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A f ( x)dx ydx

Note:- area bounded with y axis

c1

Eg:-

A

x

y f ( x)

ydx

1

1

A ( x 2 1)dx

1

x3

A

x

3 1

1

1

A 1 1

3

3

1

1

A 1 1

3

3

2

A 2

3

4

A

3

4

A sq.unit

3

b

A f ( x) g ( x) dx

a

Eg:-

y x 1

2

y4

x2 4

x 2

y4

2

x3

4x

3 2

8

8 8

3

3

16 16

3 3

32

A ( x2 x1 ) dy

c

Eg:-

Find the area of the region of the xy plane defind by the inequalities

y 2 1 x, and y x 1

y2 1 x

( x 1) 2 1 x

x 2x 1 x 1 0

2

x 2 3x 0

x( x 3) 0

x 0 or x 3

when

x0

y 1

x 3, y 2

(1 y

) ( y 1) dy

A (1 y 2 y 1)dy

2

1

A (2 y 2 y )dy

2

y3 y 2

A 2y

3

2 2

1 1

8

A 2 4 2

3 2

3

12 2 3 10

A

6

3

7 20

A

6 6

27

A

6

9

A sq.unit

2

Ex:-

(1)

Find the area of the region of the xy plane bounded by the curve

y x 2 4 and y

7

4

(2)

Find the area of the region of the x-y plane define by the following inequalities.

y ( x 1)( x 3), y x

Hint:- A x ( x 1)( x 3)dx

Volume of revolution

x-axis formed solids volume will be

given.

V y 2 dx

a

b

V x 2 dy

a

Eg:y x(2(1)

x 1)

axis and curve is

rotate 3600 about x axis. Find the volume formed,

V x 2 (2 x 1) 2 dx

1

V (4 x 4 4 x 3 x 2 )dx

1

4 x5

V

x4

5

V

(2)

x 3

185

cubic units

15

y x 1,byx 0 and

2

The

curve

defined

the y inequalities

is rotated completely about the y axis. Find the volume generated.

2

V x 2dy

1

V ( y 1)dy

1

y2

V

y

2

(3)

V (2 2) ( 1)

2

V cubic units

and the line y=3 is

2

y the4 xcurve

x

The area enclosed by

rotated about the line y=3. Find the volume of the solid

generated?

2

V ( y 3) 2 dx

1

V (4 x x 2 3)2 dx

1

V x 4 8 x3 22 x 2 24 x 9 dx

1

x 5 8 x 4 22 x 3

12 x 2 9 x

4

x

x

16

cubic units

15

y 2 x(1)

, x2

completely

about x axis. Find the volume generated?

2

the area bounded by these curves rotated completely

y x ,(2)

y4

about y axis.

Find the volume generated?

(3)

Find the volume generated, when the areay 2 bounded

x and x between

1

is

.

x 1 rorated about

f ( x)dx F ( x)

b

a

F (b ) F ( a )

If we cannot evaluate difinite integral with an antiderivative, we use

numerical methods like the trapezoidal rule and Simpsons rule. These

rules enable us to estimate an integrals value to as decimal places.

segments.

We add this area of the trapezoids made by joining the ends of these

segments to x-axis

gives, estimated area.

In this case, the estimate area in grater than the original. This is called over

b

estimate.

y f ( x)dx

a

Over estimate area = estimated

area b

ET T f ( x)dx

a

In this type of curves give the estimate area less than the original area. When we

consider trapezoids, we lose small area in every trapezoids. This type is called

Under estimate.

b

ET farea

( x)dx T

Under estimate

a

h

y0 2( y1 y2 ........... yn1 ) yn

2

b a

h length

sub interval

Eg:-

Use the trapezian rule with five ordinates to evaluate ordinates y values

0.8

ordinates y values

trapezian

rule

with

fivee x dx

ordinates

to

evaluate

0.8 0

0.20

4

x

y

0

1

y0

Ordinates)

0.16

1.0408

0.32

1.1735

y1

y2

0.48

1.4333

y3

0.64

1.8965

y4

(5

0.8

2 h y

2( y1 y2 y3 ) y4

0.2

1 2(1.0408 1.1735 1.4333) 1.8965

2

0.1(10.192)

1.0192

Simpsons Rule

ba

n

approximate area A

h

A y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 .....2 yn 2 4 yn 1 yn

3

h

eg:- Use simpson role with five ordinates (4 ships) to find an approxomate

0 sin d

value

0

4

y0

3

4

0.8409

y1

0.8409

y3

y2

y4

(5

Ordinates)

sin xdx y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 y4 0

3

1

1

(1 x )

0

Estimate to 4 decimal

place

dx

2

(2)

(a)

(b)

Simpson rule

1

1

dx

Using the

or other wise evaluate

x subtitution

tan

2

(1 xestimated

)

and hence

determine the accuracy of0your

volume.

3.1416

(Take

)

y0

1

4

1

2

0.9412

y1

0.8

y2

3

4

0.64

y3

Ordinates)

1 0 1

4

4

using trapezium

rule

1

1

0.25 0

y 2( y1 y 2 y 3 ) y 8

dx

2

0 1 x

2

1

1 2(0.942 0.8 0.64) 0.5

8

0.7824

0.5

y4

(5

1

1

h

0 1 x 2 dx 3 y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y

1

1 4(0.942 0.64) 2 0.5 0.5

12

0.7854

1

accuracy method

1 x

dx

x tan

dx sec 2 d

1

sec 2 d

2

1 tan

tan 1 ( x)

1

0

4

3.1416

4

0.7854

Conclusion

Simpson rule gave an estimate correct to 4 decimal place.

\

TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometric Ratios

A

Hypotenus

e

Opposit

e

x0

B

Adjacen

sinx

Opposite

AB

Hypotenuse AC

cosx

Adjacent

BC

Hypotenuse AC

tanx

Opposite AB

Adjacent BC

AB2+BC2=AC2

sin2 x 1 cos2 x

cos2 x 1 sin2 x

300 300

2

a

2

a

a

600

600

a

450

h2 4a2 a2

x2 a2 a2

h2 3a2

x 2 2a 2

h 3a

x 2a

sin

00

300

450

cos

tan

600

900

1

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

sin

tan

sin=positive(+)

1st

2nd

cos=negative(-)

tan=negative(-)

3rd

4th

sin= negative (-)

1st

2nd

3rd

cos=negative (-)

4th

sin= negative (-)

1st

2nd

3rd

tan= negative (-)

4th

1800 = radians ( c )

10 =

10 =

radian

similarly

Write,

sin2 x cos2 x 1

sin2 x cos2 x

1

cos2 x

cos2 x

tan2 x1 sec2 x

1 tan2 x sec2 x

tan2 x sec2 x1

sec2 x tan2 x 1

II

cosec 2 x 1 cot2 x

cot2 x cosec 2 x1

cosec 2 x cot2 x 1

sin2 x cos2 x 1

sin2 x cos2 x

1

sin2 x

sin2 x

1 cot2 x cosec 2 x

Identities (Questions)

A. Simplify

i. cos .tan

ii. 3cos2 2 3sin2 2

2 1 cos2 3

iii.

cos3

iv. tanx 1 sin2 x

sin4

sin2

2

cos

4

ii. cos sin2 sin4 cos2

i. tan2

iv. tan2 cot2 sec2 cosec 2 2

v.

cosA

sinA

sinA CosA

1 tanA 1 cotA

Answers

A.

sin

sin

cos

ii. 3cos2 2 3sin2 2 3 cos2 2 sin2 2

i. cos .tan cos

31

1

2 1 cos2 3

sin3

2

2tan3

cos3

cos3

iii.

sinx

.cosx

cosx

sinx

2sin2 x 2cos2 x

2(sin2 x cos2 x)

2

vi. 3cos4 3sin2 cos2 3cos2 (cos2 sin2 )

3cos2

B. Proove

sin4

sin2

2

cos

sin4

L.H.S tan2

cos2

sin2 sin4

cos2 cos2

sin2

1 sin2

cos2

sin2

.cos2

2

cos

sin2

R.H.S

i. tan2

L.H.S cos4 sin2

1 sin2 sin2

1 2sin2 sin4 sin2

1 sin2 sin4

sin4 cos2

R.H.S

L.H.S cot tan

cos sin

sin cos

cos2 sin2

sin .cos

1

sin .cos

1

1

.

sin cos

cosec .sec

R.H.S

tan2 cot2

(sec2 1) (cosec 2 1)

sec2 cosec 2 2

R.H.S

v.

cosA

sinA

sinA cosA

1 tanA 1 cotA

cosA

sinA

L.H.S

1 tanA 1 cotA

cosA

sinA

cosA

sinA

2

2

cos A sin A

cosA sinA

(cosA sinA)(cosA sinA)

(cosA sinA)

cosA sinA

R.H.S

1.

1

0 360

2

300

Sin

2.

1

2

450

Cos

0 360

450

300

300

450

300 ,1500

Sin30

1

2

Sin150

1

2

450 ,3150

Cos450

1

2

Cos3150

3.

Tan 3

60

0 360

4.

1

2

300

Sin

0 360

600

600

300

5.

1

2

600

Cos

600

60

0 360

300

3600 300 3300

6.

1

3

0

30

Tan

0 360

300

300

1

2

Cot 1 0 360

1

1

Tan 1

8.

Tan

1

450

Sin 2 0 360

1

1

2 Cos

7.

Cos

2

0

60

600

450

450

600

600 ,3000

3600 450 3150

Bearings - Introduction

1. Draw a line, and show the North direction.

2. Use clockwise sense to measure the angles from the North.

3. Write the bearing in 3 digits.

Ex:

1. Point X is 0500 bearing from Y.

X

N

500

Y

N

1500

A

500

Ex

1. Car A is 0300 bearings from Car B Draw the diagram.

Find the bearing of A from B.

2. A Car in morning 15 km North direction and morning another 15 3km bearing of

0900. Find the bearing of the Car from the initial point.

Ans

1.

N

2.

300

3000

Y 90

1800

15 3km

B

15k

m

15

15 3

1

3

300

Tan

Angle of elevation

An observer in the ground and the object is in above him, then the angle

between lines, horizontal and object is called angle of elevation

object

observer

ground

Angle of depression

observer

horizontal

is angle of depression

object

d

Question

1. A man observer a vertical tree, distance between the man and bottom or the tree

is 50 3m height of the tree is 50m. Find the angle of elevation to the top of the tree?

tree

50m

50 3m

man

50

50 3

1

3

300

Tan

2. A man sit on the top of the building and observer in the ground object. Angle of

the depression is 600 and the height of the building is 50m. Find the distance

between building and ground.

observer

=600

50

x

=60

object

50

Tan600

x

50

x

Tan600

50

3

3

3

x

50 3

m

3

3.

x

observer

building

the elevation of the top the building is 60 0 If the height of AD= 100 3m , Find the

height of the building BC ( 3 1.73)

Ans

450 , 600

AD

Tan450

AB

AD AB(Tan450 1)

AB 100 3

y 100 3

x

Tan600

100 3

x 100 3. 3

300m

height 100 3 300

173 300

473m

SineandCosineRule

Thesolutionforanoblique trianglecanbedonewiththeapplicationoftheLawofSineandLawof

Cosine,simply calledtheSineandCosineRules.Anobliquetriangle,asweallknow,isatrianglewith

no right angle. It is a triangle whose angles are all acute or a triangle with one

obtuse angle.

Thetwogeneralformsofanobliquetriangleareasshown:

SineRule(TheLawofSine)

TheSineRuleisusedinthefollowingcases:

CASE1:Giventwoanglesandoneside(AASorASA)

CASE2:Giventwosidesandanonincludedangle(SSA)

TheSineRulestatesthatthesidesofatriangleareproportionaltothesinesoftheoppositeangles.In

symbols,

Case2:SSAorTheAmbiguousCase

Inthiscase,theremaybetwotriangles,onetriangle,ornotrianglewiththegivenproperties.Forthis

reason,itissometimescalledtheambiguouscase.Thus,weneedtoexaminethepossibilityofno

solution,oneortwosolutions.

CosineRule(TheLawofCosine)

TheCosineRuleisusedinthefollowingcases:

1.Giventwosidesandanincludedangle(SAS)

2.Giventhreesides(SSS)

TheCosineRulestatesthatthesquareofthelengthofanysideofatriangleequalsthesumofthesquares

ofthelengthoftheothersidesminustwicetheirproductmultipliedbythecosineoftheirincludedangle.

Insymbols:

Find the all the missing sides in this triangle, then work out its area

1)

2a)

b)

4)

5)

So far we have learnt how to construct a mathematical model for a linear programming problem. If

we can find the values of the decision variables x1, x2, x3, ..... xn, which can optimize (maximize or

minimize) the objective function Z, then we say that these values of xi are the optimal solution of

the Linear Program (LP).

a) The determination of the solution space that defines the feasible solution. Note that the set of

values of the variable x1, x2, x3,....xn which satisfy all the constraints and also the non-negative

conditions is called the feasible solution of the LP.

Step 1: Since the two decision variable x and y are non-negative, consider only the first quadrant

of xy-coordinate plane

(1)

the line (1) divides the first quadrant in to two regions say R1 and R2, suppose (x1, 0) is a point in

R1. If this point satisfies the in equation ax + by c or ( c), then shade the region R1. If (x1, 0)

does not satisfy the inequality, shade the region R2.

Step 3: Corresponding to each constant, we obtain a shaded region. The intersection of all these

shaded regions is the feasible region or feasible solution of the LP.

Let us find the feasible solution for the problem of a decorative item dealer whose LPP is to

maximize profit function.

Z = 50x + 18y

(1)

2x+ y = 100

(2)

x + y = 80

Put y = 0, 2x = 100

x = 50

Plotting these two points on the graph paper draw the line which represent the line 2x + y =100.

This line divides the 1st quadrant into two regions, say R1 and R2. Choose a point say (1, 0) in R1.

(1, 0) satisfy the inequality 2x + y 100. Therefore R1 is the required region for the constraint 2x +

y 100.

Similarly draw the straight line x + y = 80 by joining the point (0, 80) and (80, 0). Find the required

region say R1', for the constraint x + y 80.

The intersection of both the region R1 and R1' is the feasible solution of the LPP. Therefore every

point in the shaded region OABC is a feasible solution of the LPP, since this point satisfies all the

constraints including the non-negative constraints.

The optimal solution to a LPP, if it exists, occurs at the corners of the feasible region.

These co-ordinates can be obtained from the graph or by solving the equation of the lines.

Step 3: At each vertex (corner point) compute the value of the objective function.

Step 4: Identify the corner point at which the value of the objective function is maximum (or

minimum depending on the LP)

The co-ordinates of this vertex is the optimal solution and the value of Z is the optimal value

Example: Find the optimal solution in the above problem of decorative item dealer whose

objective function is Z = 50x + 18y.

At (0, 0) Z = 0

= 1440

= 2500.

Since our object is to maximize Z and Z has maximum at (50, 0) the optimal solution is x = 50 and

y = 0.

If an LPP has many constraints, then it may be long and tedious to find all the corners of the

feasible region. There is another alternate and more general method to find the optimal solution of

an LP, known as 'ISO profit or ISO cost method'

Step 2: Shade the intersection of all the half planes which is the feasible region.

Step 3: Since the objective function is Z = ax + by, draw a dotted line for the equation ax + by = k,

where k is any constant. Sometimes it is convenient to take k as the LCM of a and b.

Step 4: To maximise Z draw a line parallel to ax + by = k and farthest from the origin. This line

should contain at least one point of the feasible region. Find the coordinates of this point by

solving the equations of the lines on which it lies.

To minimise Z draw a line parallel to ax + by = k and nearest to the origin. This line should contain

at least one point of the feasible region. Find the co-ordinates of this point by solving the equation

of the line on which it lies.

The above method of solving an LPP is more clear with the following example.

Example: Solve the following LPP graphically using ISO- profit method.

Suggested answer:

since x 0, y 0, consider only the first quadrant of the plane graph the following straight lines on a

graph paper

6x + 6y = 66 or x +y =11

4x+ 8y = 24 or x+ 2y = 6

5x + 6y = 90

Identify all the half planes of the constraints. The intersection of all these half planes is the feasible

region as shown in the figure.

Give a constant value 600 to Z in the objective function, then we have an equation of the line

120x + 100y = 600

(1)

P1Q1 is the line corresponding to the equation 6x + 5y = 30. We give a constant 1200 to Z then the

P2Q2 represents the line.

6x + 5y = 60

P2Q2 is a line parallel to P1Q1 and has one point 'M' which belongs to feasible region and farthest

from the origin. If we take any line P3Q3 parallel to P2Q2 away from the origin, it does not touch any

point of the feasible region.

x = 5 and y = 6

= 1200

Statisticsandprobability

Definitions:

EventAnycollectionofresultsoroutcomesofaprocedure

SimpleEventAnoutcomeoreventthatcannotbebrokendownintosimplercomponents

SampleSpaceThecollectionofallsimpleeventsthatcouldresultfromaprocedure.

ComplementThecomplementofaneventAconsistsofalloutcomeswhereAdoesnotoccur.

Notations:

Pthismeansprobability

A,B,C,thesestandforevents

Ac, A thismeansthecomplementofA

P(A)thismeanstheprobabilitythatAoccurs

Sthisisusedtodenotethesamplespace

Example:

Q:Rajrollsa6sideddie.Thenthesamplespaceofthisisasfollows

A:S={1,2,3,4,5,6}

Q:Suemeasureshowmanycoinflipsittakestoget3heads.Whatisthesamplespaceofthis

procedure?

A:S={3,4,5,}={allintegers>2}

Q:FredseeswhatproportionofcarsonhisblockareSUVs.Whatisthesamplespaceofthis

procedure?

A:S={anyrealnumberbetween0and1}=[0,1]

Sinceeventscomeinalotofdifferentways,thereare3generalapproachestofindingthe

probabilitiesforevents.Themethodthatismostusefuldependsonthesituation.

Approach1:RelativeFrequencyApproximation

Forproceduresthatcanberepeatedoverandoveragain,wecanestimatetheprobabilityofan

eventAbyusingthefollowing:

p

Total Number of Trials

Fromtheoreticalarguments(seeLawofLargeNumbers,p.141),itturnsoutthatthisvaluep

willgetclosertoP(A)asthenumberoftrialsgetslarger.

Approach2:ClassicalApproach

Forprocedureswithequallylikelyoutcomes(e.g.rollingadie,flippingacoin,etc.),wecanfind

P(A)directly,bycomputing:

P ( A)

Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes

Approach3:SubjectiveProbability

For procedures that cannot be repeated, and do not have equally likely outcomes, the true

probabilityofaneventisusuallynotabletobedetermined. Insituationslikethis,wecan

estimate theprobabilityusingourknowledgeandexperienceofthesubject. Forinstance,we

couldaskWhatistheprobabilitythattheColumbusBlueJacketswillwintheStanleyCupthis

year?Nooneknowsthetrueprobability,butpeoplewhoknowalotabouthockeycouldgivea

ballparkfigure.

Examples:

AsituationwhereApproach1isusedisinbaseball.Ifwewanttoknowtheprobabilitythata

playerwillgetahitwhentheygouptobat,wecannotuseApproach#2becausetheoutcomes

arenotequallylikely.WecoulduseApproach#3,butthatwouldbesubjective.However,by

dividingthenumberofhitsbythenumberofatbatsgivesthe battingaverage,whichisan

estimateofthetrueprobabilityofgettingahit.

AsituationwhereApproach2isusedissomethinglikerollingadie.Eachfaceisequallylikely

toturnup,sowecanfindprobabilitiesusingthisapproach.LetssayAistheeventofrollingan

evennumber.WhatisP(A)?

P ( A)

3 (getting 2, 4, or 6)

1

0.5

Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes 6 (6 possible outcomes)

2

AnotherExample

Q:Joeflipsonecoin3timesandrecordsthe3outcomes.Whatisthesamplespace?

A:S={HHH,HHT,HTH,HTT,THH,THT,TTH,TTT}

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofgetting1or2heads?

A:Sincealloutcomesareequallylikely(weassumethecoinisfair),wecanuseApproach#2.

P ( A)

6 (HHT, HTH, HTT, THT, TTH, THH) 3

0.75

Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes 8 (Total of 8 outcomes)

4

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofthecomplementofthepreviousevent?(i.e.P(not1or2heads))

A:Thereare2waysthiscanhappen(HHHorTTT),soitwillbe

2 1

0.25

8

4

Section43:AdditionRule

CompoundEventAneventthatiscomprisedoftwoormoresimpleevents.

Generally,compoundeventsarewrittenintermsoftheirsimpleevents.

Forexample,theeventItwillrainorsnowtodaycouldbewrittenasAorB,whereAisthe

eventthatitrainstodayandBistheeventthatitsnowstoday.Sothiseventwouldhappenifit

rainedtoday,snowedtoday,orboth.

AnothertypeofeventisoftheformAandB,inwhichtheeventonlyoccursifbothAandB

occur.

Forexample,theeventItisatleast70degreesandsunnyoutsidecouldbewrittenasAand

B,whereAistheeventthatitisatleast70degreesoutside,andBistheeventthatitissunny.

TheFormalAdditionRule

Toseehowthisruleisderived,letsexamineaVennDiagram.Theareawithineachcircle

correspondstotheprobabilityofthateventoccurring.Wherethetwocirclesoverlap(dark

grey),bothAandBoccur.Howeverthearea,say,incircleAthatdoesnotoverlapB(grey)

wouldbewhenAoccursbutBdoesnot.Theareaoutsideofbothcircles(lightgrey)

correspondstoneitherAnorBoccurring.

HowwouldwefindP(AorB)then?Wewanttheareawithinthetwocircles(thegreyanddark

greyareas)becausethatswhereAhappens,Bhappens,ortheybothhappen.Whatwecoulddo

isaddtogethertheareaincircleA,andtheareaofcircleB.Theproblemisthatwecouldthe

overlappingarea(darkgrey)twice.Thatmeansweneedtosubtractit.Usingthefactthatthe

areaincircleAisP(A),theareaincircleBisP(B),andtheoverlapisP(AandB),wegetthe

formaladditionrule:

P(AorB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AandB)

ThisruleworksforanyeventsAandB.Anytimeyouknowthreeofthefourquantitiesinthe

equation,youcansolveforthefourth.

DisjointEvents

DisjointEventsareeventsthatcannotbothhappenatthesametime.Forexample,letAbethe

eventthatatrafficlightisgreen,andBbetheeventthatthetrafficlightisred.TheeventAand

Bcannothappen,becausetrafficlightsarenevergreenandredatthesametime.Iftwoevents

aredisjoint,thenP(AandB)=0.Disjointeventsarealsooftencalledmutuallyexclusive

events.

AdditionRuleforDisjointEvents

UsingthefactthatP(AandB)=0fordisjointevents,wecanrewritetheformaladditionruleas:

P(AorB)=P(A)+P(B)

ComplementaryEvents

RecallfromtheprevioussectionthatforaneventA,itscomplementAcistheeventthatAdoes

notoccur.SinceAconlyhappenswhenAdoesnot,andviceversa,P(AandAc)=0.Inother

words,AandAcaredisjoint.Therefore,P(AorAc)=P(A)+P(Ac),bytheadditionrulefor

disjointevents.ButwhatisP(AorAc)?ThismeanstheprobabilitythateitherAhappens,orA

doesnothappen.Thisprobabilityis1,sincesomethinghastohappen,whetheritisAornot.

Therefore,wehaveatrioofequivalentformulas:

P(A)+P(Ac)=1

P(Ac)=1P(A)

P(A)=1P(Ac)

Examples:Forthefollowingquestions,imaginewearedrawingonecardfromadeckof52

cards.

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaqueen?

A:UsingApproach2fromtheprevioussection,andlettingAbetheeventinquestion,

P ( A)

4

1

52 13

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingadiamond?

A:UsingApproach2fromtheprevioussection,andlettingBbetheeventinquestion,

P( B)

13

1

52

4

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaqueenofdiamonds?

A:ThisistheeventAandB,andwecanuseApproach2again:

P ( A and B )

1

52

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaqueenoradiamond?

A:Wecouldcouldupthetotalnumberofcardsthatfitthisbill(13diamondsoneofwhichisa

queenandtheother3queens=16

possiblecardsoutof52),orwecanjustusetheformaladditionrule:

P ( A or B ) P ( A) P ( B ) P ( A and B )

4

13

1

16

4

52 52 52 52 13

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawinganumbercard?(Acesincluded)

A:LetscallthiseventC.Thereare4ofeachnumber1to10,foratotalof40outof52cards.

P (C )

40 10

52 13

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawinganumbercardoraqueen?

A:Nowwecanusetheadditionrulefordisjointevents,sinceAandCcanthappenatthesame

time.

P ( A or C ) P ( A) P (C )

4

40 44 11

52 52 52 13

Section44:MultiplicationRule:TheBasics

NowthatwecanfindAorBprobabilities,wefocusonhowtofindAandBprobabilities.

Intuitively,forAandBtohappen,weneedtwothingstotakeplace:

i.

Aneedstohappen

ii.

GiventhatAhappened,Bneedstohappen

Thisleadsusto

TheFormalMultiplicationRule

P(AandB)=P(A)P(B|A)

Here,P(B|A)iswhatiscalledaconditionalprobability.ItstandsfortheprobabilitythatB

happensgivenAalreadyhappened.(Theverticalbarmeansgiven)SinceAandBisthe

sameasBandA,wecanalsowritetheformulaas:

P(AandB)=P(B)P(A|B)

Whichformyouusedependsonwhatinformationisavailable.

Example:StudentscantakeastandardizedtestatthreetestcentersA,B,andC.Supposethat

afterthemostrecenttest,500studentswenttoA,200wenttoB,and300wenttoC.

Furthermore,theproportionofstudentswhopassedtheexamwere50%,80%,and75%,

respectively.

Q:WhatistheprobabilitythatarandomlyselectedstudenttookthetestatcenterB?

A:Thereareatotalof1000students,and200wenttoB.ThusP(B)=200/1000=0.20.

Q:WhatistheprobabilitythatastudentwhotookthetestatBpassedtheexam?

A:Now,wewanttofindtheprobabilityofpassinggiventhatthestudenttookthetestatB.We

aretoldintheproblemthat80%of

thestudentsatcenterBpassed.Thuswehave:P(Pass|B)=0.80.

Q:WhatistheprobabilitythatastudentbothtookthetestatBandpassed?

A:UsingtheMultiplicationRule,P(PassandB)=P(B)P(Pass|B)=(0.20)(0.80)=0.16.

IndependentEvents

Twoeventsarecalledindependentiftheoccurrenceofonedoesnotaffectthechancesofthe

otheroneoccurring.Statistically,whatthismeansisthatAandBindependentP(A|B)=

P(A).Inotherwords,theprobabilityofAhappeninggiventhatBhappenedisjustthesameasif

wedidntknowwhetherBhappened(becausetheoccurrenceofBhasnoeffectonthe

occurrenceofA).

Note:ifAandBaredisjoint,thenweknowthatonlyonecanoccur.Thus,knowingthatB

happenedtellsyouthatAdefinitelydidnothappen,andwehaveP(A|B)P(A).Thusdisjoint

eventsareneverindependentevents.

MultiplicationRuleforIndependentEvents

UsingthefactthatP(A|B)=P(A)forindependentevents,weseethattheformalmultiplication

ruleturnsinto:

P(AandB)=P(A)P(B)

TheLawofTotalProbability

Thisruleisveryintuitive,andisusefulforfindingprobabilitiesofevents.Toexplainit,we

refertothetestcenterexampleabove.

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofarandomlyselectedstudentpassingtheexam?

A:Fromtheinformationabove,wecanfindout(similartothepreviousexample)that:

P(A)=0.50

P(B)=0.20

P(C)=0.30

P(Pass|A)=0.50

P(Pass|B)=0.80

P(Pass|C)=0.75

WewanttofindP(Pass).Whatarethepossiblescenarioswhereastudentpassestheexam?

TheycouldtakethetestatAand

pass,theycouldtakeitatBandpass,ortheycouldtakeitatCandpass.

SoP(Pass)=P(AandPassORBandPassORCandPass).Buteachofthose3scenariosare

disjoint,becauseastudentcanttake

thetestatmorethanonecenter.Therefore,bytheadditionrulewecanaddtheseprobabilities

asfollows:

P(Pass)=P(AandPass)+P(BandPass)+P(CandPass)

Then,bythemultiplicationrule,wecanfindalloftheseprobabilities:

P(AandPass)=P(A)P(Pass|A)=(0.50)(0.50)=0.25

P(BandPass)=0.16

P(CandPass)=P(C)P(Pass|C)=(0.30)(0.75)=0.225

ThusP(Pass)=0.25+0.16+0.225=0.635

Ingeneral,ifyouhavedisjointeventsB1,B2,,Bnthatrepresenteverypossibleoutcomeofa

procedure,thenyoucanwrite:

n

i 1

ThemostcommonwaytousethisruleisifyouhavetwoeventsAandB,then:

P(A)=P(AandB)+P(AandBc)

Examples:

AtelemarketingcompanymakesphonecallstopotentialcustomersallacrosstheU.S.Foreach

call,theprobabilityofthecustomeransweringthephoneis0.20.Forthenextcoupleof

questions,assumecallsareindependentofeachother.

Q:Letssaythecompanymakes10phonecalls.Whatistheprobabilitythatallofthemare

answered?

A:P(10callsanswered)=P(1stcallansweredAND2ndcallansweredANDAND10thcall

answered)

=P(1stcallanswered)P(2ndcallanswered)P(10thcallanswered)

(Mult.RuleforIndependentEvents)

=(0.20)(0.20)(0.20)=0.2010=0.0000001024

Notverylikely,isit?

Q:Letssaythecompanymakes2phonecalls.Whatistheprobabilitythatexactlyoneofthem

isanswered?

A:First,notethatfromtheComplementRule,theprobabilitythatacallisnotansweredis1

0.20=0.80.Thus:

P(1callanswered)=P(1stcallansweredand2ndcallnotansweredOR1stcallnotanswered

and2ndcallanswered)

=P(1stcallansweredand2ndcallnotanswered)+P(1stcallnotansweredand

2ndcallanswered)(Add.Rule)

=P(1stcallanswered)P(2ndcallnotanswered)+P(1stcallnotanswered)P(2nd

callanswered)(Mult.Rule)

=(0.20)(0.80)+(0.80)(0.20)=0.16+0.16=0.32

Q:Nowsupposethatifacustomeranswersthephone,theirchanceofbuyingtheproductis0.10.

(Notethatiftheydonotanswerthe

phone,theirchanceofbuyingitis0).Whatistheoverallchanceofatelemarketersellingthe

productwhentheycallahome?

A: In the question, we are told P(Buying | Call Answered) = 0.10 and P(Buying

| Not Answered) = 0. We want to find P(Buying).

From the Law of Total Probability,

P(Buying) = P(Buying and Call Answered) + P(Buying and Not Answered)

= P(Call Answered)P(Buying | Call Answered) + P(Not

Answered)P(Buying | Not Answered) (Mult. Rule)

= (0.20)(0.10) + (0.80)(0) = 0.02.

Note: If this seemed complicated, try just replaced Buying with A, Call

Answered with B, and Not Answered with Bc. Then

the calculations above follow directly from the Law of Total Probability

written before.

I.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

There are certain statistics that can help us condense large amounts of data into a few

numbers that are easier to comprehend. These statistics are called descriptive statistics and

they are used to convey summary information about any set of numbers or data. By using

descriptive statistics we can get a quick estimate of what our data (e.g., students' Mathematics

scores; people's lifes expectation)

Measures of central tendency are statistics that identify the center of a distribution of

scores. The most common measures of central tendency are the mode, the median,

and the mean. To make calculations easier, instead of discussing full data sets .

A. The mode

The mode is a statistic that identifies the most frequently occurring score in a

distribution. For example, in the following distribution, the mode is 6:

4 6 7 8 6 3 5 9 6

B. The median

The median is a statistic that identifies the middle score in a distribution. For

example, in the distribution above, the median is also 6. To determine this, you

must first rearrange the numbers and order them from lowest to highest:

3 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 9

Median = 6

In a distribution with an odd number of scores, such as the one above, the median is

simply the middle score. In this case it is 6 (a number which has 4 scores to the left

of it and 4 scores to the right). In a distribution with an even number of scores, the

median is found by taking the average of the two middle scores. For example, in

the following distribution, the median is 5.5:

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Median = 6 + 5 = 5.5

2

C. The mean

The mean, more commonly known as the average, is the most common measure

of central tendency in statistics. It is determined by dividing the sum of the scores

(N) in a distribution by the total number of scores (N) in that distribution. For

example, in the distribution below, the mean is 6:

4 6 7 8 6 3 5 9 6

=6

Mean = N = 4+6+7+8+6+3+5+9+6

N

In the above distribution, the mode, median, and mean were all the same value (6).

The number six thus represents the center of that distribution no matter how we

measure it. However, the mode, median, and mean are rarely the same for a given

distribution. Here are some examples for you to work out on your own. You can

look up the answers on the last page of this handout.

Mode

Median

Mean

Data Set 1:

4 6 7 2 7 9 3 7

______

______

______

Data Set 2:

3 8 5 7 4 4 7 4

______

______

______

Data Set 3:

8 9 7 8 1 5 6 8

______

______

______

A. Variance

Measures of central tendency provide useful information, but they do not always

accurately represent the entire distribution. In addition to a measure of central

tendency, it is usually helpful to know something about the extent to which the

scores in a given distribution differ (or deviate) from the mean. Another way to

state this issue is to ask the question, "How much variation is there in a given set of

scores?" Obviously, if all the scores in a set of data are the same (e.g., if every

professor goes off on 6 boring tangents/irrelevant anecdotes during lecture) then

there is no variation. This rarely happens in research (or in real life), however;

people vary in their characteristics, behaviors, attitudes, and emotions. If everyone

was the same, then the science of Psychology could proceed by merely studying

one person. How dull. Variety, as they say, is the spice of life.

example. Given your tremendous popularity you receive invitations to 3 parties that

all fall on the same night. All you are told is that the mean age of the 8 guests at

each party will be 22 years old. Given this information, which party do you wish to

attend? What other information might be helpful in making your decision?

The ages of those attending the 3 different parties are as listed in the following

table:

Person

Party 1

Party 2

Party 3

#1

20

34

#2

23

#3

22

10

#4

24

41

#5

22

38

#6

24

#7

20

31

78

#8

21

81

Mean:

22

22

22

Party 1 is going to be a night of who knows what with some young adults. Party 2 is

going to be a dinner party with parents and their children. Party 3 is going to be

Little Billy's third birthday party (hosted by his Grandma and Grandpa Jones).

Therefore, although the mean age for each party is the same, these three data sets

are very different from one another. Determining the mode and median for each

party would give us a more complete picture, but it would be very helpful to have

some statistic that tells us how much the ages of the guests at each party deviated

or "varied" from the mean. Other than merely forming a subjective impression of

our data, how do we determine this "variability" in scores?

The thought that immediately comes to mind is: " Let's simply add up how much

each score differs from the mean." To do this, we could take the mean, which is 22,

and then subtract the mean from each individual score. So, for example, for Person

1 at Party 1 we would have 20 - 22 = -2. For Person 2 and Party 1 we would have

23 - 22 = 1.

At this point, it will facilitate your understanding of this concept if you do the

following. For Party 1, continue with these calculations and subtract the mean from

each of the 8 scores. Then total up these "deviation scores," being sure to pay

attention to the plus and minus signs. After you get your total, then perform the

same calculations for Party 2 and Party 3. Move on to the paragraph below after

you have finished these calculations.

Now you see the problem. For any set of data, if we simply subtract the mean from

each individual score and add these deviation scores up, we will get a total of zero.

Therefore, the average deviation will also come out to be zero (i.e., the sum of

deviation scores divided by the number of scores, or 0/8 = 0 in our example.) Thus,

we cannot determine the "average deviation" in this way. Astoundingly, to the great

benefit of humankind, there are two statistics that provide very meaningful

information about variability: the variance and the standard deviation. These

are called measures of dispersion because they quantify the degree to which a

set of scores, overall, differs from the mean.

The word "variance" -- because it sounds foreign, mystical, or technical -sometimes produces a fear/anxiety response in students; some students sweat

profusely, while others experience increased heart rate, nausea, or lightheadedness. In extreme cases some students have heard voices telling them "Drop

this course! Become an English major!" In case you are having any of the above

reactions to the sight or sound of the word "variance," then do the following two

things: 1) remember that Statistics are our friends, and 2) think of the word

"variance" as a synonym for the word "variation."

Variance is defined as the average of the squared deviations about the mean. This

is represented mathematically by the following equation, where X represents a

single score within a distribution and N represents the total number of scores:

Variance = (X-Mean)

order:

Step 1. find the mean (sum of the scores divided by the number of scores)

Step 2. compute the deviation scores (the difference between an individual

score and the mean)

Step 3. square each of the deviation scores

Step 4. divide the sum of the deviation scores by the number of scores

Person

Age

Mean

Deviation Score

(Age-Mean)

Deviation

Squared

#1

20

22

-2

#2

23

22

#3

22

22

#4

24

22

#5

22

22

#6

24

22

#7

20

22

-2

#8

21

22

-1

22

22

18/8 =

2.25

Average:

The answer to step 4 above, then, is 18 divided by 8, or 2.25. This is the variance

of ages at Party 1.

B. Standard Deviation

The standard deviation is the most commonly reported measure of dispersion. It

is simply the square root of the variance. In the case of Party 1, the standard

deviation is the square root of 2.25, or 1.5. Why take the square root of the

variance? Well, remember that when we computed the variance we had to square

each deviation score before adding these scores up. (As we saw earlier, if you add

the deviation scores without squaring them, then you will always get a total of

zero.) Therefore, because we squared the deviation scores to get the variance, we

now take the square root of the variance in order to convert our numbers back to

their original units of measurement. Thus, for Party 1 the mean is 22 years, the

variance is 2.25, and the standard deviation is 1.5 years. At this point I strongly

encouraged you to calculate the variance and standard deviation for Party 2 and

Party 3 to check your understanding of these statistics. The correct answers are on

the last page of the handout.)

C. The Range

The range is a relatively crude measure of dispersion. It represents the highest

score in a distribution minus the lowest score. It is a crude measure of dispersion

because the composition of other scores in the distribution (other than the high and

low scores) have no effect on the range. For example, each of the 3 distributions

below has a range of 8, despite the fact that the distributions are quite different.

Each distribution, however, would have a different value for the variance (and

hence, for the standard deviation).

10 7 6 5 4 3 2

Range = 10 - 2 = 8.

10 10 10 9 9 9 2

Range = 10 - 2 = 8

10 4 4 3 2 2 2

Range = 10 - 2 = 8.

Variance and the standard deviation are more sensitive measures of dispersion,

because they are influenced by each particular score in the distribution. Change

even one score, and you'll change the values of the variance and standard

deviation.

You should be aware of the following differences between the formula used in this

handout versus the one used in your textbook. On page 423 of your textbook, a

formula is given for calculating the standard deviation. This formula calculates the

standard deviation by dividing by n-1. The examples in this handout divide by n.

Remember that n corresponds to the number of people attending each party (8).

Why the difference and which divisor should you use? The answer depends on what

you want to use the standard deviation for. Consider the following two examples.

Example 1. Assume that I wish to know how much variability in age there is for

students in this class. To gather this information, I have the 25 students in this class

complete an anonymous questionnaire on which they indicate their age. If I am

only concerned with the variability of age for this specific group of people (and I am

not interested in trying to generalize my findings to other students), then I would

divide by n. In this instance, the standard deviation I am calculating would be

considered a descriptive statistic, since I only want to describe the variability of

this particular set of numbers. (Aside: Computer programs and calculators can both

calculate this number for us very quickly so why do I bother to make you calculate it

by hand? No, I dont enjoy inflicting pain and anguish on my students (Ok maybe

I do just a little!). The real reason for asking you to become familiar with this way of

calculating the standard deviation is that it is useful in helping you gain a better

conceptual understanding of measures of dispersion.)

Example 2. Alternatively, assume that I wish to know the variability in age for all

students at Shoreline. In general, what kind of spread is there in age for students

attending Shoreline? It would be possible for me to contact every single student at

Shoreline, ask how old he or she is, and calculate the standard deviation of this

rather large set of numbers. But this would be very time consuming (and besides,

Im also very lazy!). What I could do instead is to determine the variability in age of

a small sample of Shoreline students and then use this number to make an

educated guess about the variability in age of the entire population of Shoreline

students. So assume that I randomly sample 25 Shoreline students about their

ages. Since I am using my sample to try to infer the variability in age for the whole

population, when I calculate the standard deviation in this example, I divide by n-1

instead of n. In this second case, the standard deviation I am calculating would be

considered an inferential statistic, since I am using the standard deviation of my

sample to make an inference about the overall standard deviation of the entire

population of students. For the purposes of this class, when you are asked to

calculate the standard deviation, please divide by n.

IV. Z-SCORES

Imagine that you and a friend are somewhat competitive and you want to compare

how you each did on your last psychology exam. Unfortunately, you are taking

different psychology classes (you are in Psychology 209 while your friend is in

Psychology 204). What information would you need to find out who did better? You

would probably start by comparing the points you each got correct on your

respective exams. Lets say that you got 40 points correct and your friend got 20

points correct. Looks like you win, right? Not necessarily. You also need to know

how many total points were on each exam. If your test had 50 possible points, and

your friends test had 25, you are still tied (40/50 = 20/25 = 80%). The next thing

you might want to know is what were the respective class means on each of the

tests. If I tell you that the mean for your test was 30 (out of 50) while the mean for

your friends test was 15 (out of 25), can you now tell who did better? It seems like

you may have done better since you scored 10 points higher than the mean but

your friend only scored 5 points higher than the mean. But remember your test had

twice as many total points on it as your friends test (50 vs. 25), so the difference of

each of your scores from the means still seems roughly equivalent.

As you can see, making a comparison in this situation is a bit difficult. But thanks to

the standard deviation, there is still a way to make a comparison. If you also know

the standard deviation of the scores in each of the classes, this can allow you and

your friend settle your dispute. If I tell you that the standard deviation for both

classes is 10 points, who did better on their test relative to the rest of their class?

Fortunately for you, it looks like you are the winner. Your scores is a full standard

deviation above the mean ((40-30)/10 = 1) but your friend was only a half of a

standard deviation above the mean in his or her class ((20-15)/10 = 0.5). Thus,

using standard deviations, we can see that you outscored a larger percentage of

your class than your friend did of his/her class.

What we have just done in this example is to calculate something called a z-score. A

z-score counts the difference between an individual score and the mean in terms of

standard deviations. For instance, we could say that you scored 10 points above

the mean on your test, or equivalently, that you scored 1.0 standard deviation

above the mean. This 1.0 represents your z-score for this test. Similarly, the zscore for your friend was 0.5 standard deviation above the mean. He or she scored

one half of a standard deviation better than the mean. It turns out that z-scores are

a convenient way to compare scores from different groups that have used different

numerical scales, as was the case in our example above (the scale used on your

test was from 0-50 while the scale used in your friends class was from 0-25). By

converting our numbers to z-scores, this allows us to make meaningful comparisons

between the numbers in each of these groups, something we couldnt do initially. Z-

scores also come in handy when trying to understand our next topic, the normal

distribution.

One of the most important concepts in statistics is a curve called the "normal

distribution" or "normal curve." The normal distribution is an essential part of

inferential statistics. While we will not be covering inferential statistics in this

course, I would still like to introduce you to the normal curve and some of its unique

properties. By learning a little about the normal curve now, you will be ahead of the

game when you take your required statistics course.

The normal distribution is a bell shaped curved that is symmetric (that is, on either

side of the mean it looks the same). A typical normal distribution is shown in Figure

1. The x-axis represents the all possible values or scores on some characteristic

that we are interested in (e.g., SAT scores, reaction times, etc). The y-axis

represents the frequency or percentage of each score on the x-axis occurs.

Because it is symmetric, the mean, median, and mode for the normal distribution

are all equal to one another. The main reason that the normal curve is useful is

because there are many variables out in the real world which distribute themselves

normally (i.e. they approximate a normal distribution). For instance, IQ is one

variable that is normally distributed; if we were to look at the distribution of IQs for

all adults, this distribution would look pretty much like the theoretical normal curve

pictured below.

Figure 1.

Another useful feature of the normal distribution concerns the standard deviation.

Specifically, in any normally distributed set of numbers, the standard deviation can

be used to divide the distribution into segments which contain fixed percentages of

scores. For instance, we know that in a normal distribution, 34% of the scores fall

between the mean and one standard deviation above the mean (dont worry about

how this percentage is calculated; it is simply a product of the mathematics of the

normal distribution). Since the normal curve is symmetric, we also know that 34%

of the scores will fall between the mean and one standard deviation below the

mean. We can put these two pieces of information together to deduce that 68% of

the scores in a normal distribution fall within one (plus or minus) standard deviation

of the mean. Similar percentages also exist for segments further away from the

mean and these are also shown in Figure 1.

To see why are these percentages useful, consider the following example. Assume

that you took an IQ test and received a score of 130. Looking at this score, you

assume that you did well but, being the competitive person you are, you want to

know precisely how many people did as well or better than you. If we tell you that

the average IQ score is 100 and that the standard deviation is 15 (both of which are

true), you could determine, using the percentages listed in Figure 1, that only 2.5%

of the people scored 130 or higher (Wow! Youre pretty smart!). Alternatively, you

could say that you scored better than 98.5% of the people. In either case, the

percentages generated by the normal distribution allow you to more accurately

determine how well you did.

Another reason that the normal curve is useful concerns inferential statistics, a

topic that we will discuss briefly later in this course. Inferential statistics will be

covered in greater detail when you take statistics. I am briefly covering this

information now in hopes that it will make it easier to assimilate when you come

across it again in the future.

Conversion Tables

The following tables show some of the more common measures, and the conversion between

larger and smaller units. The left hand tables show the units for the metric system while the right

hand tables show for the Imperial measurement systems.

Metric length

Imperial

Length

10 millimeters = 1 centimeter

12 inches

= 1 foot

10 centimeters = 1 decimeter

3 feet

= 1 yard

10 decimeters

22 yards

= 1 chain

= 1 meter

10 meters

= 1 decameter

10 chains

= 1 furlong

10 decameters

= 1 hectometer

8 furlongs

= 1 mile (5280

feet)

meters)

Metric area

100 square mm

Imperial area

= 1 square centimeter

144 square

inches

= 1 square foot

9 square feet

= 1 square yard

100 square m

= 1 are

4840 square

yards

= 1 acre

100 ares

= 1 hectare

640 acres

= 1 square mile

100 hectares

= 1 square kilometer

= 1000000 square

meters

Metric mass

Imperial weight

1000 grams

= 1

kilogram

16 ounces

= 1 pound

1000

kilograms

= 1 ton

14 pounds

= 1 stone (UK)

8 stones (UK)

= 1 hundredweight (UK)

= 112 pounds (UK)

100 pounds

= 1 hundredweight (USA)

20 hundredweight

(UK)

= 1 ton (UK)

= 2240 pounds

20 hundredweight

(USA)

= 1 ton (USA)

= 2000 pounds

Metric capacity

Imperial

liquid

capacity

10 mililiters

= 1 centilitre

2 teaspoons

= 1 dessertspoon

10 centiliters

= 1 decilitre

3 teaspoons

= 1 tablespoon

10 deciliters

= 1 litre

2 tablespoons

= 1 fluid ounce

1000 liters

= 1 cubic meter

5 fluid ounces

= 1gill

2 gills

= 1 cup

2 cups

= 1 pint

= 20 fluid ounces

2 pints

= 1 quart

4 quarts

= 1 gallon

USA liquid

capacity

3 teaspoons

= 1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons

= 1 fluid ounce

4 fluid ounces

= 1 gill

2 gills

= 1 cup

2 cups

= 1 pint

16 fluid ounces

2 pints

= 1 quart

4 quarts

= 1 gallon

Representing Units

Length

The standard unit of length in the metric system is the meter. Other units of length and their

equivalents in meters are as follows:

1 millimeter = 0.001 meter

1 centimeter = 0.01 meter

1 decimeter = 0.1 meter

1 kilometer = 1000 meters

We symbolize these lengths as follows:

1 millimeter = 1 mm

1 centimeter = 1 cm

1 meter = 1 m

1 decimeter = 1 dm

1 kilometer = 1 km

For reference, 1 meter is a little longer than 1 yard or 3 feet. It is about half the height of a very

tall adult. A centimeter is nearly the diameter of a dime, a little less than half an inch. A

millimeter is about the thickness of a dime.

Volume

The standard unit of volume in the metric system is the liter. One liter is equal to 1000 cubic

centimeters in volume. Other units of volume and their equivalents in liters are as follows:

1 milliliter = 0.001 liter

1 centiliter = 0.01 liter

1 deciliter = 0.1 liter

1 kiloliter = 1000 liters

From these units, we see that 1000 milliliters equal 1 liter; so 1 milliliter equals 1 cubic

centimeter in volume. We symbolize these volumes as follows:

1 milliliter = 1 ml

1 centiliter = 1 cl

1 deciliter = 1 dl

1 liter = 1 l

1 kiloliter = 1 kl

For reference, 1 liter is a little more than 1 quart. One teaspoon equals about 5 milliliters.

Mass

The standard unit of mass in the metric system is the gram. Other units of mass and their

equivalents in grams are as follows:

1 milligram = 0.001 gram

1 centigram = 0.01 gram

1 decigram = 0.1 gram

1 kilogram = 1000 grams

We symbolize these masses as follows:

1 milligram = 1 mg

1 centigram = 1 cg

1 decigram = 1 dg

1 gram = 1 g

1 kilogram = 1 kg

For reference, 1 gram is about the mass of a paper clip. One kilogram is about the mass of a liter

of water.

Time

The following conversions are useful when working with time:

1 minute = 60 seconds

1 hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds

1 day = 24 hours

1 week = 7 days

1 = 365 1/4 days (for the Earth to travel once around the sThis gives us a total of 52 complete 7

day weeks in each calendar year, with 1 day left over (or 2 in a le

Coordinate Geometry

AB = 8

BC = 6

(AC)2 = 82 + 62

(AC)2 = 100

AC = 10

Distance from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2)

d2 = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2

d=

(x 2 - x1 )2 + (y2 - y1 )2

I. Midpoint.

middle of a segment.

find the midpoint for the vertical and

the horizontal segment.

to find the middle use

3 5

1 and

2

2 6

2 . The point (1, 2) is the

2

midpoint.

Median a segment from a vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the

opposite side.

2 4 5 3

,

= (3, 1)

2

2

Mid(A, C) =

d BM AC =

(3 1) 2 (1 6) 2 41

Slope (m) = how steep a line is.

change in y

change in x

y 2 y1

for points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).

x 2 x1

Examples:

1. Find slopes for each of the following.

a.

b.

m=

1 4 5

22

4

c.

m=

5 1 6 3

44 8 4

m=

33

54

***The slope of a vertical line (parallel to the yaxis) is undefined.

***Lines rising to the right have a positive slope.

***Lines falling to the right have a negative slope.

yintercept

point where a relation intersects the yaxis. x = 0

xintercept

point where the relation intersects the xaxis. y = 0

1. Find the yintercept and slope for the following.

a. 3x + 2y 12 = 0

two points are (0, 6) and (2, 3)

b. y = 5x + 4

two points are (0, 4) and (3, 11)

m=

36 3

20 2

m=

m=

3

and yintercept is (0, 6)

2

From above

y = mx + b; m = slope

11 4 15

5

30

3

b = yintercept

a. m = 2; (0, 3)

y = 2x 3

b. m = 3; yintercept is 4 c. m =

y = 3x + 4

5

; (0, 6

6

y=

5

x

6

yint is 8

y = 5x + 8

a.

m=

1 3 4

30 3

b. m =

2

,b=

5

1

3

y=

4

x 3

3

y=

2

1

x

5

3

point:

a. (2, 6)

6 = 2(2) + b

b. (1, 3)

3 = 2(1) + b

10 = b

1 = b

Perpendicular lines

have

negative

reciprocals of each

other.

Examples.

1. Find slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines to:

a. m =

b. y =

3

5

7

x 3

3

Parallel P

Perpendicular

3

5

5

3

7

3

3

7

4

5

c. 4x + 5y 11 = 0

5

4

2. a. Given A (0, 2), B (3, 4), C (2, 4) b. Given A (2, 3), B (6, 5), C (1, 4)

and D (8, 1), show that AB CD .

m AB

4 2 6

2

3 0 3

m CD

1 4

5

1

8 2 10 2

Negative

reciprocals

m AB

53 2 1

62 4 2

m CD

64 2 1

3 1 4 2

Ye

a. 3x + 4y 24 = 0b. 4x + 3y 16 = 0

d. 6x + 8y + 15 = 0

m=

3

4

m=

4

3

c. 3x 4y + 10 = 0

3

4

m=

m=

3

4

b. AB CD

a. AB PCD

2 8 y 1

1 3 2 4

2 8 5

1 3 2

10 y 1

4

2

y 1 2

24 5

20 = 4y + 4

5y 5 = 4

16 = 4y

5y = 9

4 = y

y=

9

5

5. Given m1 P m 2 , find k.

a.

3 k

,

5 20

b.

k 3

,

5 2

5k = 60

2k = 15

k = 12

k = 7.5

perpendicular?

m=

3

4

m=

k

3

k 4

3

3

3k = 12

k=4

2y 12 = 0.

2y = 3x + 12

y=

m=

m=

2

3

3

x 6

2

y 5 2

x 1 3

3y 15 = 2x 2

3

2

2x + 3y 13 = 0

of 2.

2y = 3x 8

y=

3

x4

2

y = mx + b

y=

3

x2

2

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