This Manual is very useful for BE-First year (All Branch)
In this manual we cover all the topics which is related to Engineering graphics

© All Rights Reserved

67 vistas

This Manual is very useful for BE-First year (All Branch)
In this manual we cover all the topics which is related to Engineering graphics

© All Rights Reserved

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INDORE (M.P.)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING

LABORATORY MANUAL

SUBJECT: ENGG.GRAPHICS

[SUBJECT CODE: BE-105]

PRAPARED BY:-

H.O.D. [Mech.Engg.]

LIST OF SHEETS

INDEX

S.NO.

NAME OF SHEETS

ENGINEERING SCALES

CONIC SECTIONS

ENGINEERING CURVES

PROJECTIONS OF PLANES

PROJECTIONS OF SOLID

SECTION OF SOLID

DEVLOPMENT OF SURFACES

ISOMETRICS PROJECTION

10

ORTHOGRAPHICS PROJECTION

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

PAGE NO.

PRACTICE SESSION

S.NO. NAME OF EQUIPMENTS

QUANTITY

MINI-DRAFTER (T-Square)

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

1-SET

1-SET

1

1-SET

1-EACH

8

9

FRENCH CURVES

SET-SQUARE

PROTRACTOR

DRAWING CLIP

LEAD PENCIL/CLUTCH PENCIL (HB, H,

2H & 4H)

ERACER

SAND PAPER/CELLO TAPE

10

11

12

DRAWING SHEET

ROLLER SCALE

11

1

1

1

to attend the practical session.

School Instrument box is not allowed.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:-1

TITLE: - Engineering Scales

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY:- A scale is defined as the ratio of the linear dimensions of the object as represented in a

drawing to the actual dimensions of the same.

It is not convenient, always, to draw drawings of the object to its actual size. e.g. Buildings, Heavy

machines, Bridges, Watches, Electronic devices etc. Hence scales are used to prepare drawing at

Full size

Reduced size

Enlarged size

Types of Graphical Scale

Plain Scale

Diagonal Scale

Vernier Scale

Comparative scale

Scale of chard

1 KILOMETRE = 10 HECTOMETRES

1 HECTOMETRE= 10 DECAMETRES

1 DECAMETRE= 10 METRES

1 METRE= 10 DECIMETRES

1 DECIMETRE= 10 CENTIMETRES

1 CENTIMETRE= 10 MILIMETRES

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

1 YARD

1 FEET

1 INCHES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

= 3 FEET

= 12 INCHES

= 2.54 CENTIMETRE

PLAIN SCALES

( FOR DIMENSIONS UP TO SINGLE DECIMAL)

DIAGONAL SCALES

( FOR DIMENSIONS UP TO TWO DECIMALS)

VERNIER SCALES

( FOR DIMENSIONS UP TO TWO DECIMALS)

COMPARATIVE SCALES ( FOR COMPARING TWO DIFFERENT UNITS)

SCALE OF CORDS

( FOR MEASURING/CONSTRUCTING ANGLES)

Plain Scale

PROBLEM NO.1:-Construct a scale of 1:4, to show centimetres and long enough to measure up to

5 decimetres.

CONSTRUCTION:1. R.F. =

2. Length of the scale = R.F. * max. length = 5 dm = 12.5 cm.

3. Draw a line 12.5 cm long and divide it in to 5 equal divisions, each representing 1 dm.

4. Mark 0 at the end of the first division and 1, 2, 3 and 4 at the end of each subsequent division to

its right.

5. Divide the first division into 10 equal sub-divisions, each representing 1 cm.

6. Mark cm to the left of 0 as shown.

Diagonal Scale

PROBLEM NO.2:- Construct a Diagonal scale of RF = 3:200 (i.e. 1:66 2/3) showing meters,

decimeters and centimeters. The scale should measure up to 6 meters. Show a distance of 4.56

meters

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

CONSTRUCTION:1. Length of the scale = (3/200) x 6 m = 9 cm

2. Draw a line AB = 9 cm. Divide it in to 6 equal parts.

3. Divide the first part A0 into 10 equal divisions.

4. At A draw a perpendicular and step-off along it 10 equal divisions, ending at D.

5. Complete the rectangle ABCD.

6. Draw perpendiculars at meter-divisions i.e. 1, 2, 3, and 4.

7. Draw horizontal lines through the division points on AD. Join D with the end of the first division

along A0 (i.e. 9).

8. Through the remaining points i.e. 8, 7, 6draw lines // to D9.

9. PQ = 4.56 meters

Scale of Chard

CONSTRUCTION:1. Draw sector of a circle 90with OA radius. (OA ANY CONVINIENT DISTANCE)

2. Divide this angle in nine equal parts of 10 each.

3. Name as shown from end A upwards.

4. From A as centre with cords of each angle as radius. Draw arcs downwards up to AO Line

OR its extension and from a scale with proper labeling as shown. As cord lengths are to measure &

construct different angles it is called scale of cords.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-1

Q.1) Construct a scale of 1:5 to show decimetres and centimetres and to read up to 1 metre. Show

the length on 7.6 dm on it.

Q.2) Construct a scale of 1.5 inches = 1 foot to show inches and long enough to measure up to 4

feet.

Q.3) Construct a scale of RF 1/60 to read yards and feet, and long enough to measure up to 5 yards.

Q.4) A 3.2 cm long line represents a length of 4m. Extend this line to measure length up to 25 m

and show on it units of metre and 5 m show length of 17 m on it.

Q.5) Construct a scale of RF 1/6250 to read up to 1 km and to read metre on it. Show a length of

653 m on it.

Q.6) The area field is 50,000sq.m. The length and the breadth of the field on the map is 10cm and

8cm respectively. Construct a diagonal scale which can read up to 1 metre. Mark the length of 235

m and 435 m on the scale. What is the RF of the scale?

Q.7) On the map the distance between two points is 14 cm. The real distance between them is 204

m. draw a diagonal scale of this map to read Kms then centimetres and to measure up to 25kms,

show the distance of 17.6kms on this scale.

Q.8) On a road map, a scale of miles is shown. On measuring from this scale a distance of 25 miles

is shown by a line of 10cms. Construct this scale to read miles and to measure up to 40 miles.

Construct a comparative scale attached to this scale to read kms up to 60 kms. (1 mile = 1.609 kms)

Q.9) Construct a scale of chords showing 5 divisions and with its aid set off angles of 25 , 40 , 55

, and 130 .

Q.10) Draw a triangle having 8, 9 and 10 cms long sides and measure its angles with aid of scale of

chords.

Q.1 Define Engineering Scale?

Q.2 Define Classification of Engineering Scale?

Q.3 what is meant by Plain scale, Diagonal scale, Vernier scale, Comparative scale, & Scale of

Chord?

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:-2

TITLE: - Conic Sections

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: - Curves formed by the intersection of a plane with a right circular cone.

E.g. Parabola, hyperbola and ellipse

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-2

Q.1The major and minor axes of an ellipse are 140mm and 90mm respectively. Find the foci and

draw the ellipse using arc of circle method. Draw the tangent and normal to the ellipse at point

distance 40mm above the major axes.

Q.2 Draw the locus of a point moving in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed point

to a fixed St.line is less than one. The actual distance between the fixed point and fixed St.line is

30mm. Draw a tangent and normal to the curve at a point 50mm away from the fixed St.line

Q.3 Construct an ellipse having a major axes and minor axes 100mm and 60mm respectively using

Co-centric circle method

Q.4 Construct an ellipse having major and minor axes 160mm and 100mm respectively using

Oblong Method

Q.5 Draw the locus of a point moving in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed point

to a fixed St.line is equal to one. The actual distance between the fixed point and fixed St.line is

60mm. Draw a tangent and normal to the curve at a point 80mm away from the fixed St.line

Q.6 Two point A and B are 110mm apart. Point C is 90mm and 60mm from point A and B

respectively. Draw a parabola passing through point A, B, & C

Q.7 A fountain jet discharges water from the ground level at inclination of 60 to the ground. The

jet travels a horizontal distance of 14m from the point of discharge and fall on the ground. The path

traced of the jet and names the curve.

Q.8 A stone is thrown from a 4m high building and at its highest flight; the stone just crosses the

top of a 10m high tree from the ground. Trace the path of the projectile, if the horizontal distance

between the building and the tree is 5m. Find the distance of the point from the building where the

stone falls on the ground.

Q.9A fixed point 90mm from a fixed St.line. Draw the locus of a point p moving in such a way that

its distance from the fixed point is twice its distance from the fixed St.line. Name the curve

Q.10Two fixed point are 70mm apart. Draw the locus of a point p which moves in such a manner

that the difference of its distance from the fixed point is always the same and equal to 50mm. Name

the curve.

Q.11Draw a hyperbola when half the transverse axis, double ordinate and abscissa are

40mm,110mm, and 30mm long respectively.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:- 3

TITLE: - Engineering Curves (Special Curves)

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: -Curves generated by the rolling contact of one curve or line on another curve

or line, without slipping.

There are various types of engineering curves

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CYCLOID

EPI-CYCLOID

HYPO-CYCLOID

INVOLUTE

SPIRAL

A Cycloid is generated by a point on the circumference of a circle rolling along a straight line

without slipping

The rolling circle is called the Generating circle

The straight line is called the Directing line or Base line

An Epi-cycloid when the generating circle rolls along another circle outside it.

A Hypocycloid is obtained when the generating circle rolls along another circle inside it.

An Involute is a curve traced by the free end of a thread unwound from a circle or a

polygon in such a way that the thread is always tight and tangential to the circle or side

of the polygon

The Archimedean spiral is the locus of a point that moves away from another fixed point

at uniform linear velocity and uniform angular velocity.

It may also be considered to be the locus of a point moving at constant speed along a line

when the line rotates about a fixed point at constant speed.

Q.1 Define Conic Section?

Q.2Define Ellipse, Parabola & Hyperbola with their application?

Q.3 Define Engineering curves?

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-3

Q.1A circular wheel of 60mm diameter rolls without slipping along a straight line. Draw the curve

traced by a point P, lying on the rim for 1.25 revolution of the wheel. Name the curve traced also

draw a tangent and a normal at a distance at a point the wheel has travelled 100mm its starting

position.

Q.2 A rolling circle having a 40mm diameter AB rolls on a fixed disc with 60mm diameter with

external contact. Draw the loci path traced by the point A and B of the rolling circle for one

complete revolution, when one of the end points of diameter AB is in contact to the disc at the

starting position.

Q.3A circus man rides on a motor cycle inside a globe having a 6m diameter. The motor cycle

wheel is 1m in diameter. Draw the locus of a point lying on the circumference of the wheel of the

motor cycle for one complete turn.

Q.4 Draw an epi-cycloid taking the diameter of both the rolling and directing circles as 50mm.

Suggest an alternative name for this curve.

Q.5 Construct a hypocycloid taking the diameter of the generating circle and radius of directing

circle as 60mm.

Q.6 Draw a path traced out by end of a piece of thread when unwound from a circle of 40mm

diameter, the thread being kept tight when it is being unwound. Name the curve traced.

Q.7 A disc is in the form of a hexagon of 30mm side. Draw the path of the end of a string which is

unwound from the circumference of the disc.

Q.8A 80mm long link OA rotates about O in anticlockwise direction. A point M on the link 20mm

away from O, moves and reaches has rotated through one revolution. Assuming the moment of the

link and the point to be uniform, trace the path of the point M.

Q.9A circle having a 50mm diameter roll on the horizontal line for half revolution and then on an

inclined line 60 with the horizontal for another half. Draw the curve traced out by point P.

Q.10 Draw an Archimedean spiral of 1.5 convolutions when the shortest and the greatest radii are

15mm and 80mm respectively. Also draw a tangent and a normal to the curve at a point is 45mm

from the pole

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:- 4

TITLE: - Projections of St. Line

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: Line is the shortest distance between two points is called line. It has

length but negligible thickness.

Projection of Line: To draw the front view, top view and side view is called

Projection of straight line.

Positions of straight lines: The position of straight line in a space can be fixed if

their inclinations with reference planes and distance of its extremities from the

two planes are known. The following are the important positions which a

straight line can take with respect to two reference planes.

Statement/position of line

1

3 Line perpendicular to HP &

to XY

to XY

Perpendicular to XY

True length and

point

parallel to VP

Line in HP & VP

HP

at VP

Top view

point

parallel to VP

Front view

Perpendicular to XY

True length and coincide

on XY

True length and inclined

on XY

Shorter than true

at to XY

Shorter than true

True length and inclined

in XY

at to XY

Neither true length nor

Neither true length nor

in xy

true inclination

true inclination

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION:

1. What is mean by Orthographic Projection?

2. Define line?

3. What Is Mean By Horizontal Trace?

4. What Is Mean By Vertical Trace?

5. How to Draw F.V and T.V if line is inclined to both the Planes

PROCEDURE:1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Draw locus lines which are parallel to Reference line at given distance

Draw true length in particular plane with reference specific given data

Draw projection lines from end points of true length.

Draw apparent line in with the help of projections.

Give the name to line in both the views

Text with suffix for F.V and plain text for T.V

Show all necessary dimensions

Write the given problem on the sheet

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-4

Q.1. A line AB 50 mm long has its end A in both the HP & VP. It is inclined at 30 to the HP & 45

to the VP. Draw its projections.

Q.2. A line PQ 75 mm long, has its end P in the VP & end Q in the HP. The line is inclined 30 to

the HP & 60 to the VP. Draw its projections.

Q.3. A line PQ 100 mm long, is inclined at 30 to the HP & 45 to the VP. Its mid point is in the VP

& 20 mm above the HP. Draw its projections if the end P is in the third quadrant & end Q is in the

first quadrant.

Q.4.The top view of a 75 mm long line AB measures 65 mm, while the length of its front view is 50

mm. Its one end A is in the HP & 12 mm in front of the VP. Draw the projections of the line AB &

determine the true inclinations of the line.

Q.5. A line AB 65 mm long, has its end A 20 mm above the HP & 25 mm in front of the VP. The

end B is 40 mm above the HP & 65 mm in front of the VP. Draw the projections of the line AB &

show its true inclinations with the HP & VP.

Q.6.The projections of the ends of a line AB are 5 cm apart. The end A is 2 cm above the HP & 3

cm in front of the VP. The end B is 1cm below the HP & 4 cm behind the VP. Determine the true

length & traces of the line AB & its inclinations with the two principal planes.

Q.7. The end A of a line AB is 25 mm behind the VP & is below the HP. The end B is 12 mm in

front of the VP & is above the HP. The distance between the projectors is 65 mm. The line is

inclined at 40 to the HP. Draw the projections of the line & determine its true length.

Q.8. A line AB, inclined at 40 to the VP, has its ends 50 mm & 20 mm above the HP. The length

of its front view is 65 mm & its VT is 10 mm above the HP. Determine the length of AB, its

inclination with the HP & its HT.

Q.9 Draw the projections of a line AB, 90 mm long, its midpoint M being 50 mm above the HP &

40 mm in front of VP. The end A is 20 mm above the HP & 10 mm in front of the VP. Show the

traces & inclination of the line with the HP & VP.

Q.10The front view of a 125 mm long line PQ measures 75 mm & its top view measures 100 mm.

Its end Q & the midpoint M are in the first quadrant, M being 20 mm from both the planes. Draw

the projections of the line PQ.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

Q.11 A line PQ inclined at 40 to H.P. its one end is 25mm above the H.P. & 30mm in front of the

V.P. The top view of the line is 70mm & is inclined at 30 to reference line. Draw the projection of

the line & determine its true length & inclination with V.P.

Q.12 A line AB inclined at 40 to H.P. has its front view 60mm long & inclined at 60 to the

reference line. One end is 20mm away from both the reference planes in first quadrant. Locate the

position of end B. find true length and true inclination of the line with V.P. and also draw its traces.

Q.13The distance between the end projectors of a line PQ is 50mm. the end P is 50mm in front of

the V.P. & 25mm above the H.P. the other end Q is 10mm in front of the V.P. The line is inclined at

30to V.P. Draw its projection and determine its true length, true inclination with H.P.

Q.14A St. Line PQ has its one end 20mm above the H.P. & 30mm in front of the V.P. & another

end is 80mm above the H.P. & the 70mm in front of the V.P. if the end projector are 60mm apart.

Draw the projection of the line. Determine its true length & true inclination with the reference

plane.

Q.15 Draw projection and find out true length of the line PQ with end Q on the H.P. and 40mm in

front of the V.P. The line is inclined at 45 to H.P. 30 to V.P. its plan measure 50mm.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:- 5

TITLE: - Projections of Planes

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: Plane: A flat surface generated by moving a straight line in space is

called plane.

Type of a plane:

Following are the two types of plane used in engineering drawing:

Perpendicular plane

Oblique plane

1) Perpendicular plane:

The planes which are perpendicular to both the reference plane i.e.,

HP and VP are called perpendicular plane. These planes can be located in

different manner:

Plane perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP

Plane perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP

Plane perpendicular to both the reference planes

VP&HP

Plane perpendicular to HP and inclined to VP

Plane perpendicular to VP and inclined to HP

2) Oblique plane:

Sr. Statement/position of plane

No

Front view

Top view

True shape

Line parallel to XY

Line parallel to XY

True shape

3

4

Line perpendicular to XY Line perpendicular to XY

Perpendicular to HP and inclined at to VP Reduce shape of the plane Line inclined at to XY

HP

Line inclined at to XY

plane

plane

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION:

1. What is mean by Orthographic Projection?

2. Define plane.

3. What Is Mean By Horizontal Trace?

4. What Is Mean By Vertical Trace?

5. How to Draw F.V and T.V if plane is inclined to both the reference

Planes.

PROCEDURE:1. Draw reference line XY.

2. Draw the plane of required edges.

3. Draw projection lines from end points of the polygon.

4. Draw apparent shape with the help of projections.

5. Give the name to the corner points of the polygon in front view and top view

6. Show all necessary dimensions.

7. Write the given problem on the sheet.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-5

Q.1A regular pentagon of 2 5mm side has one side on the ground. Its plane is inclined at 45 to the

HP & perpendicular to the VP. Draw its projections & show its traces.

Q.2 Draw the projections of a circle of 5 cm diameter, having its plane vertical & inclined at 30 to

the VP. Its centre is 3 cm above the HP & 2 cm in front of the VP. Show its traces also.

Q.3. A square ABCD of 50 mm side has its corner A in the HP, its diagonal AC inclined at 30 to

the HP & the diagonal BD inclined at 45 to the VP & parallel to the HP. Draw its projections.

Q.4. Draw the projections of a regular hexagon of 25 mm side having one of its sides in the HP &

inclined at 60 to the VP & its surface making an angle of 45 with the HP.

Q.5. Draw the projections of regular pentagon of 40 mm side, having its surface inclined at 30 to

the HP & aside parallel to the HP & inclined at angle of 60 to the VP.

Q.6. Draw the projections of a circle of 50 mm diameter resting in the HP on a point A on the

circumference; its plane is inclined at 45 to the HP

a. The top view of the diameter AB making an angle of 30 with the VP.

b. The diameter AB making 30 angles with the VP.

Q.7. A thin 30 -60 set square has its longest edge in the VP & inclined at 300 to the HP. Its

surface makes an angle of 450 with the VP. Draw its projections.

Q.8. A thin rectangular plate of size 60 mm X 30 mm has its shorter side in the VP & inclined at

30 to the HP. Project its top view if its front view is a square of 30 mm long side.

Q.9. A semi circular plate of 80 mm diameter has its straight edge in the VP & inclined at 45 to the

HP. The surface of the plate makes an angle of 30 to the VP. Draw its projections.

Q.10. A hexagonal plane figure of 30 mm side is resting on a corner in the VP with its surface

making an angle of 30 with the VP. The front view of the diagonal passing through that corner is

inclined at 35 to the HP draw its projections.

Q.11. A pentagonal plate of 45 mm side has a circular hole of 40 mm diameter in its centre. The

plane stands on one of its sides on the HP with its plane perpendicular to the VP & 45 inclined to

the HP. Draw its projections.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:- 6

TITLE: - Projections of Solid

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: Solids: An object having three dimensions, i.e, length, breadth and

height is called a solid.

Projections of solid: the top view, front view and side view of a solid is known

as projections of solids.

Type of solids:

Polyhedral

Solids of revolution

1) Polyhedral: The solid which is bounded by plane surfaces is called a

polyhedral.

Tetrahedron Cube

Prism:

The

polyhedral

having

two

equal

and

similar

ends bases,

parallel to each other and are joined by other faces which may be

rectangle or parallelograms is called a prism.

a) Square

b) Pentagonal

c) Hexagonal

Pyramid: the polyhedral having a plane figure for its base and equal

number of isosceles triangular faces meeting at a point is called as

pyramid.

a) Square

b) Pentagonal

c) Hexagonal

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION:

1. Define projection of solids?

2. Define prism?

3. Define pyramid?

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

4. What is the difference between prism and pyramid?

PROCEDURE:1. Draw reference line XY.

2. Draw FV or TV of true shape of a solid base as per given data.

3. Draw projection lines from true shape to complete another view.

4. Show all necessary dimensions.

5. Write the given problem on the sheet.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-6

Q.1. Draw the projections of a hexagonal pyramid, base 30 mm side & axis 60 mm long, having its

base on the HP & one of the edge of the base inclined at 45 to the VP.

Q.2. Draw the projections of a pentagonal prism, base 25 mm side & axis 50 mm long, resting on

one of its rectangular faces on the HP, with axis inclined at 45 to the VP.

Q.3. Draw the projections of a cylinder 30 mm diameter & 50 mm long, lying on the ground with its

axis inclined at 30 to the VP & parallel to the ground.

Q.4. A hexagonal pyramid, base 25 mm side & axis 50 mm long, has an edge of its base on the

ground. Its axis is inclined at 30 to the ground & parallel to the VP. Draw its projections.

Q.5. Draw the projections of a cone base 50 mm diameter & axis 75 mm long lying on the HP with

one of its generators, with the axis parallel to the VP.

Q.6. A square prism, base 40 mm side & height 65 mm, has its axis inclined at 45 to the HP & has

an edge of its base on the HP & inclined at 30to the VP. Draw its projections.

Q.7. Draw the projections of cone base 45 mm diameter & axis 50 mm long, when it is resting on

the ground on a point on its base circle with the axis making an angle of 30 with the HP & its top

view making 45 with the VP.

Q.8. A pentagonal pyramid, base 25 mm side & axis 50 mm long, has one of its triangular faces in

the VP & the edge of the base contained by that face makes an angle of 30 with the HP. Draw its

projections.

Q.9. A pentagonal prism of base 30 mm side & 60 mm height, is resting on one of the corner of its

base on the HP. The longer edge containing that corner is inclined at 45 to the HP & the top view

of the axis is inclined at 30to XY. Draw its projections.

Q.10. A hexagonal pyramid, base 25 mm side & axis 50 mm long, has one of its slant edge on the

ground. A plane containing that edge & the axis is perpendicular to the HP & inclined at 45 to the

VP. Draw its projections when the apex is nearer the VP than the base.

Q.11. Draw the projections of a square pyramid having one of its triangular faces in the VP & the

axis parallel to & 40 mm above the HP. Base 30 mm side & axis 75 mm long.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:- 7

TITLE: - Section of Solid

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: Section of Solids: the solids which are cut by the section planes to

visualize the internal constructional details of the invisible features are known as

sections of solids.

Terms used in sections of solids:

Section plane or cutting plane: the imaginary plane by which the object is

assumed to be cut is known as section plane.

Sectional view: the projection obtained on a plane of projection of

a cut object.

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION:

1. What is mean by Orthographic Projection?

2. Define section of solids?

3. Define section plane?

4. What is section plane?

PROCEDURE:1. Draw reference line XY.

2. Draw FV or TV of true shape of a solid base as per given data.

3 . Draw projection lines from true shape to complete another view.

4. Draw the section plane (line) parallel to HP as per given data.

5. Draw projection line from the intersection point of the section line and object

edges.

6. Draw projection line up to the true shape view.

7. Join the intersection point of projection line and the edges of the true shape

view.

8. Mark the intersection points.

9. Show all necessary dimensions by using dimension toolbar.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-7

Q.1A square pyramid, base 40 mm side & axis 65 mm long, has its base on the HP & all the edges

of the base equally inclined to the VP. It is cut by a sectional plane, perpendicular to the VP &

inclined at 45 to the HP, & bisecting the axis. Draw its front view, sectional top view & true shape

of the section.

Q.2 A pentagonal pyramid has its base on the HP & the edge of the base nearer the VP, parallel to

it. A vertical section plane inclined at 45 to the VP cuts the pyramid at distance of 6 mm from the

axis. Draw the top view, sectional front view & true shape of the section. Base of the pyramid 30

mm side, axis 50 mm long.

Q.3A cylinder of 40 mm diameter, 60 mm height having its axis vertical, is cut by a section plane,

perpendicular to the VP, inclined at 45 to the HP & intersecting the axis 32 mm above the base.

Draw its front view, sectional top view & true shape of the section

Q.4A cone, 60 mm diameter & axis 80 mm long, is resting on its base on the HP. It is cut by a

cutting plane perpendicular to the VP & inclined at 45 to the HP & cutting the axis at a point 35

mm from the apex. Draw its front view, sectional top view & true shape of the section.

Q.5A square prism, base 40 mm side & axis 80 mm long, has its base on the HP & its faces equally

inclined to the VP. It is cut by a cutting plane perpendicular to the VP & inclined at 60 to the HP,

& passing through a point on the axis, 55 mm above the HP. Draw its front view, sectional top

view.

Q.6A hexagonal pyramid, base 30 mm side & axis 65 mm long is resting on its base on the HP with

two edges parallel to the VP. It is cut by a cutting plane, perpendicular to the VP & inclined at 45

to the HP & intersecting the axis at a point 25 mm above the base. Draw its front view, sectional top

view, sectional side view & true shape of the section.

Q.7A cylinder, 55 mm diameter & 65 mm long, is resting on its base on the ground. It is cut by a

sectional plane perpendicular to the VP, the VT of which cuts the axis at a point 40 mm from the

base & makes an angle of 45with the HP. Draw its front view, sectional top view & true shape of

the section.

Q.8A pentagonal prism base 25 mm side & height 60 mm has en edge of its base on the HP, & the

axis parallel to the VP & inclined at 60 to the HP. A section plane having its HT perpendicular to

XY, & VT inclined at 60to the XY & passing through the highest corner, cuts the prism. Draw the

front view, sectional top view & true shape of the section.

Q.9 A pentagonal prism of side of base 30mm and axis 60mm long rests with one its rectangular

faces on H.P. with its axis inclined at 30 to V.P. A section plane parallel to V.P. cuts the solid

through the center of the axis into two halves. Draw the projection s of the solid.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

Q.10 A triangular prism base 30mm side and axis 50mm long is lying on the H.P. on one of its

rectangular faces with its axis inclined at 30 to the V.P. It is cut by horizontal sectional at a

distance of 12mm above the base / ground. Draw its front view and sectional top view.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:- 8

TITLE: - Development of lateral surface

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: Development of surfaces: The complete surface of an object when

laid out on a plane is called the development of the surface or pattern of the

object.

Engineering applications of DLS:

The engineering applications of development is generally employed in sheet

metal works, in the construction of boilers, pattern making, stone cutting,

tunnels, buckets, chimney, prisms, cylinder, pyramids, cones, spheres, etc

Methods of Development

Parallel-line Development: - It is used for developing prisms and single curved surfaces like

cylinders in which all the edges/generators of lateral surfaces are parallel to each other.

Radial-line Development:-It is employed for pyramids and single curved surfaces like cones in

which the apex is taken as centre and the slant edge or generator (which are the true lengths) as

radius for its development.

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION:

1. Define Development of lateral surface?

2. Give the engineering application of DLS?

3. What are the Methods of Development of lateral surface?

4. What is the necessity of DLS?

PROCEDURE:1. Draw reference line XY.

2. Draw FV and TV of a solid as per given data.

3. Draw the section plane (line) parallel to XY as per given data.

4. Draw projection line from the intersection point of the section line and object edge.

5. Draw the development of the solid.

6. Draw the projection line from the intersection point of the edges and section line to the

corresponding edges of the developed surface.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

7. Name to the corner points of the solid in front view and top view and the developed surface.

8. Show all necessary dimensions.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-8

Q.1A hexagonal prism with edge of base 30 mm and height 80 mm rests on its base with one of its

base edges perpendicular to V.P. An inclined plane at 45 to H.P. cuts its axis at its middle. Draw

the development of the truncated prism.

Q.2 A pentagonal pyramid, side of base 50 mm and height 80 mm rests on its base on the ground

with one of its base sides parallel to V.P. A section plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 30 to

H.P cuts the pyramid, bisecting its axis. Draw the development of the truncated pyramid.

Q.3 A cone of base 50mm diameter and height 60mm rests with its base on H.P. and bisects the axis

of the cone. Draw the development of the lateral surface of the truncated cone.

Q.4A cylinder of base 120 mm and axis 160 mm long is resting on its base on H.P. It has a circular

hole of 90 mm diameter, drilled centrally through such that the axis of the hole is perpendicular to

v.p and bisects the axis of the cylinder at right angles. Develop the lateral surface of the cylinder.

Q.5A Pentagonal prism of side of base 20 mm and height 50 mm stands vertically on its base with a

rectangular face perpendicular to V.P. A cutting plane perpendicular to V.P and inclined at 60 to

the axis passes through the edges of the top base of the prism. Develop the lower portion of the

lateral surface of the prism.

Q.6A hexagonal prism of side of base 30 mm and axis 70 mm long is resting on its base on HP.

such that a rectangular face is parallel to V.P. It is cut by a section plane perpendicular to V.P. and

inclined at 30 to HP. The section plane is passing through the top end of an extreme lateral edge of

the prism. Draw the development of the lateral surface of the cut prism.

Q.7 Draw the development of the lateral surface of the frustum of the square pyramid of side of

base 30 mm and axis 40 mm, resting on HP with one of the base edges parallel to V.P. It is cut by a

horizontal cutting plane at a height of 20 mm.

Q.8A hexagonal pyramid with side of base 30 mm and height 75 mm stands with its base on RP and

an edge of the base parallel to V.P. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to V.P. inclined at 45 to H.P

and passing through the mid-point of the axis. Draw the (sectioned) top view and develop the lateral

surface of the truncated pyramid

Q.9A cylinder of diameter of base 40 mm and height 50 mm is standing on its base on HP. A

cutting plane inclined at 45 to the axis of the cylinder passes through the left extreme point of the

top base. Develop the lateral surface of the truncated cylinder.

Q.10 In a Figure a shows a rectangular scoop with allowance for lap-seam. Draw the development

of the given figure with dimensions.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO: - 9

TITLE: - Isometric Projections

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: The isometric projection of an object is a one plane view drawn with the object so placed with

respect to the plane of projection that all the three principal axes appear to be inclined to each other at an

equal angle of 120.

ISOMETRIC SCALE: - The isometric scale is used to measure the foreshortened length of dimensions of

any object to draw the isometric projection. The steps of construction of isometric scale are given below

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Draw the true lengths on a line PM inclined at 45 to the horizontal line (say up to 70 mm

Draw another line PA at 30 to the horizontal line.

Draw the vertical projection of all the points of true length from PM to PA.

Complete the scale with the details as shown in the figure.

The lengths shown at the line PA are the isometric lengths to be used to draw the isometric projection.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION:

1. Define isometric projections?

2. Define isometric scale?

3. What is angle between the three principal axes?

PROCEDURE:1. Draw the base of the solid "with isometric scale" as per specified condition with respect to V.P.

and H.P. as per the rules of orthographic projection. It is called Helping Figure.

2. Draw the centre of the helping figure and enclose the helping figure in a suitable rectangle.

Transfer the co-ordinates of centre to the sides of the enclosing rectangle with centre lines.

3. Draw the three principal axes at 30, 90 and 30 to the horizontal base line.

4. Copy the length of sides of helping figure's rectangle on the respective principal axis and the

height or length of the object on the third principal axis. It will give a box in which the object will

be perfectly/snugly fitted.

5. Copy the co-ordinates of centre and the vertices of the base on this box.

6. Join the visible edges by thick lines and Axis line by the centre line.

7. Complete the isometric projection with dimensioning and direction of viewing. Now let us draw

the isometric projection of regular solids.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-9

Q.1 A hexagonal prism of base side 30 mm and height of 70 mm resting on its base on H.P. with

two of its base side parallel to V.P.

Q.2 Draw the isometric projection of an inverted pentagonal pyramid of base side 30 mm and axis

of 60 mm resting on its base on H.P. with one of its base side parallel to V.P. and nearer to the

observer.

Q.3 Draw the isometric projection of a frustum of square pyramid of shorter base edge 30 mm and

longer base edge 50 mm with the axial height of 60 mm, kept on H.P. on its shorter end and two of

its base edges are parallel to V.P.

Q.4 Draw the isometric projection of a cylinder of height of 75 mm and diameter of 50 mm resting

on its base keeping the axis parallel to V.P

Q.5 Draw the isometric projection of cone of diameter 40 mm and axis of 60 mm resting on its base

perpendicular to H.P.

Q.6 Draw the isometric projection of a frustum of a cone of diameter 30 mm at smaller end,

diameter 50 mm at bigger end and the axial height is 70 mm. It is resting on its bigger end on H.P.

keeping its axis vertical.

Q.7 Draw an Isometric Projection of a vertical regular pentagonal pyramid resting centrally, having

one base edge away from the observer parallel to V.P., on top of a vertical cylinder. Side of the

pentagon = 32 mm, height of pyramid = 50 mm, diameter of cylinder = 76 mm and height of

cylinder = 40 mm.

Q.8 Draw the isometric projection of a hemisphere of 60 mm diameter resting on its curved surface

on H.P.

Q.9 Draw an Isometric Projection of a square prism having side of the square = 30mm and height =

54 mm standing (upright) and centrally on a flat square slab of thickness = 26 mm and its base side

= 52 mm.

Q.10 Draw an Isometric Projection of a right circular cone resting vertically and centrally on the top

of pentagonal slab having one of its rectangular face perpendicular to the observer. Side of pentagon

= 46 mm, thickness of slab = 30 mm, diameter of cone = 40 mm and height of cone = 60 mm.

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

SHEET NO:- 10

TITLE: - Orthographic Projections

TOOLBARS USED: - Drawing sheets, Complete Engineering Drawing Box, Mini Drafter,

Holding clips, Roller Scale, & calculator.

THEORY: ORTHO' means right angle and orthographic means right angled drawing. When the

projectors are perpendicular to the plane on which the projection is obtained, it is known as

orthographic projection.

A parallel projection technique in which the plane of projection is perpendicular to the parallel line

of prospect. Orthographic projection technique can produce either pictorial drawings that show all

three dimensions of an object in one view, or multi-views that show only two dimensions of an

object in a single view.

VIEWING FACE: -

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

ORIENTATION OF VIEWS FROM PROJECTION PLANES:Top view is always positioned and aligned with the front view, and side view is always positioned

to the side of and aligned with the front view.

First angle projection

1. Write the principles of orthographic views?

2. Write the procedure rules for lines?

3. What is one view drawing?

4. What are two view drawings?

5. What are three view drawings?

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR SHEET NO.-10

Draw the orthographic view of following

ALOK VYAS (Asst. Professor)

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