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Area Bounded by Curves

A f ( x)dx ydx
Note:- area bounded with y axis
c1

Eg:-

A
x

Find the area bounded by the x axis and the Curve

y f ( x)

ydx

1
1

A ( x 2 1)dx
1

x3
A
x
3 1
1
1
A 1 1
3
3
1
1
A 1 1
3
3
2
A 2
3
4
A
3
4
A sq.unit
3

Area between two Curves

The area bounded by the curves


b

A f ( x) g ( x) dx
a

Eg:-

Find the area bounded by y x 2 and

y x 1
2

y4
x2 4
x 2

y4

Shaded area 4 ( x 2 )dx


2

x3
4x
3 2

8
8 8
3

3
16 16

3 3
32

A ( x2 x1 ) dy
c

Eg:-

Find the area of the region of the xy plane defind by the inequalities

y 2 1 x, and y x 1

y2 1 x
( x 1) 2 1 x
x 2x 1 x 1 0
2

x 2 3x 0
x( x 3) 0
x 0 or x 3

when
x0
y 1
x 3, y 2

(1 y

) ( y 1) dy

A (1 y 2 y 1)dy
2
1

A (2 y 2 y )dy
2

y3 y 2
A 2y

3
2 2

1 1
8

A 2 4 2
3 2
3

12 2 3 10
A

6
3
7 20
A
6 6
27
A
6
9
A sq.unit
2

Ex:-

(1)

Find the area of the region of the xy plane bounded by the curve

y x 2 4 and y

7
4

(2)

Find the area of the region of the x-y plane define by the following inequalities.

y ( x 1)( x 3), y x
Hint:- A x ( x 1)( x 3)dx

Volume of revolution

Curve is rotated one revolution about


x-axis formed solids volume will be
given.

V y 2 dx
a

Note:If the curve is rotated about y-axis.


b

V x 2 dy
a

Eg:y x(2(1)
x 1)
axis and curve is

is a curve given A portion bounded by y=1, y=2 x


rotate 3600 about x axis. Find the volume formed,

V x 2 (2 x 1) 2 dx
1

V (4 x 4 4 x 3 x 2 )dx
1

4 x5
V
x4
5
V

(2)

x 3

185
cubic units
15

y x 1,byx 0 and
2
The
curve
defined
the y inequalities
is rotated completely about the y axis. Find the volume generated.
2

V x 2dy
1

V ( y 1)dy
1

y2
V
y
2

(3)

V (2 2) ( 1)
2

V cubic units
and the line y=3 is
2

y the4 xcurve
x
The area enclosed by
rotated about the line y=3. Find the volume of the solid
generated?
2

V ( y 3) 2 dx
1

V (4 x x 2 3)2 dx
1

V x 4 8 x3 22 x 2 24 x 9 dx
1

x 5 8 x 4 22 x 3

12 x 2 9 x
4
x
x

16
cubic units
15

Ex:the region defined by there inequalities is rotated


y 2 x(1)
, x2
completely
about x axis. Find the volume generated?
2
the area bounded by these curves rotated completely
y x ,(2)
y4
about y axis.
Find the volume generated?
(3)
Find the volume generated, when the areay 2 bounded
x and x between
1
is
.
x 1 rorated about

A Difinite Integral is,

f ( x)dx F ( x)

b
a

F (b ) F ( a )
If we cannot evaluate difinite integral with an antiderivative, we use
numerical methods like the trapezoidal rule and Simpsons rule. These
rules enable us to estimate an integrals value to as decimal places.

The trapezoidal rule approximates streches of curves with the line of


segments.
We add this area of the trapezoids made by joining the ends of these
segments to x-axis
gives, estimated area.
In this case, the estimate area in grater than the original. This is called over
b
estimate.

y f ( x)dx

a
Over estimate area = estimated
area b

ET T f ( x)dx
a

In this type of curves give the estimate area less than the original area. When we
consider trapezoids, we lose small area in every trapezoids. This type is called
Under estimate.
b

ET farea
( x)dx T
Under estimate
a

formula for the trapezoid rule

h
y0 2( y1 y2 ........... yn1 ) yn
2

n trapezoids are considered,

b a
h length
sub interval

Eg:-

Use the trapezian rule with five ordinates to evaluate ordinates y values
0.8

Eg:- Use the


ordinates y values

trapezian

rule

with

fivee x dx
ordinates

to

evaluate

0.8 0
0.20
4
x
y

0
1

y0
Ordinates)

0.16
1.0408

0.32
1.1735

y1

y2

0.48
1.4333

y3

0.64
1.8965

y4

(5

0.8

2 h y

2( y1 y2 y3 ) y4

0.2
1 2(1.0408 1.1735 1.4333) 1.8965
2
0.1(10.192)
1.0192

Note :- 5 Ordinates 4 ships or 4 trapezoids

Simpsons Rule

ba
n
approximate area A
h
A y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 .....2 yn 2 4 yn 1 yn
3
h

eg:- Use simpson role with five ordinates (4 ships) to find an approxomate
0 sin d
value

0
4

y0

3
4

0.8409
y1

0.8409
y3

y2

y4

(5

Ordinates)

sin xdx y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 y4 0
3
1

1
(1 x )
0

Estimate to 4 decimal
place
dx
2

(2)

(a)
(b)

using five ordinates and applying

The trapezium rule


Simpson rule
1

1
dx
Using the
or other wise evaluate
x subtitution
tan
2
(1 xestimated
)
and hence
determine the accuracy of0your
volume.
3.1416
(Take
)

y0

1
4

1
2

0.9412
y1

0.8
y2

3
4

0.64
y3

Ordinates)

1 0 1

4
4

using trapezium
rule
1

1
0.25 0
y 2( y1 y 2 y 3 ) y 8
dx

2
0 1 x
2
1
1 2(0.942 0.8 0.64) 0.5
8
0.7824

0.5
y4

(5

Using Sinpson rule


1
1
h
0 1 x 2 dx 3 y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y

1
1 4(0.942 0.64) 2 0.5 0.5
12
0.7854

1
accuracy method

1 x

dx

x tan
dx sec 2 d

1
sec 2 d
2
1 tan

tan 1 ( x)

1
0

tan (1) tan 1 (0)

4
3.1416

4
0.7854

Conclusion

The trapezium rule gave an estimate correct to 2 decimal place and


Simpson rule gave an estimate correct to 4 decimal place.
\

TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometric Ratios
A
Hypotenus
e

Opposit
e

x0

B
Adjacen

sinx

Opposite
AB

Hypotenuse AC

cosx

Adjacent
BC

Hypotenuse AC

tanx

Opposite AB

Adjacent BC

Using Pythagoras thm


AB2+BC2=AC2

sin2 x 1 cos2 x
cos2 x 1 sin2 x

300 300

2
a

2
a

a
600

600
a

450

h2 4a2 a2

x2 a2 a2

h2 3a2

x 2 2a 2

h 3a

x 2a

sin

00

300

450

cos

tan

600

900
1

1st Quadrant angles

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

sin

cos positive value


tan

2nd Quadrant angles

sin=positive(+)
1st

2nd

cos=negative(-)
tan=negative(-)

3rd

4th

3rd Quadrant angles


sin= negative (-)
1st

2nd

tan= positive (+)

3rd

cos=negative (-)

4th

4th Quadrant angles


sin= negative (-)
1st

2nd

3rd

cos= positive (+)


tan= negative (-)

4th

angles are measured in degree and radians.

1800 = radians ( c )

10 =
10 =

radian

similarly

Write,

Reciprocal trigonometric ratios

sin2 x cos2 x 1
sin2 x cos2 x
1

cos2 x
cos2 x
tan2 x1 sec2 x

1 tan2 x sec2 x
tan2 x sec2 x1
sec2 x tan2 x 1
II

cosec 2 x 1 cot2 x
cot2 x cosec 2 x1
cosec 2 x cot2 x 1

sin2 x cos2 x 1
sin2 x cos2 x
1

sin2 x
sin2 x
1 cot2 x cosec 2 x

Identities (Questions)
A. Simplify

i. cos .tan
ii. 3cos2 2 3sin2 2
2 1 cos2 3
iii.
cos3
iv. tanx 1 sin2 x

v. sinx cosx sinx cosx

vi. 3cos4 3sin2 cos2

B. Proof the following

sin4
sin2
2
cos
4
ii. cos sin2 sin4 cos2
i. tan2

iii. cot tan sec .cosec


iv. tan2 cot2 sec2 cosec 2 2
v.

cosA
sinA

sinA CosA
1 tanA 1 cotA

Answers
A.

sin
sin
cos
ii. 3cos2 2 3sin2 2 3 cos2 2 sin2 2
i. cos .tan cos

31
1
2 1 cos2 3
sin3
2
2tan3
cos3
cos3

iii.

iv. tanx 1 sin2 x tanx.Cosx


sinx

.cosx
cosx
sinx

v. sinx cosx sinx cosx

sin2 x 2sin xcosx cos2 x sin2 x 2sin xcosx cos2 x


2sin2 x 2cos2 x
2(sin2 x cos2 x)
2
vi. 3cos4 3sin2 cos2 3cos2 (cos2 sin2 )
3cos2

B. Proove

sin4
sin2
2
cos
sin4
L.H.S tan2
cos2
sin2 sin4

cos2 cos2
sin2

1 sin2
cos2
sin2

.cos2
2
cos
sin2
R.H.S

i. tan2

ii. cos4 sin2 s][sin4 Cos2


L.H.S cos4 sin2

1 sin2 sin2
1 2sin2 sin4 sin2
1 sin2 sin4
sin4 cos2
R.H.S

iii. cot tan sec .cosec


L.H.S cot tan
cos sin

sin cos
cos2 sin2

sin .cos
1

sin .cos
1
1

.
sin cos
cosec .sec
R.H.S

iv. tan2 cot2 sec2 cosec 2 2


tan2 cot2
(sec2 1) (cosec 2 1)
sec2 cosec 2 2
R.H.S

v.

cosA
sinA

sinA cosA
1 tanA 1 cotA
cosA
sinA
L.H.S

1 tanA 1 cotA
cosA
sinA

cosA sinA sinA cosA


cosA
sinA
2
2
cos A sin A

cosA sinA
(cosA sinA)(cosA sinA)

(cosA sinA)
cosA sinA
R.H.S

Find the positive angle

1.

1
0 360
2
300

Sin

2.

1
2
450

Cos

0 360

450
300

300

450

300 ,1500
Sin30

1
2

Sin150

1
2

450 ,3150
Cos450

1
2

Cos3150

3.

Tan 3

60

0 360

4.

1
2
300

Sin

0 360

600
600

300

600 , 2400 1800 600

5.

1
2
600

Cos

600
60

0 360

300

1800 300 2100


3600 300 3300

6.

1
3
0
30

Tan

0 360

300
300

1
2

1800 600 1200

1800 300 1500

1800 600 2400

3600 300 3300


Cot 1 0 360
1
1

Tan 1
8.
Tan
1
450

Sin 2 0 360
1
1
2 Cos
7.
Cos
2
0
60

600

450
450

600

600 ,3000

1800 450 1350


3600 450 3150
Bearings - Introduction
1. Draw a line, and show the North direction.
2. Use clockwise sense to measure the angles from the North.
3. Write the bearing in 3 digits.
Ex:
1. Point X is 0500 bearing from Y.
X

N
500
Y

2. Point B is 1500 bearing of from A.

N
1500
A

500

Ex
1. Car A is 0300 bearings from Car B Draw the diagram.
Find the bearing of A from B.
2. A Car in morning 15 km North direction and morning another 15 3km bearing of
0900. Find the bearing of the Car from the initial point.
Ans

1.

N
2.

300

3000
Y 90

1800

15 3km

B
15k
m

Bearing of B from A is 2100

15
15 3
1

3
300

Tan

Bearing is 0300 from the starting point.

Angle of elevation
An observer in the ground and the object is in above him, then the angle
between lines, horizontal and object is called angle of elevation
object

observer

ground

is called angle of elevation.

Angle of depression

observer

horizontal

is angle of depression

object
d

Question
1. A man observer a vertical tree, distance between the man and bottom or the tree
is 50 3m height of the tree is 50m. Find the angle of elevation to the top of the tree?

tree
50m

50 3m

man

50
50 3
1

3
300

Tan

2. A man sit on the top of the building and observer in the ground object. Angle of
the depression is 600 and the height of the building is 50m. Find the distance
between building and ground.
observer
=600

50
x

=60

object

50
Tan600
x
50
x
Tan600
50
3

3
3
x

50 3
m
3

3.

x
observer

building

Observer in at D. Angle of depression of the bottom of the building is 450 angle of


the elevation of the top the building is 60 0 If the height of AD= 100 3m , Find the
height of the building BC ( 3 1.73)
Ans

450 , 600
AD
Tan450
AB
AD AB(Tan450 1)
AB 100 3
y 100 3
x
Tan600
100 3
x 100 3. 3
300m
height 100 3 300
173 300
473m

SineandCosineRule

Thesolutionforanoblique trianglecanbedonewiththeapplicationoftheLawofSineandLawof
Cosine,simply calledtheSineandCosineRules.Anobliquetriangle,asweallknow,isatrianglewith
no right angle. It is a triangle whose angles are all acute or a triangle with one
obtuse angle.
Thetwogeneralformsofanobliquetriangleareasshown:

SineRule(TheLawofSine)

TheSineRuleisusedinthefollowingcases:
CASE1:Giventwoanglesandoneside(AASorASA)
CASE2:Giventwosidesandanonincludedangle(SSA)
TheSineRulestatesthatthesidesofatriangleareproportionaltothesinesoftheoppositeangles.In
symbols,

Case2:SSAorTheAmbiguousCase

Inthiscase,theremaybetwotriangles,onetriangle,ornotrianglewiththegivenproperties.Forthis
reason,itissometimescalledtheambiguouscase.Thus,weneedtoexaminethepossibilityofno
solution,oneortwosolutions.

CosineRule(TheLawofCosine)

TheCosineRuleisusedinthefollowingcases:
1.Giventwosidesandanincludedangle(SAS)
2.Giventhreesides(SSS)
TheCosineRulestatesthatthesquareofthelengthofanysideofatriangleequalsthesumofthesquares
ofthelengthoftheothersidesminustwicetheirproductmultipliedbythecosineoftheirincludedangle.
Insymbols:

Find the all the missing sides in this triangle, then work out its area

1)

Fill in all the missing angles in these triangles

2a)

b)

3a) Find the missing length x

4)

5)

b) Find the missing angle x

Graphical Method of Solution of a Linear Programming Problem

So far we have learnt how to construct a mathematical model for a linear programming problem. If
we can find the values of the decision variables x1, x2, x3, ..... xn, which can optimize (maximize or
minimize) the objective function Z, then we say that these values of xi are the optimal solution of
the Linear Program (LP).

a) The determination of the solution space that defines the feasible solution. Note that the set of
values of the variable x1, x2, x3,....xn which satisfy all the constraints and also the non-negative
conditions is called the feasible solution of the LP.

b) The determination of the optimal solution from the feasible region.

a) To determine the feasible solution of an LP, we have the following steps.

Step 1: Since the two decision variable x and y are non-negative, consider only the first quadrant
of xy-coordinate plane

Draw the line ax + by = c

(1)

For each constraint,

the line (1) divides the first quadrant in to two regions say R1 and R2, suppose (x1, 0) is a point in
R1. If this point satisfies the in equation ax + by c or ( c), then shade the region R1. If (x1, 0)
does not satisfy the inequality, shade the region R2.

Step 3: Corresponding to each constant, we obtain a shaded region. The intersection of all these
shaded regions is the feasible region or feasible solution of the LP.

Let us find the feasible solution for the problem of a decorative item dealer whose LPP is to
maximize profit function.

Z = 50x + 18y

Subject to the constraints

(1)

Step 1: Since x 0, y 0, we consider only the first quadrant of the xy - plane

Step 2: We draw straight lines for the equation

2x+ y = 100

(2)

x + y = 80

To determine two points on the straight line 2x + y = 100

Put y = 0, 2x = 100

x = 50

(50, 0) is a point on the line (2)

put x = 0 in (2), y =100

(0, 100) is the other point on the line (2)

Plotting these two points on the graph paper draw the line which represent the line 2x + y =100.

This line divides the 1st quadrant into two regions, say R1 and R2. Choose a point say (1, 0) in R1.
(1, 0) satisfy the inequality 2x + y 100. Therefore R1 is the required region for the constraint 2x +
y 100.

Similarly draw the straight line x + y = 80 by joining the point (0, 80) and (80, 0). Find the required
region say R1', for the constraint x + y 80.

The intersection of both the region R1 and R1' is the feasible solution of the LPP. Therefore every
point in the shaded region OABC is a feasible solution of the LPP, since this point satisfies all the
constraints including the non-negative constraints.

b) There are two techniques to find the optimal solution of an LPP.

Corner Point Method

The optimal solution to a LPP, if it exists, occurs at the corners of the feasible region.

The method includes the following steps

Step 1: Find the feasible region of the LLP.

Step 2: Find the co-ordinates of each vertex of the feasible region.

These co-ordinates can be obtained from the graph or by solving the equation of the lines.

Step 3: At each vertex (corner point) compute the value of the objective function.

Step 4: Identify the corner point at which the value of the objective function is maximum (or
minimum depending on the LP)

The co-ordinates of this vertex is the optimal solution and the value of Z is the optimal value

Example: Find the optimal solution in the above problem of decorative item dealer whose
objective function is Z = 50x + 18y.

In the graph, the corners of the feasible region are

O (0, 0), A (0, 80), B(20, 60), C(50, 0)

At (0, 0) Z = 0

At (0, 80) Z = 50 (0) + 18(80)

= 1440

At (20, 60), Z = 50 (20) +18 (60)

= 1000 + 1080 = Rs.2080

At (50, 0) Z = 50 (50 )+ 18 (0)

= 2500.

Since our object is to maximize Z and Z has maximum at (50, 0) the optimal solution is x = 50 and
y = 0.

The optimal value is 2500.

If an LPP has many constraints, then it may be long and tedious to find all the corners of the
feasible region. There is another alternate and more general method to find the optimal solution of
an LP, known as 'ISO profit or ISO cost method'

ISO- PROFIT (OR ISO-COST)

Method of Solving Linear Programming Problems

Suppose the LPP is to

Optimize Z = ax + by subject to the constraints

This method of optimization involves the following method.

Step 1: Draw the half planes of all the constraints

Step 2: Shade the intersection of all the half planes which is the feasible region.

Step 3: Since the objective function is Z = ax + by, draw a dotted line for the equation ax + by = k,
where k is any constant. Sometimes it is convenient to take k as the LCM of a and b.

Step 4: To maximise Z draw a line parallel to ax + by = k and farthest from the origin. This line
should contain at least one point of the feasible region. Find the coordinates of this point by
solving the equations of the lines on which it lies.

To minimise Z draw a line parallel to ax + by = k and nearest to the origin. This line should contain
at least one point of the feasible region. Find the co-ordinates of this point by solving the equation
of the line on which it lies.

Step 5: If (x1, y1) is the point found in step 4, then

x = x1, y = y1, is the optimal solution of the LPP and

Z = ax1 + by1 is the optimal value.

The above method of solving an LPP is more clear with the following example.

Example: Solve the following LPP graphically using ISO- profit method.

maximize Z =100 + 100y.

Subject to the constraints

Suggested answer:

since x 0, y 0, consider only the first quadrant of the plane graph the following straight lines on a
graph paper

10x + 5y = 80 or 2x+y =16

6x + 6y = 66 or x +y =11

4x+ 8y = 24 or x+ 2y = 6

5x + 6y = 90

Identify all the half planes of the constraints. The intersection of all these half planes is the feasible
region as shown in the figure.

Give a constant value 600 to Z in the objective function, then we have an equation of the line
120x + 100y = 600

(1)

or 6x + 5y = 30 (Dividing both sides by 20)

P1Q1 is the line corresponding to the equation 6x + 5y = 30. We give a constant 1200 to Z then the
P2Q2 represents the line.

120x + 100y = 1200

6x + 5y = 60

P2Q2 is a line parallel to P1Q1 and has one point 'M' which belongs to feasible region and farthest
from the origin. If we take any line P3Q3 parallel to P2Q2 away from the origin, it does not touch any
point of the feasible region.

The co-ordinates of the point M can be obtained by solving the equation 2x + y = 16

x + y =11 which give

x = 5 and y = 6

The optimal solution for the objective function is x = 5 and y = 6

The optimal value of Z

120 (5) + 100 (6) = 600 + 600

= 1200

Statisticsandprobability
Definitions:
EventAnycollectionofresultsoroutcomesofaprocedure
SimpleEventAnoutcomeoreventthatcannotbebrokendownintosimplercomponents
SampleSpaceThecollectionofallsimpleeventsthatcouldresultfromaprocedure.
ComplementThecomplementofaneventAconsistsofalloutcomeswhereAdoesnotoccur.

Notations:
Pthismeansprobability
A,B,C,thesestandforevents
Ac, A thismeansthecomplementofA
P(A)thismeanstheprobabilitythatAoccurs
Sthisisusedtodenotethesamplespace

Example:
Q:Rajrollsa6sideddie.Thenthesamplespaceofthisisasfollows
A:S={1,2,3,4,5,6}
Q:Suemeasureshowmanycoinflipsittakestoget3heads.Whatisthesamplespaceofthis
procedure?
A:S={3,4,5,}={allintegers>2}
Q:FredseeswhatproportionofcarsonhisblockareSUVs.Whatisthesamplespaceofthis
procedure?
A:S={anyrealnumberbetween0and1}=[0,1]

Sinceeventscomeinalotofdifferentways,thereare3generalapproachestofindingthe
probabilitiesforevents.Themethodthatismostusefuldependsonthesituation.

Approach1:RelativeFrequencyApproximation
Forproceduresthatcanberepeatedoverandoveragain,wecanestimatetheprobabilityofan
eventAbyusingthefollowing:
p

Number of Times A Occurred


Total Number of Trials

Fromtheoreticalarguments(seeLawofLargeNumbers,p.141),itturnsoutthatthisvaluep
willgetclosertoP(A)asthenumberoftrialsgetslarger.

Approach2:ClassicalApproach
Forprocedureswithequallylikelyoutcomes(e.g.rollingadie,flippingacoin,etc.),wecanfind
P(A)directly,bycomputing:
P ( A)

Number of Ways A can Occur


Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes

Approach3:SubjectiveProbability

For procedures that cannot be repeated, and do not have equally likely outcomes, the true
probabilityofaneventisusuallynotabletobedetermined. Insituationslikethis,wecan
estimate theprobabilityusingourknowledgeandexperienceofthesubject. Forinstance,we
couldaskWhatistheprobabilitythattheColumbusBlueJacketswillwintheStanleyCupthis
year?Nooneknowsthetrueprobability,butpeoplewhoknowalotabouthockeycouldgivea
ballparkfigure.
Examples:
AsituationwhereApproach1isusedisinbaseball.Ifwewanttoknowtheprobabilitythata
playerwillgetahitwhentheygouptobat,wecannotuseApproach#2becausetheoutcomes
arenotequallylikely.WecoulduseApproach#3,butthatwouldbesubjective.However,by
dividingthenumberofhitsbythenumberofatbatsgivesthe battingaverage,whichisan
estimateofthetrueprobabilityofgettingahit.
AsituationwhereApproach2isusedissomethinglikerollingadie.Eachfaceisequallylikely
toturnup,sowecanfindprobabilitiesusingthisapproach.LetssayAistheeventofrollingan
evennumber.WhatisP(A)?
P ( A)

Number of Ways A can Occur


3 (getting 2, 4, or 6)
1

0.5
Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes 6 (6 possible outcomes)
2

AnotherExample
Q:Joeflipsonecoin3timesandrecordsthe3outcomes.Whatisthesamplespace?
A:S={HHH,HHT,HTH,HTT,THH,THT,TTH,TTT}

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofgetting1or2heads?
A:Sincealloutcomesareequallylikely(weassumethecoinisfair),wecanuseApproach#2.

P ( A)

Number of Ways A can Occur


6 (HHT, HTH, HTT, THT, TTH, THH) 3

0.75
Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes 8 (Total of 8 outcomes)
4

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofthecomplementofthepreviousevent?(i.e.P(not1or2heads))
A:Thereare2waysthiscanhappen(HHHorTTT),soitwillbe

2 1
0.25
8
4

Section43:AdditionRule
CompoundEventAneventthatiscomprisedoftwoormoresimpleevents.
Generally,compoundeventsarewrittenintermsoftheirsimpleevents.
Forexample,theeventItwillrainorsnowtodaycouldbewrittenasAorB,whereAisthe
eventthatitrainstodayandBistheeventthatitsnowstoday.Sothiseventwouldhappenifit
rainedtoday,snowedtoday,orboth.
AnothertypeofeventisoftheformAandB,inwhichtheeventonlyoccursifbothAandB
occur.
Forexample,theeventItisatleast70degreesandsunnyoutsidecouldbewrittenasAand
B,whereAistheeventthatitisatleast70degreesoutside,andBistheeventthatitissunny.
TheFormalAdditionRule
Toseehowthisruleisderived,letsexamineaVennDiagram.Theareawithineachcircle
correspondstotheprobabilityofthateventoccurring.Wherethetwocirclesoverlap(dark
grey),bothAandBoccur.Howeverthearea,say,incircleAthatdoesnotoverlapB(grey)
wouldbewhenAoccursbutBdoesnot.Theareaoutsideofbothcircles(lightgrey)
correspondstoneitherAnorBoccurring.

HowwouldwefindP(AorB)then?Wewanttheareawithinthetwocircles(thegreyanddark
greyareas)becausethatswhereAhappens,Bhappens,ortheybothhappen.Whatwecoulddo
isaddtogethertheareaincircleA,andtheareaofcircleB.Theproblemisthatwecouldthe
overlappingarea(darkgrey)twice.Thatmeansweneedtosubtractit.Usingthefactthatthe
areaincircleAisP(A),theareaincircleBisP(B),andtheoverlapisP(AandB),wegetthe
formaladditionrule:

P(AorB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AandB)

ThisruleworksforanyeventsAandB.Anytimeyouknowthreeofthefourquantitiesinthe
equation,youcansolveforthefourth.

DisjointEvents
DisjointEventsareeventsthatcannotbothhappenatthesametime.Forexample,letAbethe
eventthatatrafficlightisgreen,andBbetheeventthatthetrafficlightisred.TheeventAand
Bcannothappen,becausetrafficlightsarenevergreenandredatthesametime.Iftwoevents
aredisjoint,thenP(AandB)=0.Disjointeventsarealsooftencalledmutuallyexclusive
events.
AdditionRuleforDisjointEvents
UsingthefactthatP(AandB)=0fordisjointevents,wecanrewritetheformaladditionruleas:
P(AorB)=P(A)+P(B)
ComplementaryEvents
RecallfromtheprevioussectionthatforaneventA,itscomplementAcistheeventthatAdoes
notoccur.SinceAconlyhappenswhenAdoesnot,andviceversa,P(AandAc)=0.Inother
words,AandAcaredisjoint.Therefore,P(AorAc)=P(A)+P(Ac),bytheadditionrulefor
disjointevents.ButwhatisP(AorAc)?ThismeanstheprobabilitythateitherAhappens,orA
doesnothappen.Thisprobabilityis1,sincesomethinghastohappen,whetheritisAornot.
Therefore,wehaveatrioofequivalentformulas:

P(A)+P(Ac)=1
P(Ac)=1P(A)
P(A)=1P(Ac)

Examples:Forthefollowingquestions,imaginewearedrawingonecardfromadeckof52
cards.
Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaqueen?
A:UsingApproach2fromtheprevioussection,andlettingAbetheeventinquestion,
P ( A)

Number of Ways A can Occur


4
1

Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes


52 13

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingadiamond?

A:UsingApproach2fromtheprevioussection,andlettingBbetheeventinquestion,
P( B)

Number of Ways B can Occur


13
1

Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes


52
4

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaqueenofdiamonds?
A:ThisistheeventAandB,andwecanuseApproach2again:
P ( A and B )

Number of Ways A and B can Occur


1

Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes


52

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaqueenoradiamond?
A:Wecouldcouldupthetotalnumberofcardsthatfitthisbill(13diamondsoneofwhichisa
queenandtheother3queens=16
possiblecardsoutof52),orwecanjustusetheformaladditionrule:
P ( A or B ) P ( A) P ( B ) P ( A and B )

4
13
1
16
4

52 52 52 52 13

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawinganumbercard?(Acesincluded)
A:LetscallthiseventC.Thereare4ofeachnumber1to10,foratotalof40outof52cards.
P (C )

Number of Ways C can Occur


40 10

Total Number of Simple Event Outcomes


52 13

Q:Whatistheprobabilityofdrawinganumbercardoraqueen?
A:Nowwecanusetheadditionrulefordisjointevents,sinceAandCcanthappenatthesame
time.
P ( A or C ) P ( A) P (C )

4
40 44 11

52 52 52 13

Section44:MultiplicationRule:TheBasics

NowthatwecanfindAorBprobabilities,wefocusonhowtofindAandBprobabilities.
Intuitively,forAandBtohappen,weneedtwothingstotakeplace:
i.
Aneedstohappen
ii.
GiventhatAhappened,Bneedstohappen
Thisleadsusto

TheFormalMultiplicationRule
P(AandB)=P(A)P(B|A)

Here,P(B|A)iswhatiscalledaconditionalprobability.ItstandsfortheprobabilitythatB
happensgivenAalreadyhappened.(Theverticalbarmeansgiven)SinceAandBisthe
sameasBandA,wecanalsowritetheformulaas:
P(AandB)=P(B)P(A|B)
Whichformyouusedependsonwhatinformationisavailable.
Example:StudentscantakeastandardizedtestatthreetestcentersA,B,andC.Supposethat
afterthemostrecenttest,500studentswenttoA,200wenttoB,and300wenttoC.
Furthermore,theproportionofstudentswhopassedtheexamwere50%,80%,and75%,
respectively.

Q:WhatistheprobabilitythatarandomlyselectedstudenttookthetestatcenterB?
A:Thereareatotalof1000students,and200wenttoB.ThusP(B)=200/1000=0.20.

Q:WhatistheprobabilitythatastudentwhotookthetestatBpassedtheexam?
A:Now,wewanttofindtheprobabilityofpassinggiventhatthestudenttookthetestatB.We
aretoldintheproblemthat80%of
thestudentsatcenterBpassed.Thuswehave:P(Pass|B)=0.80.

Q:WhatistheprobabilitythatastudentbothtookthetestatBandpassed?
A:UsingtheMultiplicationRule,P(PassandB)=P(B)P(Pass|B)=(0.20)(0.80)=0.16.

IndependentEvents
Twoeventsarecalledindependentiftheoccurrenceofonedoesnotaffectthechancesofthe
otheroneoccurring.Statistically,whatthismeansisthatAandBindependentP(A|B)=
P(A).Inotherwords,theprobabilityofAhappeninggiventhatBhappenedisjustthesameasif
wedidntknowwhetherBhappened(becausetheoccurrenceofBhasnoeffectonthe
occurrenceofA).
Note:ifAandBaredisjoint,thenweknowthatonlyonecanoccur.Thus,knowingthatB
happenedtellsyouthatAdefinitelydidnothappen,andwehaveP(A|B)P(A).Thusdisjoint
eventsareneverindependentevents.
MultiplicationRuleforIndependentEvents
UsingthefactthatP(A|B)=P(A)forindependentevents,weseethattheformalmultiplication
ruleturnsinto:
P(AandB)=P(A)P(B)
TheLawofTotalProbability
Thisruleisveryintuitive,andisusefulforfindingprobabilitiesofevents.Toexplainit,we
refertothetestcenterexampleabove.
Q:Whatistheprobabilityofarandomlyselectedstudentpassingtheexam?
A:Fromtheinformationabove,wecanfindout(similartothepreviousexample)that:
P(A)=0.50

P(B)=0.20

P(C)=0.30

P(Pass|A)=0.50

P(Pass|B)=0.80

P(Pass|C)=0.75

WewanttofindP(Pass).Whatarethepossiblescenarioswhereastudentpassestheexam?
TheycouldtakethetestatAand
pass,theycouldtakeitatBandpass,ortheycouldtakeitatCandpass.
SoP(Pass)=P(AandPassORBandPassORCandPass).Buteachofthose3scenariosare
disjoint,becauseastudentcanttake
thetestatmorethanonecenter.Therefore,bytheadditionrulewecanaddtheseprobabilities
asfollows:
P(Pass)=P(AandPass)+P(BandPass)+P(CandPass)
Then,bythemultiplicationrule,wecanfindalloftheseprobabilities:

P(AandPass)=P(A)P(Pass|A)=(0.50)(0.50)=0.25
P(BandPass)=0.16
P(CandPass)=P(C)P(Pass|C)=(0.30)(0.75)=0.225
ThusP(Pass)=0.25+0.16+0.225=0.635

Ingeneral,ifyouhavedisjointeventsB1,B2,,Bnthatrepresenteverypossibleoutcomeofa
procedure,thenyoucanwrite:
n

P(A)=P(AandB1)+P(AandB2)++P(AandBn)= P(A and B i )


i 1

ThemostcommonwaytousethisruleisifyouhavetwoeventsAandB,then:
P(A)=P(AandB)+P(AandBc)
Examples:
AtelemarketingcompanymakesphonecallstopotentialcustomersallacrosstheU.S.Foreach
call,theprobabilityofthecustomeransweringthephoneis0.20.Forthenextcoupleof
questions,assumecallsareindependentofeachother.
Q:Letssaythecompanymakes10phonecalls.Whatistheprobabilitythatallofthemare
answered?
A:P(10callsanswered)=P(1stcallansweredAND2ndcallansweredANDAND10thcall
answered)
=P(1stcallanswered)P(2ndcallanswered)P(10thcallanswered)
(Mult.RuleforIndependentEvents)
=(0.20)(0.20)(0.20)=0.2010=0.0000001024
Notverylikely,isit?
Q:Letssaythecompanymakes2phonecalls.Whatistheprobabilitythatexactlyoneofthem
isanswered?
A:First,notethatfromtheComplementRule,theprobabilitythatacallisnotansweredis1
0.20=0.80.Thus:
P(1callanswered)=P(1stcallansweredand2ndcallnotansweredOR1stcallnotanswered
and2ndcallanswered)

=P(1stcallansweredand2ndcallnotanswered)+P(1stcallnotansweredand
2ndcallanswered)(Add.Rule)
=P(1stcallanswered)P(2ndcallnotanswered)+P(1stcallnotanswered)P(2nd
callanswered)(Mult.Rule)
=(0.20)(0.80)+(0.80)(0.20)=0.16+0.16=0.32

Q:Nowsupposethatifacustomeranswersthephone,theirchanceofbuyingtheproductis0.10.
(Notethatiftheydonotanswerthe
phone,theirchanceofbuyingitis0).Whatistheoverallchanceofatelemarketersellingthe
productwhentheycallahome?
A: In the question, we are told P(Buying | Call Answered) = 0.10 and P(Buying
| Not Answered) = 0. We want to find P(Buying).
From the Law of Total Probability,
P(Buying) = P(Buying and Call Answered) + P(Buying and Not Answered)
= P(Call Answered)P(Buying | Call Answered) + P(Not
Answered)P(Buying | Not Answered) (Mult. Rule)
= (0.20)(0.10) + (0.80)(0) = 0.02.
Note: If this seemed complicated, try just replaced Buying with A, Call
Answered with B, and Not Answered with Bc. Then
the calculations above follow directly from the Law of Total Probability
written before.

I.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
There are certain statistics that can help us condense large amounts of data into a few
numbers that are easier to comprehend. These statistics are called descriptive statistics and
they are used to convey summary information about any set of numbers or data. By using
descriptive statistics we can get a quick estimate of what our data (e.g., students' Mathematics
scores; people's lifes expectation)

II. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Measures of central tendency are statistics that identify the center of a distribution of
scores. The most common measures of central tendency are the mode, the median,
and the mean. To make calculations easier, instead of discussing full data sets .

A. The mode
The mode is a statistic that identifies the most frequently occurring score in a
distribution. For example, in the following distribution, the mode is 6:

4 6 7 8 6 3 5 9 6

Mode = 6 (it occurs 3 times)

B. The median
The median is a statistic that identifies the middle score in a distribution. For
example, in the distribution above, the median is also 6. To determine this, you
must first rearrange the numbers and order them from lowest to highest:

3 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 9

Median = 6

In a distribution with an odd number of scores, such as the one above, the median is
simply the middle score. In this case it is 6 (a number which has 4 scores to the left
of it and 4 scores to the right). In a distribution with an even number of scores, the
median is found by taking the average of the two middle scores. For example, in
the following distribution, the median is 5.5:

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Median = 6 + 5 = 5.5
2

C. The mean
The mean, more commonly known as the average, is the most common measure
of central tendency in statistics. It is determined by dividing the sum of the scores
(N) in a distribution by the total number of scores (N) in that distribution. For
example, in the distribution below, the mean is 6:

4 6 7 8 6 3 5 9 6
=6

Mean = N = 4+6+7+8+6+3+5+9+6
N

In the above distribution, the mode, median, and mean were all the same value (6).
The number six thus represents the center of that distribution no matter how we
measure it. However, the mode, median, and mean are rarely the same for a given
distribution. Here are some examples for you to work out on your own. You can
look up the answers on the last page of this handout.

Mode

Median

Mean

Data Set 1:

4 6 7 2 7 9 3 7

______

______

______

Data Set 2:

3 8 5 7 4 4 7 4

______

______

______

Data Set 3:

8 9 7 8 1 5 6 8

______

______

______

III. MEASURES OF DISPERSION

A. Variance
Measures of central tendency provide useful information, but they do not always
accurately represent the entire distribution. In addition to a measure of central
tendency, it is usually helpful to know something about the extent to which the
scores in a given distribution differ (or deviate) from the mean. Another way to
state this issue is to ask the question, "How much variation is there in a given set of
scores?" Obviously, if all the scores in a set of data are the same (e.g., if every
professor goes off on 6 boring tangents/irrelevant anecdotes during lecture) then
there is no variation. This rarely happens in research (or in real life), however;
people vary in their characteristics, behaviors, attitudes, and emotions. If everyone
was the same, then the science of Psychology could proceed by merely studying
one person. How dull. Variety, as they say, is the spice of life.

The concept of "variation" in a set of data is illustrated easily by the following


example. Given your tremendous popularity you receive invitations to 3 parties that
all fall on the same night. All you are told is that the mean age of the 8 guests at
each party will be 22 years old. Given this information, which party do you wish to
attend? What other information might be helpful in making your decision?

The ages of those attending the 3 different parties are as listed in the following
table:

Person

Party 1

Party 2

Party 3

#1

20

34

#2

23

#3

22

10

#4

24

41

#5

22

38

#6

24

#7

20

31

78

#8

21

81

Mean:

22

22

22

Party 1 is going to be a night of who knows what with some young adults. Party 2 is
going to be a dinner party with parents and their children. Party 3 is going to be
Little Billy's third birthday party (hosted by his Grandma and Grandpa Jones).
Therefore, although the mean age for each party is the same, these three data sets
are very different from one another. Determining the mode and median for each
party would give us a more complete picture, but it would be very helpful to have
some statistic that tells us how much the ages of the guests at each party deviated
or "varied" from the mean. Other than merely forming a subjective impression of
our data, how do we determine this "variability" in scores?

The thought that immediately comes to mind is: " Let's simply add up how much
each score differs from the mean." To do this, we could take the mean, which is 22,
and then subtract the mean from each individual score. So, for example, for Person
1 at Party 1 we would have 20 - 22 = -2. For Person 2 and Party 1 we would have
23 - 22 = 1.

At this point, it will facilitate your understanding of this concept if you do the
following. For Party 1, continue with these calculations and subtract the mean from
each of the 8 scores. Then total up these "deviation scores," being sure to pay
attention to the plus and minus signs. After you get your total, then perform the
same calculations for Party 2 and Party 3. Move on to the paragraph below after
you have finished these calculations.

Now you see the problem. For any set of data, if we simply subtract the mean from
each individual score and add these deviation scores up, we will get a total of zero.
Therefore, the average deviation will also come out to be zero (i.e., the sum of
deviation scores divided by the number of scores, or 0/8 = 0 in our example.) Thus,
we cannot determine the "average deviation" in this way. Astoundingly, to the great
benefit of humankind, there are two statistics that provide very meaningful
information about variability: the variance and the standard deviation. These
are called measures of dispersion because they quantify the degree to which a
set of scores, overall, differs from the mean.

The word "variance" -- because it sounds foreign, mystical, or technical -sometimes produces a fear/anxiety response in students; some students sweat
profusely, while others experience increased heart rate, nausea, or lightheadedness. In extreme cases some students have heard voices telling them "Drop
this course! Become an English major!" In case you are having any of the above
reactions to the sight or sound of the word "variance," then do the following two
things: 1) remember that Statistics are our friends, and 2) think of the word
"variance" as a synonym for the word "variation."

Variance is defined as the average of the squared deviations about the mean. This
is represented mathematically by the following equation, where X represents a
single score within a distribution and N represents the total number of scores:

Variance = (X-Mean)

The variance is arrived at by performing the following computations in the listed


order:

Step 1. find the mean (sum of the scores divided by the number of scores)
Step 2. compute the deviation scores (the difference between an individual
score and the mean)
Step 3. square each of the deviation scores
Step 4. divide the sum of the deviation scores by the number of scores

For example, the variance for Party 1 would be computed as follows:

Person

Age

Mean

Deviation Score
(Age-Mean)

Deviation
Squared

#1

20

22

-2

#2

23

22

#3

22

22

#4

24

22

#5

22

22

#6

24

22

#7

20

22

-2

#8

21

22

-1

22

22

18/8 =
2.25

Average:

The answer to step 4 above, then, is 18 divided by 8, or 2.25. This is the variance
of ages at Party 1.

B. Standard Deviation
The standard deviation is the most commonly reported measure of dispersion. It
is simply the square root of the variance. In the case of Party 1, the standard
deviation is the square root of 2.25, or 1.5. Why take the square root of the
variance? Well, remember that when we computed the variance we had to square
each deviation score before adding these scores up. (As we saw earlier, if you add
the deviation scores without squaring them, then you will always get a total of
zero.) Therefore, because we squared the deviation scores to get the variance, we
now take the square root of the variance in order to convert our numbers back to
their original units of measurement. Thus, for Party 1 the mean is 22 years, the
variance is 2.25, and the standard deviation is 1.5 years. At this point I strongly
encouraged you to calculate the variance and standard deviation for Party 2 and
Party 3 to check your understanding of these statistics. The correct answers are on
the last page of the handout.)

C. The Range
The range is a relatively crude measure of dispersion. It represents the highest
score in a distribution minus the lowest score. It is a crude measure of dispersion
because the composition of other scores in the distribution (other than the high and
low scores) have no effect on the range. For example, each of the 3 distributions
below has a range of 8, despite the fact that the distributions are quite different.
Each distribution, however, would have a different value for the variance (and
hence, for the standard deviation).

10 7 6 5 4 3 2

Range = 10 - 2 = 8.

10 10 10 9 9 9 2

Range = 10 - 2 = 8

10 4 4 3 2 2 2

Range = 10 - 2 = 8.

Variance and the standard deviation are more sensitive measures of dispersion,
because they are influenced by each particular score in the distribution. Change
even one score, and you'll change the values of the variance and standard
deviation.

D. Additional Comments: This Handout Versus The Text


You should be aware of the following differences between the formula used in this
handout versus the one used in your textbook. On page 423 of your textbook, a
formula is given for calculating the standard deviation. This formula calculates the
standard deviation by dividing by n-1. The examples in this handout divide by n.
Remember that n corresponds to the number of people attending each party (8).
Why the difference and which divisor should you use? The answer depends on what
you want to use the standard deviation for. Consider the following two examples.

Example 1. Assume that I wish to know how much variability in age there is for
students in this class. To gather this information, I have the 25 students in this class
complete an anonymous questionnaire on which they indicate their age. If I am
only concerned with the variability of age for this specific group of people (and I am
not interested in trying to generalize my findings to other students), then I would
divide by n. In this instance, the standard deviation I am calculating would be
considered a descriptive statistic, since I only want to describe the variability of

this particular set of numbers. (Aside: Computer programs and calculators can both
calculate this number for us very quickly so why do I bother to make you calculate it
by hand? No, I dont enjoy inflicting pain and anguish on my students (Ok maybe
I do just a little!). The real reason for asking you to become familiar with this way of
calculating the standard deviation is that it is useful in helping you gain a better
conceptual understanding of measures of dispersion.)

Example 2. Alternatively, assume that I wish to know the variability in age for all
students at Shoreline. In general, what kind of spread is there in age for students
attending Shoreline? It would be possible for me to contact every single student at
Shoreline, ask how old he or she is, and calculate the standard deviation of this
rather large set of numbers. But this would be very time consuming (and besides,
Im also very lazy!). What I could do instead is to determine the variability in age of
a small sample of Shoreline students and then use this number to make an
educated guess about the variability in age of the entire population of Shoreline
students. So assume that I randomly sample 25 Shoreline students about their
ages. Since I am using my sample to try to infer the variability in age for the whole
population, when I calculate the standard deviation in this example, I divide by n-1
instead of n. In this second case, the standard deviation I am calculating would be
considered an inferential statistic, since I am using the standard deviation of my
sample to make an inference about the overall standard deviation of the entire
population of students. For the purposes of this class, when you are asked to
calculate the standard deviation, please divide by n.

IV. Z-SCORES
Imagine that you and a friend are somewhat competitive and you want to compare
how you each did on your last psychology exam. Unfortunately, you are taking
different psychology classes (you are in Psychology 209 while your friend is in
Psychology 204). What information would you need to find out who did better? You
would probably start by comparing the points you each got correct on your
respective exams. Lets say that you got 40 points correct and your friend got 20
points correct. Looks like you win, right? Not necessarily. You also need to know
how many total points were on each exam. If your test had 50 possible points, and
your friends test had 25, you are still tied (40/50 = 20/25 = 80%). The next thing
you might want to know is what were the respective class means on each of the
tests. If I tell you that the mean for your test was 30 (out of 50) while the mean for
your friends test was 15 (out of 25), can you now tell who did better? It seems like
you may have done better since you scored 10 points higher than the mean but
your friend only scored 5 points higher than the mean. But remember your test had
twice as many total points on it as your friends test (50 vs. 25), so the difference of
each of your scores from the means still seems roughly equivalent.

As you can see, making a comparison in this situation is a bit difficult. But thanks to
the standard deviation, there is still a way to make a comparison. If you also know
the standard deviation of the scores in each of the classes, this can allow you and
your friend settle your dispute. If I tell you that the standard deviation for both
classes is 10 points, who did better on their test relative to the rest of their class?
Fortunately for you, it looks like you are the winner. Your scores is a full standard
deviation above the mean ((40-30)/10 = 1) but your friend was only a half of a
standard deviation above the mean in his or her class ((20-15)/10 = 0.5). Thus,
using standard deviations, we can see that you outscored a larger percentage of
your class than your friend did of his/her class.

What we have just done in this example is to calculate something called a z-score. A
z-score counts the difference between an individual score and the mean in terms of
standard deviations. For instance, we could say that you scored 10 points above
the mean on your test, or equivalently, that you scored 1.0 standard deviation
above the mean. This 1.0 represents your z-score for this test. Similarly, the zscore for your friend was 0.5 standard deviation above the mean. He or she scored
one half of a standard deviation better than the mean. It turns out that z-scores are
a convenient way to compare scores from different groups that have used different
numerical scales, as was the case in our example above (the scale used on your
test was from 0-50 while the scale used in your friends class was from 0-25). By
converting our numbers to z-scores, this allows us to make meaningful comparisons
between the numbers in each of these groups, something we couldnt do initially. Z-

scores also come in handy when trying to understand our next topic, the normal
distribution.

V. THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION


One of the most important concepts in statistics is a curve called the "normal
distribution" or "normal curve." The normal distribution is an essential part of
inferential statistics. While we will not be covering inferential statistics in this
course, I would still like to introduce you to the normal curve and some of its unique
properties. By learning a little about the normal curve now, you will be ahead of the
game when you take your required statistics course.

The normal distribution is a bell shaped curved that is symmetric (that is, on either
side of the mean it looks the same). A typical normal distribution is shown in Figure
1. The x-axis represents the all possible values or scores on some characteristic
that we are interested in (e.g., SAT scores, reaction times, etc). The y-axis
represents the frequency or percentage of each score on the x-axis occurs.
Because it is symmetric, the mean, median, and mode for the normal distribution
are all equal to one another. The main reason that the normal curve is useful is
because there are many variables out in the real world which distribute themselves
normally (i.e. they approximate a normal distribution). For instance, IQ is one
variable that is normally distributed; if we were to look at the distribution of IQs for
all adults, this distribution would look pretty much like the theoretical normal curve
pictured below.

Figure 1.

Another useful feature of the normal distribution concerns the standard deviation.
Specifically, in any normally distributed set of numbers, the standard deviation can
be used to divide the distribution into segments which contain fixed percentages of
scores. For instance, we know that in a normal distribution, 34% of the scores fall
between the mean and one standard deviation above the mean (dont worry about
how this percentage is calculated; it is simply a product of the mathematics of the
normal distribution). Since the normal curve is symmetric, we also know that 34%
of the scores will fall between the mean and one standard deviation below the
mean. We can put these two pieces of information together to deduce that 68% of
the scores in a normal distribution fall within one (plus or minus) standard deviation
of the mean. Similar percentages also exist for segments further away from the
mean and these are also shown in Figure 1.

To see why are these percentages useful, consider the following example. Assume
that you took an IQ test and received a score of 130. Looking at this score, you
assume that you did well but, being the competitive person you are, you want to
know precisely how many people did as well or better than you. If we tell you that
the average IQ score is 100 and that the standard deviation is 15 (both of which are
true), you could determine, using the percentages listed in Figure 1, that only 2.5%
of the people scored 130 or higher (Wow! Youre pretty smart!). Alternatively, you
could say that you scored better than 98.5% of the people. In either case, the
percentages generated by the normal distribution allow you to more accurately
determine how well you did.

Another reason that the normal curve is useful concerns inferential statistics, a
topic that we will discuss briefly later in this course. Inferential statistics will be
covered in greater detail when you take statistics. I am briefly covering this

information now in hopes that it will make it easier to assimilate when you come
across it again in the future.

Metric and Imperial units

Conversion Tables
The following tables show some of the more common measures, and the conversion between
larger and smaller units. The left hand tables show the units for the metric system while the right
hand tables show for the Imperial measurement systems.
Metric length

Imperial
Length

10 millimeters = 1 centimeter

12 inches

= 1 foot

10 centimeters = 1 decimeter

3 feet

= 1 yard

10 decimeters

22 yards

= 1 chain

= 1 meter

10 meters

= 1 decameter

10 chains

= 1 furlong

10 decameters

= 1 hectometer

8 furlongs

= 1 mile (5280
feet)

10 hectometers = 1 kilometer (1000


meters)

Metric area
100 square mm

Imperial area
= 1 square centimeter

144 square
inches

= 1 square foot

10000 square cm = 1 square meter

9 square feet

= 1 square yard

100 square m

= 1 are

4840 square
yards

= 1 acre

100 ares

= 1 hectare

640 acres

= 1 square mile

100 hectares

= 1 square kilometer
= 1000000 square
meters

Metric mass

Imperial weight

1000 grams

= 1
kilogram

16 ounces

= 1 pound

1000
kilograms

= 1 ton

14 pounds

= 1 stone (UK)

8 stones (UK)

= 1 hundredweight (UK)
= 112 pounds (UK)

100 pounds

= 1 hundredweight (USA)

20 hundredweight
(UK)

= 1 ton (UK)
= 2240 pounds

20 hundredweight
(USA)

= 1 ton (USA)
= 2000 pounds

Metric capacity

Imperial
liquid
capacity

10 mililiters

= 1 centilitre

2 teaspoons

= 1 dessertspoon

10 centiliters

= 1 decilitre

3 teaspoons

= 1 tablespoon

10 deciliters

= 1 litre

2 tablespoons

= 1 fluid ounce

1000 liters

= 1 cubic meter

5 fluid ounces

= 1gill

2 gills

= 1 cup

2 cups

= 1 pint
= 20 fluid ounces

2 pints

= 1 quart

4 quarts

= 1 gallon

USA liquid
capacity
3 teaspoons

= 1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons

= 1 fluid ounce

4 fluid ounces

= 1 gill

2 gills

= 1 cup

2 cups

= 1 pint
16 fluid ounces

2 pints

= 1 quart

4 quarts

= 1 gallon

Representing Units
Length
The standard unit of length in the metric system is the meter. Other units of length and their
equivalents in meters are as follows:
1 millimeter = 0.001 meter
1 centimeter = 0.01 meter
1 decimeter = 0.1 meter
1 kilometer = 1000 meters
We symbolize these lengths as follows:
1 millimeter = 1 mm
1 centimeter = 1 cm
1 meter = 1 m
1 decimeter = 1 dm
1 kilometer = 1 km
For reference, 1 meter is a little longer than 1 yard or 3 feet. It is about half the height of a very
tall adult. A centimeter is nearly the diameter of a dime, a little less than half an inch. A
millimeter is about the thickness of a dime.

Volume
The standard unit of volume in the metric system is the liter. One liter is equal to 1000 cubic
centimeters in volume. Other units of volume and their equivalents in liters are as follows:
1 milliliter = 0.001 liter
1 centiliter = 0.01 liter
1 deciliter = 0.1 liter
1 kiloliter = 1000 liters
From these units, we see that 1000 milliliters equal 1 liter; so 1 milliliter equals 1 cubic
centimeter in volume. We symbolize these volumes as follows:
1 milliliter = 1 ml

1 centiliter = 1 cl
1 deciliter = 1 dl
1 liter = 1 l
1 kiloliter = 1 kl
For reference, 1 liter is a little more than 1 quart. One teaspoon equals about 5 milliliters.

Mass
The standard unit of mass in the metric system is the gram. Other units of mass and their
equivalents in grams are as follows:
1 milligram = 0.001 gram
1 centigram = 0.01 gram
1 decigram = 0.1 gram
1 kilogram = 1000 grams
We symbolize these masses as follows:
1 milligram = 1 mg
1 centigram = 1 cg
1 decigram = 1 dg
1 gram = 1 g
1 kilogram = 1 kg
For reference, 1 gram is about the mass of a paper clip. One kilogram is about the mass of a liter
of water.
Time
The following conversions are useful when working with time:
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds
1 day = 24 hours
1 week = 7 days
1 = 365 1/4 days (for the Earth to travel once around the sThis gives us a total of 52 complete 7
day weeks in each calendar year, with 1 day left over (or 2 in a le

Coordinate Geometry

I. Distance between two points.

Look at horizontal and vertical distances.

Ex: Distance from (3, 2) to (5, 4)

AB = 8

BC = 6

(AC)2 = 82 + 62
(AC)2 = 100
AC = 10
Distance from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2)
d2 = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2
d=

(x 2 - x1 )2 + (y2 - y1 )2

I. Midpoint.
middle of a segment.
find the midpoint for the vertical and
the horizontal segment.
to find the middle use

3 5
1 and
2

2 6
2 . The point (1, 2) is the
2
midpoint.
Median a segment from a vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the
opposite side.

2 4 5 3
,
= (3, 1)
2
2

Mid(A, C) =

d BM AC =

(3 1) 2 (1 6) 2 41

I. Slope of a line or segment.


Slope (m) = how steep a line is.

change in y
change in x
y 2 y1
for points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).
x 2 x1

Examples:
1. Find slopes for each of the following.

a.

b.

m=

1 4 5

22
4

c.

m=

5 1 6 3

44 8 4

m=

33
54

***The slope of a horizontal line (parallel to the xaxis) is 0.


***The slope of a vertical line (parallel to the yaxis) is undefined.
***Lines rising to the right have a positive slope.
***Lines falling to the right have a negative slope.

I. Slope yintercept form of a line.


yintercept
point where a relation intersects the yaxis. x = 0
xintercept
point where the relation intersects the xaxis. y = 0
1. Find the yintercept and slope for the following.
a. 3x + 2y 12 = 0
two points are (0, 6) and (2, 3)

b. y = 5x + 4
two points are (0, 4) and (3, 11)

m=

36 3

20 2

m=

m=

3
and yintercept is (0, 6)
2

m = 5 and yintercept is (0, 4)

From above

y = mx + b; m = slope

11 4 15

5
30
3

b = yintercept

2. Determine equations of the following lines given slope and point.


a. m = 2; (0, 3)

y = 2x 3

b. m = 3; yintercept is 4 c. m =

y = 3x + 4

5
; (0, 6
6
y=

5
x
6

d. m = 5 and same yintercept as 3x 4y + 32 = 0


yint is 8

y = 5x + 8

3. Determine equations of the following.

a.

m=

1 3 4

30 3

b. m =

2
,b=
5

1
3

y=

4
x 3
3

y=

2
1
x
5
3

4. The equation of a line is y = 2x + b. Find b if the line passes through the


point:

a. (2, 6)
6 = 2(2) + b

b. (1, 3)
3 = 2(1) + b

10 = b

1 = b

I. Parallel and perpendicular lines.

Parallel lines have

Perpendicular lines

the same slope.

slopes that are

have
negative
reciprocals of each
other.

Examples.
1. Find slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines to:

a. m =

b. y =

3
5
7
x 3
3

Parallel P

Perpendicular

3
5

5
3

7
3

3
7
4
5

c. 4x + 5y 11 = 0

5
4

2. a. Given A (0, 2), B (3, 4), C (2, 4) b. Given A (2, 3), B (6, 5), C (1, 4)
and D (8, 1), show that AB CD .

m AB

4 2 6

2
3 0 3

m CD

1 4
5
1

8 2 10 2

Negative
reciprocals

and D (3, 6), is AB PCD ?

m AB

53 2 1

62 4 2

m CD

64 2 1

3 1 4 2

3. Which of the following lines are: i. parallel? ii. perpendicular?

Ye

a. 3x + 4y 24 = 0b. 4x + 3y 16 = 0
d. 6x + 8y + 15 = 0
m=

3
4

m=

i. a & d are parallel

4
3

c. 3x 4y + 10 = 0

3
4

m=

m=

3
4

ii. b & c are perpendicular

4. Find y in A (3, 8), B (1, 2), C (4, 1) D (2, y) such that:


b. AB CD

a. AB PCD

2 8 y 1

1 3 2 4

2 8 5

1 3 2

10 y 1

4
2

y 1 2

24 5

20 = 4y + 4

5y 5 = 4

16 = 4y

5y = 9

4 = y

y=

9
5

5. Given m1 P m 2 , find k.
a.

3 k
,
5 20

b.

k 3
,
5 2

5k = 60

2k = 15

k = 12

k = 7.5

6. For what value of k are the lines 3x 4y + 4 = 0 and kx + 3y + 10 = 0


perpendicular?
m=

3
4

m=

k
3

k 4

3
3
3k = 12
k=4

7. Find the equation of the line through A (1, 5) which is perpendicular to 3x


2y 12 = 0.

2y = 3x + 12

y=

m=

m=

2
3

3
x 6
2

y 5 2

x 1 3
3y 15 = 2x 2

3
2

2x + 3y 13 = 0

8. Find the equation of a line which is parallel to 3x + 2y + 8 = 0 and has a yint


of 2.
2y = 3x 8
y=

3
x4
2

y = mx + b
y=

3
x2
2