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4, 165177 (1997)

Data over Settlement Structures by

Inverse Modelling

G. DITTRICH{ AND U. KOPPELT

Universitat Leipzig, Institut fur Geophysiki, Talstrasse 35, 04103 Leipzig, Germany

ABSTRACT

A robust and stable inversion algorithm for the joint reconstruction of different archaeological

features, such as pit houses, ditch systems or single pits, from surface magnetic data was

developed. In a first step a simplified model is assumed to estimate the mean magnetization

direction. During the second step the shape of the features is estimated automatically. The

algorithm is based upon an evolutionary strategy and the Marquardt Levenberg method. It was

tested on real and synthetic data. The influence of inhomogeneous pit fillings on depth estimates

c 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

was studied. *

Archaeol. Prospect. 4: 165177, 1997.

strategies.

Introduction

Correct information about the shape of archaeological features can be obtained by excavations

only. However, once an archaeological feature

is excavated, it is destroyed. Therefore, nondestructive investigation methods that allow an

estimation of the approximate shape of archaeological features become more and more important. Magnetic surveying has proved to be an

effective tool to locate archaeological features

(Scollar et al, 1990; Becker, 1993), and to estimate

shape and physical parameters of particular

features on site (Boucher, 1996; Eder-Hinterleitner et al, 1996).

Once a settlement, consisting for instance of pit

houses, wells, clay-producing pits and a defense

ditch system around it, was abandoned, differences in the surface topography become levelled

out due to wind and water induced erosion. Thus

most of the clinal structures become filled, mainly

{Correspondence to: G. Dittrich, Universitat Leipzig, Talstrasse 35, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

CCC 10752196/97/04016513$17.50

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

a higher susceptibility than the soil-forming

geological minerals placed in the environment

(LeBorgne, 1955; Thompson and Oldfield, 1986,

p. 72). Due to different processes, such as heating

or the influence of magnetic bacteria, the filling

material may carry remanent magnetization

(Fabinder et al, 1990) of the same order of

magnitude as the induced part.

Disregarding particular features with a strong

remanent magnetization, e.g. ovens, iron objects

or slag bodies, one expects the overall appearance

of a settlement to behave like a layer with

positive magnetization contrast with respect to

the underlying half space. Therefore a layer with

an undulating base and an unknown but constant magnetization was chosen as the physicoarchaeological model (PhAM) of the site in

question. As different features are not necessarily

connected the layer may vanish in the space

between them, or alternatively, a zero thickness

may be assigned.

The inverse problem for this class of models

is non-linear, because it falls into the class of

Received 30 September 1997

Accepted 26 January 1998

166

shape-determining problems (Blakely, 1995,

p. 228). It is unique in the case of a depth function with limited spectrum width, i.e. a sufficiently smooth undulation, but is unstable

because of noise corrupted data.

A forward modelling algorithm for a magnetized undulating layer was developed by Parker

(1972). Based on Parker's approach many different inversion schemes for estimating the depth of

an undulating interface as a function of position

were developed (Oldenburg, 1974; Xia and

Sprowl, 1992), and therefore, the problem is

well understood today. All of these procedures

suffer from the drawback of utilizing analytical

spectral expressions for the depth function while

performing discrete numerical modelling. For a

discussion see Koppelt and Rojas (1994).

A different model, which consists of a twodimensional regular grid of columns equidistantly filled with dipoles from the earth

surface down to the depth of the layer, was

used by Eder-Hinterleitner et al (1996). The

forward problem was solved by calculating the

effect of each dipole and summing up the

individual effects, while the inversion was controlled by a simulated anealing algorithm. A

weighted least-squares criterion with regularization was applied to overcome the instability

introduced by measurement errors and high

frequency content of the depth function spectrum

due to steeply striking side walls of the ditches.

The main drawback of this particular numerical approach is the modelling of continuously

distributed material by dipole sources situated in

each column. This is equivalent to numerical

integration of the formula for the magnetic

anomaly due to a vertical prism using an open

one-point NewtonCotes formula for both

horizontal integrations, and an extended trapezoidal rule for the integration along the vertical

axis (Bezvoda et al, 1992). In this case, different

weights should be assigned to the dipoles at

both ends of every column, as follows from the

extended trapezoidal rule (see Press et al, 1990,

p. 116). Therefore, the forward modelling is

not correct. Moreover, because the distance

between dipoles is comparable to the distance

between observation points and dipoles,

discretization effects may affect computed data

(see Ku, 1977).

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

These problems were overcome by the

approach of Herwanger et al (1997). These

authors used a two-dimensional regular grid of

vertical prisms with varying bottom depth to

model the layer. The depth estimations were

computed by means of linearized least-squares

techniques applying positivity constraints on

prism depth and Laplacian smoothing to regularize the inversion. Although the mathematical

concept is reasonable, the assumption of homogeneously and purely induced magnetized

prisms must be regarded as being rather poor.

Susceptibility measurements on ditch filling

material showed a decrease of susceptibility with

depth (Eder-Hinterleitner and Neubauer, 1997).

As will be discussed below, the same effect was

discovered on pit-fill material from the archaeological site of Zwenkau, Saxony. Therefore, our

aim was to develop an inversion algorithm that

takes into account possible changes of magnetization with depth and that does not suffer from

the assumption of purely induced magnetization.

Our model is close to the model chosen by

Herwanger et al (1997), except for a free magnetization vector instead of purely induced magnetization. Both topography and magnetization will

be estimated during the inversion process.

However, as has been shown by different authors

(see e.g. Blakely, 1995, p. 292), it is impossible to

estimate magnetization and the bottom topography of the layer simultaneously. Therefore, a twostep inversion procedure was developed. At the

first stage the mean magnetization is estimated

for a simplified model, then the topography of

the undulating interface between the layer and

the underlying half-space is calculated. Although

the inversion procedure developed determines

source parameters directly, it is not fully automatic. The experiences of the operator are of great

importance when preparing the data, e.g. trend

estimation or stripping of unwanted features in

the data.

Methods

Archaeometric prospecting

The target of the magnetic prospecting was a

Bronze Age settlement structure in Altranstaedt

near Leipzig. The survey was carried out using a

GSM-19 Overhauser Gradiometer. In gradient

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

mode, the instrument measures the total magnetic flux density at two sensors simultaneously.

The result is a high quality difference measurement, compared with difference data derived

from two consecutive total field measurements.

The data are independent of diurnal variations of

the Earth's magnetic field. We refer to these

differences as vertical differences, V, because the

sensors are alligned vertically. The term vertical

gradient appears not to be correct in this set up

(Koppelt et al, 1996).

From the aerial photograph we expected

features such as pit alignments and ditch systems

of linear dimensions ranging from 1 m to 3 m. A

grid spacing D 0.5 m was chosen to achieve a

mean coverage of 5 to 10 points per anomaly.

The height of the lower sensor, h, and the

sensor separation, s, determines the frequency

content of the measured signal. Both must be set

according to local noise characteristics of the

magnetic field (Koppelt et al, 1996). To achieve a

maximum resolution, but to avoid aliasing of the

signal due to finite grid spacing, we made test

measurements using different sensor configurations. A sensor separation s 1.5 m and a height

h 0.36 m of the lower sensor were found to

provide an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio.

Susceptibility measurements

To obtain information about the vertical susceptibility distribution within different kinds of pits,

samples of pit fills from a nearby archaeological

site, situated in a comparable environment, were

taken. We sampled vertical profiles starting from

the topsoil layer to the bottom of the pit, with

10 cm point spacing. Bulk susceptibility was

measured with a Bartington MS2 susceptibility

meter. In addition, for some probes the Koenigsberger Q-ratio, as the ratio of remanent and

induced magnetization, was measured.

As a basic physico-archaeological model (PhAM)

representing single pits as well as ditch systems

and pit houses situated at a particular site, a

rectangular grid of vertical prisms with varying

depth was chosen. We assumed the magnetization contrast of all prisms to be constant with

respect to the environment, but its direction and

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

167

magnitude were included as free parameters into

the first step of the inversion procedure. For this

purpose a distinct anomaly was chosen and

modelled with a single prismatic body by estimating its geometry and magnetization numerically. The anomaly was chosen with respect to

three criteria:

(i) the shape of the anomaly should resemble

an anomaly due to a homogeneously

magnetized prism;

(ii) the maximum amplitude of the anomaly

should be within the range defined by other

anomalies resulting from similar archaeological features at that particular site;

(iii) the anomaly must not interfere with other

anomalies.

The goal of the second inverse modelling step

was the estimation of the bottom depth for all

prisms, where the previously estimated magnetization and depth to the top remained unchanged.

For the overlaying algorithm controlling parameter estimates, an evolutionary strategy (ES)

was chosen. Evolutionary strategies are probabilistic methods that are based upon principles of

natural selection and adaptation. Their main

scheme will be outlined briefly, but for a detailed

description we refer to Back and Schwefel (1993)

and for applications in archaeometry to Dittrich

(1996).

A number, m, of starting models of n-dimensional parameter vectors are regarded as parent

elements. From every parent an offspring of l

models is generated by adding different Gaussian

random vectors with zero mean and standard

deviation, s. In parameter space, the offspring

forms a cloud with mean radius s around the

parent; thus exploring the space in a neighbourhood whose linear dimensions are controlled by

s. The quality of every model is quantified by its

weighted Euclidian distance from the observations measured in data space

C

i T 1

i

d~o d~c C d~o d~c ;

i 1; . . . ; m1 l

computed data and the covariance matrix of

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

168

the observed data, respectively. The index i,

running from 1 up to m(1 l) means that all

parent and child elements take part in the

competition. According to this quality a number

of m0 new parent elements is selected. Usually is

m0 m. For this selection there are two main

strategies. For the first, all elements (parent

and child) of the generation take part in the

selection. This strategy (so-called plus strategy)

has the advantage that no deterioration of the

quality of the parent-pool is possible. In case of

multimodal error-functionals the m l-strategy

may have problems finding an acceptable

solution.

A modification of the selection process may be

performed in such a way that only the (m l)

child elements take part in the competition (socalled colon strategy). Because such a selection

allows a deterioration of the goodness of one

generation, the convergence speed of the procedure will decrease. There is, however, the great

advantage that it is possible to overcome local

optima for problems with many local solutions,

or to make this event easier.

The process of reproduction and selection is

repeated until a fit of the observations within

their error bounds is achieved.

Particular implementations of an ES may

differ, e.g. in the way the selection is performed

or the choice of the scattering parameter s. These

differences may be important with regard to the

speed of convergence. Evolutionary strategies do

not require derivative determination or any kind

of linearization of the inverse problem, but the

forward problem must be solved repeatedly. This

makes them well suited for non-linear inverse

problems, although they are much more time

consuming than standard gradient algorithms.

Fast forward modelling algorithms for a

homogeneously magnetized rectangular prism

were published by Bhattacharyya (1964),

Kunaratnam (1981) and Ivan (1996). Because the

magnitude of remanent magnetization cannot

be neglected, we followed the concept of total

magnetization as a sum of remanent and induced

magnetization, rather than considering induced

magnetization only. The forward modelling

algorithm we applied to compute the total

magnetic field anomaly due to a single prism

differs only slightly from Kunaratnam (1981).

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Results

Vertical changes of susceptibility

The results of five vertical susceptibility profiles

taken from different pits are shown in Figure 1(a

and b). Figure 1a clearly shows the decrease of

susceptibility with depth for three particular pits.

A different pattern is shown in Figure 1b. The

susceptibility of these pits is almost constant,

except for a strong positive contrast at the bottom

of the pit.

Estimation of the Koenigsberger Q-ratio for

two different samples showed a value between

1.4 and 1.5, indicating that remanent magnetization must be considered as significant. Because

samples were not oriented, no conclusions about

the direction of the remanent magnetization can

be drawn. The direction of remanent magnetization is not constant within the filling and does

not carry any archaeomagnetic record (H. Becker,

pers. comm.). Thus it appears to be desirable to

incorporate as little supposition as possible about

the direction of total magnetization into the

inversion procedure.

Based on the results of susceptibility measurements on excavated pits, data sets for five

different pit models were calculated. The pits

were assumed to be prismatic bodies that were

split into a number of horizontal layers. Susceptibility values from the measured vertical profiles

were assigned to corresponding layers. The total

magnetic field anomalies of all layers were

computed separately and summed.

Because the algorithm utilizes a homogeneously magnetized single layer model, the

effects of heterogeneous pit filling and magnetic

remanence are projected on to a single magnetization vector. To test the ability of the algorithm

to handle the effect of different types of magnetization, estimates of the body's lateral extensions

and its depth were computed under two different

assumptions. At first geometry and a scalar

susceptibility had to be estimated, thus assuming

induced magnetization only. In the second run,

geometry and total magnetization vector were

chosen as free parameters, and therefore, a

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

169

Figure 1. Vertical susceptibility distribution for five different pits situated at the archaeological site of Zwenkau, Saxony.

(a) The predominant behaviour is a decrease of susceptibility with depth. (b) Some pits show almost constant susceptibility

except for a sharp increase at the bottom of the pit.

170

Table 1. Relative errors for depth-to-top and depth-to-bottom estimates computed for the free magnetization and induced

magnetization model.

Code of feature

Depth to top

7-505

7-13

8-324

8-97

8-313

Depth to bottom

Free magnetization

Induced magnetization

Free magnetization

Induced magnetization

11

11

11

5

11

20

25

15

30

37

5

6

5

2

13

12

1

1

32

19

greater degree of freedom was given to the algorithm to handle different types of magnetization.

A comparison of given and estimated model

parameters is represented in Table 1, showing

significantly better results in the case of free total

magnetization. It can be seen that percentage

errors of estimates for the depth to the top are on

average less for the free magnetization model

than for the model of a homogeneously magnetized body with purely induced magnetization.

These results were independent of the actual

susceptibility distribution within the pit.

For a second test of the algorithm a homogeneously magnetized pit model with an

undulating bottom was assumed (see Figure 2a).

As stated above, the inverse problem is non-

Figure 2. Test of the inversion algorithm. (a) Depth function of the model pit.

171

simultaneously. Moreover, from the principle of

superposition it follows that it becomes ambiguous in the case of a multilayered Earth model as

well. As, for a homogenously magnetized prism,

magnetization and geometrical parameters can

be calculated simultaneously (Rao and Babu,

1991), such a model was used to estimate

thickness of the top soil and magnetization.

Herein the depth to top of the prism served as

the estimate of the topsoil thickness. These results

were used as fixed parameters for the shape

reconstruction (Figure 2). Estimated maximum

depth and three-dimensional shape of the body

agreed well with the original model. Misfit in

depth estimation of the interface was between

5 per cent and 10 per cent. The maximum depth

had an error of less than 3 per cent.

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

settlement structures

The archaeological site Altranstadt was known

from aerial photographs, but no further information about extent, structures or its age were

available. The task of the magnetic survey was to

provide high precision mapping as well as a

model reconstruction of main features.

The results of the geomagnetic survey together

with the interpretation are given in Figure 3. The

rectangular structure (A) could be interpreted as

a ditch system surrounding an inner circular ditch

(B) and a central anomaly that was interpreted as

a grave (C). A second characteristic feature is a

linear axis of magnetic anomalies that appears to

be a pit alignment known to be Bronze Age.

Another group of anomalies occupying a larger

area (H, I, J) was interpreted in terms of filled

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

172

appear to be due to strongly magnetized sources

such as modern iron objects or magnetic rocks.

All of these anomalies correspond to darkened

areas in the aerial photograph. The interpretation

of less distinct anomalies has proved to be more

complicated. They could be related to geological

features, e.g. boulders with slightly higher

magnetization than the top soil. Some of them

could be related to archaeological features as

well. If the main grave surrounded by two ditch

systems proves to be a main barrow, graves

situated around this structure can be expected.

One of the pits from the pit alignment (Figure 3,

anomaly marked as X) was used for estimation of

magnetization and topsoil thickness (40 cm) by

using a single prism model. Prior to shape

reconstruction, two anomalies that are most

probably related to geological features, e.g.

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

objects had to be stripped from the data. The

selection criterion was an amplitude much higher

than the mean amplitude of pit-related anomalies

or an anomaly orientation that significantly

deflects from today's NS direction.

The stripping was done by data windowing

and inversion using a dipole model. Once the

dipole related to a particular anomaly was

calculated, its total magnetic field was computed

and subtracted from the measured data. After

that, a three-dimensional inversion was computed (Figure 4). The maximum depth for the

pit alignment was estimated to be about 1.6 m,

the two ditch systems appear to have a mean

bottom depth of only a few centimetres (inner

ring ditch) and 1.2 m (rectangular ditch system).

As a cut-off depth of 10 cm was applied, i.e. all

prisms with a depth less than the cut-off value

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

173

invisible.

Discussion

The computational results showed that it may

be advantageous to use an inversion method

utilizing a free magnetization vector rather than

the concept of purely induced magnetization.

The benefit increases with the degree of heterogeneity of the deposed material and with the

deflection of the total magnetization vector from

today's main field direction, e.g. due to remanent

magnetization.

As the evolutionary strategies are probabilistic

methods, it may happen that a single inversion

calculation using the free magnetization vector

yields worse results than the calculation with a

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

problem of probabilistic methods. The solution of

a single run may not be representive for its

overall performance. Therefore, many different

runs should be performed and a statistical

analysis of the results should be carried out. In

this sense the method relying on the concept of

free magnetization vector leads to better

parameter estimates.

Some parameters, such as topsoil depth and

magnetization, have to be fixed for the

reconstruction of the three-dimensional shape.

Otherwise the inverse problem becomes ambiguous. As they are usually unknown, they were

determined in the first inversion step. This step

should be carried out for one or more distinct and

well developed anomalies according to the rules

stated above. The appropriate choice of the

anomaly is a crucial point of the algorithm,

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

174

Figure 3. Measured vertical different data over part of the archaeological site of Altranstaedt, Saxony.

this step will remain fixed in any following

calculation. Therefore, the initial choice should be

done by the operator according to their experience. We doubt that any kind of automatization

could be useful here.

The main drawback of any automated inversion procedure is its incapacity to discriminate

problem-related anomalies from unwanted

features still inherent in the data. Therefore,

anomalies unrelated to pits and ditches, such as

anomalies due to kilns, iron-slag bodies as well

as anomalies of modern iron objects or of geology

should be identified and removed prior to the

inverse modelling. A kind of stripping algorithm

was applied to clear out these anomalies. After

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

features, the anomalies can be separated by data

windowing. A simple idealized body, e.g. a

dipole, could be used to model the anomaly.

Once the parameters of the idealized body are

estimated, its effect could be subtracted from the

data.

The choice of which anomaly to delete must be

made by the operator. Therefore, it depends on

his or her a priori knowledge about the anomaly

patterns of unwanted features at this particular

site. Modern iron objects for example are commonly represented by small-scale bipolar

anomalies, with amplitudes much higher than

those produced by archaeological features. The

positive and negative part of such an anomaly

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

175

Figure 4. Inversion results. Estimated depth function for the part of the site investigated (contour interval: 0.3 m).

and the axis connecting the two parts may deflect

seriously from the NS direction.

Anomalies due to large-scale geological features may be recognized by their frequency

content. The long wavelength part of the spectrum is determined by these anomalies. One

method to remove these features from the data is

high-pass filtering in the frequency domain.

Although simple, the method has a serious

drawback. If the filter is not constructed properly,

i.e. sufficiently smooth, it may corrupt local

anomalies as well (Clement, 1973). Therefore,

we prefer polynomial trend estimation and

subtraction instead (Skeels, 1967).

The inversion method for the first step may be

an evolution strategy. For data sets of some

hundred points (which may be enough for single

features) these calculations can be carried out

# 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

mean of the calculated parameters of some

different calculations, can then serve as a fixed

value for the three-dimensional reconstruction of

large data sets. This reconstruction is carried out

under the assumption of the model approximation by means of a number of vertical prisms.

The inversion method for the problem of the

body depth calculation for each of these prisms

should be as fast an inversion algorithm as the

Marquard Levenberg method, with regard to the

computation times.

Both the reconstructions for the analytically

calculated models and the measured data sets

yielded a good correspondence with the expected

values. The calculated maximum depth for the

analytical model had an error of less than 5 per

cent. The reconstruction result for the measured

data set from Altranstaedt was compared with

Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 4, 165177 (1997)

176

neighbouring excavation, which yielded a

maximum depth for a rectangular ditch system

of about 1 m. This is a good correlation to the

reconstruction results because the calculated

depth is within the range for a neighbouring

equivalent structure.

Conclusion

A robust inversion algorithm for shape reconstruction of settlement structures was developed.

It works in two steps under the assumption of a

free magnetization vector with a minimum of

a priori information. As suggested by real and

synthetic data examples, our algorithm is a good

tool for inverting magnetic field data over archaeological sites. Different tests have proved the

stability and the robustness of the algorithm. The

impact of heterogeneous pit filling on depth

estimates was studied. It was shown that better

results were obtained for a free magnetization

vector. The algorithm was applied to magnetic

data from the archaeological site Altranstaedt. The

computed depth estimates are within the range

expected from an archaeological point of view.

Acknowledgements

We thank C. Reimann for helping us with the

field survey and R. Zergenyi from ETH Zurich for

making some of the petromagnetic measurements.

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