curriculum (English)
- Extra Class Element 4 Effective 7
- LICA Notes by Arunkumar
- Gate Companies List
- atoms and nuclei
- Energetic Diffusion in Ternary Sets of Ge-Se-In Chalcogenide Glasses

Está en la página 1de 2

CROSSCORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF

SINUSOIDAL SIGNALS

Lamb's letterA describes a ' new procedure' that, in fact, is

merely a straightforward Fourier analysis obtained by a

lengthy method. A statement is made in the second paragraph

of the letter that implies that the response of a system to a

signal a sin cot contains harmonics. If the system is linear,

which is assumed when frequency responses are plotted, and if

measurements are made after any initial transient has died

away (otherwise the measurements would be meaningless),

the output from the system can only be of the form

Ka sin (co + <f>), and there are no harmonics in the output.

Standard Fourier analysis shows that the mean product over

an intergral number of cycles (the crosscorrelation) of

leads to an overestimate of n\ an average of relaxation time

over all electron velocities is needed, and the relationship

between the three mobilities is not readily expressible in

analytic form. A further complication arises for heavily

doped semiconductors, particularly for electron mobilities in

direct-gap compounds. Here the effective mass increases

considerably with impurity concentration, so that the

constant' A in the relation for impurity scattering itself

becomes a function of N.

There are many advantages in retaining a simple reciprocal

relationship for combining mobilities, and we may write this

as

M =

ML

combination. This expression in turn reduces to

\Ka2

the obvious disadvantage of requiring each point on the

correlation curve to be determined separately. Fig. 2 seems

to indicate some 80 computations to plot the curve.

Determination of phase and magnitude from such a trace

seems likely to introduce considerable random errors.

Although correlation has noise rejection properties, it is

doubtful whether the system proposed, 80 measurements for

each frequency taken, can compare with the use of simple

Fourier t.f.a.s and averaging the results of a few separate

measurements.

30th May 1974

W. F. LOVERING

University of Surrey

Guildford, Surrey, England

Reference

A LAMB, J. D.: 'Determination of system frequency response direct from

crosscorrelation functions of sinusoidal signals'. Electron. Lett.

1974, 10. pp. 176-177

make the expression dimensionless. The function / can be

made as complex as necessary to match experimental results

over a wide range of N, and one would expect the form to

differ for elemental and compound semiconductors. The

simplest form for / is a power relationship, with f(N/N0) =

(N/No)x, and the Brooks-Herring theory of impurity scattering

shows that x will be less than unity. No is now the impurity

concentration at which the mobility in the semiconductor is

half the mobility in pure material. If we concentrate on the

case of maximum device interest, electron mobilities at

300 K, we note that No is 1017 cm" 3 for a number of important materials, including Si, Ge, GaAs, InP and InSb. We

may further deduce the value of x for those materials where

there is sufficient available data by extracting values of Hi,

i.e. MLKMLIM-1), from the literature, and plotting ni as a

function of ND, the donor concentration. All of the data are

not relevant. Many samples are compensated, and the

presence of acceptors causes a reduction in mobility. For a

BETWEEN MOBILITY AND CARRIER

CONCENTRATION

Indexing terms: Carrier mobility, Impurity electron states and

effects, Semiconductors

Analysis of experimental data shows that a simple relationship

connects the electron mobility with the donor concentration

ND. At room temperature, the mobility is inversely proportional to 1 + V ( N D / 1 0 1 7 ) for a number of important semiconductors.

In the design of semiconductor devices, to maximise performance it is often necessary to strike a balance between

doping heavily to reduce series resistance and reducing

impurity concentration to raise the breakdown voltage. The

calculations needed for an optimum design are complicated,

because there is no simple relationship between the carrier

concentration n and the conductivity nepi, and the mobility n

is itself a complex function of n. The mobility in any doped

semiconductor is limited by two scattering processes: lattice

scattering and impurity scattering. The mobility limit due to

lattice scattering HL has been calculated for most semiconductors of device interest, and can be assumed to be a

fixed parameter. Various formulas have been suggested for

impurity scattering, but most reduce to a relationship of the

where N is the impurity

form Mi = Aj{N(B-CxInN},

concentration. Since the resultant mobility is due to the

combination of the two relaxation times, it is tempting to

combine the scattering mechanisms by the equation

1

ML

Mi

10

Fig. 1

a

b

c

d

Vol. 10 No. 13

K>

ND,crrr3

Dependence of mobility on donor concentration

T= 300 K

2

GaAs;/* L = 10 000cm

/Vs

2

InP; fiL = 5700 cm

/Vs

2

S\;HL = 1400 cm /Vs

Ge; ML = 4200 cm 2 /Vs

259

those samples that show relatively high mobilities. Some data

chosen on this basis appear questionable, in that the mobilities

are appreciably higher than those observed in a number of

samples of lower impurity concentration. It may be that

these samples were inhomogenous, and as a result the data

are in error. Nevertheless they are retained in the plots for

completeness.

The rather surprising result of this analysis is that x is

close to one-half for all the materials analysed, so that the

simple expression

M=

UL/{i+V(ND/\017)}

300 K on donor concentration. This relationship is plotted in

Fig. 1 as a continuous line, together with the experimental

data. The data 1 ' 2 for Si and Ge are shown as broken lines.

Those for the compounds InP and GaAs are less extensive3' 4

and partly unpublished, so individual data points are given.

The square-root expression certainly gives at least as good an

agreement with experiment as any previously suggested, but

it does lead to an underestimate approaching 20% at the

very high impurity concentrations. Nevertheless, it provides

an extremely simple way of allowing for mobility reduction

with impurity concentration when predictions of device

performance need to be calculated.

Acknowledgments: I am grateful to C. Clark and L. Taylor

for the provision of unpublished data on InP, and to D. Ashen,

G. Gibbons and B. Mullin for similar data on GaAs. This

letter is published by permission of the Director of the RRE.

C. HILSUM

Kron's link-at-a-time formula,3 the new nodal impedance

matrix resulting from the addition of a voltage-controlled

current source is easily shown to be

N' _ dN +

D'

perturbed by a mutual conductance of n/d connected from

node / to ; and controlled by the voltage from node k to /.

All quantities are implicitly assumed to be functions of the

Laplace variable s. The following abbreviations are used

above:

JV.f = z'th column of N, the matrix of numerator polynomials

A'fc = ArthrowofiV

The above result used by Barham is useful because the

polynomial division by D in the numerator is exact and

prevents unnecessary common factors occurring.*

Suppose a scalar multiple of the same link is again added.

The new nodal impedance matrix has a denominator

polynomial

D" = d'D' + n'N'IJki

n/D{N2jkl-(Nki-Nkj)(Nkl-Nli)

iVV. = dNiJkl +

+

(Nki-NkJ)(Nkj~NlJ)}

= dNlJkl

(3)

References

1 CONWELL, E. M.: 'Properties of silicon and germanium', Proc. Inst.

Radio Eng., 1952, 40, pp. 1327-1337

2 MOLL, J. L.: 'Physics of semiconductors' (McGraw-Hill, 1964),

pp. 192-193

3 RODE, D. L.: 'Electron transport in GaAs', Phys. Rev., 1971, 3B, pp.

2534-2541

4 RODE, D. L.: 'Electron transport in InSb, InAs and InP', ibid., 1971,

3B, pp. 327-3299

(2)

eqn.1,

St. Andrews Road

Great Malvern, Worcs. WR14 3PS, England

n/D{NNlJkl-(N.l-NJ)(Nk.-Nl.)}

(4)

D" = d{dD-n(l+b)Nukl}

(5)

N"pq = d'N'pq +

n'/D'{N'pqN'iJkl-(N'pl-N'pjWkg-N'lq)}

. . .

(6)

N'pt = dNpi +

= dNpl +

n/D{NtjklNpl-(Npl-Npj)(Nki-Nlt)}

n/D{NlJNpl-NkjNpt+NPJNkt-NpjNll}

and

5 PLANE ANALYSIS

Indexing terms: Linear network analysis, Lumped-parameter

networks, Perturbation techniques

The application of Kron's link-at-a-time formula to s plane

analysis methods is investigated to facilitate optimisation

and variational studies of linear lumped networks characterised in the s domain.

perturbation methods can be applied to 5 plane analysis

methods. As a result, optimisation in the s plane can be

performed more efficiently. In the modified pivotal reduction

method of Downs,1 the only apparent method of effecting

element perturbations economically is to order the network

equations so that the initial reduction stages eliminate all

nodes except those on variable elements and input/output

ports, and to update and solve this smaller system of equations

for each element perturbation. However, the iterativesolution matrix-construction technique proposed by Barham2

lends itself well to the task of adding perturbing links.

Perturbing links can be added using Kron's link-at-a-time

formula,3 thereby effecting considerable savings over the above

approach. The possible common factors that can result from

adding a scalar multiple of a link in parallel with an existing

260

N'pJ = dN

so that

Similarly,

N'kq-N'lq

= d(Nkq-Nlq)

N"M = d'N'pq +

n'/D'dN'pqNiJkl-d2(Npi-NpjXNkq-Nlq)

X"PQ = d[K'pq + n'/D'{N'p9Nljkl-d(Npl-Npj)(Nkq-N,qy}]

(7)

factor d. Further, the denominator expressed in the form of

eqn. 5 will be in its most primitive form if the common

factor d is cancelled. It can be shown, by substitution into

eqn. 7, that the numerator also takes on the expected

primitive form when d is divided out:

N"pq =

dNpq+(l+b)nlD{NpqNijkl-(Npl-Npj)(Nkq-Nlq)}

- Checkpoint EASSHOP Katalog 2015Cargado porvanhostingweb
- Electrical engineeringCargado porJeyaPrakash
- Hall Effect n - Germanium - Cobra 3Cargado porJonatan Vignatti Muñoz
- ax063Cargado porAl Fakhamah Lifts
- 0702595Cargado pormarioradityo
- 2016_02_08_18_52_24.pdfCargado porABHIJEET SHARMA
- Hot HolesCargado porkurabyqld
- Report Quantised Conduction TN2992Cargado porsengirsteve
- C-16Cargado porBhanu Viswanadh
- 2012_05_15 Radio Network Quality Improvement 2012 by Local PartnerCargado porMoncef Manai
- ResumeCargado porAman Singh
- Lecture of power electronicsCargado porSandeep GM
- Man VersiDrive i E2 V3.11 GBCargado porGustavo Jimenez
- June2015 6ExamTimetable18.03.16Cargado porMaria Cutajar
- Power Engineering Curriculum (English)Cargado porArmando Malone
- Extra Class Element 4 Effective 7Cargado porBob Warner
- LICA Notes by ArunkumarCargado porDhruv Patel
- Gate Companies ListCargado porsurjansh

- atoms and nucleiCargado porNINE EDUCATION
- Energetic Diffusion in Ternary Sets of Ge-Se-In Chalcogenide GlassesCargado porIJAERS JOURNAL
- Electron Configuration (1)Cargado porsamir
- The Sulphur SystemCargado porVibhor Agrawal
- DiodeCargado pormanu
- DetectorsCargado porMoch. Syamsul Alamsyah
- Chapter19.pdfCargado pormpcd07
- EE3040 Exam 2 spring 2010Cargado poritakenocrud
- Matthew Brand ThesisCargado pormtthwbrnd2192
- Nano MaterialCargado porBandita Datta
- a1 - QuestionsCargado porManisha Kumari
- A water-based sol–gel technique for chemical solution deposition of (RE)Ba2Cu3O7−y (RE = Nd and Y) superconducting thin filmsCargado porhnumonkey
- Applications of random matrix theory to condensed matter and optical physicsCargado porThongkool Ctp
- Addition of Angular MomentumCargado porArnab Barman Ray
- Tut Sheet EPL213 1Cargado porShanuChandely
- Evolution of Crystalline Structure in SnS Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Deposition Ana Rosa Garcia 2014Cargado porAini Doll
- CH3.pdfCargado porKhalil Alhatab
- Physics Course for StudentsCargado porDragos P.
- S14 Unit 16 AssignmentCargado porPhilip Lai
- MIT22_51F12_Ch11Cargado porUtkarsh Verma
- Deep Traps in GaN-based Structures as Affecting the Performance of GaN DevicesCargado porhezabra2007
- Struktur Kristal KeramikCargado porFajar Ramadhan
- Nucleation & GrowthCargado porManmik8252
- Solid StateCargado porSanjeev Mahajan
- Colossal Magnetoresistance PDFCargado porDawn
- UNIT1 question bank EDCargado porsuganya1190
- Role of Doping Composition in CdxZn1-xSeTernary SemiconductorCargado porallasrivani
- Class Note JellurCargado porঅবান্তরমূল
- NaprxenoCargado porelektron2010
- Vbt Hybridization LectureB5Cargado porAbhishek Bhardwaj