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Turbulence

CEFRC Combustion Summer School


2014

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Heinz Pitsch

Copyright 2014 by Heinz Pitsch.


This material is not to be sold, reproduced or distributed
without prior written permission of the owner, Heinz Pitsch.

Turbulent Mixing
Combustion requires mixing at the molecular level
Turbulence: convective transport molecular mixing

Surface Area
diffusion

fuel

oxidizer

diffusion

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
3

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Transition to turbulence
From observations: laminar flow becomes
turbulent
Characteristic length d
Flow velocity u
Viscosity

Dimensionless number: Reynolds number Re

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Characteristics of turbulent flows:


Random
3D
Has Vorticity
Large Re

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
6

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Conventional Averaging/Reynolds Decomposition
Averaging
Ensemble average

Time average

N and t
sufficiently large

For constant density flows:


Reynolds decomposition: mean and fluctuation, e.g. for the flow velocity ui

Reynolds-Zerlegung
Mean of the fluctuation is zero (applies for all quantities)

Mean of squared fluctuation differs from zero:

These averages are named RMS-values (root mean square)

Favre averaging (density weighted averaging)


Combustion: change in density correlation of density and other quantities
Reynolds decomposition (for const.)

Favre averaging

By definition: mean of density weighted fluctuation 0

Density weighted mean velocity

Favre average conventional average


Favre average as a function of conventional mean and fluctuation

and for the fluctuating quantity

For non-constant density: Favre average leads to much simpler expression

10

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
11

Types of Turbulence
Statistically Homogeneous Turbulence
All statistics of fluctuating quantities are invariant
under translation of the coordinate system
for averaged fluctuating quantities
(more generally
) applies

Constant gradients of the mean velocity


are permitted:
Scalar dissipation rate in
statistically
homogeneous turbulent
flow

12

Statistically Isotropic Turbulence


All statistics are invariant under
translation, rotation and reflection
of the coordinate system

Mean velocities = 0
Isotropy requires homogeneity
Relevance of this flow case:
Simplifications allow theoretical conclusions
DNS of statistically homogeneous and isotropic
about turbulence
turbulence: x1-component of the velocity
Turbulent motions on small scales are typically
assumed to be isotropic (Kolmogorov hypotheses)

13

Turbulent Shear Flow


Relevant flow cases in technical systems
Round jet
Flow around airfoil
Flows in combustion chamber

Due to the complexity of these turbulent flows they


cannot be described theoretically

Quelle: www-ah.wbmt.tudelft.nl

Temporally evolving shear layer: Scalar dissipation rate (left), mixture fraction Z (rechts)

14

Turbulent jet: magnitude of


vorticity

Example: DNS of Homogeneous Shear Turbulence

Scalar dissipation rate in homogeneous shear turbulence


2048x2048x2048 collocation points

15

Close-up/detail

Example: DNS of a Shear Flow

inhomogeneous

Scalar
dissipation rate

statistically
homogeneous

Statistically homogeneous

16

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
17

Mean-flow Equations
Starting from the Navier-Stokes-equations for incompressible fluids
(continuity)
(momentum)

Four unknowns within four equations: u1, u2, u3, p

Reynolds decomposition

18

Averaged Continuity Equation


1. From continuity equation it follows

and

Linearity of the continuity equation: no correlations of fluctuating quantities

19

Averaged Momentum Equation


2. This does not apply for the momentum equation!

Convective term
Contin.

Time-averaging yields
Contin.

This term includes product of components of fluctuating velocities: this is due


to the non-linearity of the convective term
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Reynolds Stress Tensor


Averaging of the other terms averaged momentum equation:

The additional term, resulting from convective transport, is added to the


viscous term on the right hand side (divergence of a second order tensor)

is called Reynolds stress tensor


21

Closure Problem in Statistical Turbulence Theory


This leads to the closure problem in turbulence theory!
The Reynolds Stress Tensor

needs to be expressed as a function of mean flow quantities


A first idea: derivation of a transport equation for

22

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
23

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor

24

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


Multiplication of the equation

with the fluctuating velocity


with

25

and a corresponding equation for


leads after summation to

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


The viscous terms on the right hand side of

can be transformed into

26

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


Splitting of the pressure-terms in

with Kronecker delta

27

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


Averaging and rearranging leads to

Six new equations, but far more new unknowns

28

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


The meaning and name of the single terms are listed below:
L: Local change

C: Convective transport

P: Production of Reynolds stresses (negative product of Reynolds-stress tensor and


the gradient of time-averaged velocity)

29

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


DS: (Pseudo-)dissipation of Reynolds stresses

PSC: pressure-rate-of-strain correlation. It contributes to the redistribution of


Reynolds stresses in a similar way the diffusion term does

30

*Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


DF: diffusion of the Reynolds stresses. It includes all terms under the divergence
operator

In this balance production and dissipation are the most important terms
The mean velocity gradients are responsible for the production of turbulence (P)

31

Transport Equation for Reynolds Stress Tensor


Transport equation for Reynolds stress tensor

Six new equations, but far more new unknowns

32

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
33

Transport Equation for Turbulent Kinetic Energy


Derivation of an equation for the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE)
TKE is defined as

Contraction j = k ( k: index, not TKE) in Reynolds equation yields

34

Transport Equation for Turbulent Kinetic Energy


Continuity equation pressure-rate-of-strain correlation PSC = 0
Dissipation

Mean dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy

35

Transport Equation for Turbulent Kinetic Energy


The transport equation for turbulent kinetic energy

can be interpreted just as the transport equation for the Reynolds stress
tensor
Local change and convection of turbulent kinetic energy (lhs)
Production, dissipation and diffusion (rhs)
PSC 0

36

Transport Equation for Turbulent Kinetic Energy

example: pipe-flow

37

example: free jet

Transport Equation for Turbulent Kinetic Energy


Transport equation

BUT: Closure problem is not solved


Triple correlations
Derivation of equations for such correlations even higher correlations

38

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
39

Turbulence Models
Turbulent Viscosity
The derived averaged equations are not closed turbulent stress tensor has
to be modeled

Analogy to Newton approach for molecular shear stress gradient transport


model:

is eddy viscosity/turbulent viscosity (important: molecular viscosity!)


40

Turbulent-viscosity models
Algebraic models: e.g. Prandtls mixing-length concept

TKE models: e.g. Prandtl-Kolmogorov

k--Modell (Jones, Launder)

41

Algebraic Model: Prandtls Mixing-length Concept


Eddy viscosity

Based on dimensional analysis


All unknown proportionalities mixing-length
Empirical methods for determining lm
Assumption: lm = const.

42

TKE model: Prandtl-Kolmogorov


Eddy viscosity

Model constant C (often: C = 0,09)


lpk: characteristic length scale determined empirically

Equation for TKE

43

Two-equation-model: k--model
Eddy viscosity

Solving one equation each for


TKE

dissipation

the model parameters need to be determined empirically

44

Two-equation-model: k--model
Assumptions:
Turbulent transport term

Influence of correlation between velocity- and pressure fluctuations is not


considered
Molecular transport is assumed to be much smaller than turbulent transport and
is therefore neglected

Production

45

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
46

Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade


Two-Point Correlation
Characteristic feature of turbulent flows: eddies exist at different length
scales
x

x+r

Turbulent round jet: Reynolds number Re 2300

Determination of the distribution of eddy size at a single point


Measurement of velocity fluctuation
Two-point correlation
47

and

Correlation Function
Homogeneous isotropic turbulence:
,
Two-point correlation normalized by its variance

Degree of correlation of stochastic signals

correlation
function

48

Integral Turbulent Scales


Largest scales: physical scale of the problem
Integral length scale lt (largest eddies)
Integral velocity scale

Integral time scale

49

Energy Spectrum
Energy Spectrum (logarithmic)

Energy Cascade

energy density

Energy

Transfer
of Energy

wave number

50

Dissipation
of Energy

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
51

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
First Kolmogorov Hypothesis
At sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, small-scale eddies have a universal
form. They are determined by two parameters
Dissipation
Kinematic viscosity

Dimensional analysis
Length

Time
Velocity u
52

Second Kolmogorov Hypothesis


At sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, the statistics of the motions of scale r
in the range << r << lt have a universal form that is uniquely determined by
Dissipation
But independent of kinematic viscosity

Inertial subrange
Integral length scale

Ratio /lt

53

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
54

Scalar Transport Equations


Transport equation for mixture fraction Z

Favre averaging
not closed

molecular
transport

55

turbulent
transport

Transport Equation for Mixture Fraction


Neglecting molecular transport (assumption: Re)
Gradient transport model for turbulent transport

Dt: Turbulent diffusivity


Sct: Turbulent Schmidt number

Transport equation for mean mixture fraction

56

Transport Equation for Mixture Fraction


Variance equation
First step: equation for

57

Transport Equation for Mixture Fraction


By neglecting the derivatives of and D and their mean values, then
multiplying this equation by
, applying continuity equation, averaging
and neglecting the molecular transport results in

not closed

Favre averaged scalar dissipation

58

Modeling of Scalar Dissipation


Scalar dissipation rate has to be modeled
Integral time Z (dimensional analysis)
with

Typically proportional to
and

This leads to

59

Transport Equation for Reactive Scalars


Assumptions:
Specific heat cp, = cp = const.
Pressure p = const., heat transfer by radiation is neglected
Lewis number Le = Le = Sc/Pr = 1

Temperature equation

Source term

60

due to chemical reactions (heat release)

Transport Equation for Reactive Scalars


Temperature equation

is similar to the equation for the mass fraction of component

61

Transport Equation for Reactive Scalars


The term reactive scalar includes
Mass fractions Y of all components = 1, N
Temperature T

Balance equations for

Di: mass diffusivity, thermal diffusivity


Si: mass/temperature source term
62

Transport Equation for Reactive Scalars


Derivation of a transport equation for
Favre decomposition

and averaging of

leads to

not closed

molecular
transport

63

turbulent
transport

averaged
source term

Transport Equation for Reactive Scalars


Neglecting the molecular transport (assumption: Re)
Gradient transport model for the turbulent transport term

Averaged transport equation

64

Not closed chapter


Modelling of Turbulent
Combustion

Course Overview
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
65

Large-Eddy Simulation
Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)
Solve NS-equations
No models
For turbulent flows
Computational domain has to be at least of order of integral length scale l
Mesh spacing has to resolve smallest scales
Minimum number of cells per direction nx = l/ = Ret3/4
Minimum number of cells total nt = nx3 = Ret9/4

66

Large-Eddy Simulation
Example: Turbulent Jet with Re = 15000

This is for one integral length scale only!

67

Pope, Turbulent Flows

Large-Eddy Simulation
Large-Eddy Simulation (LES)
Spatial filtering as opposed to RANS-ensemble averaging
Sub-filter modeling as opposed to DNS

68

Large-Eddy Simulation

69

Large-Eddy Simulation
Spatial filtering rather than ensemble average

Representation taken from Pope (2000)

Computational Grid

Scales smaller than filter scale absent from the filtered quantities
Filtered signal can be discretized using a mesh substantially smaller than the DNS
mesh
70

Large-Eddy Simulation
For example:
Box filter in 1D:

Sharp spectral filter:

71

Large-Eddy Simulation

Pope, Turbulent Flows

72

Large-Eddy Simulation
Filtered momentum equation:

Define residual stress tensor:

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Large-Eddy Simulation
Sub-filter Modeling
Eddy viscosity model for
Filtered strain rate tensor

74

Large-Eddy Simulation
Smagorinsky model for
(in analogy to mixing length model)
Sub-filter eddy viscosity

Sub-filter velocity fluctuation


with filtered rate of strain

75

Large-Eddy Simulation
Smagorinsky length scale

Similar equations can be derived for scalar transport

76

System of equations closed!

Summary
Part II: Turbulent Combustion

Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

Statistical Description of Turbulent Flows


Reynolds decomposition

Turbulence

Favre decomposition

Turbulent Premixed Combustion

Types of turbulence

Turbulent Non-Premixed

Mean-flow Equations

Combustion

Modelling Turbulent Combustion


Applications

Reynolds Stress Equations

k-Equation
Turbulence Models
Scales of Turbulent Flows/Energy Cascade

Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Scalar Transport Equations
Large Eddy Simulation
77