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Introduction to

the Transport
Layer

Transport level

Introduction to the Transport Layer

Telematics Engineering
Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC)

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Outline

Transport level

1 Transport level

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

The Network Layer


The main goal of the network layer is homogenizing

Transport level

different data link layer technologies.


IP provides a best effort service for delivering

datagrams.
Datagrams are packets that:
Use IP addresses for identifying the source (NIC) and
the destination (NIC).
A datagram with the same pair of IP addresses can take
different routes.
Best effort:
IP networks do not guarantee a correct delivery of
datagrams: we may have incorrect or lost datagrams
and disorders.
It is said that IP does not offer Quality of Service (QoS).

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Transport level

Transport Layer I
The main goal of the transport layer is to implement

communications between processes (applications).


These communications are also called end-to-end

communications.
Introduces the concept of PORT for multiplexing and

demultiplexing.
P2

P1

P3

P4

P5

P6

transport

transport

network

network

link

link
physical

host 1

Internet
Internet

physical

host 2

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Transport Layer II

Transport level

Ports are used to mux/demux different transport

communications that can use the same IP source and


IP destination addresses.
Uses the network layer services.
Responsible for providing an interface to the processes

so they can send and receive data through the network.

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Transport level

Multiplexing/Demultiplexing
Multiplexing:
Multiplexing is
performed by the
sender.
The sender includes a
destination port
number.
In this way, the
receiver can
demultiplex and deliver
the data to the correct
process. es is put
together and delivered
to the transport layer.
It must include the
necessary information
for demultiplexing.

Demultiplexing:
In reception.
Data from transport
layer is extracted and
delivered to the each
appropiate process.
It uses the information
included by the sender
to do so.

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

The Port

Transport level

The final recipient of an IP packet is not the network

card (with an associated @IP)


Is a running process (even ICMP).
In a host there must be multiple processes running.
OSs identify the processes (i.e. Linux PID).
On the netwoks field a new identifier that does not

depend on OS is assigned to the processes: the port.


The port is an integer locally assigned to a running

process that requires communication with another


process.
In TCP and UDP, ports are identifiers of 16 bits (see

headers).

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Sockets

Transport level

A process has a unique identifier in an IP network

called socket.
Furthermore, a socket is defined by a network address

(ie. IP), a protocol (ie. TCP) and a port number (ie 80).
The socket is a way of uniquely identifying a process on

a network.
A connection between the two processes is identified

by two sockets.
(Source IP, source port, destination IP, destination port, protocol)

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Client-Server Model

Transport level

Distributed communication system between multiple

processes.
Clients request services and Servers provide them.
Separates services by placing each one in the most

suitable platform.

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Client

Transport level

Is the one who initiates requests (active or master).


Waits and gets the replies from the servers.
Usually, it can connect to multiple servers at the same

time.
Typically it interacts directly with end users by a

graphical user interface.


Communication parameters:
The local port is normally assigned dynamically.
The local network address is the output interface.
The port and remote network address must be known
(ie. web browsing).

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Server

Transport level

At first they wait for client requests, they play a passive

role (slave).
After receiving a request, it is processed and then the

reply is sent back to the client.


Usually they accept connections from a large number

of clients (in some cases the maximum number of


requests may be limited).
Is not common that a server process interacts directly

with the end-user.


daemon type application.
Communication parameters:
Fixed port assignment (listen)

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Introduction to
the Transport
Layer

Transport Protocols

Transport level

User Datagram Protocol (UDP):


Unreliable.
No connection-oriented.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP):
Reliable.
Connection-oriented.

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